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1.1. Most students will prefer to work in seconds, to avoid having to work with decimals or

fractions.

1.2. Who? The individuals in the data set are students in a statistics class. What? There are

eight variables: ID (a label, with no units); Exam1, Exam2, Homework, Final, and Project

(in units in points, scaled from 0 to 100); TotalPoints (in points, computed from the other

scores, on a scale of 0 to 900); and Grade (A, B, C, D, and E). Why? The primary purpose

of the data is to assign grades to the students in this class, and (presumably) the variables

are appropriate for this purpose. (The data might also be useful for other purposes.)

1.3. Exam1 = 79, Exam2 = 88, Final = 88.

1.4. For this student, TotalPoints = 2 86 + 2 82 + 3 77 + 2 90 + 80 = 827, so the grade is B.

1.5. The cases are apartments. There are ve variables: rent (quantitative), cable (categorical),

pets (categorical), bedrooms (quantitative), distance to campus (quantitative).

1.6. (a) To nd injuries per worker, divide the rates in Example 1.6 by 100,000 (or, redo the

computations without multiplying by 100,000). For wage and salary workers, there are

0.000034 fatal injuries per worker. For self-employed workers, there are 0.000099 fatal

injuries per worker. (b) These rates are 1/10 the size of those in Example 1.6, or 10,000

times larger than those in part (a): 0.34 fatal injuries per 10,000 wage/salary workers, and

0.99 fatal injuries per 10,000 self-employed workers. (c) The rates in Example 1.6 would

probably be more easily understood by most people, because numbers like 3.4 and 9.9 feel

more familiar. (It might be even better to give rates per million worker: 34 and 99.)

1.7. Shown are two possible stemplots; the rst uses split

stems (described on page 11 of the text). The scores are

slightly left-skewed; most range from 70 to the low 90s.

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

58

0

58

0023

5558

00003

5557

0002233

8

5

6

7

8

9

58

058

00235558

000035557

00022338

1.8. Preferences will vary. However, the stemplot in Figure 1.8 shows a bit more detail, which

is useful for comparing the two distributions.

1.9. (a) The stemplot of the altered data is shown on the right. (b) Blank stems

should always be retained (except at the beginning or end of the stemplot),

because the gap in the distribution is an important piece of information about

the data.

53

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

6

5568

34

55678

012233

8

1

has the advantage of showing each individual

score. Note that this histogram has the same

shape as the second histogram in Exercise 1.7.

Chapter 1

Frequency

54

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

50

Frequency

larger classes in this histogram hide a lot of

detail.

Looking at DataDistributions

60

90

100

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

40

60

80

First exam scores

100

7

6

Frequency

the distribution (perhaps more detail than

is useful). Note that this histogram has the

same shape as the rst histogram in the solution to Exercise 1.7.

70

80

First exam scores

5

4

3

2

1

0

55

60

65

70 75 80 85 90

First exam scores

95 100

1.13. Using either a stemplot or histogram, we see that the distribution is left-skewed, centered

near 80, and spread from 55 to 98. (Of course, a histogram would not show the exact values

of the maximum and minimum.)

1.14. (a) The cases are the individual employees. (b) The rst four (employee identication

number, last name, rst name, and middle initial) are labels. Department and education level

are categorical variables; number of years with the company, salary, and age are quantitative

variables. (c) Column headings in student spreadsheets will vary, as will sample cases.

1.15. A Web search for city rankings or best cities will yield lots of ideas, such as crime

rates, income, cost of living, entertainment and cultural activities, taxes, climate, and school

system quality. (Students should be encouraged to think carefully about how some of these

might be quantitatively measured.)

Solutions

55

1.16. Recall that categorical variables place individuals into groups or categories, while

quantitative variables take numerical values for which arithmetic operations. . . make sense.

Variables (a), (d), and (e)age, amount spent on food, and heightare quantitative. The

answers to the other three questionsabout dancing, musical instruments, and broccoliare

categorical variables.

1.18. Student answers will vary. A Web search for college ranking methodology gives

some ideas; in recent year, U.S. News and World Report used 16 measures of academic

excellence, including academic reputation (measured by surveying college and university

administrators), retention rate, graduation rate, class sizes, faculty salaries, student-faculty

ratio, percentage of faculty with highest degree in their elds, quality of entering students

(ACT/SAT scores, high school class rank, enrollment-to-admission ratio), nancial resources,

and the percentage of alumni who give to the school.

brown

gray

white

red

black

blue

yellow

orange

black

red

purple

green

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

blue

Percent

1.19. For example, blue is by far the most popular choice; 70% of respondents chose 3 of the

10 options (blue, green, and purple).

Favorite color

30

25

Percent

color are somewhat more varied than favorite

colors. Interestingly, purple is liked and disliked by about the same fractions of people.

20

15

10

5

white

green

gray

yellow

purple

brown

orange

1.21. (a) There were 232 total respondents. The table that follows gives the percents; for

10 .

= 4.31%. (b) The bar graph is on the following page. (c) For example, 87.5%

example,

232

of the group were between 19 and 50. (d) The age-group classes do not have equal width:

The rst is 18 years wide, the second is 6 years wide, the third is 11 years wide, etc.

Note: In order to produce a histogram from the given data, the bar for the rst age

group would have to be three times as wide as the second bar, the third bar would have to

be wider than the second bar by a factor of 11/6, etc. Additionally, if we change a bars

56

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

width by a factor of x, we would need to change that bars height by a factor of 1/x.

70 and over

51 to 69

36 to 50

25 to 35

1 to 18

19 to 24

Percent

4.31%

41.81%

30.17%

15.52%

6.03%

2.16%

Percent

Age group

(years)

1 to 18

19 to 24

25 to 35

36 to 50

51 to 69

70 and over

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1.22. (a) & (b) The bar graph and pie charts are shown below. (c) A clear majority (76%)

agree or strongly agree that they browse more with the iPhone than with their previous

phone. (d) Student preferences will vary. Some might prefer the pie chart because it is more

familiar.

Strongly

disagree

Response percent

50

40

30

Mildly

disagree

20

Strongly

agree

Mildly

agree

10

0

Strongly

disagree

25

Replacement percent

20

15

10

5

g

thi

n

he

Ot

No

ian

mb

kic

Sy

de

Si

ry

er

kB

lm

Pa

Bl

ow

ind

bil

o

sM

ac

zr

0

Ra

the models most affected by iPhone sales.

However, because other phone and replaced nothing are different than the other

categories, it makes sense to place those two

bars last (in any order).

ola

Mildly

disagree

tor

Mildly

agree

Mo

Strongly

agree

Solutions

57

10

Paper

Metals

Other

Metals

15

Glass

Food scraps

20

Wood

25

Glass Other

Wood

Rubber, leather,

textile

Paper, paperboard

Plastics

30

Yard trimmings

1.24. (a) The weights add to 254.2 million tons, and the percents add to 99.9.

(b) & (c) The bar graph and pie chart are shown below.

Plastics

Yard trimmings

Food scraps

0

Source

60

60

50

50

Percent recycled

40

30

20

10

0

30

20

10

0

r

pe

s

ng

im

mi

Pa

tal

Me

Tr

mi

im

r

the

Tr

Ru

d

oo

ng

e

bb

s

tic

as

Material

the right. (b) The graph clearly illustrates the dominance of Google; its

bar dwarfs those of the other search

engines.

as

Gl

be

b

Ru

Material

s

tal ape

P

Me

Pl

s

las

ps

ra

sc

od

Fo

40

Pl

Fo asti

od cs

sc

ra

ps

Percent recycled

1.25. (a) & (b) Both bar graphs are shown below. (c) The ordered bars in the graph from (b)

make it easier to identify those materials that are frequently recycled and those that are not.

(d) Each percent represents part of a different whole. (For example, 2.6% of food scraps are

recycled; 23.7% of glass is recycled, etc.)

oo

he

Ot

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Google Yahoo

MSN

Live

Search engine

Other

58

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

20

20

15

15

10

10

0

Adult

Financial Health

Products Financial

Adult

Scams

Leisure

Health

Type of spam

Type of spam

10

8

6

4

2

rk

Au ey

str

a

Co lia

lom

bia

Ch

ile

Fra

nc

No e

rw

a

Sw y

ed

en

Me

Ve xico

ne

So zue

uth la

A

Ho frica

ng

Ko

ng

Eg

De ypt

nm

ark

Sp

ain

Ind

Ge ia

rm

an

y

Isr

ae

l

Ita

ly

Tu

do

na

Ca

ing

dK

Un

ite

da

0

m

1.28. (a) The bar graph is below. (b) The number of Facebook users trails off rapidly after the

top seven or so. (Of course, this is due in part to the variation in the populations of these

countries. For example, that Norway has nearly half as many Facebook users as France is

remarkable, because the 2008 populations of France and Norway were about 62.3 million

and 4.8 million, respectively.)

