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Islamic History and Events From the Birth of Muhammad in 570 to the First Crusade in 1096

There is a reason why the Crusades happened. In reality, the Crusades were small events with minor results when compared to the overwhelming magnitude of the Muslim Arab genocidal conquests nearly non-stop for 500 years - BEFORE the 1st Crusade even began.

Bernard Lewis, the greatest living English-language historian of Islam said, “The Crusades could more accurately be described as

a limited, belated and, in the last analysis, ineffectual response to the jihad

— a failed attempt to recover by a Christian holy war what had been lost to a Muslim holy war.”

Islamic History and Events From the Birth of Muhammad in 570 to the First Crusade in

The following timeline shows that from its own beginnings, Islam had the SAME level of intolerance, demands to convert to Islam, and barbaric mass violence that we are horrified to witness these days, as the Islamic State/ISIS, Boko Haram, the Taliban, al-Shabab, al-Qaeda and others commit heinous atrocities - with the justification that they are following the word of God (Allah) that was transmitted through a person they call the Prophet Muhammad - the perfect man, they have been taught, to emulate - and he transmitted the perfect words of Allah into a perfect book they call the Quran - and this book is to be accepted - without any question, doubt, or qualm - as the guide for all people for all of time.

Notice the conquering, converting, and killing that was occurring - nearly constantly - and in all directions. Notice also, that ANY beliefs, faiths, traditions, or culture, that other people had was not to be tolerated, appreciated or respected.

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  • 570 - Birth of Muammad ibn `Abd Allāh, in Mecca, Arabia

623-629 - Muhammad and his followers demanded that people convert to the new Islam, as they raided and plundered many tribal villages, towns, and caravans of the Banu Quraysh, Qaynuqa, Salim,

570 - Birth of Mu ḥ ammad ibn `Abd All ā h, in Mecca, Arabia 623-629

Muharib, Talabah, Sulaym, Ghatafan, Nadir, Thalabah, Mustaliq, and Lahyan tribes. At first he had only a few followers, but he gained more after each successful raid, as men would see that they could keep much of the plunder and loot from the raids. Muhammad’s forces were now big enough and vicious enough to strike terror in the hearts of the people.

  • 625 - The Banu Nadir Invasion and Expulsion - The Banu Nadir were a Jewish tribe near Medina in northern Arabia, and they, and others, were familiar with Muhammad’s habit of going around the area trying to get people to accept his ideas and to follow him. The tribe was very critical of Muhammad and would not convert to his new faith, and planned, along with others, to continue debating and challenging him. Muhammad came to collect some punishment money from a previous issue, but then suspected an assassination plot (It is not known if that was a real threat or a justification for launching an attack). He called upon his followers to wage war on the tribe, and the Banu Nadir were besieged for 15 days. When he destroyed their groves of palm trees, which was the source of their livelihood, they surrendered. Muhammad confiscated all of their property and expelled them from the area. The Banu Nadir fled 100 miles north to Khaybar.

  • 627 - Massacre of Banu Qurayza - The Jewish tribe known as the Banu Qurayza refused to convert to Muhammad’s odd religious beliefs. Muslim tradition claims that archangel Gabriel (representing Allah) ordered Muhammad to attack and destroy the tribe. The Banu Qurayza were fairly prosperous and had good defenses surrounding their villages and towns, but after 25 days of siege and many attacks the Banu Qurayza surrendered. Some other tribes in the area pleaded with Muhammad to show mercy, but he refused, and upon his orders he and his followers cut off the heads of all the men and grown boys (estimated 600-900), women and children were taken as captives and slaves, and the remainder of the women and children were traded for weapons and horses.

  • 627 - Muhammad sent a force of 700 men to persuade the Christian king Al-Asbagh and his people of the Banu Kalb tribe, to convert to Islam within 3 days or pay a jiyza tax. The king realized that his small Kingdom would easily be defeated by this ruthless and experienced military force and his people would likely be beheaded or enslaved. The King and others reluctantly converted, while some who had money, agreed to pay the heavy jizya tax regularly.

