You are on page 1of 18

Subsection A

Nondestructive Methods
of Examination

SUBSECTION A
Article 1
T-110
T-120
T-130
T-150
T-160
T-170
T-180
T-190

General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examinations and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Records /Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
12
12
12
13
13
13
14
14

Mandatory Appendix
Appendix I
Glossary of Terms for Nondestructive Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Nonmandatory Appendix
Appendix A
Imperfection vs Type of NDE Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.1

Article 2
T-210
T-220
T-230
T-260
T-270
T-280
T-290

Radiographic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16
21
21
22
23
24
28
29

Figure
T-275

Location Marker Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Tables
T-233.1
T-233.2
T-276
T-283

Hole-Type IQI Designation, Thickness, and Hole Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Wire IQI Designation, Wire Diameter, and Wire Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IQI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equivalent Hole-Type IQI Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22
23
27
29

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
In-Motion Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Real-Time Radioscopic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Digital Image Acquisition, Display, and Storage for Radiography and
Radioscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix IV
Interpretation, Evaluation, and Disposition of Radiographic and Radioscopic
Examination Test Results Produced by the Digital Image Acquisition and
Display Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix V
Glossary of Terms for Radiographic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

31
33
35

37
39
A02
A03

Appendix VI

Digital Image Acquisition, Display, Interpretation, and Storage of Radiographs for


Nuclear Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
47

Nonmandatory Appendices
Appendix A
Technique Sketches for Pipe or Tube Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C
Hole Type IQI Placement Sketches for Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix D
Number of IQIs (Special Cases) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48
52
57

Appendix VII

Figures
I-263
VI-A-1
C-210-1
C-210-2
C-210-3
C-210-4
D-210-1
D-210-2
D-210-3
D-210-4

A02
A03

D-210-5
D-210-6
D-210-7
D-210-8

Beam Width Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Reference Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side and Top Views of Hole Type IQI Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side and Top Views of Hole Type IQI Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side and Top Views of Hole Type IQI Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side and Top Views of Hole Type IQI Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Circumference Cylindrical Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section of Circumference 240 Deg. or More Cylindrical Component . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section(s) of Circumference Less Than 240 Deg. Cylindrical Component . . . . . . . . .
Section(s) of Circumference Equal to or More Than 120 Deg. and Less Than 240
Deg. Cylindrical Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Circumferential Welds Spherical Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Welds in Segments of Spherical Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plan View A-A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Array of Objects in a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58
59
59
59
59

Article 4
T-410
T-420
T-430
T-440
T-460
T-470
T-480
T-490

Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60
63
63
64
68
68
73
74
75

Figures
T-434.1.7.2
T-434.2.1
T-434.3
T-434.4.1
T-434.4.2.1
T-434.4.2.2
T-434.4.3

Ratio Limits for Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Non-Piping Calibration Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration Block for Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration Block for Techinque One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate Calibration Block for Technique One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate Calibration Block for Techniuqe One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate Calibration Block for Technique Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66
67
68
69
70
71
71

Table
T-422

Requirements of an Ultrasonic Examination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

32
46
53
54
55
56
58
58
58

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Screen Height Linearity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Amplitude Control Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76
76

Nonmandatory Appendices
Appendix A
Layout of Vessel Reference Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
General Techniques for Angle Beam Calibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C
General Techniques for Straight Beam Calibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix D
Data Record Example for a Planar Reflector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix E
Computerized Imaging Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix F
Nozzle Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix G
Alternate Calibration Block Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix H
Recording Angle Beam Examination Data for Planar Reflectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix I
Examination of Welds Using Angle Beam Search Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix J
Alternative Basic Calibration Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix K
Recording Straight Beam Examination Data for Planar Reflectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix L
TOFD Sizing Demonstration/Dual Probe Computer Imaging Technique . . . . . . . .