Country

1.29. (a) Most countries had moderate (single- or double-digit) increases in Facebook usages. Chile (2197%) is an extreme outlier, as are (maybe) Venezuela

(683%) and Colombia (246%). (b) In the stemplot on the right, Chile and

Venezuela have been omitted, and stems are split ve ways. (c) One observation is that, even without the outliers, the distribution is right-skewed. (d) The

stemplot can show some of the detail of the low part of the distribution, if the

outliers are omitted.

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

000

2333

4444

6

99

33

59

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Theology

M.B.A.

M.D.

Law

Other M.S.

Other Ph.D.

Ed.D.

Other M.A.

0

M.Ed.

distinct groups (all M.B.A. degrees, all

M.Ed. degrees, and so on) rather than one

single group. (b) Bar graph shown on the

right. Bars are ordered by height, as suggested by the text; students may forget to do

this or might arrange in the opposite order

(smallest to largest).

Solutions

Yel

low

Oth

er

ld

/go

Re

e

Blu

ite

Wh

rl

Gra

er

pea

ite

Wh

Silv

Bla

ck

Color

25

20

15

10

5

d

/go

l

rl

low

ite

ite

Wh

pea

Yel

Color

Re

e

Gra

y

Bla

ck

0

Blu

ld

er

Oth

/go

Re

low

10

Wh

Color

Yel

Blu

e

ite

Wh

rl

Gra

er

pea

ite

Wh

Silv

Bla

ck

15

er

Intermediate cars

Oth

10

20

er

15

Luxury cars

Silv

20

25

on the left; bars are in decreasing order of

size (the order given in the table). (b) The

intermediate car bar graph is below on the

right. For this stand-alone graph, it seemed

appropriate to re-order the bars by decreasing

size. Students may leave the bars in the order

given in the table; this (admittedly) might

make comparison of the two graphs simpler.

(c) The graph on the right is one possible

choice for comparing the two types of cars:

for each color, we have one bar for each car

type.

Percent

Graduate degree

1.32. This distribution is skewed to the right, meaning that Shakespeares plays contain many

short words (up to six letters) and fewer very long words. We would probably expect most

authors to have skewed distributions, although the exact shape and spread will vary.

60

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

1.33. Shown is the stemplot; as the text suggests, we have trimmed numbers (dropped the last digit) and split stems. 359 mg/dl appears to be

an outlier. Overall, glucose levels are not under control: Only 4 of the

18 had levels in the desired range.

individual-instruction group was more consistent (their numbers have less spread) but not more successful (only two had

numbers in the desired range).

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

Individual

22

99866655

22222

8

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

799

0134444

5577

0

57

5

Class

799

0134444

5577

0

57

5

1.35. The distribution is roughly symmetric, centered near 7 (or between 6 and 7), and

spread from 2 to 13.

1.36. (a) Totals emissions would almost certainly be higher for

0 00000000000000011111

0 222233333

very large countries; for example, we would expect that even

0 445

with great attempts to control emissions, China (with over

0 6677

1 billion people) would have higher total emissions than the

0 888999

1 001

smallest countries in the data set. (b) A stemplot is shown; a

1

histogram would also be appropriate. We see a strong right

1

skew with a peak from 0 to 0.2 metric tons per person and a

1 67

smaller peak from 0.8 to 1. The three highest countries (the

1 9

United States, Canada, and Australia) appear to be outliers;

apart from those countries, the distribution is spread from 0 to 11 metric tons per person.

1.37. To display the

0 000000000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111

0 2222222222222222233333333333333333333333

distribution, use

0 444444444444444444445555555555555555555

either a stemplot

0 666666666666666666667777777777777

or a histogram. DT

0 888888888888888999999999999999999

1 000000000000111111111

scores are skewed to

1 22222222222233333333333

the right, centered

1 444444455

near 5 or 6, spread

1 66666777

from 0 to 18. There

1 8

are no outliers. We

might also note that only 11 of these 264 women (about 4%) scored 15 or higher.

Solutions

61

Frequency

1.38. (a) The rst histogram shows two modes: 55.2 and 5.65.8. (b) The second histogram

has peaks in locations close to those of the rst, but these peaks are much less pronounced,

so they would usually be viewed as distinct modes. (c) The results will vary with the

software used.

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

4.2

4.6

5.4

5.8

6.2

Rainwater pH

6.6

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

4.14

4.54

4.94

Rainwater pH

6.54

6.94

1.39. Graph (a) is studying time (Question 4); it is reasonable to expect this to be right-skewed

(many students study little or not at all; a few study longer).

Graph (d) is the histogram of student heights (Question 3): One would expect a fair

amount of variation but no particular skewness to such a distribution.

The other two graphs are (b) handedness and (c) genderunless this was a particularly

unusual class! We would expect that right-handed students should outnumber lefties

substantially. (Roughly 10 to 15% of the population as a whole is left-handed.)

1.40. Sketches will vary. The distribution of coin years would be left-skewed because newer

coins are more common than older coins.

Women

Men

1.41. (a) Not only are most responses multiples of 10;

0 033334

many are multiples of 30 and 60. Most people will

96 0 66679999

round their answers when asked to give an estimate

22222221 1 2222222

888888888875555 1 558

like this; in fact, the most striking answers are ones

4440 2 00344

such as 115, 170, or 230. The students who claimed 360

2

3 0

minutes (6 hours) and 300 minutes (5 hours) may have

6 3

been exaggerating. (Some students might also consider

suspicious the student who claimed to study 0 minutes per night. As a teacher, I can easily

believe that such students exist, and I suspect that some of your students might easily accept

that claim as well.) (b) The stemplots suggest that women (claim to) study more than men.

The approximate centers are 175 minutes for women and 120 minutes for men.

62

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

1.42. The stemplot gives more information than a histogram (since all the

original numbers can be read off the stemplot), but both give the same impression. The distribution is roughly symmetric with one value (4.88) that

is somewhat low. The center of the distribution is between 5.4 and 5.5 (the

median is 5.46, the mean is 5.448); if asked to give a single estimate for the

true density of the earth, something in that range would be the best answer.

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

8

7

0

6799

04469

2467

03578

12358

59

5

1.43. (a) There are four variables: GPA, IQ, and self-concept are quantitative, while gender

is categorical. (OBS is not a variable, since it is not really a characteristic of a student.)

(b) Below. (c) The distribution is skewed to the left, with center (median) around 7.8. GPAs

are spread from 0.5 to 10.8, with only 15 below 6. (d) There is more variability among the

boys; in fact, there seems to be a subset of boys with GPAs from 0.5 to 4.9. Ignoring that

group, the two distributions have similar shapes.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

5

8

4

4689

0679

1259

0112249

22333556666666788899

0000222223347899

002223344556668

01678

Female

4

7

952

4210

98866533

997320

65300

710

fairly symmetricperhaps slightly left-skewedwith center

around 110 (clearly above 100). IQs range from the low 70s

to the high 130s, with a gap in the low 80s.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Male

5

8

4

689

069

1

129

223566666789

0002222348

2223445668

68

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

13

13

24

79

69

0133

6778

0022333344

555666777789

0000111122223334444

55688999

003344

677888

02

6

Solutions

63

womens times decreased quite rapidly from

1972 until the mid-1980s. Since that time,

they have been fairly consistent: Almost all

times since 1986 are between 141 and 147

minutes.

skewed to the left, with center around 59.5. Most self-concept

scores are between 35 and 73, with a few below that, and one

high score of 80 (but not really high enough to be an outlier).

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

01

8

0

5679

02344

6799

1111223344444

556668899

00001233344444

55666677777899

0000111223

0

190

180

170

160

150

140

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Year

1.47. The total for the 24 countries was 897 days, so with Suriname, it is 897 + 694 = 1591

days, and the mean is x = 1591

25 = 63.64 days.

1.48. The mean score is x =

821

= 82.1.

10

1.49. To nd the ordered list of times, start with the 24 times in Example 1.23, and add 694 to

the end of the list. The ordered times (with median highlighted) are

4, 11, 14, 23, 23, 23, 23, 24, 27, 29, 31, 33, 40 ,

42, 44, 44, 44, 46, 47, 60, 61, 62, 65, 77, 694

The outlier increases the median from 36.5 to 40 days, but the change is much less than the

outliers effect on the mean.