570 - Birth of Mu ḥ ammad ibn `Abd All ā h, in Mecca, Arabia 623-629

The$people$conquered$by$the$Muslims$faced$3$choices:$1)$Accept$Islam$$2)$Accept$Death$$

3)$Accept$the$payment$of$jizya$?$a$tax$that$can$be$paid$by$a$non?Muslim,$in$order$to$keep$one’s$own$faith.$$

It$was$usually$a$very$heavy$tax$?$unbearable$for$many.$It$was$not$always$offered,$but,$in$many$cases$the$

conquered$people$had$skills$or$a$usefulness$that$the$Muslims$needed,$and$the$jizya$served$as$a$humiliaHng$

reminder$of$status$and$authority,$and$could$be$revoked$at$any$Hme.$

Quran$9:29$?$"Fight'those'who'believe'not'in'Allah'nor'the'Last'Day,'nor'hold'that'forbidden'which'hath'been'

forbidden'by'Allah'and'His'Messenger,'nor'acknowledge'the'religion'of'Truth,'even'if'they'are'of'the'People'of'

the'Book'(Christians,'Jews),'until'they'pay'the'Jizya'with'willing'submission,'and'feel'themselves'subdued."$

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  • 628 - The Battle of Khaybar took place in a fortress town 100 miles from Medina - inhabited by Jewish tribes in the oasis of Khaybar. The fact that the Banu Nadir settled here after being expelled from their previous area, and that there was also ridicule and criticism of Muhammad from the Khaybar area gave Muhammad enough reason to attack - and he did - with success after success. The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one- half of their produce to the Muslims. The victory in Khaybar greatly raised the status of Muhammad among his followers and local Arab tribes, who, seeing his power, swore allegiance to Muhammad and converted to Islam. The captured booty and weapons strengthened his army, and he captured Mecca just 18 months after the Khaybar victory.

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628 - The Battle of Khaybar took place in a fortress town 100 miles from Medina
  • 628 - The Conquest of Fadak (Fidak) - Muhammad sent a message to the Jews of Fadak, asking them to surrender their properties and wealth to him or be attacked. The people of Fadak had heard of what happened to the Khaybar Jews, and they were panic stricken. To spare their own lives, they pleaded for a peace treaty, and swore to turn over one half of their wealth and property to Muhammad and his Muslim followers.

  • 628 - The Conquest of Wadi Al-Qura - After the Battle of Khaybar and Conquest of Fadak, Muhammad made a fresh move towards another Jewish colony, Wadi Al-Qura. He approached with his forces and before beginning to fight, he demanded that the Jews embrace Islam, an offer they defiantly declined. Mohammed attacked, and the Jews resisted for 1 or 2 days but they were no match for the Muslim fighters and they surrendered, and had to accept the same harsh obligation to turn over one half to their produce to the Muslims.

After the surrender of the Jews at Wadi al-Qura, Muhammad had established full authority and control over all of the Jewish tribes in northern Arabia.

  • 628 - The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah -Muhammad led 1,400 men on a march to Mecca - with only very few weapons - in an attempt without force (Muhammad likely realized his forces were not great enough to win militarily against the large Meccan forces) to persuade the inhabitants and pilgrims in Mecca to abandon all their ‘pagan’, idol-worshipping, animist, Christian, Zoroastrian, or Jewish faiths and to embrace Muhammad’s new Islam. Mecca was the most important pilgrimage place for all the beliefs in the area - and control of Mecca would be significant. However, his attempts were met with ridicule, defiance, and rejection. He threatened to attack with a great force, and persuaded Mecca to sign a ten-year truce - known as the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah - but in reality his intention was to deceive the Meccans, and to use the Treaty as a cover in order to rebuild, expand, and strengthen his army.

628 - The Battle of Khaybar took place in a fortress town 100 miles from Medina
628 - The Battle of Khaybar took place in a fortress town 100 miles from Medina
  • 629 - Attacks and plundering of many tribes who refused to convert, including the Banu al- Mulawwih, Banu Layth, Banu Amir, Banu Quda, Anu Awal, Banu Murrah, and Banu Kilab tribes.

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  • 629 - Conquest of Mecca. Just two years before, Muhammad tried and failed to persuade the Meccans to abandon all their faiths and to embrace Islam. The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah had given the Meccans a false sense of security, and now Muhammad’s army was bigger and stronger. In deliberate violation of his own treaty he led the largest Muslim army to date on a surprise attack and conquered the important pilgrimage place for all the beliefs in the area. He had all idols and shrines destroyed and prohibited, and declared Islam to be the only faith.

