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5.4.

InverseZTransformsofComplexPoles
CosineMethod
SupposeIwanttofindtheinverseZtransformof
F z

2z2
.
z 2 3z 1

(5.4.1)

I start by rewriting
F z
2z
c
c*
2

*
z
z 3z 1 z p z p

(5.4.2)

We find the ps by solving


p

3 3 4
3
1 230o

j
130o
2
2
2
2
p*

3
1
j 1 30o
2
2

{Remember: We follow the convention that p is always calculated using the plus sign on the
imaginary term.}
We find c by

2z
z p*

3
1
j
2
2

3
1
3
j

2
2
2

z p

1
j
2

3 j
430o

2 60o.
o
j
190
Not surprisingly, when we solve c * we get the complex conjugate:

c*

2z
z p

3
1
j
2
2

3
1
3
j

2
2
2

z p*

1
j
2

3 j
4 30o

260o.
o
j
1 90

Now go back and put the two together

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F z
c
c*
2e j 60
2e j 60

0
0 ,
z
z p z p* z e j 30 z e j 30
0

or
0

z 2e j 60
z 2e j 60
.
F z

0
0
z e j 30 z e j 30
The inverse Z transform gives

f k 2e j 60 e j 30
0

2e j 60 e j 30

u k

j k 300 600
j k 300 600
k
2 1 e
e
u k

4 1 cos 300 k 600 u k


k

The generalization of this formula would be


f k 2 c p cos k p c
k

Sine Method
In looking at inverse Laplace transforms with conjugate coefficients, we found a shortcut that
we referred to as the sine method. Lets see if we can find a similar shortcut here. First, look
back on the calculation of c
2z
c
z p*

z p

2p
3 j
430o

.
p p*
j
190o

The numerator is a pure imaginary number, because when we take the difference of a number
and its complex conjugate, we will always get two times the imaginary part of the original
number
p p* j j 2 j .
Knowing this, lets see if we can find a short-cut. First, write c as
c

2z
z p*

z p

d
2p
430o

.
2 j 2 j
2 j

Since we know the j2 will always be in the denominator, we could have just solved for
d 2 z z p 3 j 430o .
Similarly
c*

5.4 Complex Inverse

2z
z p

z p*

2 p*
3 j
430o

,
2 j
2 j
2 j

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or we could have just calculated


d 2 z z p 3 j 430o ,
where we had calculated 1 / 2 . When we take the inverse of the two terms we get
1
j 30o
j p k
j30o
jp k
2
e
2
e

2
e
2
e


2 j
1
2 2k sin k p 30o

f k

4 2k sin k p 30o .
We can compare this with our previous result by

f k 4 2k sin 30o k 90o 90o 30o


4 2 k cos 30o k o 60o

The generalization of this method is


f k

1
k
d p sin k p d

The advantage of this sine method is that the calculation of d is slightly simpler than c.
Summary
To find the inverse of the complex conjugate component of a function like
F z
F z
F1 z
2 1

z
z bz c z p z p*
use one of the following two methods:
Sine method (preferred):
1.

Determine the pole with the positive imaginary part


b b 2 4c
p
j p p ,
2

2.

Calculate
d F1 z

3.

(5.4.3 a)

z p

d d ,

(5.4.3 b)

That part of the time domain function due to the complex conjugate pair is
f k

1
k
d p sin k p d .

(5.4.3 c)

Cosine method:

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1.

Determine p (same as above)

2.

Calculate
c1

3.

F1 z

z p

c c

z p

That part of the time domain function due to the complex conjugate pair is
f k 2 c p cos k p d
k

There is a very simple method to practice using these methods. Look at the decaying
sine and cosine functions in the table of Z transforms, put some numbers in them, and make
sure you can get back to the original time domain functions.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Example
Let us start with a term from the table and see if the method really works.
Z a k sin T k

za sin T
.
z 2a cos T z a 2
2

Solution
Remember, T is an angle! Take a = 0.8, T 30o . That gives us
F z

za sin T
0.8(0.5) z
2
2
2
2
z 2a cos T a a
z 0.8 0.866 0.8

so we will solve
F z
0.4
2
2 .
z
z 1.385 z 0.8
Using the sine method:
1. Find the root with the positive imaginary part
p

1.385

1.385

4 0.64)

2
1.385 1.92 2.56

0.692 j 0.4 0.830o


2

2.