77
77
81
82
84
90
92
95
95
96
99
99

Figures
I-440
B-462
B-463
B-464
B-465
B-466
C-461
C-462
D-10
E-460.1
E-460.2
G-461(a)
G-461(b)
J-431
L-432

Table
G-461

Article 5
T-510
T-520
T-530
T-560
T-570
T-580
T-590

Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweep Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensitivity and DistanceAmplitude Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Position Depth and Beam Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planar Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beam Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweep Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensitivity and DistanceAmplitude Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflector Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lateral Resolution and Depth Discrimination Block for 45 deg and 60 deg
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lateral and Depth Resolution Block for 0 deg Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Critical Radius Rc for Transducer/Couplant Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Correction Factor (Gain) for Various Ultrasonic Examination Parameters. . . . . . . . . .
Basic Calibration Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of a Flat Demonstration Block Containing Three Notches . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76
78
79
80
80
81
81
82
83
86
88
93
94
97
99.1

Transducer Factor F1 for Various Ultrasonic Transducer Diameters and


Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100
102
102
102
103
106
107
107

A02
A03

A02
A03

Figure
T-534.2.1
T-534.3

Basic Calibration Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Straight Beam Calibration Blocks for Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

104
105

Table
T-522

Variables of an Ultrasonic Examination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Ultrasonic Examination of Pumps and Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Inservice Examination of Nozzle Inside Corner Radius and Inner Corner Regions
Appendix III
Glossary of Terms for Ultrasonic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix IV
Inservice Examination of Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109
109
110
111

Article 6
T-610
T-620
T-630
T-640
T-650
T-660
T-670
T-680
T-690

Liquid Penetrant Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121
123
123
123
123
124
125
125
127
127

Tables
T-621
T-672

Requirements of a Liquid Penetrant Examination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Minimum Dwell Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124
125

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Glossary of Terms for Liquid Penetrant Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Control of Contaminants for Liquid Penetrant Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Qualification Techniques for Examinations at Nonstandard Temperatures . . . . . . . . . .

128
128.1
128.3

Figure
III-630

Liquid Penetrant Comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128.3

Article 7
T-710
T-720
T-730
T-740
T-750
T-760
T-770
T-780
T-790

Magnetic Particle Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129
132
132
132
133
133
136
140
141
141

Figures
T-754.2.1
T-754.2.2
T-764.1.1
T-764.1.2
T-766.1

Single-Pass and Two-Pass Central Conductor Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


The Effective Region of Examination When Using an Offset Central Conductor. . .
Pie-Shaped Magnetic Particle Field Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Artificial Flaw Shims. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ketos (Betz) Test Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136
136
137
137
139

Table
T-721

Requirements of a Magnetic Particle Examination Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Magnetic Particle Examination Using the AC Yoke Technique on Ferritic
Materials Coated With Nonmagnetic Coatings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Glossary of Terms for Magnetic Particle Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

142
144
144.2

Figures
III-722.1.1
III-722.1.2

MFL Reference Plate Dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Reference Pipe or Tube Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

144.3
144.4

Tables
I-721
III-723

Requirements of AC Yoke Technique on Coated Ferritic Component. . . . . . . . . . . . .


Requirements of an MFL Examination Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

143
144.4

Nonmandatory Appendix
Appendix A
Measurement of Tangential Field Strength with Gaussmeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

144.6

Article 8
T-810
T-820
T-830
T-840
T-850
T-860
T-870
T-880
T-890

Eddy Current Examination of Tubular Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

145
147
147
148
148
148
148
149
149
149

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Eddy Current Examination Method for Installed Nonferromagnetic Heat
Exchanger Tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Eddy Current Examination of Nonferromagnetic Heat Exchanger Tubing. . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Eddy Current (ET) Examination on Coated Ferritic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix IV
Glossary of Terms for Eddy Current Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150
155
160
162