  • 629 - Soon after the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad began to dispatch expeditions to eliminate the last symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices. He sent 30 armed horsemen to Nakhlah, where there was an idol of the goddess called Al-‘Uzza worshipped by the Quraish and Kinanah tribes, and guarded by custodians from Banu Shaiban. It was destroyed completely.

  • 630 - An idol statue, called Suwa, worshipped by the Banu Hudhail tribe, about 3 kilometers from Mecca was destroyed upon Muhammads’ orders.

629 - Conquest of Mecca . Just two years before, Muhammad tried and failed to persuade
  • 630 - 20 horsemen were sent by Mohammad to destroy a temple and statue of Manat, worshipped by the polytheist Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj tribes.

  • 630 - Muhammad destroyed the Ishmaelite Hawazin tribe, and the Allāt worshipping Thaqif tribe.

  • 630 - Battle of Autas (Awtas) - A league of Mountain tribes consisting of Thakefites, Hawazins, Joshimites, Saadites and several other opposed to Muhammad formed an alliance to attack him. They were incensed that Mohammad was demanding them to abandon their own faiths and embrace Islam. The Thakefites, and others, were idolaters who worshipped Allāt. They controlled the productive area of Taif. Mohammad led 12,000 men towards Autas, and were ambushed and scattered, but managed to regroup and continued to Autas and defeated the tribes. The Quran and the Hadiths refer to this victory as a time when Mohammad declared that his troops could take any captive woman for sex, and that was the direct and absolute word of Allah.

629 - Conquest of Mecca . Just two years before, Muhammad tried and failed to persuade
  • 630 - The Battle of Tabouk (Tabuk) - Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000 north to Tabuk in (present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia), with the intention of engaging the Byzantine army. Though the armies did not meet and fight, the attempt of Muhammad would represent the opening conflict in the coming Byzantine-Muslim wars.

  • 630 - The Siege of Taif - Previously, people had chased Muhammad out of the big walled city of Taif, (in present-day Yemen) after pelting stones at him in the public square, when he was first preaching Islam. They also knew Muhammad would come back with an army and a vengeance. Muhammad returned with 12,000 men and catapults and laid siege to the city, but failed to overcome the defenses.

629 - Conquest of Mecca . Just two years before, Muhammad tried and failed to persuade
  • 631 - Muhammad urged the prominant, productive, and powerful Jewish Banu Harith tribe, in distant Najran, to convert to Islam or pay the jizya tax. They paid the humiliating jizya tax. (Remnants of them lived in Najran until the 1930s when Saudis then conquered the area and the new governor gave the Najrani Jews a single day to either evacuate or convert to Islam.)

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  • 631 - Muhammad sent a force to attack Ukaydir ibn Abd al-Malik al- Kindi, the Christian prince of Dumatul Jandal (also known as Duma). Khalid ibn Walid was sent with 450 horsemen and upon arrival at the castle he saw the prince and his brother hinting oryxes. Khalid killed the brother and managed to capture the prince and brought him back to Muhammad, who then spared his life for a ransom of 2000 camels, 800 sheep, 400 pieces of armor, 400 lances, and an absolute commitment to pay a large jizya tax.

631 - Muhammad sent a force to attack Ukaydir ibn Abd al-Malik al- Kindi, the Christian
  • 631 - A group of men led by Surad ibn Abdullah came to Muhammad to join him and his Islam. Muhammad recognized Surad as the ruler of his clan, and ordered him to go to war against the tribes in distant Jurash, who had rejected Muhammad’s call to accept Islam. Muhammad provided him with an army of Muslim fighters to fulfill his task. They besieged fortified Jurash for 1 month, with no success. Surad then pretended to withdraw from the area and the Jurash tribesmen came out and fell into a clever trap, and were soundly defeated with heavy losses. Surad then entered Jurash and killed everyone - men, women, and children.

631 - Muhammad sent a force to attack Ukaydir ibn Abd al-Malik al- Kindi, the Christian
  • 632 - Death of Muhammad, from natural causes, in Medina, Arabia

632-633 -The Ridda Wars, also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after Muhammad died. The rebels' position was that they had submitted to Muhammad as the prophet of God, but owed nothing to Abu Bakr. Most of the tribes were defeated and reintegrated into the Caliphate.