1.50. The median of the service times is 103.5 seconds. (This is the average of the 40th and

41st numbers in the sorted list, but for a set of 80 numbers, we assume that most students

will compute the median using software, which does not require that the data be sorted.)

1.51. In order, the scores are:

55, 73, 75, 80, 80 , 85 , 90, 92, 93, 98

The middle two scores are 80 and 85, so the median is M =

80 + 85

= 82.5.

2

64

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

The rst quartile is Q 1 = 75, the median of the rst ve numbers: 55, 73, 75 , 80, 80.

Similarly, Q 3 = 92, the median of the last ve numbers: 85, 90, 92 , 93, 98.

1.53. The maximum and minimum can be found by inspecting the list. The sorted list (with

quartile and median locations highlighted) is

1

19

55

75

104

140

201

372

2

25

56

76

106

141

203

386

2

30

57

76

115

143

211

438

3

35

59

77

116

148

225

465

4

40

64

80

118

148

274

479

9

44

67

88

121

157

277

700

9

48

68

89

126

178

289

700

9

51

73

90

128

179

290

951

11

52

73

102

137

182

325

1148

19

54

75

103

138

199

367

2631

This conrms the ve-number summary (1, 54.5, 103.5, 200, and 2631 seconds)

given in Example 1.26. The sum of the 80 numbers is 15,726 seconds, so the mean is

x = 15,726

80 = 196.575 seconds (the value 197 in the text was rounded).

Note: The most tedious part of this process is sorting the numbers and adding them

all up. Unless you really want to conrm that your students can sort a list of 80 numbers,

consider giving the students the sorted list of times, and checking their ability to identify the

locations of the quartiles.

1.54. The median and quartiles were found earlier; the minimum and maximum are easy to

locate in the ordered list of scores (see the solutions to Exercises 1.51 and 1.52), so the

ve-number summary is Min = 55, Q 1 = 75, M = 82.5, Q 3 = 92, Max = 98.

1.55. Use the ve-number summary from the solution to Exercise 1.54:

95

90

85

80

75

70

65

60

55

50

1.56. The interquartile range is IQR = Q 3 Q 1 = 92 75 = 17, so the 1.5 IQR rule would

consider as outliers scores outside the range Q 1 25.5 = 49.5 to Q 3 + 25.5 = 117.5.

According to this rule, there are no outliers.

1.57. The variance can be computed from the formula s 2 =

1

(xi x)2 ; for

n1

example, the rst term in the sum would be (80 82.1)2 = 4.41. However, in practice,

1416.9

= 157.43 and

software or a calculator is the preferred approach; this yields s 2 =

9

.

s = s 2 = 12.5472.

Solutions

65

12.5, 12.5, 12.5, 12.5, 12.5. (If any two numbers are different, then xi x would be nonzero

for some i, so the sum of squared differences would be positive, so s 2 > 0, so s > 0.)

1.59. Without Suriname, the quartiles are 23 and 46.5 days; with Suriname included, they are

23 and 53.5 days. Therefore, the IQR increases from 23.5 to 30.5 daysa much less drastic

change than the change in s (18.6 to 132.6 days).

1.60. Divide total score by 4:

950

= 237.5 points.

4

the distribution is skewed, the ve-number

summary is the best choice; in millions of

dollars, it is

Min

3338

Q1

4589

M

7558.5

Q3

13,416

Max

66,667

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

333333333333333333444444444444

55555555566666677777777778888889

00001112223333333

79

01111233

559

114

5

.

.

summary: x = 12,144 and s = 12,421 mil3

lion dollars. (c) For example, the distribution

99

is sharply right-skewed. (This is not surprising

6

given that we are looking at the top 100 companies; the top fraction of most distributions will tend to be skewed to the right.)

1.62. (a) Either a stemplot

x

s

Min

Q1

M Q 3 Max

or histogram can be used

All points

4.7593 0.7523 0.4 4.30 4.7

5

6.5

to display the distribuNo ODouls 4.8106 0.5864 3.8 4.35 4.7

5

6.5

tion. Two stemplots are shown on the following page: one with all points, and one with the

outlier mentioned in part (b) excluded. In the table are the mean and standard deviation, as

well as the ve-number summary, both with and without the outlier (all values are percents).

The latter is preferable because of the outlier; in particular, note the outliers effect on the

standard deviation. (See also the solution to the next exercise.) (b) ODouls is marketed as

non-alcoholic beer.

Note: In federal regulations, part of the denition of beer is that it has at least 0.5%

alcohol. By that standard, ODouls is a low-alcohol beverage, but it is not beer.

66

Chapter 1

All points

0 4

0

1

1

2

2

3

3 88

4 11111122222222223334444

4 555555666667777777778889999999999

5 000000011224

5 5666688999999

6 1

6 5

Looking at DataDistributions

Without ODouls

3 88

4 111111

4 2222222222333

4 4444555555

4 66666777777777

4 8889999999999

5 000000011

5 22

5 45

5 6666

5 88999999

6 1

6

6 5

1.63. All of these numbers are given in the table in the solution to the previous exercise.

(a) x changes from 4.76% (with) to 4.81% (without); the median (4.7%) does not change.

(b) s changes from 0.7523% to 0.5864%; Q 1 changes from 4.3% to 4.35%, while Q 3 = 5%

does not change. (c) A low outlier decreases x; any kind of outlier increases s. Outliers

have little or no effect on the median and quartiles.

1.64. (a) A stemplot or histogram can be used to display

the distribution. Students may report either mean/standard

deviation or the ve-number summary (in units of calories):

x

141.06

s

27.79

Min

70

Q1

113

M

145.5

Q3

157

Max

210

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

0

4556889

2458

00000000334

08

0235558

22333444555666788899

0012233356777

00012336669

01459

8

5

00

0

(c) Nearly all the beers with fewer than 120 calories are

marketed as light beers (and most have light in their

names). Of the other beers, only one (Weinhards Amber

Light) is called light.

Note: If we apply the 1.5 IQR rule to all 86 beers,

ODouls does not qualify as an outlier (the cutoff is 47).

However, if we restrict our attention to the light beers (fewer than 120 calories), any beer

below 80 calories is an outlier.

1.65. Use a small data set with an odd number of points, so that the median is the middle

number. After deleting the lowest observation, the median will be the average of that middle

number and the next number after it; if that latter number is much larger, the median will

change substantially. For example, start with 0, 1, 2 , 998, 1000; after removing 0, the

median changes from 2 to 500.

1.66. Salary distributions (especially in professional sports) tend to be skewed to the right. This

skew makes the mean higher than the median.

Solutions

67

1.67. (a) The distribution is left-skewed. While the skew makes the

ve-number summary is preferable, some students might give the

mean/standard deviation. In ounces, these statistics are:

x

6.456

s

1.425

Min

3.7

Q1

4.95

M

6.7

Q3

7.85

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

Max

8.2

7

3

7777

23

0033

7

03

668899999

2

(b) The numerical summary does not reveal the two weight clusters (visible in a stemplot or histogram). (c) For small potatoes (less than 6 oz),

n = 8, x = 4.662 oz, and s = 0.501 oz. For large potatoes, n = 17,

x = 7.300 oz, and s = 0.755 oz. Because there are clearly two groups, it seems appropriate

to treat them separately.

70

60

50

40

30

Frequency

1.68. (a) The ve-number summary is Min = 2.2 cm, Q 1 = 10.95 cm, M = 28.5 cm, Q 3 =

41.9 cm, Max = 69.3 cm. (b) & (c) The boxplot and histogram are shown below. (Students

might choose different interval widths for the histogram.) (d) Preferences will vary. Both

plots reveal the right-skew of this distribution, but the boxplot does not show the two peaks

visible in the histogram.

20

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

10

20 30 40 50 60 70

Diameter at breast height (cm)

80

70

30

60

25

50

40

30

Frequency

CRP (mg/l)

1.69. (a) The ve-number summary is Min = 0 mg/l, Q 1 = 0 mg/l, M = 5.085 mg/l, Q 3 =

9.47 mg/l, Max = 73.2 mg/l. (b) & (c) The boxplot and histogram are shown below.

(Students might choose different interval widths for the histogram.) (d) Preferences will

vary. Both plots reveal the sharp right-skew of this distribution, but because Min = Q 1 , the

boxplot looks somewhat strange. The histogram seems to convey the distribution better.

