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Chapter 33: An Introduction to Invertebrates

Term
Invertebrates
Sponges

Choanocytes

Amoebocytes
Cnidarians

Eumetazoa
Gastrovascular cavity
Polyp
Medusa

Cnidocytes
Nematocysts
Hydrozoans
Hydra
Jellies (medusae)
Cubozoans

Definition
animals that lack a backbone; 95% of known
animal species
basal animals that lack true tissues and organs;
animals in the phylum Porifera; sedentary and live
in marine waters or fresh water; suspension
feederscapturing food particles suspended in
the water that passes through their body; water is
drawn through pores ostia into a cavity, the
spongocoel and out through an opening, the
osculum; consists of a gelatinous noncellular
mesohyl layer between two cell layers; most are
hermaphrodites
flagellated collar cells; generate a water current
through the sponge, filter food particles, and
ingest suspended food
found in the mesohyl and play roes in digestion
and structure
an ancient phylum of eumetazoans; one of the
oldest groups in the clade Eumetaoa; exhibit a
relatively simple diploblastic, radial body plan;
carnivores that use tentacles to capture prey
clade of animals with true tissues; all animals
except sponges and a few other groups
a central digestive compartment in a sac which is
the basic body plan of a cnidarians
adheres to the substrate by the aboral end of its
body
a bell-shaped body with its mouth on the
underside; do not attach to the substrate but move
freely
unique cells that function in defense and capture
of prey
specialized organelles within cnidocytes that eject
a stinging thread
most alternate between polyp and medusa forms
a freshwater cnidarians, exists only in polyp form
and reproduces asexually by budding
the prevalent form of the life cycle in the class
Scyphozoa
includes box jellies and sea wasps; medusa is
box-shaped and has complex eyes; often have
highly toxic cnidocytes
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Anthozoans
Corals
Lophotrochozoans

Bilaterian

Flatworms

Protonephridia
Catenulida
Rhabditophora
Planarians

Parasitic rhabditophorans
Trematodes

Tapeworms
Scolex
Proglottids
Rotifers

Alimentary canal

includes the corals and sea anemones; occur only


as polyps
often form symbioses with algae and secrete a
hard external skeleton
a clade identified by molecular date; have the
widest range of animal body form; some develop
a lophophore for feeding, others pass through a
trochophore larval stage, and a few have neither
feature; include flatworms, rotifers, ectoprocts,
brachiopods, molluscs, and annelids
have bilateral symmetry and triploblastic
development; most have a coelom and a digestive
tract with two openings
Platyhelminthes; live in marine, freshwater, and
damp terrestrial habitats; undergo triploblastic
development; acoelomates; flattened
dorsoventrally and have a gastrovascular cavity
with one opening; gas exchange takes place
across the surface
regulate the osmotic balance
chain worms; reproduce asexuallyby budding
more diverse and include both free-licing and
parasitic species
best-known rhabditophorans; live in fresh water
and prey on smaller animals; have light-sensitive
eyespots and centralized nerve nets; nervous
system is more complex than the nerve nets of
cnidarians; hermaphroditesl can reproduce
sexually, or asexually through fission
live in or on other animals; trematodes and
tapeworms
parasitize a wide range of hosts, and most have
complex life cycles with alternating sexual and
asexual stages
parasites of vertebrates and lack a digestive
system; absorb nutrients from the hosts intestine
contains suckers and hooks for attaching to the
host
units that contains sex organs and form a ribbon
behind the scolex
tiny animals that inhabit fresh water, the ocean,
and damp soil; smaller than many protists but are
truly multicellular and have specialized organ
systems
a digestive tube with a separate mouth and anus
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Parthenogenesis
Lophophore
Lophophorates
Ectoprocts
Brachiopods

Molluscs

Foot
Visceral mass
Mantle
Mantle cavity
Radula
Trocophore
Polyplacophora
Gastropoda
Bivalvia
Cephalopoda
Chitons

Gastropods
Torsion

Bivalves

Cephalopods

that lies within a fluid-filled pseudocoelom


reproduction in rotifers; females produce offspring
from unfertilized eggs
a crown of ciliated tentacles around their mouth
have a true coelom; Ectoprocta and Brachiopoda
Bryozoans; sessile colonial animals that
superficially resemble plants
superficially resemble clams and other hingeshelled molluscs, but the two halves of the shell
are dorsal and ventral rather than lateral as in
clams; marine and attached to the seafloor by a
stalk
includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and
octopuses and squids; most are marine, though
some inhabit fresh water and some snails and
slugs are terrestrial; soft-bodied animals, but most
are protected by a hard shell; animal group with
the largest number of recent extinctions

ciliated larval stage


chitons
snails and slugs
clams, oysters, and other bivalves
squids, octopuses, cuttlefish, and chambered
nautiluses
oval-shaped marine animals encased in an armor
of eight dorsal plates; use their foot like a suction
cup to grip rock, and their radula to scrape algae
off the rock surface
of all living species; most are marine, but many
are freshwater and terrestrial species
most distinctive characteristic of gastropods;
causes the animals anus and mantle to end up
above its heads; different from the coiling of a
shell
marine and include many species of clams,
oysters, mussels, and scallops; have a shell
divided into two halves drawn together by
adductor muscles; some have eyes and sensory
tentacles along the edge of their mantle
carnivoreswith beak-like jaws surrounded by
tentacles of their modified foot
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Nautilus
Ammonites

