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REPUBLICOF IRAQ

coDE 211997

CODEREQUIREMENTS
IRAQISEISMIG
FORBUILDINGS

CENTRb
RESEARCH
BUILDING
andDevelopment
Research
for Industrial
Commission
General
Ministryof IndustryandMinerals
FOR
APROVEDBY CENTRALORGANIZATION
AND QUALITYCONTROL
STANDARDIZATION

IRAQI SEISMIC CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS

coDE 2 I 1997

CODECOMMITTEE
Dr. ADNANFADHEL ZAIN ALAN
(Chairman)

of Engineering
SaddamUniversity/College

Dr. KA\YAN GAID ALANI

Consultancy
NationalCentreof Engineering

andSeismology
Dr. DAWOODSHAKERALBADRANI Iraqi N{eteorological
Organization
Dr. RAID I{ATTI ALKASS

BuildingResearchCentre

N{r.NAMIR NAJIB AMSO

Unionof Engineers

Dr. RIYADH JAWAD AZl7,

of Engineering
SaddamUniversity/College

Dr. KHALID SAID DINNO

of Engineering
SaddamUniversity/College

\Ir. BAHA GEORGEIKZER

Centre
BuildingResearch

ABDUL WHAB
N{r.S^{A,D

for Standardization
CentralOreanization
anclQuality;Control

Dr. YASINYAHYI YASIN

of Engineering
Saddam
University/College

CONTENTS
PaeeNo.

C H AP T BR I - S C OP EA N D P U R POSE............

CHAPTER 2 - PRINCIPLES OF BARTI{QUAI(E RBSISTANT


DESIGN

2.l- BasicConcePt
2.2- StructuralLaYout
2.3- StructuralSYstem
2.4- DuctilitY
2.5- Deformations
2.6- Site Selection
2.7'SeismicJoints
2.8- Floor Structures
.C|IAPTER3.BVALUAT|ONoFSEISMICACTIONS.........5
3.I - General
StaticAnalysis
3.2- Evaluationof SeismicDesignForcesfor Equivalent
3.2.1-SeisrnicHazatdandZoning Coefficient Z
3.2.2- ImPortanceFactor- I
3'2.3-DYnamicCoefficient- S
3.2.4- StnrcturalSystemCoefficient- K
3.2.5' Total Weightof Buildingsand Structures- W
Conditions
3.2.6-Influenceof Soil and Fourrdation
3.3- Distributionof SeismicForces
3.4- Methodof DvnamicTime HistoryAnalysis

CIIAPTBR 4 - VI,RIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL BEI-IAVIOIJR,......


S T R E S SC ON D T TIONSAND DBFORMATIONS

18

c H Ap ' r B R s - co N sT R U C 'rro N oF EARTI' IQUAI( ERBSISTAN' r...... 2r


STRUCTURDS
I

,.'

5.I-ReinforceclConcreteShuctures
DtrctilityandStlengthReqttirenrents
5.1.I-General,
SYstems
5.1.3-Frame
5 . 1 . 4 - W n lSl Y s t c t t t s

-i-

PaseNo.
5.2-Prestressed
ConcreteStructures
5.3-SteelStructures
5.4-PrefabricatedStructures
5.5-MasonryStructures
5.6-Foundations
5 . 6 . 1-Ge n e ra l
5.6.2-SoilCapacities
5.6.3-Supersh
ucture-Foundation
Comection
5.6.4-FoundationSoil lnterface
5.6.5-SpecialRequirements
for I' ilesand Caissons
APPIINDIX A List of reportsof Investigations
for elaborationof prelirninary...37
seisrnicdesigncodeof lraq
Al'PItNDliX l] SeisrnicZoniugMap of lraq

...39

RI'IIBITNCBS

... 40

-ii-

ANDFUNPOSE
I 'SGOPE
GHAPTIIR
l.t-

for an earthquake
This code provides clesignand constructiortrequirements
resistantbuildings,towers,chimneysand similar structures'

dams,and similal'
The method specified do not cover nuclearpower plants,large
installationswhich iequire specialsite and sffttcturalinvestigations.
1 . 2 - T h e p u r p o se o fa n e a rth q u a ker esistantdesignis:
- to preventloss of life and humaninjury'
- to ensurecontinuity of vital services'
- to minimize damageto Property'

-l-

I'
C I . I AP - T t r R2 - P R IN C IP L IIS OI' I' ,AII]' IIQTJAI( I' - ITITSIS' I' AN' DBSIGN

2 . 1 -Ba s i cC o n ce p t
'I'5c

otlntPlctc
bnsio ogucoptof l"hcrcrluitcrnonts
llrovitlcd in tlris coclc is l"lritt"
protectiol against total damageis not econornicallyfeasiblefor all Wpesof buildings
ald sfiuctures.This conceptis fulfilled by the following criteria:
clamage,
a) T[e structure shouldwithstancl,without atry structrrtalarrdnorr-slructttl'al
the effectsof slightseisrnicmotion.
and lirnitecl
with lirniteclrron-stnrcturalclarnagc
b) T6e str-uctures|oulcl withstzurcl,
scisttticttroticltt
o{'ttt<lclcratc
thc c{l'cots
rnclnbcrs,
non-lincarbchaviourof'struoturul
(designearthquake).
c) The sfructureshouldnot collapseundersevel'ormaximumexpectedearthquake.

2.2-Structural Layout
that buildirrgsand structurcshave
For bettel' earthquakeresistance,it is necessary
simple forms, in both plarr arrd elevatiotr,and of structuraleletnctttswhich resisl
lorizontal seisrnic actions be arrangedin such a way that torsional cffects arc
rninirnized. Non symrnetrical distributionof volulnes, lnassesattd stiffilessesin
buildirrgsshouldbe avoideditt orclerto control torsionaleffects.
Gelerally, the designald consh'uctionof buildingsand structureswith irregularor
complicated layout shall be avoided due to the potential occurfellceof critical
catrnot
When theserequirements
additional sfiessesin the regionsof discontinuities.
adequate
joints,
ir"n
part
having
each
be met, the structureshall be separatedby seisrnic
rigidities.Othcrwisepropel'
and
masses
of
volutnes,
shape arrcla proper clistribution
coniideratiols of irregularitiesshoulclbe taken, suclt as by perfotnringappropriate
analysis.
clynarnic

2.3-Structural System
The structural systern should be clearly defined so that rational analysiscan be
applied. In computing earthquakeresponseof a building, the influenceof not only
sUucfural systems,but alsonon-sh'ucturalelements(infill walls, partitions,windows.
etc.)shouldbe consideredas well.

-7-

2,4-Ductility
The structural systemand its structural elementsshould have adequatesfrengthancl
ductility for the aiplied seismic actions. Structural elements which have sufficient
ductility are capable of absorbing energy. Special attention should be given to the
brittlenlss of structural elements such as shearfailure,joint fracture,buckling,bond
failure and anchoragefailure.

2.5-Deformations
The cleformations of the structure under seismic actions should be limited.
Generally, there are two kinds of defor:nationsto be controlled:the inter-storeydrift
(relative iateral displacementwithin a storey) and the absolutelateraldisplacement
relativeto the base.

2.6-Site Selection
The construction sites should be properly selectedin accordanoewith the
microzonationcriterion. When availablesiteswith activefaults,slopingsoil profiles.
unclesirablesettlementpropertiesancl possibleliquefaction,etc. shoulclbe carefully
evaluated.

2.7-SeismicJoints
Seismic joints shoulclbe provided to separatevarious parts of buildings and
in ortler to allow thern
structures,in particular with different dynamiccharacteristics,
Seisrnicjoints areprovidedfor buildingswith irlcgularplans
to vibrateinclependently.
in such
an.clfor buildingsof non-uniforrnheights.The'widthof thejoints is deterrnined
joints
do not
the
by
a way that during the earthquakethe partsof the building separated
affeci eachothei by collision.Iror rigid buildingswith heightup to l5m, the minimum
wiclth ol. the seisrnicjoints is 25nrm in seisrniczonesI and ll and 40tnrtrin seismic
zone III. For buildings and structuresover l5m in height,and for flexible sffuctures.
thejoint's width is determinedby the following formula:
(2-l)

d > (6r+62+15)
But not lessthan :
25mm for seismiczonesl, II
: u r r l4 0 r t t t t t l t l l ' s c i s l t t i c z t l t r c l l l

- 3-

Wherc:
d

5, , 6z -

width of.loint (nrrn).


total lateral clisplaccrrrcnls
thc
ol' thc two parts ol' thc brrilcling r-utcler
s e i s n r i ca c t i o n ( s c c c l a u s e 4 . 8 ) . I r o r b u i l c l i r r gos l ' C l a s s[ . t h c y s h o u l db c
clctennineclby dyrrarnicrcsltonscanalysis.

2 . 8 -I i l o o r S t r u c t u r c s
l ; l o o l s t t ' r r o t r r r cssl r o u l t l b c < l c s i g r r c ti lr r s r r c h a w a y t o b c l r a v ca s r i g i t l l r < l r i z o n t i t l
t tcral
c l i a p l r r a g r nrsr r o n o l i t h i c a l l y- j o i r r c ci nl a s t n r c t u r asl y s t c n rw
, l r i c h s h o L r l rt lr a r r s r t t li a
c I ' f . c c : t tso t h c v c r - t i c a l s t r t r o t u r a l s y s t c r n f i o r s t n r c t t r l c sn o t r n c : c l i n gl l r c i t b < l v c
r c r l u i r c r u e nt h
, c y s h a l lb c t r c i t t c cal s c l c l b r r r r a t rsl ct r t r o t u r acll c r r r c r r tisn t h c i r t r a l y s i s .

