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Cambridge University Press

0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of


Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
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Searching for Sustainability


Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation Biology

This book examines from several disciplinary viewpoints the question of what
we mean what we should mean by setting sustainability as a goal for environmental management. The author, trained as a philosopher of science
and language, searches through multiple disciplines for insights necessary to
develop a comprehensive and integrated concept of sustainable living. This
book explores ways to break down the disciplinary barriers to communication and deliberation about environmental policy, and to integrate science and
evaluations into a more effective environmental strategy. Choosing sustainability as the key concept of environmental policy, the author explores what
we can learn about sustainable living from the philosophy of pragmatism,
from ecology, from economics, from planning, from conservation biology,
and from related disciplines. The idea of adaptive, or experimental, management provides the context, while insights from various disciplines are
integrated into a comprehensive philosophy of environmental management.
The book will appeal to students and professionals in the fields of environmental policy and ethics, conservation biology, and philosophy of science.
Bryan G. Norton is Professor of Philosophy, Science, and Technology at the
School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology.

Cambridge University Press

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Cambridge University Press


0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of
Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
More information

cambridge studies in philosophy and biology


General Editor
Michael Ruse Florida State University
Advisory Board
Michael Donoghue Yale University
Jean Gayon University of Paris
Jonathan Hodge University of Leeds
Jane Maienschein Arizona State University
Jesus Mostern Instituto de Filosofa (Spanish Research Council)
Elliott Sober University of Wisconsin
Alfred I. Tauber

The Immune Self: Theory or Metaphor?

Elliott Sober

From a Biological Point of View

Robert Brandon Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology


Peter Godfrey-Smith

Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature

William A. Rottschaefer The Biology and Psychology of Moral Agency


Sahotra Sarkar

Genetics and Reductionism

Jean Gayon Darwinisms Struggle for Survival


Jane Maienschein and Michael Ruse (eds.)
Ethics
Jack Wilson

Biology and the Foundation of

Biological Individuality

Richard Creath and Jane Maienschein (eds.)

Biology and Epistemology

Alexander Rosenberg Darwinism in Philosophy, Social Science, and Policy


Peter Beurton, Raphael Falk, and Hans-Jorg Rheinberger (eds.)
Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution

The

David Hull Science and Selection


James G. Lennox Aristotles Philosophy of Biology
Marc Ereshefsky The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy
Kim Sterelny

The Evolution of Agency and Other Essays

William S. Cooper The Evolution of Reason


Peter McLaughlin

What Functions Explain

Steven Hecht Orzack and Elliott Sober (eds.)

Cambridge University Press

Adaptationism and Optimality

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Cambridge University Press


0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of
Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
More information

Searching for Sustainability


Interdisciplinary Essays in the
Philosophy of Conservation Biology

BRYAN G. NORTON
Georgia Institute of Technology

Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of
Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
More information

published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridge


The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom

cambridge university press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA
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http://www.cambridge.org

C Bryan G. Norton 2003

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2003
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge
Typeface Times Roman 10.25/13 pt.

System LATEX 2 [TB]

A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Norton, Bryan G.
Searching for sustainability : interdisciplinary essays in the philosophy of conservation
biology / Bryan G. Norton.
p. cm. (Cambridge studies in philosophy and biology)
Includes bibliographical references (p.).
ISBN 0-521-80990-8 (hb) ISBN 0-521-00778-X (pb)
1. Conservation biology Philosophy. I. Title. II. Series.
QH75 .N66 2002
333.95 16 dc21
2002017404
ISBN 0 521 80990 8 hardback
ISBN 0 521 00778 X paperback

Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of
Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
More information

Contents

General Introduction: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

i. pragmatism as an environmental philosophy

page 1
9

1. The Constancy of Leopolds Land Ethic

13

2. Thoreau and Leopold on Science and Values

30

3. Integration or Reduction: Two Approaches to Environmental


Values

47

4. Convergence Corroborated: A Comment on Arne Naess on Wolf


Policies

78

5. Pragmatism, Adaptive Management, and Sustainability

88

ii. science, policy, and policy science

105

6. What Is a Conservation Biologist?

107

7. Biological Resources and Endangered Species: History, Values,


and Policy

110

8. Leopold as Practical Moralist and Pragmatic Policy Analyst

130

9. Improving Ecological Communication: The Role of Ecologists


in Environmental Policy Formation

136

iii. economics and environmental sustainability

165

10. Sustainability, Human Welfare, and Ecosystem Health

168

11. Economists Preferences and the Preferences of Economists

183

12. Evaluating Ecosystem States: Two Competing Paradigms

201

13. Sustainability: Ecological and Economic Perspectives, with


Michael A. Toman

225

vii

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0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of
Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
More information

Contents

14. The Evolution of Preferences: Why Sovereign Preferences


May Not Lead to Sustainable Policies and What to Do about
It, with Robert Constanza and Richard C. Bishop

249

iv. scaling sustainability: ecology as if humans mattered

277

15. Context and Hierarchy in Aldo Leopolds Theory of


Environmental Management

280

16. Scale and Biodiversity Policy: A Hierarchical Approach, with


Robert E. Ulanowicz

288

17. Ecological Integrity and Social Values: At What Scale?

305

18. Change, Constancy, and Creativity: The New Ecology


and Some Old Problems

328

19. Democracy and Sense of Place Values in Environmental Policy,


with Bruce Hannon

345

v. some elements of a philosophy of sustainable living

373

20. Caring for Nature: A Broader Look at Animal Stewardship

375

21. Can There Be a Universal Earth Ethic? A Reflection on Values


for the Proposed Earth Charter

396

22. Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability

420

vi. valuing sustainability: toward a more comprehensive


approach to environmental evaluation

457

23. Commodity, Amenity, and Morality: The Limits of


Quantification in Valuing Biodiversity

460

24. The Cultural Approach to Conservation Biology

467

25. Evaluation and Ecosystem Management: New Directions


Needed?

478

26. What Do We Owe the Future? How Should We Decide?

493

27. Environmental Values and Adaptive Management, with Anne


Steinemann

514

Index

549

viii

Cambridge University Press

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Cambridge University Press


0521809908 - Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of
Conservation Biology
Bryan G. Norton
Frontmatter
More information

Searching for Sustainability


Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation Biology

Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org