  • 633 - Muslims begin the conquest of Persia, at that time the Sassanian Empire. Commanded by Abu Bakrs’ best general, Khalid ibn al-Walid, the Arab army won quick victories in a string of battles, culminating in the Battle of Firaz, where Khalid defeated the combined Sassanid, Byzantine, and Christian Arab armies. However, Khalid was transferred to distant problematic areas, Abu Bakr died, and too few Muslim troops were trying to control too large an area. The Persians recovered and recaptured most of their territory.

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634-635 - Muslims begin the conquest of Syria - a land still under Roman rule after 7 centuries, as well as enduring Persian invasions now and then. Khalid ibn al-Walid led his army on a dangerous and daring short-cut through formidable desert and surprised and defeated a much bigger Byzantine army. He then laid siege to the historic and important large walled city of Damascus. After 30 days of siege the city defenses collapsed.

634-635 - Muslims begin the conquest of Syria - a land still under Roman rule after
634-635 - Muslims begin the conquest of Syria - a land still under Roman rule after
  • 636 - Battle of Qadisiyyah - The Arabs launched a second invasion of the Persian Sassanian Empire, under Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, where a key victory at the Battle of Qadisiyyah led to the permanent end of Sassanian control of western Persia.

  • 636 - Battle of Yarmuk (also: Yarmuq, Hieromyax): Following the Muslim capture of Damascus and Edessa, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius organizes a large army which manages to take back control of those cities. However, the larger Byzantine forces are soundly defeated by the military genius of Khalid ibn Walid, in a significant battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. After that, all of Syria was open to Arab domination.

  • 637 - The Arabs attack and occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By 651, the entire Persian realm would come under the rule of Islam and would continue its westward expansion.

  • 637 - Northern Syria is conquered by Muslim forces. The most significant and strategic fort of the Byzantines, Chalcis, was said to be impregnable, but eventually fell to the Muslim forces, which opened the routes to more conquests - Aleppo, Antioch, Tartus, Jabla, and Lazkia.

634-635 - Muslims begin the conquest of Syria - a land still under Roman rule after

636-637 - The Siege of Jerusalem - After six months of siege, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Sophronius, agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Rashidun caliph. In April 637, caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city from the Patriarch. Sophronius was a highly respected Arab Christian originally from Damascus.

  • 639 - Muslims conquer Egypt. Before the Arab invasion Egypt was part of the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople (now called Istanbul, Turkey). However, it had been conquered just a decade before by the Sassanid Persians and then recaptured by the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. The Eastern Roman Empire was dangerously exposed and vulnerable, and while it didn’t happen easily, most of Byzantine Egypt crumbled under the relentless campaigns of the Muslims.

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634-635 - Muslims begin the conquest of Syria - a land still under Roman rule after
  • 641 - Under the leadership of General Abd-al-Rahman, Muslim armies conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.

  • 641 - Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims attacked

the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. They laid siege to the heavily fortified city - there were walls within walls, and forts within forts. It took 7 months of intense siege, but Alexandria finally fell.

  • 642 - Muslim forces reached the important age-old city of Kabul, (in modern-day Afghanistan) at a time when Kabul was independent. A number of failed expeditions were made to Islamize the region.

641 - Under the leadership of General Abd-al-Rahman, Muslim armies conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan,
  • 647 - The first invasion of North Africa (present day Egypt, Libya, Tunisia) 20,000 Arabs marched from Arabia, joined with another 20,000 Muslims in Egypt and attacked Byzantine ruled cities, withdrawing in exchange for tribute to be paid regularly and upon demand.

  • 649 - A Muslim naval expedition, led by Muawiyah I, raided the island of Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island. Muawiyah was one of the first to realize the full importance of having a navy; as long as the Byzantine fleet could sail the Mediterranean unopposed, the coast line of Syria, Palestine and Egypt would never be safe for the Muslim invaders.

  • 652 - Sicily, the big southern island of Italy, is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).

  • 653 - A Muslim naval expedition, led by Muawiyah I, raided the Greek island of Rhodes, and took the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.

  • 654 - Muawiyah I invaded Cyprus again because the Cypriots were failing to pay the jizya tax. He stationed a large garrison of troops on the island, which would remain in Muslim hands until 966.

641 - Under the leadership of General Abd-al-Rahman, Muslim armies conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan,
  • 655 - Battle of the Masts - In one of the only Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muawiyah's new Arab navy of 200 ships, defeated the well established Roman Navy of 700 to 1000 ships sinking 500 Roman ships. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.