20

15

10

20

10

10

20

30

40 50 60

CRP (mg/l)

70

80

90

1.70. Answers depend on whether natural (base-e) or common (base-10) logarithms are used. Both sets of answers

are shown here. If this exercise is assigned, it would

probably be best for the sanity of both instructor and

students to specify which logarithm to use.

(a) The ve-number summary is:

Logarithm

Natural

Common

Min

0

0

Q1

0

0

M

1.8048

0.7838

Q3

2.3485

1.0199

Max

4.3068

1.8704

Looking at DataDistributions

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

2

Base-10 log of (1+CRP)

Chapter 1

68

1.5

1

0.5

0

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Frequency

Frequency

.

(The ratio between these answers is roughly ln 10 = 2.3.)

(b) & (c) The boxplots and histograms are shown below. (Students might choose different

interval widths for the histograms.) (d) As for Exercise 1.69, preferences will vary.

0.5

Natural log of (1+CRP)

4.5

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2

Base-10 log of (1+CRP)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

14

12

Frequency

1.71. (a) The ve-number summary (in units of mol/l) is Min = 0.24, Q 1 = 0.355, M =

0.76, Q 3 = 1.03, Max = 1.9. (b) & (c) The boxplot and histogram are shown below.

(Students might choose different interval widths for the histogram.) (d) The distribution is

right-skewed. A histogram (or stemplot) is preferable because it reveals an important feature

not evident from a boxplot: This distribution has two peaks.

10

8

6

4

2

0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Retinol level (mol/l)

2.2

Solutions

69

1.72. The mean and standard deviation for these ratings are

.

x = 5.9 and s = 3.7719; the ve-number summary is

Min = Q 1 = 1, M = 6.5, Q 3 = Max = 10. For a graphical

presentation, a stemplot (or histogram) is better than a boxplot

because the latter obscures details about the distribution. (With

a little thought, one might realize that Min = Q 1 = 1 and

Q 3 = Max = 10 means that there are lots of 1s and lots

of 10s, but this is much more evident in a stemplot or histogram.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0000000000000000

0000

0

0

00000

000

0

000000

00000

000000000000000000

1.73. The distribution of household net worth would almost surely be strongly skewed to the

right: Most families would generally have accumulated little or modest wealth, but a few

would have become rich. This strong skew pulls the mean to be higher than the median.

1.74. See also the solution to Exercise 1.36. (a) The venumber summary (in units of metric tons per person) is:

Min = 0, Q 1 = 0.75, M = 3.2, Q 3 = 7.8, Max = 19.9

The evidence for the skew is in the large gaps between the

higher numbers; that is, the differences Q 3 M and Max Q 3

are large compared to Q 1 Min and M Q 1 . (b) The IQR

is Q 3 Q 1 = 7.05, so outliers would be less than 9.825 or

greater than 18.375. According to this rule, only the United

States qualies as an outlier, but Canada and Australia seem

high enough to also include them.

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

00000000000000011111

222233333

445

6677

888999

001

67

9

.

1.75. The total salary is $690,000, so the mean is x = $690,000

= $76,667. Six of the nine

9

employees earn less than the mean. The median is M = $35,000.

1.76. If three individuals earn $0, $0, and $20,000, the reported median is $20,000. If the two

individuals with no income take jobs at $14,000 each, the median decreases to $14,000.

The same thing can happen to the mean: In this example, the mean drops from $20,000 to

$16,000.

1.77. The total salary is now $825,000, so the new mean is x =

median is unchanged.

1.78. Details at right.

11,200

= 1600

7

214,872

= 35,812 and

s2 =

6

.

x=

s=

35,812 = 189.24

$825,000

9

xi

1792

1666

1362

1614

1460

1867

1439

11200

.

= $91,667. The

xi x

192

66

238

14

140

267

161

0

(xi x)2

36864

4356

56644

196

19600

71289

25921

214872

70

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

1.79. The quote describes a distribution with a strong right skew: Lots of years with no losses

to hurricane ($0), but very high numbers when they do occur. For example, if there is one

hurricane in a 10-year period causing $1 million in damages, the average annual loss for

that period would be $100,000, but that does not adequately represent the cost for the year

of the hurricane. Means are not the appropriate measure of center for skewed distributions.

Women

Men

1.80. (a) x and s are appropriate for symmetric disx

s

x

s

tributions with no outliers. (b) Both high numbers

Before

165.2

56.5

117.2

74.2

are agged as outliers. For women, IQR = 60,

After

158.4 43.7

110.9 66.9

so the upper 1.5 IQR limit is 300 minutes. For

men, IQR = 90, so the upper 1.5 IQR limit is 285 minutes. The table on the right shows

the effect of removing these outliers.

1.81. (a) & (b) See the table on the right. In both cases,

the mean and median are quite similar.

pH

Density

x

5.4256

5.4479

s

0.5379

0.2209

M

5.44

5.46

1.82. See also the solution to Exercise 1.43. (a) The mean of

x

s

M

IQ

108.9 13.17

110

this distribution appears to be higher than 100. (There is

GPA 7.447 (2.1) 7.829

no substantial difference between the standard deviations.)

(b) The mean and median are quite similar; the mean is slightly smaller due to the slight left

skew of the data. (c) In addition to the mean and median, the standard deviation is shown for

reference (the exercise did not ask for it).

Note: Students may be somewhat puzzled by the statement in (b) that the median is

close to the mean (when they differ by 1.1), followed by (c), where they differ a bit

(when M x = 0.382). It may be useful to emphasize that we judge the size of such differ.

1.1

ences relative to the spread of the distribution. For example, we can note that 13.17

= 0.08

.

for (b), and 0.382

2.1 = 0.18 for (c).

1.83. With only two observations, the mean and median are always equal because the median

is halfway between the middle two (in this case, the only two) numbers.

1.84. (a) The mean (green arrow) moves along with the moving point (in fact, it moves in

the same direction as the moving point, at one-third the speed). At the same time, as long

as the moving point remains to the right of the other two, the median (red arrow) points to

the middle point (the rightmost nonmoving point). (b) The mean follows the moving point

as before. When the moving point passes the rightmost xed point, the median slides along

with it until the moving point passes the leftmost xed point, then the median stays there.

1.85. (a) There are several different answers, depending on the conguration of the rst ve

points. Most students will likely assume that the rst ve points should be distinct (no

repeats), in which case the sixth point must be placed at the median. This is because the

median of 5 (sorted) points is the third, while the median of 6 points is the average of the

third and fourth. If these are to be the same, the third and fourth points of the set of six

must both equal the third point of the set of ve.

The diagram below illustrates all of the possibilities; in each case, the arrow shows the

Solutions

71

location of the median of the initial ve points, and the shaded region (or dot) on the line

indicates where the sixth point can be placed without changing the median. Notice that there

are four cases where the median does not change, regardless of the location of the sixth

point. (The points need not be equally spaced; these diagrams were drawn that way for

convenience.)

(b) Regardless of the conguration of the rst ve points, if the sixth point is added so as to

leave the median unchanged, then in that (sorted) set of six, the third and fourth points must

be equal. One of these two points will be the middle (fourth) point of the (sorted) set of

seven, no matter where the seventh point is placed.

Note: If you have a student who illustrates all possible cases above, then it is likely that

the student either (1) obtained a copy of this solutions manual, (2) should consider a career

in writing solutions manuals, (3) has too much time on his or her hands, or (4) both 2 and

3 (and perhaps 1) are true.

1.86. The ve-number summaries (all in millimeters) are:

Q1

46.71

38.07

35.45

M

47.12

39.16

36.11

Q3

48.245

41.69

36.82

Max

50.26

43.09

38.13

over 3 mm taller than the tallest red. Red is generally taller

than yellow, with a few exceptions. Another noteworthy

fact: The red variety is more variable than either of the

other varieties.

1.87. (a) The means and standard deviations

(all in millimeters) are:

Variety

bihai

red

yellow

x

47.5975

39.7113

36.1800

s

1.2129

1.7988

0.9753

bihai

46 3466789

47 114

48 0133

49

50 12

48

Length (mm)

bihai

red

yellow

Min

46.34

37.40

34.57

50

46

44

42

40

38

36

34

bihai

red

yellow

Heliconia variety

red

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

4789

0012278

167

56

4699

01

0

yellow

34 56

35 146

36 0015678

37 01

38 1

(b) Bihai and red appear to be right-skewed (although it is difcult to tell with such small

samples). Skewness would make these distributions unsuitable for x and s.

72

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

.