-tl-

CI.IAPTER 3 - EVALUATION OF SEISMIC ACTIONS


3.1-General
3.1.1-The seismic analysis of structuresshall take the dynamic properties of the
structure irrto considerationeither by dynamicarralysisor by equivalentstatic
for specific structru'essuclt
alalysis. A dynamic analysisis highly recomrnended
as slender 6igh-r'isebuildings and structureswith irregulariticsof geometryor
rnassdistributionor rigidity dish'ibution.
Ordilary structures may be designedby the equivalent static rnethod using
colventional linear elastic arralysis.Appropriate post-elasticperfonnance shall be
provided by adequatechoice of structural system and ductile detailing.Non-linear'
inethods oi analysis should be employedto veri$r the sequenceof inelasticbehavior
and the fonnation of collapsemechanisrn.
Notc: If it is cssentialtlrat services,e.g. rnecltatticalarrdelectricalequiprnentand
the designo1'
pipirrgs,rctaintheir furrctionsduringanclaftera sevel'eeatthquake,
these scrvicessloulcl preferablybe done using dynarnicanitlysisprocedures
basedon the earthquakeresponseof the structdtewhich supportsthern.
r.t.2- Seismic designforcesshallbe appliedat pointswherernassesal'eassulnedto be
concentrated.
T5e actual mass dishibution may be substitutedby a dish'ibutionwl'richsimplifies
the analysiswithout affecting appreciablythe fuial results (rnassconcentrationat floor
levels in multistorey UuitAingi; mass concentrationsat an adequatenumber o1'
equidistantlevels in tall consfiuctionslike chimneys,towers,etc.) .
For structuraldesign,the directionsof seismicactionsin horizontalplane shouldbe
takenat leastin two ofihogonaldirections.
Cantileversand str-ucturesin which verticalseismiceffectsare significant,shoulcl
be analyzedin the vertical directiontaking into accouttttheseel-fects.
3.1.3-The rnassesused for analysishaveto correspondto the deadand pl'obablelive
loads.
theplobablelivc loadshallbe
For cliffcrcltClasscsof buildingsas dcfincd,irt3.2.2,
t a k e n a s 5 0 % fo r sfi u ctu re so fClasslland25o/ofor sffuctur esofCtasslllandC l as s
IV, of floor live loadsdeterminedby the existingregulations.
For structures with significant live load such as (Warehouses,Silos, Libraries,
Storage rooms and similar structures),the seismicdesignforces shouldbe determined

and/ or millimumactualloading.
of maximum,
combination
for tG mostunfavorable
-5-

Live loads of clatressltoulclnot be corrsidcrccl


for deterntination
o1'seisrnic
desitrn
forces.
Total weight of perrnarrent
cquipmentsshould be irrcluded.
Snowloadsrnaybe
consiclered
in the calculations
at 507ool'its norrnalvalue.
W i n c l l o i t c sl h < l u l dt t o t b c c o n s i d c l ' c ci rlr c o r n l l i r r a l i r lw
r ri t h s c i s n r i cz r c t i < l r r s .
3..2-Evaluation of Scismic Design [rorcesftlr [,)quivalentStatic Analysis
'['hc

t o t a l l t o r i z o r r l asl c i s t t t i oc l c s i g rfro r ' < ;aco t i r r go r r b u i l r l i r r g sa r r r ls t r t r c l r r r cssh a l l b c


d c t c l ' t n i l t ca
dc c o r c l i n g
t o t h e f b l l o w i l r gl o r r n u l : rb, u t s h a l l l r o t b c l c s st l r a r r( 0 . 0 2 W ) .

Wherc:
V
Z
I
S
l(
W

Total unfactored horizontal seislnicdesign force.


Seismichazardzoningcoeflrcisnt(clause3.2.1).
lmportancefactor relatedto the use of structurc(clausc3.2.2).
DynarniccoefTicicrrt
rclatcdto soil category(clausc3.2.3).
Structuralsystemcoeficicnt, spccilicdlbr varioustypcs o1'structures
(clausc3.2.4)
Total weight of the structure inclucling pcrnranent and probablc livc load
( c l a t r s c3 . 1 . 3a n d c l z r u s3c 2 . 5 ) .

3-.2.1Scisnricllazard and Zoning Coefficient- Z


'l-hc

c v a l u a ti o rt
o f sci sn ri ch a zalclir r diffcr cntscislr r ioar casli) r ' thc clcsignol'
btrildilrgsattclstructutesshall bc pcrlblrned accordingto thc seisrnio
zorringrnapo1'
I r a q ( A p p c nd i xA ).
The valueof coefficientZis asfollows:

Tablc 3.1 - Zoning Cocfficiant Z

Zone

Z
0.05

II

0.07

ilt

0.09

-6-

- The buildings and structures located in zone 0 need not be designedto satisff the
requir.ementsof this code, except for buildings and shucturesof ClassI' Forthe
design of buildings and structuresof Class I, (clause 3.2.2), il. is necessaryto
'deteimile
t5e seiimicity of the site by detailedinvestigationsto estimatethe design
ald the maxirnum expccteclearthquakeson tlte basis of the regional and local
seisrnichazard investigatiorrs.
ImportanccFactor- |
3..2.2Dependingotr ltow Possiblea damagemay affect public safety,and accordingto
shall bc irnposedfor'
differenttcquiretnents
the inrportanceof buildingsatld structures,
safety against earthquake.For this reason, buildingsand structuresare classifiedas
follows:
ClassI :
This Class includes all those sfiuctures which are of specialimportanceto the
public, and which must, consequently, not only withstandan eafthquakebut remain
opc.atiolal after its occurrencc.The following types of structuresform part of this
Clnss:
- St1uctu1escontaining toxic or flammable materials and similal installations and
large dams,which require additionalsafetyprecautions.
- Hospitals and other medical buildings having surgery and emergencyheafinent
facilities.
- Installations dealing with the consequences
of disasters,e.g. fire brigadesand othet'
vital civil defencecenters.
- Buildings and structuresrelated to stand by power generatingequipmentsfol'
essentialfacilities.
- Structures for cornmunications and tele-communicationsand other facilities
requiredfor emergencyresponse.
- Tanks or otfuer structures containing, housing or supporting,water or other firesuppression materials or equipments required for the protection of hazardous
facilities.
ClassII :
This Class includesbuildings and structuresof high importanceto cotnmunity,for
which high level of reliability- is required.The following structuresforrn part of this
Class:
-7-

- Water supplyinstallations,
waterreservoirsand silos.
- Oil attdgasirrstallations,
chulrical;rlarrts,
rclincl'ics,
anclolhcr lil'clincsystcrns.
- Stlucturesand installationsrelatcclto powel genelatingstations.
Cllsslll :

..

This Class ilrcludesbuildings atrd structuresin whioh relativclylargcnumbero1'


peoplearc likely to congregate,
and which are likely to be endangered
to a greatdegree
-fh e
i n t l r ce v c n to f ca rth q u a ke . fo l l owir r gbuildir r gs
l' olr npar tof thisClass.
- High-risebuildingsover6 stories.
- Public buildings of high occupancyrate(greaterthzur300 persons),like mosques.
sport buildings, cinema-halls,
theah'es,schools,hospitalsarrd health facilities.
industrialbuildings,lnuseunls,
libraries,and sirnilarculturalbuildirrgs.
C l a s sI V :
This Classincludesbuildingsand sfiucturesin which largecongregations
of people
arettot anticillated.The sfructut'es
listeclbelow forrn part of this Class:
- Residentialbuildittgs,restaurants,
warehouses,
public builclings,industrialbuildings
and all stluctureshavingoccupancies
or functionsnot classifiedin Classesl, II and
III .
The value of the importancefactor(l) for buildingsand sh'uctures
of the described
C l a s s eiss a cco rd i n to
s T a b l e3 .2 .

Table 3.2 - lmportanceFactor - |

Classesof Buildings- Structures

InrportanccFactor- |

Class I

1.50

C l a ssII

t.25

ClassIII

1.00

ClasslV

0.75
-8-

3.2.3-DynanricCoe{ficicnt- S
T[e dynamic coefficient (S) shall be detenninedaccordingto diagrarnsshown in
ort the typeof soil profileas specifiedin'l"able3.3 .
Fig.l clepending

1.2
LO
4

hl
r<{

s
H
trJ
IL)
H

0.8

,1.!o

0.6
0.7y1'
0.4

F.

II
I

0.2
0.0
0.50

0.00

1.00

1.50

4.00

2.50

Period, T (s)
Fig. 1 Site-D ependent N ormalized Response Spectra

The fundamentalperiod of vibration (T) shouldbe determinedusing the methodsof


stuctural dynamics. In the absenceof such calculations the following empirical
formula may be used:

.n

'
t

0.09 H

(3-2)

For buildings in which lateralforce resistingsystemconsistsof momentresisting


space frames capable of resisting l00oh of the appliedlateralforces,(T) shouldbe
determinedbv the formula:

T - 0.10N

(3-3)

Whcrc:
T - Fundarnental pedod of
vibration of the structure irr thc direction
(seconds).
underconsideration
H - I{eight of building from groundlevel (rn).
D- The dimensionof buildingin directionparallelto the appliedforces(rn).
N - l-otal nurnberol'stories.
The irtfluence of local soil conditions should be taken into account when
detennirringseismiceffectson buildingsand sh'ucturcs
by rncansof dynarnicresponsc
spech-umcoefficient dependingon the categoryof groundullon whiclr tlrc buildingis
to be constructed.The categoryof soil should be deternrinedirccordingto the
classificationgiven in Table 3.3 on the basis' of thc resultsol' geotechnical
investigationsof the constluctionsite,of engineering,
geological,anclhych'ogeological
data,andol'geophysical
andotherirrvcstigations
of tlresoil llrolilcs.
3.2.4-Structuralsystcmcocfficicnt- I(
Sh'ucturalsysterncoefficient (K), takesinto accountthe ductili[, of the structure,
the capacity of stress redistribution, the darnping characteristics,and the
supplernentarysh'engthcapacitydue to the effectsthat have not beenconsideredin the
design. Tlte stluctural systettrcoefficient (K) dependingon the typc ol'tlrc stlucture
shouldbe determinedfrom Table3.4 .