A03

Figures
I-862-1
I-862-2
I-865-1

Typical Signal Response From a Properly Calibrated Differential


Bobbin Coil Probe System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Signal Response From a Properly Calibrated Absolute
Bobbin Coil Probe System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase Angle vs Flaw Depth Inconel Tube, 400 kHz (Typical
0.050 in. Wall Tube). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

152
153

Table
T-823

Requirements of an Eddy Current Examination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147

Article 9
T-910
T-920
T-930
T-950
T-980
T-990

Visual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

163
164
164
165
165
165
166

Mandatory Appendix
Appendix I
Glossary of Terms for Visual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

167

Table
T-921

Requirements of a Visual Examination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

164

Article 10
T-1000
T-1010
T-1020
T-1030
T-1040
T-1050
T-1060
T-1070
T-1080
T-1090

Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

168
173
173
173
173
174
174
174
175
175
175

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Bubble Test Direct Pressure Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Bubble Test Vacuum Box Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Halogen Diode Detector Probe Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix IV
Helium Mass Spectrometer Test Detector Probe Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix V
Helium Mass Spectrometer Test Tracer Probe Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix VI
Pressure Change Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix VII
Glossary of Terms for Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix VIII
Thermal Conductivity Detector Probe Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix IX
Helium Mass Spectrometer Test Hood Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix X
Ultrasonic Leak Detector Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A03

151

176
177
179
182
184
187
189
190
192
194.1

Nonmandatory Appendix
Appendix A
Supplementary Leak Testing Formula Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195

Tables
I-1021
II-1021
III-1021
III-1031
IV-1021
V-1021
VI-1021
VIII-1031
VIII-1021
IX-1021
X-1021

Requirements
Requirements
Requirements
Tracer Gases
Requirements
Requirements
Requirements
Tracer Gases
Requirements
Requirements
Requirements

177
178
180
180
182
185
187
190
190
193
194.2

Article 11
T-1110
T-1120
T-1130
T-1140
T-1160
T-1180
T-1190

Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Vessels . . . . . . . . . .


Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196
198
198
200
200
201
201
207

Figures
T-1142(c)(1)(a)
T-1142(c)(1)(b)
T-1142(c)(1)(c)
T-1142(c)(2)(a)
T-1142(c)(2)(b)

Atmospheric Vessels Stressing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Vacuum Vessels Stressing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Algorithm Flowchart for Atmospheric Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Vessel Stressing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Algorithm Flowchart for Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202
203
204
205
206

Requirements for Reduced Operating Level Immediately Prior to


Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

198
207

Tables
T-1121
T-1181

of a Direct Pressure Bubble Leak Testing Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


of a Vacuum Box Leak Testing Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
of a Halogen Diode Detector Probe Testing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............................................................
of a Helium Mass Spectrometer Detector Probe Testing Procedure . .
of a Helium Mass Spectrometer Tracer Probe Testing Procedure . . . .
of a Pressure Change Testing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............................................................
of a Thermal Conductivity Detector Probe Testing Procedure . . . . . . .
of a Helium Mass Spectrometer Hood Testing Procedure. . . . . . . . . . .
of an Ultrasonic Leak Testing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Instrumentation Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Glossary of Terms for Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber-Reinforced
Plastic Vessels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212

Nonmandatory Appendix
Appendix A
Sensor Placement Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

209
211

A03

Figure
I-1183

Sample of Schematic of AE Instrumentation for Vessel Examination . . . . . . . . . . . .

211

T-1210
T-1220
T-1230
T-1240
T-1260
T-1280
T-1290

Acoustic Emission Examination of Metallic Vessels During Pressure


Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment and Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

220
222
222
223
223
225
225
225

Figure
T-1244.3.2

An Example of Pressure Vessel Test Stressing Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

225

Table
T-1281

An Example of Evaluation Criteria for Zone Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

226

Article 12

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Instrumentation Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix II
Instrument Calibration and Cross-Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix III
Glossary of Terms for Acoustic Emission Examination of Metal
Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A03

228
229
229

Nonmandatory Appendices
Appendix A
Sensor Placement Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
Supplemental Information for Conducting Acoustic Emission Examinations. . . . . . . .