Annelids
Polychaeta
Oligochaeta

Earthworms

Leeches

Ecdysozoans

Nematodes

Caenorhabditis elegans
Trichinella spiralis
Arthropods

Open circulatory system


Chelicerates

small group of shelled cephalopods that survives


today
shelled cephalopods were common but went
extinct at the end of the Cretaceous 65.5 million
years ago
have bodies composed of a series of fused rings;
coelomates
have paddle-like parapodia that work as gills and
aid in locomotion; most are marine
earthworms and their relatives, and leeches;
named for relatively sparse chaetae, bristles
made of chitin
eat through soil, extracting nutrients as soil moves
through the alimentary canal; hermaphrodites but
cross-fertilize; some reproduce asexually by
fragmentation
most species live in fresh water; some are marine
or terrestrial; include predators of invertebrates,
and parasites that suck blood; secrete a chemical
called hirudin to prevent blood from coagulating
the most species-rich animal group; covered by a
tough coat called a cuticleshed or molted
through a process called ecdysis
roundworms; found in most aquatic habitats, in
the soil, in moist tissues of plants, and in body
fluids and tissues of animals; have an alimentart
canal, but lack a circulatory system; reproduction
is usually sexual, by internal fertilization
a model organism in research
can be acquired by humans from undercooked
pork
found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere; body
plan consists of a segmented body, hard
exoskeleton, and jointed appendages; evolution
characterized by a decrease in the number of
segments and an increase in appendage
specialization; some appendages are modified for
functions; body is completely covered by the
cuticle, an exoskeleton made of layers of protein
and the polysaccharide chitin
hemolymph is circulated into the spaces
surrounding the tissues and organs
sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks,
mites, and spiders; named for clawlike feeding
appendages (chelicerae);
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Eurypterids
Myriapods
Millipedes
Centipedes
Hexapods
Crustaceans

Arachnids
Book lungs
Silk
Insects

Incomplete metamorphosis

Complete metamorphosis

Isopods
Decapods
Copepods
Barnacles
Echinoderms

Chordates
Deuterostomes

earliest cheliceriforms; water scorpions


centipedes and millipedes; terrestrial; have jawlike mandibles
eat decaying leaves and plant matter; have many
legs, with two pairs per trunk segment
carnivores; have one pair of legs per trunk
segment
insects and relatives
crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, and many
others; remain in marine and freshwater
environments; typically have branched
appendages that are extensively specialized for
feeding and locomotion; small crustaceans
exchange gases through the cuticle; larger
crustaceans have gills
most modern cheliceriforms; spiders, scorpions,
ticks, and mites
respiratory organs where gas exchange occurs
a liquid protein produced by many spiders from
specialized abdominal glands
Hexapoda; has more species than all other forms
of life combined; live in almost every terrestrial
habitat and in fresh water
the young (nymphs) resemble adults but are
smaller and go through a series of molts until they
reach full size
have larval stages known by such names as
maggot, grub, or caterpillar; looks entirely different
from the adult stage
include terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species
all relatively large crustaceans and include
lobsters, crabs, crayfish, and shrimp
among the most numerous of all animals
a group of mostly sessile crustaceans; have a
cuticle that is hardened into a shell
include sea stars and sea urchins; slow-moving or
sessile marine animals; a thin epidermis covers
an endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates; have
a unique water vascular systema network of
hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that
function in locomotion and feeding; sexual
reproduction is external
include the vertebrates
echinoderms and chordates; share developmental
characteristics (radial cleavage and formation of
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Asteroidea
Sea stars

Tube feet
Sea daisies

Ophuroidea
Brittle stars

Echinoidea

Crinoidea
Sea lilies
Feather stars
Holothuroidea
Sea cucumbers

Chordates

the anus from the blastopore); defined primarily by


DNA similarities
sea stars and sea daisies
have multiple arms radiating from a central disk;
feed on bivalves by prying them open with their
tube feet, everting their stomach, and digesting
their prey externally with digestive enzymes; can
regrow lost arms
on the undersurface of each arm; grip substrate
with adhesive chemicals
1986; only three species are known; live on
submerged wood and absorb nutrients through a
membrane that surrounds their body
brittle stars
have a distinct central disk and long, flexible arms,
which they use for movement; suspension
feeders, predators, or scavengers
sea urchins (feed on seaweed using a jaw-like
structure on their underside) and sand dollars
have no arms but have five rows of tube feet;
spines used for locomotion and protection
sea lilies and feather stars
live attached to the substrate by a stalk;
suspension feeder
can crawl using long, flexible arms; suspension
feeder
sea cucumbers
lack spine, have a very reduced endoskeleton,
and do not look much like other echinoderms;
have five rows of tube feet, some of these are
developed as feeding tentacles
bilaterally symmetrical coelomates with
segmented bodies; share many features of
embryonic development with echinoderms

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