1.88. (a) The mean is x = 15, and the standard deviation is s = 5.4365. (b) The mean is still

15; the new standard deviation is 3.7417. (c) Using the mean as a substitute for missing data

will not change the mean, but it decreases the standard deviation.

1.89. The minimum and maximum are easily determined to be 1 and 12 letters, and the

quartiles and median can be found by adding up the bar heights. For example, the rst

two bars have total height 22.3% (less than 25%), and adding the third bar brings the total

to 45%, so Q 1 must equal 3 letters. Continuing this way, we nd that the ve-number

summary, in units of letters, is:

Min = 1, Q 1 = 3, M = 4, Q 3 = 5, Max = 12

Note that even without the frequency table given in the data le, we could draw the same

conclusion by estimating the heights of the bars in the histogram.

1.90. Because the mean is to be 7, the ve numbers must add up to 35. Also, the third number

(in order from smallest to largest) must be 10 because that is the median. Beyond that, there

is some freedom in how the numbers are chosen.

Note: It is likely that many students will interpret positive numbers as meaning

positive integers only, which leads to eight possible solutions, shown below.

1 1 10 10 13

1 3 10 10 11

1 1 10 11 12

1 4 10 10 10

1 2 10 10 12

2 2 10 10 11

1 2 10 11 11

2 3 10 10 10

1.91. The simplest approach is to take (at least) six numberssay, a, b, c, d, e, f in increasing

order. For this set, Q 3 = e; we can cause the mean to be larger than e by simply choosing

f to be much larger than e. For example, if all numbers are nonnegative, f > 5e would

accomplish the goal because then

e+ f

e + 5e

a+b+c+d +e+ f

>

>

= e.

x=

6

6

6

1.92. The algebra might be a bit of a stretch for some students:

=

(x1 x) +

(x2 x) +

(x3 x) + + (xn1 x) +

(xn x)

x1 x +

x2 x +

x3 x + + xn1 x +

xn x

x1 + x2 + x3 + + xn1 + xn

x x x x x

x1 + x2 + x3 + + xn1 + xn

nx

1.93. (a) One possible answer is 1, 1, 1, 1. (b) 0, 0, 20, 20. (c) For (a), any set of four

identical numbers will have s = 0. For (b), the answer is unique; here is a rough description

of why. We want to maximize the spread-out-ness of the numbers (which is what standard

deviation measures), so 0 and 20 seem to be reasonable choices based on that idea. We also

want to make each individual squared deviation(x1 x)2 , (x2 x)2 , (x3 x)2 , and

(x4 x)2 as large as possible. If we choose 0, 20, 20, 20or 20, 0, 0, 0we make the

Solutions

73

rst squared deviation 152 , but the other three are only 52 . Our best choice is two at each

extreme, which makes all four squared deviations equal to 102 .

1.94. Answers will vary. Typical calculators will carry only about 12 to 15 digits; for example,

a TI-83 fails (gives s = 0) for 14-digit numbers. Excel (at least the version I checked) also

fails for 14-digit numbers, but it gives s = 262,144 rather than 0. The (very old) version of

Minitab used to prepare these answers fails at 20,000,001 (eight digits), giving s = 2.

1.95. The table on the right reproduces the

(in mm)

(in inches)

Variety

x

s

x

s

means and standard deviations from the

bihai

47.5975

1.2129

1.874

0.04775

solution to Exercise 1.87 and shows those

red

39.7113 1.7988 1.563 0.07082

values expressed in inches. For each converyellow 36.1800 0.9753 1.424 0.03840

sion, multiply by 39.37/1000 = 0.03937 (or

divide by 25.4an inch is dened as 25.4 millimeters). For example, for the bihai variety,

x = (47.5975 mm)(0.03937 in/mm) = (47.5975 mm) (25.4 mm/in) = 1.874 in.

1.96. (a) x = 5.4479 and s = 0.2209. (b) The rst measurement corresponds to

5.50 62.43 = 343.365 pounds per cubic foot. To nd x new and snew , we similarly multiply

.

.

by 62.43: x new = 340.11 and snew = 13.79.

Note: The conversion from cm to feet is included in the multiplication by 62.43; the

step-by-step process of this conversion looks like this:

(1 g/cm3 )(0.001 kg/g)(2.2046 lb/kg)(30.483 cm3/ft3 ) = 62.43 lb/ft3

.

1.97. Convert from kilograms to pounds by multiplying by 2.2: x = (2.42 kg)(2.2 lb/kg) =

.

5.32 lb and s = (1.18 kg)(2.2 lb/kg) = 2.60 lb.

1.98. Variance is changed by a factor of 2.542 = 6.4516; generally, for a transformation

xnew = a + bx, the new variance is b2 times the old variance.

1.99. There are 80 service times, so to nd the 10% trimmed mean, remove the highest and

lowest eight values (leaving 64). Remove the highest and lowest 16 values (leaving 48) for

the 20% trimmed mean.

The mean and median for the full data set are x = 196.575 and M = 103.5 minutes. The

.

.

10% trimmed mean is x = 127.734, and the 20% trimmed mean is x = 111.917 minutes.

Because the distribution is right-skewed, removing the extremes lowers the mean.

74

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

12

25

10

20

Frequency

1.100. After changing the scale from centimeters to inches, the ve-number summary values

change by the same ratio (that is, they are multiplied by 0.39). The shape of the histogram

might change slightly because of the change in class intervals. (a) The ve-number

summary (in inches) is Min = 0.858, Q 1 = 4.2705, M = 11.115, Q 3 = 16.341, Max =

27.027. (b) & (c) The boxplot and histogram are shown below. (Students might choose

different interval widths for the histogram.) (d) As in Exercise 1.56, the histogram reveals

more detail about the shape of the distribution.

15

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Diameter at breast height (in)

35

1.101. Take the mean plus or minus two standard deviations: 572 2(51) = 470 to 674.

1.102. Take the mean plus or minus three standard deviations: 572 3(51) = 419 to 725.

1.103. The z-score is z =

620 572

51

.

= 0.94.

572 .

1.104. The z-score is z = 510 51

= 1.22. This is negative because an ISTEP score of 510 is

below average; specically, it is 1.22 standard deviations below the mean.

.

1.105. Using Table A, the proportion below 620 (z = 0.94)

is 0.8264 and the proportion at or above is 0.1736; these

two proportions add to 1. The graph on the right illustrates this with a single curve; it conveys essentially the

same idea as the graphical subtraction picture shown in

Example 1.36.

.

1.106. Using Table A, the proportion below 620 (z = 0.94)

.

is 0.8264, and the proportion below 660 (z = 1.73) is

0.9582. Therefore:

620

0.8264

419

470

0.1736

521

572

623

674

725

620 660

0.8264

0.9582

area between

area left

area left

=

of 660

of 620

0.1318

0.9582

419

470

521

572

623

674

0.8264

The graph on the right illustrates this with a single curve; it conveys essentially the same

idea as the graphical subtraction picture shown in Example 1.37.

725

Solutions

75

.

1.107. Using Table A, this ISTEP score should correspond to a standard score of z = 0.67

.

(software gives 0.6745), so the ISTEP score (unstandardized) is 572 + 0.67(51) = 606.2

(software: 606.4).

.

1.108. Using Table A, x should correspond to a standard score of z = 0.84 (software gives

.

0.8416), so the ISTEP score (unstandardized) is x = 572 0.84(51) = 529.2 (software:

529.1).

1.109. Of course, student sketches will not

be as neat as the curves on the right,

but they should have roughly the correct

shape. (a) It is easiest to draw the curve

1

4

7

10

13

16

19

22

25

28

rst, and then mark the scale on the

axis. (b) Draw a copy of the rst curve, with the peak over 20. (c) The curve has the same

shape, but is translated left or right.

1.110. (a) As in the previous exercise, draw the curve

rst, and then mark the scale on the axis. (b) In order

to have a standard deviation of 1, the curve should be

1/3 as wide, and three times taller. (c) The curve is

centered at the same place (the mean), but its height

and width change. Specically, increasing the standard

deviation makes the curve wider and shorter; decreasing the standard deviation makes the curve narrower

and taller.

10

13

16

19

Women

Men

1.112. (a) The table on the right gives the

68%

7856 to 20,738

4995 to 23,125

ranges for women; for example, about 68%

95%

1415 to 27,179

4070 to 32,190

of women speak between 7856 and 20,738

99.7%

5026

to

33,620

13,135

to 41,255

words per day. (b) Negative numbers do

not make sense for this situation. The 689599.7 rule is reasonable for a distribution that

is close to Normal, but by constructing a stemplot or histogram, it is easily conrmed that

this distribution is slightly right-skewed. (c) These ranges are also in the table; the mens distribution is more skewed than the womens distribution, so the 689599.7 rule is even less

appropriate. (d) This does not support the conventional wisdom: The ranges from parts (a)

and (c) overlap quite a bit. Additionally, the difference in the means is quite small relative to

the large standard deviations.