656-661 - The First Muslim Civil War, known as The First Fitna, or the Great Fitna was fought because of violent disagreements over who were to be the succeeding caliphs following Muhammad, The result of this Civil War was the divide between Shiite and Sunni Muslims, which is still volatile, and even deadly, to this day.

  • 667 - Muslim armies invaded and tried again to subdue and convert the people of the Afghanistan area, who put up strong resistance.

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  • 669 - The Muslim conquest reached across North Africa all the way to Morocco. The Arabs converted the indigenous Berber population to Islam, but Berber tribes retained their customary laws. Muslim rulers imposed taxes and tribute demands upon Berber populations, setting future rebellions on course.

669 - The Muslim conquest reached across North Africa all the way to Morocco . The

674-678 – First Siege of Constantinople - The Arab attack was methodical: in 672–673 Arab fleets secured bases along the coast, and then proceeded to install a loose blockade around Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire (now is Istanbul, Turkey). They used the peninsula of Cyzicus near the city as a base to spend the winter, and returned every spring to launch attacks against the formidable fortifications of the city. Finally, the Byzantines, under Emperor Constantine IV, managed to destroy the Arab navy using a new invention, the liquid incendiary substance known as Greek Fire - a type of ‘flamethrower’. It burned through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. The Muslims are defeated so badly by the use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

669 - The Muslim conquest reached across North Africa all the way to Morocco . The
  • 683 - The large ancient city of Kabul revolted and completely drove out the invading Muslim army, which was led by the Muslim Governor of Seistan - the adjoining Persian/southern Afghan area. It would not be until 870 that Kabul and the Afghan area was brought under Muslim control. The near-complete conversion of Afghanistan to Islam would not happen until the 10th century, with some areas holding out until they were conquered and forcibly converted in the 1890s.

  • 688 - Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty making Cyprus neutral territory. For the next 300 years, Cyprus is ruled jointly by both the Byzantines and the Arabs despite the continuing warfare between them elsewhere.

  • 698 - Conquest of Carthage - (in present day Tunisia) Originally founded by Phoenicians in the 8th century B.C. it was an important Greek city-state, and it became the second largest city in the western half of the Roman Empire, with a peak population of 500,000. The Arab Muslims destroyed it completely - its walls torn down, its water supply cut off and its harbors made unusable.

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  • 700 - Muslims invade and conquer Pantelleria Island, halfway between Tunisia and Sicily, and then can easily raid the large southern Italian island of Sicily.

  • 711 - With further conquest of Egypt, Spain and North Africa, Muslims rule all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world under Islamic rule.

  • 711 - Battle of Guadalete - A Berber commander, Tariq ibn Ziyad, crossed the strait separating Africa and Europe with a predominately Berber army of 1,700 men and entered Spain (also know as al-Andalus, Andalucía, Andalusia.) They defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a decisive battle at Guadalete. King Roderic, and rivals of his, were killed in the battle making the Spanish army virtually leaderless. Almost the entire Iberian peninsula (Spain, Portugal) would come under Islamic control within 7 years.

  • 712 - Muslim governor of North Africa, Musa ibn Nusayr, follows Tariq ibn Ziyad into Spain with an army of 18,000 soldiers to continue the conquest of al-Andalus. Musa’s father had been a Catholic Yemenite studying to be a priest in Iraq when he was captured in Iraq by Khalid, the “Sword of Islam,” and forced to choose between conversion or death.

700 - Muslims invade and conquer Pantelleria Island, halfway between Tunisia and Sicily, and then can
  • 715 - By the year 715 just about all of Spain was in Muslim hands. The Muslim conquest of Spain only took around three years but the Christian reconquest would require around 460 years to drive out all the Muslims. Musa’s son, Abd el-Aziz, was left in charge in Andalusia. He made the city of Seville the capital, and he married Egilona, the widow of King Roderic. The Caliph at the time, Caliph Suleiman, based in distant Damascus, was a paranoid ruler, and was hearing baseless rumors about el-Aziz. He ordered his death, and in 716 el-Aziz was assassinated, and his father, Musa, was exiled back to his native Yemeni village, and lived the rest of his life as a beggar.