231
237

Article 13
T-1310
T-1320
T-1330
T-1340
T-1350
T-1360
T-1370
T-1380
T-1390

Continuous Acoustic Emission Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation /Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reports /Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

238
242
242
243
246
247
248
249
249
250

Figures
T-1331
T-1332.2

Functional Flow Diagram Continuous AE Monitoring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Response of a Waveguide AE Sensor Inductively Tuned to 500 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . .

244
244

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I
Nuclear Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

251

10

Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix

Non-Nuclear Metal Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Non-Metallic Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limited Zone Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hostile Environment Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leak Detection Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary of Terms for Acoustic Emission Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

252
254
255
257
258
260

Figures
V-1322
V-1323

Metal Waveguide AE Sensor Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Mounting Fixture for Steel Waveguide AE Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

258
259

Tables
II-1351
II-1352

An Example of Evaluation Criteria for Zone Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


An Example of Evaluation Criteria for Multisource Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

254
256

Article 14
T-1410
T-1420
T-1430
T-1440
T-1450
T-1460
T-1470
T-1480
T-1490

Examination System Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conduct of Qualification Demonstration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation and Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261.1
261.2
261.2
261.3
261.3
261.5
261.6
261.6
261.9
261.9

Total Number of Samples for a Given Number of Misses at a Specified


Confidence Level and POD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Required Number of First Stage Examiners vs. Target Pass Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261.7
261.8

Tables
T-1472.1
T-1472.2

II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

Mandatory Appendix
Appendix I
Glossary of Terms for Examination System Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.1

261.10

A03

ARTICLE 1
T-110
T-120
T-130
T-150
T-160
T-170
T-180
T-190

A03

Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examinations and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Records /Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
12
13
13
13
13
14
14

Mandatory Appendix
Appendix I
Glossary of Terms for Nondestructive Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-110
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-120
General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-130
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
15
15
15

Nonmandatory Appendix
Appendix A
Imperfection vs Type of NDE Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-110
Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.1
15.1

Table
A-110

15.2

Imperfection vs Type of NDE Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

ARTICLE 1
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
A02
A03

T-110

A03

T-120

SCOPE

(d) Reference to a standard contained in Subsection


B is mandatory only to the extent specified.2
(e) For those documents that directly reference this
Article for the qualification of NDE personnel, the
qualification shall be in accordance with their employers written practice which must be in accordance with
one of the following documents:
(1) SNT-TC-1A3, Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing; or
(2) ANSI/ASNT CP-1893, ASNT Standard for
Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing
Personnel
(f) National or international central certification programs, such as the ASNT Central Certification Program
(ACCP), may be alternatively used to fulfill the examination requirements of the documents listed in T-120(e)
as specified in the employers written practice.
(g) When the referencing Code Section does not
specify qualifications or does not reference directly
Article 1 of this Section, qualification may simply
involve demonstration in routine manufacturing operations to show that the personnel performing the nondestructive examinations are competent to do so in accordance with the Manufacturers established procedures.
(h) The user of this Article is responsible for the
qualification and certification of NDE Personnel in
accordance with the requirements of this Article. The
Code Users4 Quality Program shall stipulate how this
is to be accomplished. Qualifications in accordance
with a prior edition of SNT-TC-1A, or CP-189 are

(a) This Section of the Code contains requirements


and methods for nondestructive examination (NDE),
which are Code requirements to the extent they are
specifically referenced and required by other Code
Sections or referencing document. These NDE methods
are intended to detect surface and internal imperfections
in materials, welds, fabricated parts, and components.
They include radiographic examination, ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, eddy current examination, visual examination, leak testing, and acoustic emission examination.
See Nonmandatory Appendix A of this Article for a
listing of common imperfections and damage mechanisms, and the NDE methods that are generally capable
of detecting them.
(b) For general terms such as Inspection, Flaw, Discontinuity, Evaluation, etc., refer to Mandatory Appendix I.