- t0-

Table 3.3 - Categoriesof Soil Profiles

Category
of
Soil

Characteristicsof Soil Profile

PredominantPeriod of Soil
Profile - T"
(Sec.)
T* < 0.50 sec.

like grounds
Rock or rock
(crystalline,shell-likeand carbonate
rocks; limestone, marl stone,wellcementedconglomerate,and similar
rock - like rnaterial),very derrseand
by
hard soil depositscltaracterized
wAvc
vclooities
V"
shcar
rnls of thickness less than 60rn
consistingof stablelayersof gravel,
sand or stiff clay underlayed by
firm
and stable geological
formation.

il

Dense to medium dense soil 0.50sec.( T, ( 0.75sec.


deposits of thicknessnot more than
60m, as well as very denseand
hard depositsof thicknessover 60m
consistingof stablelayersof gravel,
sand and stiff to medium stiff clays
geological
firm
overlaying
formation.

III

Deposits of low density and soft


soil depositsof thicknessgreater
than lOrn consisting of loose
gravels, saturated looseto medium
dense sands,silty sands(fi'ornsoft plastic to flow plastic), plastic
clays, organicsoft soils,hydraulic fill, and other soft and loose
rnanuallyback fillccl soils with or
without sandyor other cohesionless
materials.

-11-

T.

0.75sec.

Table 3.4 - Structural SvstemCoefficicnt- l(

Type of the Structure


13uildingswith nromentresistingspace
frames with high ductility designed
elements.
a)Buildings with ductile momenr
resistingspacefi'arnes.
b)Buildings with
dual system
consisting of ductile frames and
reinforced concretestructuralwalls
in both directions.
a) Buildings with reinforcedconcrete
structuralwalls in both directions.
b) Buildingswith bracedspaceframes.
a) Masomy buildings strengthened
with vertical reinforced concrete
columnsand horizontalbelts.
b) Buildings with reirrforcedmasonry
bearingwalls.
c) Slim sh'uctuleswith srnalldampin
suchas chimneys,watertowers,etc.
a Buildings with flexible (soft story)
or with an abrupt changein their
structuralrigidity.
b)Unreinforced masonry buildings
with planeconcretewalls.

3.2.5-Total weight of buildings and structures - (W) shall be consideredas the


weight on the top of the foundationincludingprobablelive load (clause3.1.3).
For structureswith rigid basementstorey,the weight (W) shall be considerecl
abovethat storev.
-12-

3.2.6Influenceof soil and foundationconditions


to dynarnicinstability
a) Colstruction of buildings and structuresin soilssusceptible
(such as, loose fine sands, soft silt and other soils liable to liquefaction,land and
l.ock slideareas,faultingsites,zrndsitesof expectedexcessivesettlemcttt)shouldbe
avoiclecl.I-lowcvcr if such soil conditions al'e unavoidablc,thc desigrrancl
construction of buildings ancl shuctures should be based on detailed field and
laboratorydynamic investigationsof the foundationmaterials.
:

b) For generally unfavorable soil conditionssufficiently rigid foundationsshouldbe


provided taking into considerationthe effects of tron-lineardeformationsof soil
below the entire foundatiorlarea.
c) Attention should be paid to the need for confiolling the delbnnation of the
foundations and their influence upon the entire structuralsystemof buildings and
shuctures.
cl) Foundations should be designed so that during seisrnic actiotts excessive
differential settlemeutswill be avoided.
below the entire areaof the building shouldpreferablybe of the same
e) The subgra.de
typc of soil. Wherevcrthis is not possible,suitably locatetl-iointsshould bc
provided.
0 For eachstlucturalunit the foundationsshouldbe at the salnelcvel.
g) Isolated footingsshallbe connectedby tie beamsin both orthogonaldirections.For
strip foundationsthe tie beamshall be providedin the perpendiculardirection.
h) In the case of pile foundations, individual rackingpiles usedas rigid horizontal
bearing rnay produceunfavorablestaticsystem.For this reasonit is advisableto use
vertical piles only.

3.3-Distributionof SeismicForces
The total horizontalseismicdesignforce V shouldbe distributedover the heighto1'
the building in accordancewith the following formula:

V 1: v

W H 1
n

(3-4)

I wj Irj

j=1

- l3-

Where:
V;
W.i,Wi
Hi.{

- lJorizontalseismicdesignforce in i-th level.


- Weight of i-th andj-th floor.
- Height of i-th andj-th floor frorn the top of the foundation.
- Total numbcrof lcvels.

For buildingsand structureswith more than five levels,0. l5V shallbe corrsidered
to bc
with
corrcentratedat the top levelwhile thc rcrnaining0 B5V shallbe distributedin a<;cordance
thc abovcfornrula.
3.3.1-When dynamic responseanalysis is required, clause 3.3 is not merndatory.
The distribution of seismic design forces in structures which have highly irregular
shapes, i.e., large difference irr lateral resistance or in stiffiress betwccn adjacent

stories, or other unusual sh'ucturalfeatures, should be determined by rnethodso1'


dynamicanalysis.
3.3.2-Forbuildingsarrdstluctures,*he canbecritica|
(namely cantilevers,prestressedmembers, or horizontal memberswith clear'
spans greater than20rn),separate
conhol to the verticalseisrnicinfluenceshall
be perforrned considering the relevant vertical scisrnic design force R
cletermined
bv the forrnula:

R = O . T Z I S K W P

( 3- 5)

Where:
R Z I S K Wp-

Total vertical seismicdesignforce.


Seisrniclrazardzoningcoelficicnt(clause3.2.1).
Importancefactor(clause3.2.2).
Dynamiccoefficientrelatedto soil category(clausc3.2.3).
Structuralsystemcoefficient(clause3.2.4).
Weightof partsunderconsideration
(clause3.1.3and clause3.2.5).

This force (R) shall be consideredin addition to all otherrelcvantloadsexcept


wind.
3.3.3-The seisrnic design forcesin arryhorizontaldirectionshall be distributedto the
valious elements of the lateral force resisting systern proportiorrallyto their
stiffiress,consideringthe rigidity of the horizontalbracingsystemor diaphragm.

*14-

Moments
3.3.a-[-lorizontal'forsion:rl
Due to arr eccentricitybetween the cenhe of massandthe ccntreof'rigidityitis
necessalyto take into account tlre effect of torsionalmomentat floor levels of the
sfiucture in each direction. The torsionalmoment(Ti) is calculatedftrr eachfloor o1'
the sfiuctureby the formula:

T1 :

Vi (ei T e) ..

(3-6)

Where:
T; - Torsionalmornentat the i-th level.
Vi - Value of the horizontal fiansverse seismic shear force along each
considereddirection separatelyfor the i-th level.
Distancebetweenthe rigidity centreand the masscenfi'eat the i-th level'
e;
seismicmovementalong
e - Accidental eccentricity(the effectof nonsynchronous
the building)at thc i-th levcl.
The accidentaleccentricity(e) is takenas:
e : 0.05D - for the usualtype of buildings.
e : 0.07D - for building with an irregulardistributionof structuralelements.
Dimension of the building perpendicular to the considereddirection at the
D
i-th level.
slrouldbe designedin sucha way thate; [0.15D. ln the casewhen
Thc structr.u'e
this conclitionoauuotbo satislicdscismiojoints shouldbc providcd.Iior buildingswith
more than 7 levels, or buildings with irregular rigiditywhere e;) 0.15D,torsional
effectsshouldbe takeninto accoutrtthrougha three dimensionalanalysis.
shallbcr
and thcir attcltorage
oolnpottetrts
3.3.5- Illernetrtsof structures,norrstructural
to tesistseismicdesignforce givenby the following fonnula:
desigrred

(3-7)

R e = Z K e %
Where:
R"
Z
K"
W"

Seisrnicdesignforce of elements.
Seismichazardzoningcoefficient,(clause3.2.1).
Coefficientrelatedto the type of elements(Table 3.5).
Weight of elementfor which the seismicforce is calculated.

- 15-

Talrle 3.5 - SeismicCoefficicntllelated to thc Blementsof Structures


and Non-Structural Components(IQ)

Blementsof Structuresand NonStructural Componcnts

Directionof
Forcc

Value of
I(.'

Exterior and interior non-bearingwalls, Normal to lrlat


partitionsand masonryfences.
Surface

2.5

Cantileversand cantileverpalapetwalls

7.5

Normal to Flat
Surface

Exterior and interior omamentations and Any Direction


appendages

10.0

Wlten connectedto or a part of a building: Any Direction


towers, tanks, storage racks, chimneys,
smokestacksand penthouses.