76

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

Women

Men

1.113. (a) Ranges are given in the table on

68%

8489

to

20,919

7158

to 22,886

the right. In both cases, some of the lower

95%

2274

to

27,134

706

to

30,750

limits are negative, which does not make

99.7%

3941

to

33,349

8,570

to

38,614

sense; this happens because the womens

distribution is skewed, and the mens distribution has an outlier. Contrary to the conventional

wisdom, the mens mean is slightly higher, although the outlier is at least partly responsible

for that. (b) The means suggest that Mexican men and women tend to speak more than people of the same gender from the United States.

= 0.2. The complete list is given on the right.

10

(b) The cut-off for an A is the 85th percentile for the N (0, 1) distribution.

From Table A, this is approximately 1.04; software gives 1.0364. (c) The top

two students (with scores of 92 and 98) received As.

68

54

92

75

73

98

64

55

80

70

0.2

1.6

2.2

0.5

0.3

2.8

0.6

1.5

1

0

Table A

Software

85th percentiles for a N (0, 1) distribuStandard Actual

Standard Actual

tion. These are given in the table on the

F

1.64

53.6

1.6449

53.55

D

1.04

59.6

1.0364

59.64

right. (b) To convert to actual scores, take

C

0.13

71.3

0.1257

71.26

the standard-score cut-off z and compute

B

1.04

80.4

1.0364

80.36

10z + 70. (c) Opinions will vary.

Note: The cut-off for an A given in the previous solution is the lowest score that gets an

Athat is, the point where ones grade drops from an A to a B. These cut-offs are the points

where ones grade jumps up. In practice, this is only an issue for a score that falls exactly

on the border between two grades.

1.116. (a) The curve forms a 1 1 square, which

has area 1.

(b) P(X < 0.35) = 0.35.

(c) P(0.35 < X < 0.65) = 0.3.

0

under the curve must be 1. The density curve

is on the right. (b) P(X 1) = 14 = 0.25.

(c) P(0.5 < X < 2.5) = 0.5.

0.35

0.35 0.65

1.118. The mean and median both equal 0.5; the quartiles are Q 1 = 0.25 and Q 3 = 0.75.

1.119. (a) Mean is C, median is B (the right skew pulls the mean to the right). (b) Mean A,

median A. (c) Mean A, median B (the left skew pulls the mean to the left).

Solutions

1.120. Hint: It is best to draw the curve rst, then place

the numbers below it. Students may at rst make mistakes like drawing a half-circle instead of the correct

bell-shaped curve, or being careless about locating the

standard deviation.

77

218

234

250

266

282

298

314

1.121. (a) The applet shows an area of 0.6826 between 1.000 and 1.000, while the

689599.7 rule rounds this to 0.68. (b) Between 2.000 and 2.000, the applet reports

0.9544 (compared to the rounded 0.95 from the 689599.7 rule). Between 3.000 and

3.000, the applet reports 0.9974 (compared to the rounded 0.997).

1.122. See the sketch of the curve in the solution to Exercise 1.120. (a) The middle 95% fall

within two standard deviations of the mean: 266 2(16), or 234 to 298 days. (b) The

shortest 2.5% of pregnancies are shorter than 234 days (more than two standard deviations

below the mean).

1.123. (a) 99.7% of horse pregnancies fall within three standard deviations of the mean: 336 3(3), or 327 to 325

days. (b) About 16% are longer than 339 days since 339

days or more corresponds to at least one standard devia327 330 333 336 339 342 345

tion above the mean.

Note: This exercise did not ask for a sketch of the Normal curve, but students should be

encouraged to make such sketches anyway.

1.124. Because the quartiles of any distribution have 50% of

observations between them, we seek to place the ags so

that the reported area is 0.5. The closest the applet gets

is an area of 0.5034, between 0.680 and 0.680. Thus,

the quartiles of any Normal distribution are about 0.68

standard deviations above and below the mean.

Note: Table A places the quartiles at about 0.67;

other statistical software gives 0.6745.

1.125. The mean and standard deviation are x = 5.4256 and s = 0.5379. About 67.62%

.

(71/105 = 0.6476) of the pH measurements are in the range x s = 4.89 to 5.96. About

95.24% (100/105) are in the range x 2s = 4.35 to 6.50. All (100%) are in the range

x 3s = 3.81 to 7.04.

78

Chapter 1

(a) Z > 1.65: 0.0495. (b) Z < 1.65: 0.9505.

(c) Z > 0.76: 0.7764. (d) 0.76 < Z <

1.65: 0.9505 0.2236 = 0.7269.

(a)

Looking at DataDistributions

(b)

1.65

1.65

0.76

(c)

0.76

(d)

1.65

(a) Z 1.8: 0.0359. (b) Z 1.8:

0.9641. (c) Z > 1.6: 0.0548. (d) 1.8 <

Z < 1.6: 0.9452 0.0359 = 0.9093.

(a)

portion 0.65 (that is, 0.3853 is the 65th

percentile of the standard Normal distribution). (b) If z = 0.1257, then Z > z has

3

proportion 0.45 (0.1257 is the 55th percentile).

(d)

1.6

(a)

0.7722. (This is the 22nd percentile of the

standard Normal distribution.) (b) 40% of

3

the observations fall above 0.2533 (the 60th

percentile of the standard Normal distribution).

1.8

(c)

(b)

1.8

1.6

1.8

(b)

0.22

0.40

(b)

0.65

0.45

1.130. 70 is two standard deviations below the mean (that is, it has standard score z = 2), so

about 2.5% (half of the outer 5%) of adults would have WAIS scores below 70.

1.131. 130 is two standard deviations above the mean (that is, it has standard score z = 2), so

about 2.5% of adults would score at least 130.

1509 .

1.132. Tonyas score standardizes to z = 1820321

= 0.9688, while Jermaines score

.

29 21.5

corresponds to z = 5.4 = 1.3889. Jermaines score is higher.

.

1.133. Jacobs score standardizes to z = 16 5.421.5 = 1.0185, while Emilys score corresponds

.

1509

to z = 1020321

= 1.5234. Jacobs score is higher.

1509 .

1.134. Joses score standardizes to z = 2080321

= 1.7788, so an equivalent ACT score is

.

21.5 + 1.7788 5.4 = 31.1. (Of course, ACT scores are reported as whole numbers, so this

would presumably be a score of 31.)

Solutions

79

.

= 1.5741, so an equivalent SAT score is

.

1509 + 1.5741 321 = 2014.

30 21.5

5.4

Her score is the 96.5 percentile.

2090 1509

321

His score is the 32.3 percentile.

19 21.5

5.4

.

= 1.81, for which Table A gives 0.9649.

.

= 0.4630, for which Table A gives 0.3228.

1.138. 1920 and above: The top 10% corresponds to a standard score of z = 1.2816, which in

.

turn corresponds to a score of 1509 + 1.2816 321 = 1920 on the SAT.

1.139. 1239 and below: The bottom 20% corresponds to a standard score of z = 0.8416,

.

which in turn corresponds to a score of 1509 0.8416 321 = 1239 on the SAT.

1.140. The quartiles of a Normal distribution are 0.6745 standard deviations from the mean,

.

so for ACT scores, they are 21.5 0.6745 5.4 = 17.9 to 25.1.

1.141. The quintiles of the SAT score distribution are 1509 0.8416 321 = 1239,

1509 0.2533 321 = 1428, 1509 + 0.2533 321 = 1590, and 1509 + 0.8416 321 = 1779.

1.142. For a Normal distribution with mean 55 mg/dl and standard deviation 15.5 mg/dl:

55 .

(a) 40 mg/dl standardizes to z = 4015.5

= 0.9677. Using Table A, 16.60% of women fall

55 .

= 0.3226.

below this level (software: 16.66%). (b) 60 mg/dl standardizes to z = 6015.5

Using Table A, 37.45(c) Subtract the answers from (a) and (b) from 100%: Table A gives

45.95% (software: 45.99%), so about 46% of women fall in the intermediate range.

1.143. For a Normal distribution with mean 46 mg/dl and standard deviation 13.6 mg/dl:

46 .