GENERAL

(a) Subsection A describes the methods of nondestructive examination to be used if referenced by other
Code Sections or referencing documents.
(b) Subsection B lists Standards covering nondestructive examination methods which have been accepted
as standards. These standards are nonmandatory unless
specifically referenced in whole or in part in Subsection
A or as indicated in other Code Sections or referencing
document.
(c) Any reference to a paragraph of any Article in
Subsection A of this Section includes all of the applicable rules in the paragraph.1 In every case, reference
to a paragraph includes all the subparagraphs and
subdivisions under that paragraph.

For example, T-233 requires that Image Quality Indicators be


manufactured and identified in accordance with the requirements or
alternatives allowed in SE-747 or SE-1025, and Appendices, as
appropriate for the style of IQI to be used. These are the only parts
of either SE-747 or SE-1025 that are mandatory in Article 2.

SNT-TC-1A (2001 Edition), Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing; and ANSI/ASNT CP-189 (2001
Edition), ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of
Nondestructive Testing Personnel; published by the American Society
for Nondestructive Testing, 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518,
Columbus, Ohio 43228-0518.

For example, reference to T-270 includes all the rules contained


in T-271 through T-277.3.

In this Code Section, Code User is any organization conducting


nondestructive examinations to the requirements of this Section.

12

A03

T-120

ARTICLE 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

valid until recertification. Recertification or new certification shall be in accordance with the edition of SNTTC-1A or CP-189 specified in Footnote 3.
(i) Limited certification of nondestructive examination personnel who do not perform all of the operations
of a nondestructive method that consists of more than
one operation, or who perform nondestructive examinations of limited scope, may be based on fewer hours
of training and experience than recommended in SNTTC-1A or CP-189. Any limitations or restrictions placed
upon a persons certification shall be described in the
written practice and on the certification.

A03

T-130

nation procedures and personnel certification procedures


conforming to the referencing Code requirements.
(c) When required by the referencing Code Section,
all nondestructive examinations performed under this
Code Section shall be done to a written procedure.
This procedure shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction
of the Inspector. The procedure or method shall comply
with the applicable requirements of this Section for
the particular examination method. Where so required,
written procedures shall be made available to the Inspector on request. At least one copy of each procedure
shall be readily available to the Manufacturers Nondestructive Examination Personnel for their reference
and use.

EQUIPMENT

It is the responsibility of the Code User to ensure


that the examination equipment being used conforms
to the requirements of this Code Section.

A03

T-140
T-150

T-170

T-160

CALIBRATION

A03

(a) The Manufacturer, fabricator, or installer shall


assure that all equipment calibrations required by Subsection A and /or Subsection B are performed.
(b) When special procedures are developed [see T150(a)], the Code User shall specify what calibration
is necessary, when calibration is required.

DELETED
PROCEDURE

(a) The nondestructive examination methods included


in this Section are applicable to most geometric configurations and materials encountered in fabrication under
normal conditions. However, special configurations and
materials may require modified methods and techniques,
in which case the Manufacturer shall develop special
procedures which are equivalent or superior to the
methods and techniques described in this Code Section,
and which are capable of producing interpretable examination results under the special conditions. Such special
procedures may be modifications or combinations of
methods described or referenced in this Code Section,
and shall be proved by demonstration to be capable
of detecting discontinuities under the special conditions,
and such demonstrated capabilities shall be equivalent
to the capabilities of the methods described in this
Code Section when used under more general conditions.
Depending on the quality assurance or quality control
system requirements of the referencing Code Section,
these special procedures shall be submitted to the
Inspector for acceptance where required, and shall be
adopted as part of the Manufacturers quality control
program.
(b) When an examination to the requirements of this
Section of the Code is required by other Sections of the
Code, it shall be the responsibility of the Manufacturer,
fabricator, or installer to establish nondestructive exami-