  • 716 - Lisbon, Portugal, was conquered. Lisbon was significant in that it was one of Europe’s largest and most diverse cities, several times larger than Paris or London at that time. The Christians and Jews were allowed to pay the heavy jizya tax, but had to submit to the many humiliating rules of dhimmi status - such as: Muslims always had the ‘right of way’, they could not ride horses, their homes had to be lower than Muslim homes, and more….

  • 717 - Second Siege of Constantinople: Taking advantage of the civil unrest in the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Sulieman sent 120,000 Muslims under the command of his brother, Moslemah, to launch the second siege of Constantinople. Another force of around 100,000 Muslims with 1,800 galleys soon arrived from Syria and Egypt to assist. Most of these reinforcements were quickly destroyed with Greek Fire. Eventually the Muslims outside Constantinople begin to starve and, in the winter, they also begin to freeze to death. Even the Bulgarians, usually hostile to the Byzantines, send a force to destroy Muslim reinforcements marching from Adrianopolis.

700 - Muslims invade and conquer Pantelleria Island, halfway between Tunisia and Sicily, and then can

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  • 718 - Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening of the Umayyad government, in part because of the heavy losses. It is estimated that of the 200,000 soldiers who besieged Constantinople, only around 30,000 made it home. Although the Byzantine Empire also sustains heavily casualties and loses most its territory south of the Taurus Mountains, by holding the line here they prevent a disorganized and militarily inferior Europe from having to confront a Muslim invasion along the shortest possible route. Instead, the Muslim invasion of Europe must proceed along the longer path across northern Africa and into Spain, a route which prevents quick reinforcement and ultimately proves ineffective.

  • 719 - Muslims attack Septimania in southern France (so named because it was the base of operations for Rome’s Seventh Legion) and become established in the region known as Languedoc, made famous several hundred years later as the center of the Cathar heresy.

718 - Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening
  • 721 - The Battle of Toulouse - The Governor of al-Andalus (Spain), Al-Semah ibn Malik al-Khawlani, led a Muslim army across the Pyrenees mountains, from Muslim occupied Spain to southern France, and laid siege to the important city of Toulouse. After 3 months of siege Toulouse was close to collapse when a strong Frankish force arrived and soundly defeated the Muslim invaders. Al-Semah and the remnants of his army are forced back across the Pyrenees, back into Spain, where Al-Semah dies.

718 - Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening

722 - Battle of Covadonga - A Visigoth noble, Pelayo, the first King of Asturias (718-737), defeats a Muslim army at Alcama near Covadonga. This is generally regarded as the first real Christian victory over the Muslims in the Reconquista.

  • 724 - Under the command of Ambissa, Emir of Andalusia, Muslim forces raid southern France and capture the cities of Carcassone and Nimes. Primary targets in these and other raids are churches and monasteries where the Muslims take away holy objects and enslave or kill all the clerics.

718 - Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening
  • 724 - Hisham becomes the 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732.

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  • 730 - Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon.

  • 732 - October 10 – Battle of Tours (Battle of Poitiers) - With perhaps 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi from moving farther into Europe. The Arab General Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi - who was also the Governor-General of al-Andalus (Spain) was killed in the fighting. Many regard this battle as being decisive in that it saved Europe from Muslim control.

730 - Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon . 732 - October
  • 735 - Muslim invaders capture the French city of Arles.

  • 737 - Charles Martel sent his brother, Childebrand, to lay siege to Avignon and wait for him to arrive with a large force. Notable at this battle was the use of heavy cavalry in addition to Martel's vaunted veteran Frankish infantry. Though he had some catapults, the city of Avignon was largely taken by a simple, brutal, frontal assault using rams to smash through the gates, and ladders to scale the walls.

  • 739 - Already having retaken Narbonne, Beziers, Montpellier, and Nimes during the previous couple of years, Childebrand captures Marseille, one of the largest French cities still in Muslim hands.

  • 759 - Arabs lose the city of Narbonne, France, their furthest and last conquest into Frankish territory. In capturing this city Pippin III (Pippin the Short) ends the Muslim incursions in France.

730 - Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon . 732 - October

792- Hisham I, emir of Cordova, calls for a Jihad against the infidels in Andalusia and France. Tens of thousands from as far away as Syria heed his call and cross the Pyrennes to subjugate France. Cities like Narbonne are destroyed, but the invasion is ultimately hated at Carcassone.

  • 799 - The Basques rise in revolt and kill the local Muslim governor of Pamplona.

  • 813 - Muslims attack the ancient thriving seaport of Civitavecchia near Rome.