2.5

When comected to or a part of a building: Any Horizontal


rigid and rigidly mounted equiprnentand Direction

2.5

trritohilrcry rrot

l'ctluilr:d lil'colrtilrrrcd

operationof essentialoccupancies.
Wlten resting on the ground: tank plus Any Direction
effectivemassof it's contents.

2.5

3.4-Method of Dynamic Time History Analysis


3.4.1- The dynamic analysis of buildings and structuresshould be performed for
dctcrminationof the elasticand post-clasticdynarnicrcsl)onscof thc structureto
the represetttativeearthquake ground motions at the site. 'l'he stress and
deformation conditions of buildings and shucturesshall be determinedfor the
criteria of design and maximumexpectedearthquake.The acceptablelevel o1'
damagesto the sfiuctural atrd non-structuralelementsfor maxiurumexpected
earthquakesshouldbe considered.
The seismicanalysisby the dynarnictirnehistoryanalysisrnethodis obligatoryfor'
all buildingsand structuresof ClassI .
3.4.2-Eafihquakeground motiotts for dynamic analysisof buildingsand sfructures
should be based on tlte geological,seismicand seismotectonic
regionalinvestigations
as well on dynamicinvestigatiottsof foundationmaterialpropertiesassociatedwith the
specific site. Ground rnotion tirne histories developedfor the specificsite shall be
representative
of actualearthquakemotions.
-16-

'

The parametersof groundmotion time historiesshouldbe determinedconsidering


t6e return period of earthquakeoccurrenceat the site, life-time and usageof buildings
level of seisrnicrisk.
and sfiucturesarrdthe acceptable
The parametersof grourrdmotion time histories should be detennitted for the
criteria of designand the rnaximumexpectedearthquake.

".

The dynamic arralysisrequiresseveralearthquaketime histories,ttl insure adequate


covel.ageof the problem. In the absenceof actualstrongmotion ealthquakerecords,
artificial earthquakeground motions shall be developedon the basisof probabilistic
methodsand shall be usedas an alternative'
The time history analysisshall be appliedto both elasticand inelasticmathematical
rnodelof the structuralsYstem.

model representingthe dynamicpropertieso1'


3.4.3-Whel setting up a rnathernatical
the rea.lsfiucture,referenceshouldbe madeto examplesof realisticrnodelswith
which thc validity ol' thc dynarnic zrnalysisltas becrt dcrnonstrated.
Considetationshouldbe givento:
a) Cotrplingefl'cctsof thc structurcwith its foundationand supllortinggrotrtrd'
b) Damping in fundamental and higher modesof vibration; For designpurposes,the
darnping ratio for the fundamentalmode of regularsfi'ucturesis oflen taken as 0.05.
Strucfuresthat have few sources for fiictional energy dissipation, such as bare
welded steelstructures,may posseslower valuesof damping.
c) Restoring force-distortion relationshipsof the structuralelementsin the elasticand
inelasticrange.
d) Effects of non-structural elementson the rigidity of the structure.
e) Torsionaleffectsof earthquakeresponse.
For buildings and structuresof ClassI, whereverification of stability is performed
by dynamictirne history analysis,it is obligatoryfor flre developmentof mathematical
models of sh'ucturesto use dead plus probable live load (clauses3.1.3and 3'2-5)
without load factors.

'
:

3.4.4- The total horizontal seismic force V obtained by this alalysis sltouldnot be
smaller thm 75Yo of the design force obtainedby the lnethodof equivalent
static analysis (clause 3.2). The total horizontalseismicforce shouldnot be
taken smallerthan 0.02W.

-17-

CI{APTBII 4 - VBRIFICATIONOF STRUCTURALI}BIIAVIOUR'


STRBSSCONDITIONSAND DEFOITMATIONS
The members of buildings and sfiuctures should be designed taking into
considerationthe following criteria:
of thc scctionsftrr teinforccclconctctcclctnclttsattdcletncntsof steel
4.1- Pr.oportiotrs
cr ltltclr asis<tf' thclir nitstatcpt' inciplcs .
s t r u i t u rcssl rn l lp rcl b ra b l y[rc<l c lcr nr ir rott
,t.z- The design and the control of the buildingsand sttuctut'csand stlucturalelements
should be provided using the design methodsrequiredby the acceptabledesign
code of practice.
4.3- The verification of the deformationsat limit state is especially necessaryfor
flexible structures(for example fiame structuresof multi-storeybuildingswhere
large deformationswould involve someexcessivedamageto the infill walls and to
thJ other non-strucfuralelements,as well as buildings where largehorizontal
displacementswould cause P-A effects, and an increaseof unfavourableeffect
suchas oscillationsof water tanks).
canbe
4.4- If calculationis made by the elasticdesigntlteory,the allowablestresses
increasedby 33Yo.
'l'hc
o1'
cornbittation
4.5allowablc stl'csscsin thc soil, ftx' thc inost urrfavotrrablc
scisrpicarrd othcr cl'fccts, slroulclbc dctcrlniltcclitt a way that tlrc ltrotorof safcty
in il
collstructcd
agairrstslrcar'ltrilurc in soil is rrotlcssthan( 1.5). l"ot'sLructul'cs
(
1.8)
.
soil protilcof catcgorylll, thc laotorol'salbtyslrallnot bc lcssthan
4.6- I1 the analysis of the structureand structuralelementsdesignedby the limit state
theoty, the following load factorsshouldbe used:
- For reinforcedand prestressed
cotrcrete

l. lD + L3L I I .4E

but not lessthan

l'30 (D + LR + E)

For steelshuctures

1 . 1 5 ( D + L RF E )

For bearingmasonrystructru'es

1 . 5 0( D + L R + E )

When live load providea relievingeffect

0.9D + 1.48

-18-

Wrere:
D
L
Lrr.E

is the dead load.


is the live load.
is the probable live load.
is the earthquake load.

+.2-RelativeFloor DisPlacemcnt:
a) The maximurn relative floor displacementfor the seistnic design lbrce of the
structure should not be lalger than

h/200.
Where:
Iri - Heiglrt of the i-th floor.
For buildings and structures with light-weight non-brittle partitions or without
partitions (open frame buildings like shopping centres,garages,etc.),the maximum
ielative flooi displacementfor the designseismicforce shall not be larger than hi/150.
For ot|er types of builclings and structures,the relative floor displacernentmay be
lirnited n""ot:dingto the necessities,dependingon the safety and serviceabilityof
building and life safetyof occupants
b) lf for the desigrr of the sh'ucturea dynamicresponseanalysisis perlorrnedfor thc
purpose of cletenniningthe behaviourof the structuraleletnentsin the post-elastic
in.rg., the maximum relative floor displacementfor the design seismic action
(DesignEarthquake)shall not be largerthan h;/150.
c) tn calculating the relative storey displacements,infill walls in frarned structuresof
ClassesIII & IV shouldnot be takeninto account.
' For the determinationof maximum relative floor displacement,using the method of
equivalent staticanalysis,the total designlateral seismicforce V shall be increasedby
the following coefficient:
- For buildingof Classlll
- For buildingof ClassIV

2.5
2.0

-t9-

a.7- The maximum horizontaldeflectionof buildingsand structureswhen determined


for seisrnicdesignforce shallnot be largcrthan:

H
600
Where:
H - ls the height of the structureaboveground.
For industrialand other similar buildings,the maximurnhorizontaldeflectionof the
sh'ucturemay be larger tlranH/(r00if tlre stabilityof tlre buildinganclthc structureis
analytically and,/orexperimental
Iy con{i nned.

-20-

CHAPTER 5 - CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT


STRUCTURES

5.1-RcinforcedConcreteStructures
s.1.1-General,Ductility and Strength llequirements
The post-elastic deformation capacity of reinforced concretesffuctut'alelementsin
the ultimate
practice is measuredby the ductility factor, definedas the ratio betr,veen
factor o1'
tluctility
the
clefor-rnationand the onset of yield. Based on this definition,
structuralcletnclttsand thc wholc strtlcturcc:rttbe cvaluatecl.
The procedure for evaluation of ductility and ductility factor is generally difficult
and complicated.It involvestwo main problems:
I
Il'

The estimation of the seismic loading effects by site and seismicity


investigation, and
The determination of the mathematical model of structule lbr linear and/or
non-lineardynamicresponseanalysis.

According to this code the ductility requirementsare satisfieclby design and


cletailirrgrequirementsfor structural elements and structutes. (Adclitional dynamic
alalysis is required for structuresof Classl). Theseconditionsand requilementsare
generallyrefened to as:
a) Limitation on the use of non-ductile reinforcing steel bars for elements where
ductility capacityis required, especially for sffuctural elementssubjecteddirectly to
the seismicactions.
b) For elements subjected to bending or to bending and compression with large
eccentricity, the adoption of appropriatereinforcementpercentagesand position o1'
reinforcement that will ensurea ductile deformation of elementsup to the ultimate
limit state.
c) Ilor elementssubjectedto cornpressionloadswith srnalleccentricity,to oompensate
flor low ductility it is necessaryto irnplemerrtappropriatedesigncorrditionsfor the
colcrete in the cross section and percentageof longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement.
d) Elements subjected to eccentric compression haveto be providedwith additional
requirernents for sufficient ductility capacity to avoid any type of local failure due
to shear. All critical members including joints, must be checkedfor a shearforce
correspondingto the developmentof the ultirnatemometttsof the sectionswhere
hingesare expected.