T-170

EXAMINATIONS AND
INSPECTIONS

(a) The Inspector concerned with the fabrication of


the vessel or pressure part shall have the duty of
verifying to his satisfaction that all examinations required by the referencing Code Section have been made
to the requirements of this Section and the referencing
document(s). He shall have the right to witness any of
these examinations to the extent stated in the referencing
document(s). Throughout this Section of the Code, the
word Inspector means the Authorized Inspector who
has been qualified as required in the various referencing
Code Sections.
(b) The special distinction established in the various
Code Sections between inspection and examination and
the personnel performing them is also adopted in this
Code Section. In other words, the term inspection
applies to the functions performed by the Authorized
Inspector, but the term examination applies to those
quality control functions performed by personnel employed by the Manufacturer. One area of occasional
deviation from these distinctions exists. In the ASTM
Standard Methods and Recommended Practices incorporated in this Section of the Code by reference or by
reproduction in Subsection B, the words inspection or
Inspector, which frequently occur in the text or titles of
13

A03

T-170

2001 SECTION V

the referenced ASTM documents, may actually describe


what the Code calls examination or examiner. This
situation exists because ASTM has no occasion to be
concerned with the distinctions which the Code makes
between inspection and examination, since ASTM activities and documents do not involve the Authorized
Inspector described in the Code Sections. However, no
attempt has been made to edit the ASTM documents
to conform with Code usage; this should cause no
difficulty if the users of this Section recognize that the
terms inspection, testing, and examination in the ASTM
documents referenced in Subsection B do not describe
duties of the Authorized Code Inspector but rather
describe the things to be done by the Manufacturers
examination personnel.

T-180

T-190

EVALUATION

A03

The acceptance standards for these methods shall be


as stated in the referencing document(s).

T-190

RECORDS /DOCUMENTATION

Records /Documentation shall be in accordance with


the referencing document(s) and the applicable requirements of Subsection A and /or B of this Code Section.
The Code User shall be responsible for all required
Records /Documentation.

14

A03

ARTICLE 1
MANDATORY APPENDIX

indication the response or evidence from a nondestructive examination that requires interpretation to determine relevance
inspection the observation of any operation performed on materials and / or components to determine
its acceptability in accordance with given criteria
limited certification an accreditation of an individuals qualification to perform some but not all of the
operations within a given nondestructive examination
method or technique that consists of one or more than
one operation, or to perform nondestructive examinations within a limited scope of responsibility
method the following is a list of nondestructive
examination methods and respective abbreviations used
within the scope of Section V:
RT Radiography
UT Ultrasonics
MT Magnetic Particle
PT Liquid Penetrants
VT Visual
LT Leak Testing
ET Electromagnetic (Eddy Current)
AE Acoustic Emission
nondestructive examination (NDE) the development and application of technical methods to examine
materials and /or components in ways that do not impair
future usefulness and serviceability in order to detect,
locate, measure, interpret, and evaluate flaws
operation a specific phase of a method or technique
procedure an orderly sequence of actions describing how a specific technique shall be applied
sensitivity a measure of the level of response
from a discontinuity by a nondestructive examination
technique a technique is a specific way of utilizing
a particular nondestructive examination (NDE) method

APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF
TERMS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE
EXAMINATION
I-110

SCOPE

This Mandatory Appendix is used for the purpose


of establishing standard terms and definition of terms
common to all methods used in Nondestructive Examination.

I-120

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

(a) The Standard Terminology for Nondestructive


Examinations (ASTM E 1316) has been adopted by
the Committee as SE-1316.
(b) SE-1316 Section A provides the definition of
terms listed in I-130(a).
(c) Paragraph I-130(b) provides a list of terms and
definitions, which are in addition to SE-1316 and are
Code specific.

