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APES Chapter 11: Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

Student Notes
Case Study: A biological roller coaster ride in Lake Victoria
1. Describe the problems that have led to a
decrease in biodiversity in Lake Victoria.
The Nile Perch was introduced to the lake. These large
fish ate and caused the extinction of about 200 different
species of cichlid. Additionally frequent algal blooms
were present.
2. What are the causes of the problems in Lake
Victoria? Are there any solutions? Support
your answer.
The large Nile perch requires a lot of the cichlids in
order to live. So, as they them in large quantities, the
population of cichlids suffer.
Section 11-1: What are the major threats to aquatic biodiversity?
1. Where are the areas on Earth with the greatest
aquatic biodiversity?
The greatest amounts of biodiversity are in coral reefs.
2. Explain the acronym HIPPCO.
H: habitat loss and degradation
I: Invasive species
P: Population Growth
P: Pollution
C: Climate Change
O: Overfishing
3. List 4 human threats to biodiversity and
describe the damage being caused by each.
Habitat disruption in fresh water aquatic zones. Coastal
waters are disappearing 2-10 times faster than the rate
of tropical forest lost.
4. Provide three examples of aquatic invasive
species and describe the damage caused by
each.
Zebra mussels attach to hard surfaces on the floor of
fresh water lakes. They cause issues for other aquatic
animals. They upset ecosystems, threaten native
wildlife, damage structures, and cause other serious
problems. Nile perch eat cichlids in Lake Victoria.
5. Describe eutrophication. What nutrient levels
are high when eutrophication is a result? What
are the symptoms of eutrophication?
the name given to the natural nutrient enrichment of a
shallow lake, estuary, or slow moving stream, mostly
from runoff of plant nutrients such as nitrates and

Teacher Notes

phosphates from surrounding land.


6. What are the negative effects of climate
change on aquatic ecosystems? Provide at
least three effects.
Rising sea levels. This will cause coral reefs to be
destroyed, low-lying islands to be swamped, and much
of Louisianas coast including New Orleans to be
drowned under water.
7. What role do mangroves play in maintaining a
healthy aquatic ecosystem?
They can help reduce the impacts of rising sea levels
and intense storm surges.
8. Define commercial extinction. Which fisheries
are classified as commercially extinct?
Where overfishing happens. Occurs when it is no
longer profitable to continue fishing the affected
species. Cod fishery off of the coast of Newfoundland.
9. What is bycatch? When does it occur?
Describe how bycatch affects the biodiversity
of marine ecosystems.
Fish that arent targeted during fishing. When large fish
nets are used with long lines of hooks. These fish are
thrown overboard either dying or dead
10. Describe the four types of major commercial
fishing:
Trawler fishing: use sonar to locate fish and scoop
them up in a net.
Purse-seine fishing: A large bowl like net is pulled
straight up catching the fish inside.
Longlining: A long line with many hook is set out to
drift.
Drift-net fishing: A long rectangular net is set out to
drift. The fish get caught by their gills.
Section 10-2: How can we protect and sustain marine biodiversity?
1. Explain why aquatic ecosystems are
particularly vulnerable to human destruction.
Human ecological footprint and fishprint are expanding
so rapidly into aquatic areas that it is difficult to monitor
the impacts. Also, much of the damage to the oceans
and other bodies of water is not visible to most people.

2. Provide a timeline of the effects of humans on


the whale population from the 1920s-present.
1947 Everglades National Parke was established.
1952 and 1971 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
transformed the wandering 166-kilometer long

Kissimmee Rover into a straight 84 kilometer canal


flowing into Lake Okeechobee.
1970s state and federal officials recognized that
this ugh plumbing project was reducing wildlife
populations- a major source of tourism income from
Florida.