-2t-

e) Plastic hinges developrnent during sever earthquakes iu'e acoeptable only in


clclnorts with lriglr ductility. l)lasticlringcsslrouklbc ailrrcdto lbrrrr in bcarnsratltct'
than in colurrttts.
I' Anchoragc ancl sllliccs: l{cirrlorocrrrcntat oritical scotions slroulcl bc clctailcdto
.avoid bond failurc.
Steel reinforcing bars with F-,equal to 250,340,410 MPa ale acoeptcdfor ductilc
sttucturalclemcnts(colurnns,structuralwalls, bcarnsof rn<lrncntrosistingf riuncs,ctc.).
Wcldcd wire fabric can be uscclotrly in horizontaldiaphragrnsand partially in vertical
structural walls and shearwalls. Generally thesc types o1'rcinforcernerrtarc not used as
structural reinforcement for seismic loads.

5 . 1 . 2G- e n c r a lC l a ssi fi ca ti o n
arc olassifiedas
According to the basic structuralsysternbuildingsand struotureri
follows:
a) Franresystem:
A systenrin which both verticaland lateralloadsare rcsistcclby spaccft'atncs.
b) Wall system:
A systern in which both vertical and lateralloadsare resistedby vertical sh'uctural
walls eithersingleor coupled
c) Dual system:
A systernin which verticalloadsaremainly carriedby spacefrarne.Resistance
to
lateralforcesis providedpartly by the fi'arnesystemand partly by structuralwalls.

5.1.3-FramcSystenrs
Irratnc struoturcszrrc dcsigneclas structural systcrns irr both <lircctionsof thc
building itself. As a rule, the stiffiressof the beams should be srnaller than the stiffiress
of the columns, in order to ensure the occurence of non-linear deformations (plastic
hinges) at the ends of the bearns.
Irrante systetns are designcd in a way tlrat the structural clenrerrts are able to
dissipate the seisrnicenergy by benclingand the occun'enceol'non-linear tlcfbnnations
at tlrc ertds of the bearns.The tton-lirtearclefonnationstrt the colunrns should be
avoidcd.
.
The joints ate designed so that they rernain in the linear range cven after the

occurrence
of non-linear
deformations
irrtheelements
theyjoin.
-22-

a)Columns: The clesignof columnswhich are subjectedtotally or partiallyto seismic


i1fluenccshouldbc bascdolt the followingrequircmcltt:

Ac -

P
o" r;

( 5 - l)

Wrere:
A" - is the grossareaof the sectionof the column (--').
P - is the total axial force in colurnn due to factoreclgravity loads (D+L)
(Newtons)
F"u- is the characteristiccompressivestrengthof concretein (N/mm").
O" - is the reductioncoefficientgivenin Table5.1.

r Percentagesof total longitudinal reinforcement shouldfall betweenthe mitrimum


and tnaxirntunlirnits given in Table 5.2.

Tablc 5.1 - Ilcduction Coefficient (Oc)

Valuesof O"

Type of column
Zone I, ll

Zone lll

lnterior

0.28

0.2s

Perimeter

0.25

0.22

Comer

0.22

0 .r 8

L)-

Table 5.2 - Pcrccntagcof Minimunr and lVlaximumLongitudin:rl


Steel lleinforccment
Colunrn
'fype

M i r r i n r u r nl o n g i t u d i n a l
stcel reinforccments
('%)

Maxinrunt
l o n g i t u d i n : t ls t e c l
reinfbrcement ('Yo)

! (MPa)

[ ( M I' a)

250

340

410

250

340

410

lrrtcrior

0.8

0.7

0.6

(>

Pcrirneter

0.9

0.8

0.7

Corncr

t.0

0.9

0.8

reasons,so that
In case when the sectionof the colurnnis definedby architectura.l
the rninimutnpercentage
reinforcementis not determinedfi'om designconsiderations,
of reinforcementrelated to the grossconcretesectionwill be consiclercdas 0.57ofol'
all typesof steel.
of the longitudinalbarsmay not exoced32mm and
It is preferablethat the dizuneter
the distancebetweencentersof barsshouldnot exceed250rnm.
- Splices: Lap splices,in general,should be away fi'omthc potentialhingeregions
arrdbe within iu'easof srnalltensilestresses.
Whcn there are severalbars irr a column wlrich are not weldecl, halfofthese
'l'his
nlcuns,that50'lool'tltc
lcinlbrcclncntsshould bc cxtctrcl[o covcr two l]oors.
rcinftlrcernent
are lappedat eachfloor.
with diarneter
l.'or structurescollstructedin Zonelll, the lappingof rcinlbroentcrtt
largerthan28rnrn,sltouldbc rnadeby welding.
The design shear force in a colurnn should be cstirnateclby ultirrratecapacity
analysiswith ultimate bending moment at both endsof the oolumnacoordingto the
[ollowinglbnnula.
1 . 5Vi c <

M" ':

M"

h"

-24*

Where:
M,,l,Mu2- are the ultimatc mornent capacitiesconsideredpositivc at upper and
lower endsof the column under axial load condition (D+l,R).
is the clear height of the column.
h"
- is the conhibutionof seismicshearforce of the colutnnin the i-th floor.
Vic
with lr"/b[ 2 shoulclbc avoiclccl.
Shortcolurnrrs
Wrere:
b - is the dimensionof column cross-sectionin the considereddirection.
- The following condition should be satisfied for the cross-sectionof reinforced
concretecolumns:

A")

Mur*Mu2

(s-3)

o.t4h"JL,

All urritsare in (N, m).

Notc:

'fhe

shearcoutrol fol columnsgivertaboveis obligatoryfor buildings of ClassI.


lL III and lV. lrr seismiczonesll arrdlll, in additionto the requirementof Iraqr
Code 111987for reinforcedconcrete.

- The minimurn flarrsversereinforcementin each direction of the section of the


is calculatecl
reinforcenrent
colurnn should not be lessthan0.20o/o.The transverse
by the following formula:
A
pr" = -f

s b

(5-4)

t oo%.

Where:
p r - is the percentageof transversereinforcement.
Ar - is the total area of ties intersectedby a vertical plane parallcl to the side o1'
the column (b).
is the distancebetweenties.
Sb

-25-

hr zonesll and lll within a rninirnurnlengthof 500nunh'onrthejoints, the distzurce


iut<lthc pcrcclttagc<ll'lrilttsversc
trctwcclr tlrc tics slrould lr<ll cxoccrl l-5Ornttr
'l'lris
transversc
reirrlbrcemcntof the sectionof colurnnshouldnot be lcss than0.25"/.,
reinforcementin the columns should be continuedthroughthejoints. Closingof the
ties is ntadeby overlappingextendedto the whole lengthof the shortersidc.
b) Ilcarns:
- The moment resisting fi'ame systems designedi.n seismic zone il
beamswith a depthlirnitedby the following conditions:

shouldhave

Width of beam( 0.4 deptltof bearn


Width of bearn( 0.5 widtlt of colutnn
- The rnirrinrurnpcrcentageof cornprcssion
(1>')placcdat thc support
rcinforccttrcnt
shouldbe:
0.30p irt scistniczotteI antlIl
0.40p in seismiczoneIII.
of tensilereinforcement(p) and of
By more favourable value of the percentages
colnpressionreinforcement(p'), the ductility of the beamis increased.
The percentageof total longitudinalreinforcement(p+p') shouldttot exceed:
45% for steel i fr:250 MPa
4.0% for steel i fy:340 MPa
3 . 5 o f o r s te e l : & :4 1 0 MP a
For buildirrgsdesignedin seismic zone lll, the tnaxitnutn sheitrlbrce in beams
should be estirnatedby the ultimate bending rnoment at eaclt end ol' the beam
accordingto the following formula:
Vn',o* =

Mr,. + M,,u
Lg

+v,

( 5- 5)

Also, the following conditionsshouldbe satisfiedfor the crosssectionof reinforced


concretebeams:

bd

V.u*

( 5- 6)

o.l4#*

-26-

Where:
Mul,Mun - are the absolutevalues of the ultimaternornentcapacity at the ends
of the beam.
is the clear sPanof bearn'
Lr,
- is the shearforce frorn (D+Lp).
Vs
- iu-ethe dimensionsof the activebeamcross-section.
b,d
- is the chalacteristiccompressivestrengthof colcrete.
f.,u
The urritsin the abovefonnula are in Newtonsand rnillirneters.
- Tle spacitrgof ties in the bcarnsnearthejoints, for a distatrccequalto doublethe
leight of the bcam shoukl not exceecll50tmn, and the atea of stirrupsshouldbe at
least O.2o/o.Ln Zone lll, anchorageof the ties should be made by overlapping
extendedto the whole length of the shorterside.
c) Joints:
- The joilt's core should be designedin a way that it can transmitthe ultimatelimit
state forces that can occur in the corurectedelements(beamsand columns) without
darnage.
- When the width of column is larger than the width of connectedbeams,all column
reinforcementlocatedoutsidethe coreofjoint is requiredto interactwith the beam.
In tlis case it is preferableto use additional longitudinal reinlbrcernentin the
colutnn tluough the joint.
d) Infill Walls:
The infill walls of the frame systems should be madeas light as possible.lf by
to havethe infill
it is provedthat it is necessary
str.ucturalmeasuresand czrlculations,
walls be alchored to the basic system (by special comectol'sor joints, etc.),the
arrc6oringof the infill walls should not increase the rigidity of the basicsh'uctural
system.
If the sfiuctural system is flexible, i.e., it can undergorelative deformationsat the
floors larger tSanthat given in clause4.7 underseismiceffect, the stability and damage
level of infill walls ihould be conf,olledby using experirnentaldata.The stability of
the infill walls should also be checked for the direction orthogonal to the wall.
accordingto clause3.3.5of this code.