d F1 z

z p

0.40o

3. The time-domain function is

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d k
p sin p k d u k

0.4
k

0.8 sin 30o k u k


0.4

fs k

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Example
Repeat the above example using the cosine term
Z a cos T k
k

z 2 za cos T
2
.
z 2a cos T a a 2

Solution
F z
z 0.8(0.886)
2
2
z
z 0.8 0.866 0.8
Obviously the poles will be the same.
d F1 s

z p

z 0.693 z p

0.692 j 0.4 0.693 0.490o


d k
p sin p k d u k

0.4
k

0.8 sin 30o k 90o u k


0.4

fs k

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Example
FindtheinverseZtransformof
z2 z
F z
.
z 0.5 z 2 2 z 5
Solution
F z
z 1
A
M

2
.
2
z
z 0.5 z 2 z 5 z .5 z 2 z 5
WefindAintheusualmanner:
A

z 1
z 2 z 5
2

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z 1/ 2

1/ 2
1 4
2

0.08 .
1/ 4 1 5 2 25
25

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Wefindthesecondtermusingthesinemethod.(Note:theMinthenumeratorofthe
secondtermhasnosignificantmeaning.Itisjustaplaceholder.
p

2 22 4 5
1 1 5 1 j 2 5117o .
2

Notethat 2 .
z 1
d
z 0.5

p 1 j 2

2 j 2
2 2135o

1.138o
o
1.5 j 2 2.5127

Sineterm
1.13
k

f k 0.08 0.5
2

sin 117 o k 8o

u k .

Example(problem5.12c)
FindtheinverseZtransform
F3 ( z )

1
z 2z 2
2

Solution
LookingbacktoEq.(5.4.1)andEq.(5.4.2),weseethatimplicittothesineorcosine
methodisazterminthenumerator.Similartowhatwedidinsection5.3,wemultiplytheZ
domaintermby z 1 z toprovideuswiththeneededz.Thenthe z 1 resultsinanapplication
oftherightshifttheoremattheend.Sowestartbywriting:
F3 ( z )
1

z 1 2
.
z
z 2 z 2
Nowweusethesinemethod,Eq.(5.4.3):
i.

2 2 2 4 2
p
1 j 2135o
2

ii.

d 1

f3 ' k

iii.

1
1

sin 135k u k .

Nowweapplytherightshifttheorem,whichresultsinadelayofone:
f3 k

k 1

sin 135 k 1 u k 1 .

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Example(problem5.12bfromGazijc)
FindtheinverseZtransformof
F2 ( z )

z2

1/ 4 z 2 1/ 9

Solution
Wewillstartbyassuming z 2 istheparameterofinterest.Beginbywriting
F2 ( z )
1
A
B
2
2
2
2
2
z
z 1/ 4 z 1/ 9 z 1/ 4 z 1/ 9
A

1
z 1/ 9

z 2 1/ 4

1
1
36

1/ 4 1/ 9 9 4 / 36 5

1
z 2 1/ 4

z 2 1/ 9

36
.
5

Check:
36 2 1
36
4 9

2 1
z z 1
5
9
5
5 5
4
Lookatthetransformpair
z 2 az cos T
z 2 2az cos T a 2

a k cos Tk u k
If T 90o ,thenthetransformpairbecomes
a k cos 90o k u k

z2
z2 a2

Sowitha=the

k
z2
1
o

cos 90 k u k .
2
2
z 1/ 4

Z1
Andifa=1/3

k
z2
1
cos 90o k u k
Z 2
9
z 1/ 9
1

So

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f k

36

1
36
1
o
o
cos 90 k u k cos 90 k u k
3
5 2

Example(Problem5.19)
DerivetheformulafortheZtransformofaperiodicdiscretetimesignaldefinedby
f k f k N
Solution

F z f k z

k 0

F1 z
n 0

n 0

zN

N 1

f k z

z nN

k 0

F1 z

zN
zN 1

Example
Find the inverse Z transform of
F3 z
Solution

z2 2z 2
z2 2z 4

If we look in the table of Z transforms, there is no term that is second


order in z in the numerator and denominator. Therefore, start by dividing
the numerator by the denominator.
z2 2z 2
4z 2
.
F3 z 2
1 2
z 2z 4
z 2z 4
We apply the sine method to the second term, but notice that we will also
have to apply the right shift at the end:
2 4 4(4)
p
1 j 3 260o
2
d 4 z 2 z 1 j 3 2 j 4 3 7.274o
f3 k k

7.2 k 1
2 sin 60o k 1 74o u k 1 .
3

Problems
5.4.1. Find the inverse Z transforms of the following:

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z
z 2z 5
1
b). F2 z 2
z z 0.5
a). F1 z

c). F3 z

z 2 2z 2
z 2 2z 4

5
.
z .4 z 0.08
1
F5 z
2
z z 2 z 3

d). F1 z
e).

5.4.2 Solve for y[k]. Assume all initial conditions are zero.
1
1
y k 2 y k 1 y k u k
2
8

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