3. What are the major threats to sea turtle


populations? What is being done to protect
them? Is it effective? Support your answer.
Their spawning habitat is being destroyed. Many of the
beaches where they lay their eggs are being protected.
This is effective because the numbers are starting to
correct themselves.
4. What are marine reserves and how do they
protect aquatic biodiversity?
Areas that are put off limits to destructive human
activities in order to enable their ecosystems to recover
and flourish.
5. Describe integrated coastal management.
Provide examples of techniques utilized in
integrated coastal management.
A community-based effort to develop and use coastal
resources more sustainably. Australia manages its
huge Great Barrier Reef Marine Park this way, and
more than 100 integrated coastal management
programs are being developed throughout the world.
Section 11-3: How should we manage and sustain marine fisheries?
1. Compare and contrast the terms maximum
sustained yield and optimum sustained yield.
Maximum sustained yield: is a model to project the
maximum number of fish that can be harvested
annually from a fish stock without causing a population
drop. Optimum sustained yield: takes into account
interactions among species and to provide more room
for error.
2. Describe multispecies management. What
impact does it have on the maximum sustained
yield?
Multispecies Management: is a number of interacting
species, which takes into account their competitive and
predator-prey interactions. It has a negative impact on
maximum sustained yield because it reduces it.
3. Explain how farm-raised fish can have a
positive impact on the environment.
Fish farms allow for us to not disturb the natural
biodiversity of the aquatic ecosystem.

4. Explain how farm-raised fish can have a


negative impact on the environment.
Disease could spread quickly from fish to fish because
they are genetically the same. These could possibly get
in to a real aquatic ecosystem killing lots of fish.
5. How have the World Trade Organization and
CITES played a role in managing marine
fisheries?
They have come in to they and clean up aquatic
ecosystem that have be degraded due to chemical from
humans.
6. What are individual transfer rights? What are
the positive and negatives associated with this
method?
Individual transfer rights control access to fisheries.
The government can tell the fishers how much fish they
are allowed to take. However it can be sold to others.
7. What is the Marine Stewardship Council? How
does it play a role in managing marine
fisheries?
The MSC was created in 1997 to support sustainable
fishing and to certify sustainably produced seafood.
Section 10-4: How should we protect and sustain wetlands?
1. List four ecological services provided by
wetlands.
Highly productive, provide natural flood and erosion
control, and act as natural filter to maintain high water
quality.
2. Provide a timeline of the effects of humans on
the Everglades from the 1920s-present.
1947 Everglades National Parke was
established.
1952 and 1971 the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers transformed the wandering 166kilometer long Kissimmee Rover into a straight
84 kilometer canal flowing into Lake
Okeechobee.
1970s state and federal officials recognized
that this ugh plubing project was reducing
wildlife populations- a major source of yourism
income form Florida.
Section 11-5: How can we protect and sustain freshwater lakes, rivers, and fisheries?
1. What is the biggest threat to the Great Lakes?
Provide at least 3 specific examples.
Invasive Species. Sea Lamprey, Zebra Mussels, and
Asian Carp.

2. How do hydroelectric dams affect freshwater


biodiversity? Explain your answer.
Hydroelectric dams kill many fish. Salmon for example
need to swim upstream in order to lay their eggs.
However cant if a Dam is in the way. Also as fish swim
downstream and run into the turbine of a dam they
mostly dont survive.
3. Explain why salmon species are particularly
vulnerable to freshwater and saltwater pollution
and development.
Salmon need to swim upstream in order to lay their
eggs. However cant if a Dam is in the way
4. List four ecological services provided by rivers.
Deliver nutrients to sea to help sustain coastal
fisheries, deposit silt that maintains deltas, purify water,
and renew and renourish wetlands.
Section 11-6: What are the priorities for sustained biodiversity and ecosystem services?
1. Summarize E.O. Wilsons proposal for
protecting biodiversity worldwide.
Complete the mapping of the worlds terrestrial and
aquatic biodiversity. Keep intact the worlds remaining
old-growth forest. Identify and preserve that worlds
terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity and hotspots. Protect
and restore the worlds lakes and river systems. Carry
our ecological restoration projects worldwide to heal
some of the damage we have done. Find ways to make
conservation financially rewarding form people who live
in or near terrestrial and aquatic reserves.