  • 827 - Sicily is invaded by Muslims who, this time, are looking to take control of the island rather than simply taking away booty. They are initially aided by Euphemius, a Byzantine naval commander who is rebelling against the Emperor. Conquest of the island would require 75 years of hard fighting.

  • 831 - Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Palermo and make it their capital.

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730 - Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon . 732 - October
  • 838 - Muslim raiders sack Marseille in France.

  • 841 - Muslim forces capture Bari, principle Byzantine base in southeastern Italy.

  • 846 - Muslim raiders sail a fleet of ships from Africa up the Tiber river, in Italy, and attack outlying areas around Ostia and Rome. Some manage to enter Rome and damage the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Not until Pope Leo IV promises a yearly tribute of 25,000 silver coins do the raiders leave. The Leonine Wall is built in order to fend off further attacks such as this.

838 - Muslim raiders sack Marseille in France. 841 - Muslim forces capture Bari , principle
  • 849 - Battle of Ostia: Aghlabid monarch Muhammad sends a fleet of ships from Sardinia to attack Rome. As the fleet prepares to land troops, the combination of a large storm and an alliance of Christian forces were able to destroy the Muslims ships.

  • 850 - Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim ruled Cordoba, is beheaded after he refuses to retract numerous criticisms he made about Islam and the Prophet Muhammed. Perfectus was the first in what later became known as the 48 Martyrs of Cordoba. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians tried to be more rebellious because there was constant repression. These 48 Martyrs either denounced Muhammed, or Islam itself, or its followers. Or, the martyrs had become Muslim and then decided to leave Islam.

  • 859 - Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Castrogiovanni (Enna), slaughtering several thousand inhabitants.

  • 869 - Arabs capture the island of Malta.

  • 876 - Muslims pillage Campagna in Italy.

838 - Muslim raiders sack Marseille in France. 841 - Muslim forces capture Bari , principle
  • 880 - Under Emperor Basil, the Byzantines recapture lands occupied by Arabs in Italy.

  • 884 - Muslims invaded Italy, and burnt the monastery of Monte Cassino to the ground.

  • 902 - The Muslim conquest of Sicily is completed when the last Christian stronghold, the city of Taorminia, is captured. Muslim rule of Sicily would last for 264 years.

838 - Muslim raiders sack Marseille in France. 841 - Muslim forces capture Bari , principle
  • 909 - The Fatimid Dynasty assumes control of Egypt. Claiming descent from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammed, and Ali bin Abi Talib, the Fatimids would rule Egypt until being overthrown by the Auyybids and Saladin in 1171.

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  • 911 - Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off passage between the two countries.

  • 916 - A combined force of Greek and German emperors and Italian city-states defeat Muslim invaders at Garigliano, putting Muslim raids in Italy to an end.

911 - Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off
  • 920 - Muslim forces cross the Pyrenees, enter Gascony, and reach as far as the gates of Toulouse.

  • 939 - Madrid is recaptured from Muslim forces.

  • 950 - Catholicism becomes the prevalent and dominant religion throughout Europe.

  • 950 - According to traditional historiography, Europe enters Dark Ages.

  • 953 - Emperor Otto I sends representatives to Cordova to ask Caliph Abd al- Rahman III to call off some Muslim raiders who had set themselves up in Alpine passes and are attacking merchant caravans going in and out of Italy.

  • 961 - Death of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova became one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power. He is succeeded by Abdallah, a caliph who would kill many of his rivals (even family members) and has captured Christians beheaded if they refuse to convert to Islam.

911 - Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off

961- Under the command of general Nicephorus Phokas, the Byzantines recapture Crete from Muslim rebels who had earlier fled Cordova.

  • 965 - Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phokas reconquers Cyprus from the Muslims.

  • 965 - Grenoble, in France, is recaptured from the Muslims.

  • 969 - Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas reconquers Antioch (modern Antakya, capital of the province Hatay) from the Arabs.

  • 972 - The Muslims in the Sisteron district of France surrender to Christian forces and their leader asks to be baptized.

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  • 981 - Ramiro III, king of Leon, is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor) at Rueda and is forced to begin paying tribute to the Caliph of Cordoba.

  • 985 - Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir sacks Barcelona, Spain.

  • 994 - The monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy is destroyed a second time by Arabs.