(a) 40 mg/dl standardizes to z = 4013.6

= 0.4412. Using Table A, 33% of men fall below

46 .

this level (software: 32.95%). (b) 60 mg/dl standardizes to z = 6013.6

= 1.0294. Using

Table A, 15.15(c) Subtract the answers from (a) and (b) from 100%: Table A gives 51.85%

(software: 51.88%), so about 52% of men fall in the intermediate range.

1.144. (a) About 0.6% of healthy young adults have osteoporosis (the cumulative probability

below a standard score of 2.5 is 0.0062). (b) About 31% of this population of older

women has osteoporosis: The BMD level which is 2.5 standard deviations below the young

adult mean would standardize to 0.5 for these older women, and the cumulative probability

for this standard score is 0.3085.

1.145. (a) About 5.2%: x < 240 corresponds to z < 1.625. Table A gives 5.16% for

1.63 and 5.26% for 1.62. Software (or averaging the two table values) gives 5.21%.

(b) About 54.7%: 240 < x < 270 corresponds to 1.625 < z < 0.25. The area to the

left of 0.25 is 0.5987; subtracting the answer from part (a) leaves about 54.7%. (c) About

279 days or longer: Searching Table A for 0.80 leads to z > 0.84, which corresponds to

x > 266 + 0.84(16) = 279.44. (Using the software value z > 0.8416 gives x > 279.47.)

80

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

1.146. (a) The quartiles for a standard Normal distribution are 0.6745. (b) For a N (, )

distribution, Q 1 = 0.6745 and Q 3 = + 0.6745 . (c) For human pregnancies,

.

.

Q 1 = 266 0.6745 16 = 255.2 and Q 3 = 266 + 0.67455 16 = 276.8 days.

1.147. (a) As the quartiles for a standard Normal distribution are 0.6745, we have

IQR = 1.3490. (b) c = 1.3490: For a N (, ) distribution, the quartiles are

Q 1 = 0.6745 and Q 3 = + 0.6745 .

1.148. In the previous two exercises, we found that for a N (, ) distribution,

Q 1 = 0.6745 , Q 3 = + 0.6745 , and IQR = 1.3490 . Therefore,

1.5 IQR = 2.0235 , and the suspected outliers are below Q 1 1.5 IQR = 2.698 ,

and above Q 3 + 1.5 IQR = + 2.698 . The percentage outside of this range is

2 0.0035 = 0.70%.

1.149. (a) The rst and last deciles for a standard Normal distribution are 1.2816. (b) For

.

a N (9.12, 0.15) distribution, the rst and last deciles are 1.2816 = 8.93 and

.

+ 1.2816 = 9.31 ounces.

1.150. The shape of the quantile plot suggests that the data are right-skewed (as was observed

in Exercises 1.36 and 1.74). This can be seen in the at section in the lower leftthese

numbers were less spread out than they should be for Normal dataand the three apparent

outliers (the United States, Canada, and Australia) that deviate from the line in the upper

right; these were much larger than they would be for a Normal distribution.

1.151. (a) The plot is reasonably linear except for the point in the upper right, so this

distribution is roughly Normal, but with a high outlier. (b) The plot is fairly linear, so

the distribution is roughly Normal. (c) The plot curves up to the rightthat is, the large

values of this distribution are larger than they would be in a Normal distributionso the

distribution is skewed to the right.

5.8

5.6

Density

The plot suggests no major deviations from

Normality, although the three lowest measurements do not quite fall in line with the

other points.

5.4

5.2

5

4.8

3

1

0

1

Normal score

Solutions

81

1.153. (a) All three quantile plots are below; the yellow variety is the nearest to a straight line.

(b) The other two distributions are slightly right-skewed (the lower-left portion of the graph

is somewhat at); additionally, the bihai variety appears to have a couple of high outliers.

H. caribaea red

43

38 H. caribaea yellow

42

49

37

41

48

36

40

39

47

35

38

46

37

3

1

0

1

Normal score

34

3

1

0

1

Normal score

1

0

1

Normal score

1.154. Shown are a histogram and quantile plot for one sample of 200 simulated N (0, 1)

points. Histograms will vary slightly but should suggest a bell curve. The Normal quantile

plot shows something fairly close to a line but illustrates that, even for actual Normal data,

the tails may deviate slightly from a line.

3

Simulated values

50

Frequency

40

30

20

2

1

0

10

2

3

Simulated values

1

0

1

Normal score

1.155. Shown are a histogram and quantile plot for one sample of 200 simulated uniform data

points. Histograms will vary slightly but should suggest the density curve of Figure 1.34

(but with more variation than students might expect). The Normal quantile plot shows that,

compared to a Normal distribution, the uniform distribution does not extend as low or as

high (not surprising, since all observations are between 0 and 1).

Simulated values

25

Frequency

50 H. bihai

20

15

10

5

0

0

Simulated values

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

3

1

0

1

Normal score

82

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

could also be compared with histograms or boxplots. Either

mean/standard deviation or the ve-number summary could

be used; both are given below. Both the graphical and

numerical descriptions reveal that hatchbacks generally have

higher fuel efciency (and also are more variable).

Hatchback

00

Hatchback

x

22.548

s

3.423

Min

16

Q1

20

M

21.5

Q3

25

Max

30

Large

sedan

16.571

1.425

13

16

17.0

17

19

0

000

00000000

0000000

00

00

00000

000

0

00000

0

0

0

1.157. (a) The distribution appears to be roughly Normal. (b) One could

justify using either the mean and standard deviation or the ve-number

summary:

x

15.27%

s

3.118%

Min

8.2%

Q1

13%

M

15.5%

Q3

17.6%

Max

22.8%

(c) For example, binge drinking rates are typically 10% to 20%. Which

states are high, and which are low? One might also note the geographical

distribution of states with high binge-drinking rates: The top six states

(Wisconsin, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois, and Nebraska) are

all adjacent to one another.

1.158. (a) The stemplot on the right suggests that there are two groups of

states: the under-23% and over-23% groups. Additionally, while they do

not qualify as outliers, Oklahoma (16.3%) and Vermont (30%) stand out

as notably low and high. (b) One could justify using either the mean and

standard deviation or the ve-number summary:

x

23.71%

s

3.517%

Min

16.3%

Q1

20.8%

M

24.3%

Q3

26.4%

Max

30%

Neither summary reveals the two groups of states visible in the stemplot.

(c) One could explore the connections (geographical, socioeconomic, etc.)

between the states in the two groups; for example, the top group includes

many northeastern states, while the bottom group includes quite a few

southern states.

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Large sedan

00

00

00000000

0000000000

0000

00

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

28

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

58

34

023689

015788

0077

13466889

01567

45677789

8

148

2

6

8

14678

4679

268

346899

3488

12446

023468

02346

0455

355679

0

Solutions

83

Percent

100

Silver

color preferences using

90

80

a stacked bar graph like

White

70

that shown on the right,

Gray

60

or side-by-side bars like

50

Black

those below. (They could

40

also make six pie charts,

Blue

30

but comparing slices across

20

Red

pies is difcult.) Possible

10

Brown

observations: white is con0

North South Europe China South Japan

siderably less popular in

Other

America America

Korea

Europe, and gray is less

common in China.

Note: The orders of countries and colors is as given in the text, which is more-or-less

arbitrary. (Colors are ordered by decreasing popularity in North America.)

North America

25

South America

Percent

20

15

Europe

10

China

South Korea

Japan

Silver

White

Gray

Black

Blue

Red

Brown

Other

we see that this distribution is sharply rightskewed. For this reason, the ve-number

summary is preferred.

Min

0

Q1

3

M

12.5

Q3

34

Max

86

Frequency

Color

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

.

appropriate x = 21.62 and s = 22.76.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

From the histogram and ve-number

Internet users per hundred people

summary, we can observe, for example, that

many countries have fewer than 10 Internet users per 100 people. In 75% of countries, less

than 1/3 of the population uses the Internet.

84

Chapter 1

Looking at DataDistributions

than the distribution with all countries) with only one country (Bosnia and

Herzegovina) in the 20s. Because of the irregular shape, students might

choose either the mean/standard deviation or the ve-number summary:

x

39.85

s

22.05

Min

1.32

Q1

18.68

M

43.185

Q3

54.94

Max

85.65

Baltimore

Boston

Chicago

Long Beach

Los Angeles

Miami

Minneapolis

New York

Oakland

Philadelphia

San Francisco

Washington, D.C.