-27-

5.1.4-Wall Systcms
a) Gcncral Design Consirlerations:
- Wall systemsarc systernswhich have rcinlorccd conct'etewalls as the tnain sfi'uctural

systemin bothdirections.
- All walls, o1 wfiich lateralearthtluake
loatlis appliedshouldbe dcsignedin sucha
gylr y llcxtr r alyiclditr g.
sci sttticllcl'
c
w a y t l r a tt l t cyci tttd i ssi l l a tc
- Appropriatedesign proceduresshould be useclto ensuretltat the ultirnateshezu'
rt't"ugllt of walls slrould be in excess of the ltraxitnuttrsltcarforce wltcn flexural
strerrgthcapacityis reachcd.
- When two or lnore structural walls are inter-contrecteclin the satne plane by
substantially ductile bearns,part of the seismiceuergyto be dissipatedshouldbe
assigned to the coupling system.Capacitydesignprocedules(non-linear')shouldbe
ur.d to elsul'e that the enelgy dissipationirr the coupling systemcatrbe rnaintained
at its flexural strength capacity. Structural walls, coupled shear walls and
diapluagmsshouldbe consideredas irrtegtalunits.
- The area of the transversesectionof the walls, for eachortlrogonaldirection should
not be srnallerthan I .2o/oof tlte grossfloor areaof the builditrg.
- 'fhc design ol' walls which arc sub-jected
totally or partiallyto seisrnicinfluence
shouldbc bascdolt tltc lbllowirrgrcqttirclt.tcltt:

e-7)

A*=o*fu
Whele:

Aw - is the grossareaof the horizorrtalsectionof the wall (rnm2).


f.u - is the characteristiccompressivecube strengthof concrete(N/mrn2).
Ow - is a coefficientgivenin Table5-3.
P - is the total axial force in wall due to gravityloads(D+L) itr (Newton).
Table 5.3 - Valucs of O* for Differcnt Zoncs of SeisrnicActivity
Coefficient

(D*

Zone I and II
0.18

-28-

Zone lll

0.r5

- The ratio of the total heiglrt to the length of eachstructuralwall slrouldnot be


' srnallerthan 2.0 .
- Openingsin walls not regularlyatrangedto form coupleclwalls shouldpreferablybe
avoided, urrless their influenceon thc behaviourof thc wall uttderscislnicactionis
eitherinsignificantor accountedfor by rationalanalysis.
- The thicknessof the bearingwallsshouldnot be lessthartl50tnm.
- Bearing walls must be well anchoredto floors,roofs,coluntrrs,pilasters,buttresses
arrdintersectingwalls.
- [n case of Class I buildings,for which the structuralanalysisis made by dynamic
procedurein accordancewith tlris code, the ultirnatc shczrrforcesin the plastio
zones slrould bc entirely rcsisbd by rcinfbrcctneltt.
-

-l'hc

sll'uolttt':tw
l i t l l s y s l c t l t t l l t t s l c l t s t l t ' c l l t c g l 9 [ : r l s l a l l i l i t y o l ' t l r c s l t ' t l o l t l t ' cl < r

overtunriug.
b) Vertical Reinforcement:
- The ratio of verticalreinforcernent
in any part of the sectionshoulcltrotbe lessthan.
3.5%oor l6/f, of the crosssectionalareaof that
0.ZS% or 0.8/f, and not greatertl'mrn
part of the *ntt. tf tlre walls are reinforccdwith lesstharrthe abovelninimumsteel
tlrey should be designedin accordancewith the clause 3.2.4, Table3.4, (Type
No.5).
- The ratio of the reinforcementat eacherrdof the wall shouldnot be smallerthan
of the wall to be placedwithin a distanceol'
0.15Voof the total horizontal section
-fhc
o[stcel lbr the rniddle
pcrcentagc
Ininittturtr
l/10 of thc wall lengtlrat caclrcncl.
middlepartmay be reinlorccdwith wcldcdwire mcslt.
partis 0.15o/o.l'he
- 'f5e splicingof tlrevcrticalrcinforccrnent
irr the nriddlepartof tlre wall sectiottrnay
be r1rule by overlapping.Reinforcernentttt enclstrre spliced by weldirrg or the
of tlrc
is extencledovcr two lloors whiclt rnciulssplicirtg ot'50o/o
r,eirrfor.ccnrcnt
reinforcernentby overlappingat eacltlevel.
c) llorizontal and other lleinforcements:
- The fiorizontalreinforcernent
by calculations,so that the total
of walls is dcterrnined
calculated seismic shear force for the considered level shouldtre lesistedby the
horizoltal reinforcemerrt.The horizontal reinforcelnentratio in any part of the
sectiotrshouldnot be lessthan 0.25o/o.

-29-

Transversereinforcement (ties) may be usedto confine concretein legions where


large inelastic compressivestrains can occul'; to satisfy the intcndcd sectional
ductility; and to restrainthe vcrticalbarslrorn buckling.
Whcrc diagorralrcinforccrncntis uscdin couplingbcanrs,thcy slrouldlrc cttclosccl
by rectangulartiesin eachdirectiotr.

5.1.5-Dual Systems
In this system the vertical loadsare mainly carriedby framesand the resistanceto
lateralforcesis providedpartly by the fiame systemand partly by the structuralwalls.
- The distribution of the seismic forces is perfonnedaccordingto the deformation
charactedsticsof eacltelementof the basicshucturalsystem.
- The frames should be designedto take at least25o/oofthe total seismicforce. The
structural walls are designed for the value of the shearfbroesobtainedby analysis
accordingto the requirementsof this code.

5.2-PrestressedConcreteStructures
5.2.1-Under the expressionprestlessecl
corrcretestructurein this oocleit means a
concrctcstlucturein whichthc scisrrrio
clfcctsand tlrcscisrniocncrgydissipation
is taken by prestressedeletnents.tf the structural clelnents,in additionto the
preshessingsteel reinforcement,also contains longitudinal ordinary steel
reinforcementof at least 0.457o. such a sfucture is consideredas a reinforced
concretestructure.
- The stability of the system and the elementsof the shuctureshouldbe provedby
analyticalzurd/orexperimentalprocedule.
- The elementsof prestressed
concretestructuresare designedto dissipatethe seismic
energyby bendingand by the occuffenceof non-lineardefonnations.
- The prestressedconcrete elementsin addition to steel tendons for prestressing,
slrould contain at least 0.20oh ordinarysteelreinforcementto provide for seismic
enerbrydissipation
- At the critical sections,wherenon-lineardeformationsare expected,closely spaced
transversereinforcement shouldbe providedto resistthe total ultinrateshearforce.
which comesponds
to the ultimatemomentin the sectionincreasedby l{)"/".

-30-

'

- The ratio of the total heiglrt to the length of eachstructuralwtrll shouldnot be


srnallerth:rn2.0 .
- Opepingsin walls not regularlyarrangedto form coupleclwalls shouldpreferablybe
avoided, unless their influenceon the behaviourof thc wall underscislnicactionis
eitherinsignificantor accountedfor by rationalanalysis.
- Thc thicknessof the bearingwalls shouldttot be lessthatt l5Otnrn.
- Bearing walls must be well anchoredto floors,roofs,coluttrns,pilasters,buttresses
arrdintersectingwalls.
- [n case of Class I buildings,for which the structuralanalysisis made by dynamic
procedurein accordancewith this code, the ultitnzrtesltczrrforcesin the plastio
zonesshoulclbc entirelyrcsistctlby rcilrforcctnctlt.
- ' l ' h c s ll rrcl rl rl lw l l l systcl rrl tr uslonsur cllr c glolr alslallilityol' lllc slt' tloltlr lc<r
overtuuring.
b) Vertical Reinforcement:
- The ratio of verticalreirrforcement
in any part of the sectionshoultlnotbe lessthan.
0.25yo or 0.8/f, and not greaterthan3.57oor l6lf, of the crosssectiottalareaof that
part of the wall. If the walls arc reinforcedwith lesstharrtlre abovctniltimutnsteel
'tlrey should be designedin accordancewith the clause 3.2.4, Table3.4, (Type
No.5).
- The ratio of the reinforcementat eachend of the wall shouldnot be smallerthan
0.15yo of the total horizontal sectionof the wall to be placedwitltitr a distanceo1'
-l'lrc
of stecllbr tlterniddle
pcrcentagc
rnirtirtturtr
l/10 of the wall lengthat eachencl.
partis 0.I5" .l-he middlepartmay be reinforcedwith wcldcdwire mcsh.
- T|e splicingof tlreverticallcinl'orccrnent
irr the rniddlepartol'tlrewall scctiontnay
at ettds are splicedby welding or the
be nracleby overlappirrg.tleinforcernertt
of the
is extenclcdovcr two floors whiclr Incatlssplicirtg ttl'5oo/o
reipforcelrrcnt
reinforcementby overlappingat eachlevel.
c) llorizontal and other Reinforcements:
- TIre horizontalreinforcernent
so that the total
by oalculations,
of walls is dcterrnined
calculated seismic shear force for the considered level shouldbe lesistedby the
horizontal reinforcernerrt.The horizontal reinforcetnentratio in any part of the
sectionshouldnot be lessthan0.2504.