I-130

REQUIREMENTS

(a) The following SE-1316 terms are used in conjunction with this Article: defect, discontinuity, evaluation,
false indication, flaw, flaw characterization, imperfection, interpretation, nonrelevant indication, relevant indication.
(b) The following Code terms are used in conjunction
with this Article:
area of interest the specific portion of the object
that is to be evaluated as defined by the referencing
Code Section

15

A02

ARTICLE 1
NONMANDATORY APPENDIX
APPENDIX A IMPERFECTION VS
TYPE OF NDE METHOD
A-110

SCOPE

Table A-110 lists common imperfections and the NDE


methods that are generally capable of detecting them.
Caution Table A-110 should be regarded for
general guidance only and not as a basis for requiring
or prohibiting a particular type of NDE method for a
specific application. For example, material and product
form are factors that could result in differences from
the degree of effectiveness implied in the table. For
service-induced imperfections, accessibility and other
conditions at the examination location are also significant factors that must be considered in selecting a
particular NDE method. In addition, Table A-110 must
not be considered to be all inclusive; there are several
NDE methods/techniques and imperfections not listed
in the table. The user must consider all applicable
conditions when selecting NDE methods for a specific
application.

15.1

ARTICLE 1 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX

Table A-110

TABLE A-110
IMPERFECTION VS TYPE OF NDE METHOD
Surface
[Note (1)]

Sub-surf.
[Note (2)]

VT

PT

MT

ET

Volumetric [Note (3)]


RT

UTA

UTS

AE

UTT

Service-Induced Imperfections
Abrasive Wear (Localized)
Baffle Wear (Heat Exchangers)
Corrosion-Assisted Fatigue Cracks
Corrosion -Crevice
-General / Uniform
-Pitting
-Selective
Creep (Primary) [Note (4)]
Erosion
Fatigue Cracks
Fretting (Heat Exchanger Tubing)
Hot Cracking
Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
Intergranular Stress-Corrosion Cracks
Stress-Corrosion Cracks (Transgranular)

Welding Imperfections
Burn Through
Cracks
Excessive/Inadequate Reinforcement
Inclusions (Slag/Tungsten)
Incomplete Fusion
Incomplete Penetration
Misalignment
Overlap
Porosity
Root Concavity
Undercut

Product Form Imperfections


Bursts (Forgings)
Cold Shuts (Castings)
Cracks (All Product Forms)
Hot Tear (Castings)
Inclusions (All Product Forms)
Lamination (Plate, Pipe)
Laps (Forgings)
Porosity (Castings)
Seams (Bar, Pipe)
Legend:

AE Acoustic Emission
UTA Ultrasonic Angle Beam
ET Electromagnetic (Eddy Current)
UTS Ultrasonic Straight Beam
MT Magnetic Particle
UTT Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement
PT Liquid Penetrant
VT Visual
RT Radiography
All or most standard techniques will detect this imperfection under all or most conditions.
One or more standard technique(s) will detect this imperfection under certain conditions.
Special techniques, conditions, and/or personnel qualifications are required to detect this imperfection.
GENERAL NOTE: Table A-110 lists imperfections and NDE methods that are capable of detecting them. It must be kept in mind that this table
is very general in nature. Many factors influence the detectability of imperfections. This table assumes that only qualified personnel are performing
nondestructive examinations and good conditions exist to permit examination (good access, surface conditions, cleanliness, etc.).
NOTES:
(1) Methods capable of detecting imperfections that are open to the surface only.
(2) Methods capable of detecting imperfections that are either open to the surface or slightly subsurface.
(3) Methods capable of detecting imperfections that may be located anywhere within the examined volume.
(4) Various NDE methods are capable of detecting tertiary (3rd stage) creep and some, particularly using special techniques, are capable of
detecting secondary (2nd stage) creep. There are various descriptions/definitions for the stages of creep and a particular description/definition
will not be applicable to all materials and product forms.

15.2