7.82

8.26

4.02

6.25

8.07

3.67

14.87

6.23

9.30

7.04

7.61

13.12

40000

30000

20000

10000

0

ore

Bos

t

Ch on

i

c

a

Lon

g

gB o

Los each

Ang

ele

s

Min Miam

nea i

po

Ne lis

wY

o

Oa rk

Phi kland

la

San delph

Wa Fran ia

shi

ngt cisco

on,

D.C

.

tim

Bal

14

Acres of open space

per 1000 people

Bal

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

12

10

8

6

4

2

Wa

ore

tim

Min

n

shi eapo

ngt

on, lis

D.C

.

Oa

kla

nd

B

Los oston

Ang

ele

s

B

San altimo

Fra re

n

Phi cisco

lad

e

Lon lphia

gB

ea

Ne ch

wY

o

Ch rk

ica

go

Mia

mi

0

Bos

t

Ch on

i

c

a

Lon

g

gB o

Los each

Ang

ele

s

Min Miam

nea i

po

Ne lis

wY

o

Oa rk

Phi kland

la

San delph

Wa Fran ia

shi

ngt cisco

on,

D.C

.

0

Bal

per 1000 people

145789

23488889

5

0134467

124666669

022345688

223

026

15

50000

8000

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

tim

ore

Bos

t

Ch on

Lon icago

gB

Los each

Ang

ele

s

M

Min iam

nea i

po

Ne lis

wY

o

Oa rk

k

l

and

Phi

la

San delph

Wa Fran ia

shi

ngt cisco

on,

D.C

.

Population (thousands)

1.164. (a) & (b) The graphs are below. Bars are shown in alphabetical order by city name (as the data were given in the table).

.

(c) For Baltimore, for example, this rate is 5091

651 = 7.82. The

complete table is shown on the right. (d) & (e) Graphs below.

Note that the text does not specify whether the bars should be

ordered by increasing or decreasing rate. (f) Preferences may

vary, but the ordered bars make comparisons easier.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Solutions

85

1.165. The given description is true on the average, but the curves (and a few calculations)

give a more complete picture. For example, a score of about 675 is about the 97.5th

percentile for both genders, so the top boys and girls have very similar scores.

1.166. (a) & (b) Answers will vary. Denitions might be as simple as free time, or time

spent doing something other than studying. For part (b), it might be good to encourage

students to discuss practical difculties; for example, if we ask Sally to keep a log of her

activities, the time she spends lling it out presumably reduces her available leisure time.

1.167. Shown is a stemplot; a histogram

should look similar to this. This distribution is relatively symmetric apart from

one high outlier. Because of the outlier,

the ve-number summary (in hours) is

preferred:

22 23.735 24.31 24.845 28.55

Alternatively, the mean and standard

deviation are x = 24.339 and s = 0.9239

hours.

22

22

23

23

24

24

25

25

26

26

27

27

28

28

013

7899

000011222233344444

55566666667777778888888999

00000011111112222222223333333333444444

555555666666666777777888888999999

00001111233344

56666889

2

56

2

5

be used. The given numbers sum to 66.7, so

the Other category presumably includes the

remaining 29.3 million subscribers.

Subscribers (millions)

1.168. Gender and automobile preference are categorical; age and household income are

quantitative.

25

20

15

10

5

mc

Co

AT

&T

Ro

a

adR st

unn

er

Am Veriz

eric

o

aO n

nlin

e

Ear

thL

ink

Ch

arte

r

Q

Ca west

ble

vis

Un

ited ion

On

line

Oth

er

1.170. Womens weights are skewed to the right: This makes the mean higher than the median,

and it is also revealed in the differences M Q 1 = 14.9 lb and Q 3 M = 24.1 lb.

1.171. (a) For car makes (a categorical variable), use either a bar graph or pie chart. For

car age (a quantitative variable), use a histogram, stemplot, or boxplot. (b) Study time is

quantitative, so use a histogram, stemplot, or boxplot. To show change over time, use a time

plot (average hours studied against time). (c) Use a bar graph or pie chart to show radio

station preferences. (d) Use a Normal quantile plot to see whether the measurements follow

a Normal distribution.

Chapter 1

others received 626 spam messages. Either a bar graph or a pie chart would be

appropriate. What students learn from this

graph will vary; one observation might be

that AA and BB (and perhaps some others)

might need some advice on how to reduce

the amount of spam they receive.

Spam count

86

Looking at DataDistributions

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

AA BB CC DD EE FF GG HH II JJ KK LL other

Account ID

1.173. No, and no: It is easy to imagine examples of many different data sets with mean 0 and

standard deviation 1for example, {1,0,1} and {2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2}.

Likewise, for any given ve numbers a b c d e (not all the same), we can

create many data sets with that ve-number summary, simply by taking those ve numbers

and adding some additional numbers in between them, for example (in increasing order):

10,

, 20,

,

, 30,

,

, 40,

, 50. As long as the number in the rst blank is

between 10 and 20, and so on, the ve-number summary will be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50.

1.174. The time plot is shown below; because of the great detail in this plot, it is larger than

other plots. Ruths and McGwires league-leading years are marked with different symbols.

(a) During World War II (when many baseball players joined the military), the best home

run numbers decline sharply and steadily. (b) Ruth seemed to set a new standard for other

players; after his rst league-leading year, he had 10 seasons much higher than anything that

had come before, and home run production has remained near that same level ever since

(even the worst post-Ruth year1945had more home runs than the best pre-Ruth season).

While some might argue that McGwires numbers also raised the standard, the change is

not nearly as striking, nor did McGwire maintain it for as long as Ruth did. (This is not

necessarily a criticism of McGwire; it instead reects that in baseball, as in many other

endeavors, rates of improvement tend to decrease over time as we reach the limits of human

ability.)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1880

1900

1920

1940

Year

1960

1980

2000

Solutions

1.175. Bondss mean changes from 36.56 to 34.41 home runs (a drop of 2.15),

while his median changes from 35.5 to 34 home runs (a drop of 1.5). This

illustrates that outliers affect the mean more than the median.

87

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

69

4

55

3344

77

02

5669

1.176. Recall the texts description of the effects of a linear transformation xnew = a + bx: The

mean and standard deviation are each multiplied by b (technically, the standard deviation

is multiplied by |b|, but this problem species that b > 0). Additionally, we add a to the

(new) mean, but a does not affect the standard deviation. (a) The desired transformation

is xnew = 40 + 2x; that is, a = 40 and b = 2. (We need b = 2 to double the standard

deviation; as this also doubles the mean, we then subtract 40 to make the new mean 100.)

.

1 .

(b) xnew = 45.4545 + 1.8182x; that is, a = 49 11

= 49.0909 and b = 20

11 = 1.8182.

5

(This choice of b makes the new standard deviation 20 and the new mean 145 11

; we then

subtract 45.4545 to make the new mean 100.) (c) Davids score2 72 40 = 104is

.

higher within his class than Nancys score1.8182 78 45.4545 = 96.4is

within her class. (d) A third-grade score of 75 corresponds to a score of 110 from the

100

N (100, 20) distribution, which has a standard score of z = 110 20

= 0.5. (Alternatively,

70

= 0.5.) A sixth-grade score of 75 corresponds to about 90.9 on the transformed

z = 75 10

100

80 .

scale, which has standard score z = 90.920

= 0.45. Therefore, about 69% of

= 75 11

third graders and 32% of sixth graders score below 75.

Means

Standard deviations

the results at the right (Normal quantile plots are not

22 568

5 6

23

6

shown).

23 89

6 66899

Theoretically, x will have a Normal distribution

24 02

7 3

.

with mean 25 and standard deviation 8/ 30 = 1.46,

24 89

7

25 3

8 113

so that about 99.7% of the time, one should nd x

25 6799

8 789

between 20.6 and 29.4. Meanwhile, the theoretical dis26 124

9 000

tribution of s is nearly Normal (slightly skewed) with

26

9 556

59

.

.

mean = 7.9313 and standard deviation = 1.0458; about

27 4

10 2

99.7% of the time, s will be between 4.8 and 11.1.

Note: If we take a sample of sizen from a Normal distribution and compute the sample standard deviation S, then (S/ ) n 1 has a chi distribution with n 1 degrees of

freedom (which looks like a Normal distribution when n is reasonably large). You can learn

all you would want to knowand moreabout this distribution on the Web (for example, at

Wikipedia). One implication

of this is

that on the average, s underestimates ; specically,

2

(n/2)

the mean of S is n 1 (n/2 1/2) . The factor in parentheses is always less than 1, but

approaches 1 as n approaches innity. The proof of this fact is left as an exercisefor the

instructor, not for the average student!

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