-29'

- Transversereinforcernent(ties) may be usedto confine concretein regionswhere


large irrclasticcornpressivestrains can occur';to satisfy the intcndcd sectional
ductility;and to restrainthe vcrticalbarsfinrn buckling.
- Whcrc diagorralrcinforccrncntis uscdirr couplingbcarns,thcy shouldlrc ctrcloscd
by rectangulalties in eachdirection.

5.1.5-Dual Systems
In this system the vertical loadsare mainly canied by framesand the resistanceto
lateralforcesis providedpartly by the fi'amesystemand partly by the stlucturalwalls.
- The distribution of the seismic forces is performedaccordingto the cleformation
characteristicsof eachelementof the basicstructuralsystem.
- The frames should be designedto take at least25"/oofthe total seismicforce. The
.structural walls are designedfor the valueof the shearfbr<;es
obtainedby analysis
accordingto the requirementsof this code.

5.2-PrestressedConcreteStructures
5.2.1-Under tlte cxpressionpresh'essed
corrcrctestructurc in this codc it rneansa
cottcrctc stlucturcin which thc scisnriccl'fcctsand thc scisrniccnct'gydissipation
is taken by prestressedeletnents.lf the stluctural clernents,in additionto the
prestressing steel reinforcement, also contains longitudinal ordinary steel
reinforcementof at least 0.457o, such a structureis consideredas a reinforced
concretestructure.
- The stability of the system and the elementsof the shuctureshouldbe provedby
analyticalzurd/orexperimentalprocedure.
- The elementsof presffessedconcretestructuresare designedto dissipatethe seismic
energyby bending and by the occurrenceof non'linear defonnations.
- The prestressedconcrete elementsin addition to steel tendons for presfiessing,
slrould contain at least 0.200 ordinarysteelreinforcementto provide for seismic
energydissipation
- At the critical sections,wherenon-lineardeformationsare expected,closely spaced
transversereinforcement shouldbe providedto resistthe total ultimate shearforce"
wlrich couespondsto the ultirnatemomentin the sectionincreasedby lO'Yo.

-30-

- The anchorhg of prestressingreinforcementshould be outside the expectedplastic


hinge zones.
- ,Th" structural defonnations should be restricteddependitrgon the function of the
buildilg and on the effect of the cleformationupon the stlucturalelernentsof the
building.
Jointsof the elementsare designedso that:
5.2.2a) The ultimate strength capacity of the joint should be at least equal to the ultimate
strengthof the elementsjoining into it.
b) Jointsshouldbe ductile, assuringttreir deformability;
shear rcittforccmclttwhich should
c)Joints should be rcinforcccl with aclccluatc
cornpletelyresistthe ultirnatesheatforce.

5.3-SteclStructurcs
s.3.1- Steel structlrresshould be designecl so that the sttucturalelementsare able to
dissipate the seismic energy by bending and by the occunelrceof non-lineat'
cleformations. In caseof frame systems,non linear deformationsil'e allowed at
the beamendsor at the diagonalbracings.
s.3.2- Local buckling should not be allowed in zonesof plastichinges.Furthermore,
proportioning of the joints should be made so that they provide for the
tansmission of ultimate bendilg momentsand the correspondingshearforces
fiom one elementto another,without occulrenceof non-lineardefotmationsin
the joint's zone. In other words, the joints should be proportionedto work
alwaysin thc elasticl'itltgc.
s.3.3- In addition to the above, steel sh'ucturesmust confonn to the following
requirctnents.
a) For one story industrial buildings, the tr ansferof the forcesfrorn the roof level is
walls or by bracingsystemswith arradequate
to be throughsttucturarl
r-ecornlnelde6
rigiclity to ensure the lirnitation of the clefomrationswithin the roof plane.For
strluctlres with more than one storey, vertical strucfuralwalls or bracingsare also
reconunended.
b)Structural solution hasto be providedafter careful consideratiotro1'thedeformation
cornpatibilityof variousstructuralandnon-shucturalelernents.

-31-

c) For the support of the principal structut'alelements slidesand rollers shouldbe


avoided. In case when such supports are used, measuresto lilnit the lateralor
.verticaldisplacements
shouldbe considered.

5.4-PrefabricatedStructures
5.4.1-The stability of the structural systern and the systemofjoints of prefabricated
reilforced concrete, prestressedand other prefabricatedstructures,shouldbe
provedby expcrirneutaluttVor analyticalstudy.
5.4.2-The structural system, as well as the system of joints shall be as simple as
possible.The systernof joints betweenthe elemetrtsshouldensul'ethe overall
integrity of tlte structu'e.
s.1.3-The reinforcementthat receives the tensionstressesshouldbe extendedso that
the yietd stressin the reinforcernentcan be developedby atrchoragebond.
5.4.4-The structuralfloor shouldbe designedas rigid diaphragmsin their own planes.
s.4.5-T|1ehorizontaljoints which join the floor elements,as well as the veftical bearing
elements should be constructedto provide monolithic stateof the joints and
stability to the sffuctulal systerniu general.

5.5-Masonry Structures
The basic systemof masonrysh'ucturesare the bearingwalls in both directionso1'
the building, corulectedby suffrcientlyrigid floor systetn.The tetm masottrystructures
in this code includesthe following:
a) Simplemasonrysfructures.
b)Masoruy structureswith verticalreinforcedconcreteelemetrts.
c) Compositemasonryand concretewith or without reinforcement.
d)Reinforcedmasonrysfiuctureswith reinforcernentin thejoints.
5.5.1- Simple masoffy stuctu'es; are walls of claybricks,blocks,orotltermaterial
elements connectedwith mortar with strength of at least 2.5 N/mm2. It is
preferableto usecement-limemortar in the coustruction.

-32-

s.5.2- Masonry structures with vertical reinforcedconcreteelelnents;are walls


consfiucted with masonly units with vefiical reinforcedconcreteelementscasl
in place after the constructionof masoruy.
5.5.3-Cornposite masollry arrd concrete with or without reinforcernent;are walls
conitructed with one or two sidesof masonryunits with a concretecastinsitu
with minimum thickrress of 80rnm.If reinforcernentis usedfor thesewalls the
arnount of vertical arrdhorizontalrcinforcementis to be estimatedby analysis.
of wall
l-he rniniruun'lanlountol' rcinforoerncntis 0.lo/oofthe total l"hicl<ncss
including masoruYPart'
5.5.4- Iteinforced masoltry structureswith reinforcementin thejornts;ttremasonry
walls constructedwith mortar of strengthof at least 5.0 N/mm2.with steel
reinforcementin horizontaland/orverticaldirections.The reinlbrcementshoulcl
be rnadeof steelbarsplaceclat equaldistanccsof not tnorcthtrtl500ttlm.
s.s.s- The walls whicfi providerigiclityare distributedas urrilbrmas possiblein both
clirectionsof the buildingconsideringthe following as applicable'
a) The minimum wall thicknessis 200nun.
b) The floor slab shall be rigid. If prefabricatedelementsare used,a topping cast-insitu slab with minimum thickness of 40mrn reinforcedwith steelmeshhas to be
used.
c)'ground
For structtu.alfloors with insufficient rigidity the height of thc building above
shall be lirnitedto two levels.Theseflools can be consideredas rigid floors
if cast-in-situconcreteof minimum 40mm reinforcedwith steelmeshon top is used.
d) The maximum distance between walls which provide rigidity in eachdirectionin
the building shouldbe l0m.
e) T6e width of portions of lltasonry walls between openirlgswhen floors ate not
su{I'rcieltlyrigiclshoulclbeat leastl13of stualleropetringcliruettsiorl.
f) Applicationof cornbinedsystem,i.e.,the lower part of the building to be reinforced
coirireteskeleton,anclthe upperpart of bearingwalls; is not allowed'
g) ln Zone IIl, fi'ee-standingwalls arrdparapetsabovethe floor sfiuoture,higherthan
800mm,have to be tied together(possiblywith reinforcedconcreteties).
5.5.6- Checking of the tesistanceof masonrystruoturesis to be madeaccordingto the
method of allowable stressesor the limit statemethod.ln caseof buildings with
ratio of height to width over 2.0, the walls shouldalso be checkedfor bending

by 50%is peunitta(t'
stresses
of allswable
anincrease
andshear,
-33-

the
a) tf checking of the resistanceis rnade by the rnethoclof allowablestresses,
prilcipal tinsite shessesin different elements(walls) shall be controlled.The factor
of safetyshouldtrot be lessthan 1.5.
'The principal tensile stresses in different elements (walls) shall be obtained from
the following expression:

r- .,

( l 5 t o ) 262o
o m- ilT.

oma

(5-8)

Where:
oma- is the allowableprincipaltensilestress.
xo - is the averageshearsfl'essin the wall elernentdue to seisrniceffect.
Oo - is the averagestressin the wall elemetrtdue to vertical loads'
is rnadeby the limit statemethod,the resistanceof the
b) lf checkilg of the resistarrce
force
shucture ihould not bc less than tlre factored total horizontal seismic
4'6
with clause .
accordingto clause3.2 . The load factorsare to be irt accordeurce
The resistanceof each individual wall elementcan be calculatedaccordingto the
following expressiott:
tu o

o ttrr

oo

(5-e)

1.5

Where:
onrr - is the principal tensile stress at
different rnaterial.

failure of walls cottstructed of

Number of StoreYs
5.5.7a) The tnaxitnum number of storeys incluclinggroutrdfloor for diflerentsysternso1'
rnasonlystructuresis given in Table5 . 4.

-34-

Tablc 5.4 - Maximum allowcdnumberof storcysftrr masonrystructures.


Scismic Zone

Type of Masonry Structurc

I , ll

ill

5.5.1).
a) Simple(clause

a
J

b) With vertical reinforced concrete


elements(clause5.5.2).

a
J

No Limit *

No l- ir nit*

c) Cornposite(clause5.5.3)
- Nou reitrforced
- Reinforced
5.4).
d) Reinforcedtnasotny(clause5.
* According to desigucalculations

b) The numberof storeysin Table 5.4 rnay be increasedif provedby analyticalstudy


with sufficieut experirncntaldata.
c) In case masonry buildings are not analyzedfor seismic effects, but otherwise
colfonn to th; requirernentsof this oode, the allowable nurnber ol' storeys
from the structuralsystetn,is lirnitedto:
independerrtly
3 storcysin seismicZorrcI anclII4 storeysin seisrnicZone lll.

s.6-Foundations
5.6.1General
The desigl alcl colshuction of foundatiotrs,foundatiort compollettts,and the
elementsthereto,shallconfot'tttto thc rcquirementsoi'
colnection of the superstl'ucture
l, ll ar tr lll.
l
ic tna
l ctluit' clttctrittlsSoisr r r 7,<
t f r i ss c o t io nttrd o tl rct'n ;l ;l l i ca brc

-3 5-

s.6.2Soil Capacities
The capacity of the foundationsoil in bearingor the capacityof the soil interface
betweenpile, pier or caissonnnd thc soil shallbe su{ficielrtto supportthe structure
with all prescribed loads, other than earthquakeforces, taking due accountof the
settlementthat the sffucture is capable of withstanding. For the load combination
inclucling earthquake,the soil capacitymust be sufficientto resistloads at acceptable
sfiains consicleringboth the short tirne of loadingand the dynarnicpropertiesof the
soil. Allowable soil stress rnaybe increasedby rnorethalr33 percenti[substantiated
by geotechnicaldata. For piles, this refersto pile capacityas deterrninedby pile-soil
f iction or bearing.
Connection
5.6.3Superstructure-to-Foundation
The corurectionof supersfluctuteelernetrtsto the foundationshzrllbe adequateto
h'ansrnitto the fourdation the forcesfor which the elernentsare designed.
5.6.4-Foundation-SoilInterface
for regularbuildings,the force at top of building(0.l5V) as per section3.3 may be
ornitted when determiningthe overtumingmornentto be resistedat the foundation-soil
interface.
5.6.5-SpecialRequirementsfor Piles and Caissons
a) Piles and caissonsshallbe designedfor flexurewhenevertlte top of suchtnembers
-l-he
ol'
rnotions.
criteriaand detailingrecluirernents
will be displaced
by carthquake
colunn design by this codeshallapply for a lengthofsuch tnenrbersequalto 120
percentof the flexural lengtlt.
b) Footing hrterconnection
by structuralrnembcrs(tie beams)or
t Pile capsshallbe cornpletelyinterconnected
approvedequivalentrnearts.
2) All strut members shall be capableof resistingin tensiottor compressiona force
not less than l0 percent of the larger footing or columnload unlessit canbe
by otherapprovcdlneAns.
that equivalcntrestraintcan be proviclecl
clcrnonstlated

-36-

AnPendixA
LIST OF REPORTSOF INVESTIGATIONS FOR ELABORATION OF
PRELIMINARY SBISMIC DBSIGN CODB OT IRAQ
1. Volume I, Report IZIIS 88-84. SIESMIC HAZARD EVALUATION AND
SEISMICZONING MAPSOF IRAQ.
2 Volume II, Report IZIIS 88-85. COMPILATION AND ANALYSIS OF
MICROTREMORSRECORDEDIN BAGHDAD.
'
3. Volume IIl, Report IZIIS 88-86. GEOTECHNICALMODELLING OF
SELECTEDFREE FIELD AND BUILDING SITESIN BAGHDAD,BASRAH
AND MOSUL, TRANSFER FUNCTIONANALYSISAND DE'IERMINATION
SOIL PROFILESFOR DYNAMIC SITERESPONSE
OF REPRESENTATIVE
ANALYSIS.
4. Volume IV, Report IZIIS 88-87. DYNAMIC PROPER-|IE'SoF THE
IN BAGHDAD.
SOILDEPOSITS
REPRESENTATIVE
RESPONSEANALYSISOF
DYNAMIC
5. Volume v, Report lzlls 88-88.
AND MOSUL.
IIASRAI-I
lN BAGI-IDAD,
SOILPROFILES
nEpRESENTATIVE
OF
SEISMICMICI{OZONING
6. VolurneVl, Iteportlzlls 88-89.PRE,LIMINAI{Y
BAGHDAD METROPOLII'AN AREA AND EAI{'rllQUAliE DESIGN
SPECTRA.
7. Volume VIl, RePort lzlls 88-90. DYNAMTC PROPER:IIESFROM FULLSCALE AMBIENT VIBRATION TESTS OF THE REPRESENTATIVE

BUILDINGSIN BAGHDAD.
8 Volume VIIL Report IZIIS 88-91. VERIFICATION CRITERIA BASED ON
SEISMICSTABILIiY ANALYSISOF BIOLOGICALRESEARCHCENTRE.
9. Volume IX, Reporl IZIIS 88-92. VERIFICATION CRITERIA BASED ON
SE,ISMICSTEBILTTYANALYSIS OF APARTMENT BUILDING NO. 15IN
COMPLEXNO 10(8 STORIES).
l0.volume x, Report IZIIS 88-93. VERIFICATION CRITERIA BASED ON
SEISMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF APARTMENT BUILDING tN HAIFA
COMPLEXNO, 8 (16STORIES).
I I Volurne Xl, Report lzlls 88-94. VERIFICATIONCltlTERlA IIASED ON
S I i t S M t C S t ' A d t t , t ' t ' Yn N n l , Y S l s o F c o M M r l r ( : l n l . B t J l l ' D I N GI N
JAMUHURIASTREET.
12.Volume XII, Report IZIIS 88-95.VERIFICATIONCtttTERlA BASED ON
SEISMICSTABILiTYANALYSISOF SCHOOLBUILDINGIN I1LCAMALIA.
13.Volurne Xlll, Report IZIIS 88-96.EVALUATIONOF SOII- ST'RUCTURE
dnrnCrs OF SELECTED BUILDINGSAND DYNAMIC
TNTERACTTON
OF TYPICAL ELEVATEDWATER TANK.
PROPERTIES
14.Volume XIV, Report IZIIS 88-97. VULNERABILITY ASSESSEMENTAND
EVALUATION OF ACCEPTABLESEISMICRISK.
-37-

15.VolurneXV, Reportlzlls 88-98.PRELIMINAIiYDI{AItrTOF II{AQI SEISMIC


DESTGN
CODE(ISDC).
16.Din 4149,Part1,April 1981,IIUILDINGIN GERMANEARTHQUAKEZONES,
DESIGN LOADS, DIME,NSIONING,DESIGNAND CONSTRUCTIONOF
BUIL,DINGS.
CONVENTIONAL

17.Australian Statrdald, AS 2l2l-1979, AUSTITAI-IANS'I'ANDAI{D I"OI{ TI-IE


ISTANT BUI LDINGS.
DESIGNOF EARTFIQUAKE-RES
18.New ZealandStandalcl. NZS 4203-1976,EAI{TI-IQUAKEl' ltovlSlONS.
CI{ 11' lll{ lAItORllAl{ ' l' llQUAt<LiltlisISTANCE
l9 l n d i a n S t a n d a rclIS I 1 8 9 3 -1 9 7 5,
DESIGNOF STRUCTUITES.
20.Intemational Standard - ISO 3010-1988. BASES FOI{ DITSIGN OF
STRUCTURES- SEISMICACTIONSON STRUCTURES.
21. UNIFROM BUILDING CODE - 1988 Edition, By lnternationalConference01:
Building Officials.
'IENTATIVE
22.ITECOMMENDED LATEITAL I?OITCEREQUIREMI]NT'SAND
COMMENTARY, By SeisrnologyCommitteeof StructuralEngineersAssociation
of California- 1988.

-3 8-

AI'I'IINDI'X

IJ

U R K E Y

- u

'\.4

\
%

//
l6

It

.,/

,(
-zt.

3 3 4.\
d\
O\

rL

-'\..\
.9
4
Zonc

o [---l ooo

r ftl1j oos

lll
4

o
^il

11L--l- - - l o oz
F-

,rrffi ooc
1'1

qJ

15

1G

SEISMIC
Z O N I N GM A P O F I R A Q

"39-

Referenccs:
ZortesDesign
1- Din 4149, Part l, April l98l, Iluildingin GennanEarthqual<c
lSuildings.
DcsignandConstruction
Loacls,Dirnensiorring,
ol'Convcntional
2- AustralianStandard,AS 2l2l-1979, AustralianstandardIbr'l'hc Designo1'
- ItesistantBuildings.
Earthquake
3- Ncw ZelandStanclnrcl,
NZS 4203-|979,liarthclual<s
l)rovisions.
4- Indian Steurdard,lsl I 893-1975, Criterialbr EarthquakoAssistarrcc.Designo1'
structures
5- InternationalStandard, ISO 3010 - 1988, Bases for Desigmof StructuresSeisrnicActions on Structures.
6- Unifonn Building Code - 1988, Edition by lnternationalConflerenceo1'
BuildingOffrcials.
7- Reconunended Lateral Requirernents and Tentative Cornrncntary, By
SeisrnologyCorunittee of StructuralEngineeringsAssociationof California1988.

-40-