  • 997 - Muslim forces under Almanzor arrive at the city of Compostela, in Spain. The city had been evacuated and Almanzor burns it to the ground.

981 - Ramiro III, king of Leon , is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor)
  • 1004 - Arab raiders sack the Italian city of Pisa.

  • 1009 - The Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem is destroyed by Muslim armies.

  • 1009 - Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem be destroyed. In Europe a rumor develops that a “Prince of Babylon” had ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher at the instigation of the Jews. Attacks on Jewish communities in cities like Rouen, Orelans, and Mainz ensue and this rumor helps lay the basis for massacres of Jewish communities by Crusaders marching to the Holy Land.

981 - Ramiro III, king of Leon , is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor)
  • 1009 - Sulaimann, grandson of Abd al-Rahman III, returns over 200 captured fortresses to the Castilian Spanish people in return for massive shipments of food for his army.

  • 1012 - Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship in his lands.

  • 1012 - Berber forces capture Cordova and order that half the population be executed.

  • 1013 - Jews are expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba, then ruled by Sulaimann.

  • 1015 - Arab Muslim forces conquer the huge Italian administered island of Sardinia.

  • 1031 - The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.

  • 1033 - Castile is retaken from the Arabs.

  • 1035 - The Byzantines land in Sicily, but don’t try to recapture the island from the Muslims.

1045-1099 - Life of Ruy Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (Arabic for ‘lord’), national hero of Spain. El Cid would become famous for his efforts to drive the Moors out of Spain.

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981 - Ramiro III, king of Leon , is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor)
  • 1056 - The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name ‘those who line up in

defense of the faith’ this is a group of fanatical Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Spain until

1147.

  • 1061 - Roger Guiscard invades Sicily with a large Norman force and captures the city of Masara. The Norman reconquest of Sicily would require another 30 years.

  • 1064 - The Seljuk Turks conquer Christian Armenia.

  • 1070 - Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem from the Fatimids. Seljuk rule is not quite as tolerant as that of the Fatimids and Christian pilgrims begin returning to Europe with tales of persecution and oppression.

1056 - The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name ‘those who

1071-1085 - Seljuk Turks conquer most of Syria and Palestine.

  • 1071 - Battle of Manzikert - Sultan Alp Arslan leads an army of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantine Empire near Lake Van (present day Turkey near Iran and Iraq). With 100,000 men, the Turks take the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert before Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes can respond. Although Diogenes is able to recapture Akhlat, he fails to recapture Manzikert. He lays siege to Manzikert, but when another Turkish force arrives Emperor Diogenes himself is captured.

  • 1073 - Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.

1056 - The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name ‘those who
  • 1078 - Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea. It would change hands three more times, finally coming under control of the Turks again in 1086.

An estimated one third of Christian lands and one half of Christian churches - at this point of time - are in Islamic controlled lands.

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  • 1079 - Battle of Cabra: El Cid - hero of Spain - led his troops to a victory over the forces of Emir Abd Allah of Granada and forced them to flee.

  • 1080 - An Armenian state is founded in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), north of Cyprus, by refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. A Christian kingdom located in the midst of hostile Muslim states and lacking good relations with the Byzantine Empire, ‘Armenia Minor’ would provide important assistance to Crusaders from Europe.

  • 1084 - Seljuk Turks conquer Antioch, a strategically important city. However, The Seljuks will only control it for 14 years before they are driven out.

1079 - Battle of Cabra : El Cid - hero of Spain - led his troops
  • 1085 - The Moors are expelled from Toledo, Spain, by Alfonso VI.

  • 1086 - Battle of Zallaca (Sagrajas): Spanish forces under Alfonso VI of Castile are defeated by the Moors and their allies, the Almorivids (Berbers from present day Morocco and Algeria) led by the Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin, thus preserving Muslim rule in al-Andalus. The slaughter of Spaniards was great and Yusef refused to abide by his agreement to leave al-Andalus in the hands of the Moors. His intention was actually to make al-Andalus a colony ruled by the Almorivids Dynasty which had a large and powerful empire in northern Africa.

  • 1090 - Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravid Berbers captures Granada.

  • 1091 - The Normans recapture Sicily from the Muslims, after 264 years of Muslim control.

  • 1091 - Cordoba (Qurtuba) is captured by the Almoravids.

  • 1094 - The Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Amoravids to flee – the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting African Berbers.

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1095 - November 18 - Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors of Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus were warmly received as they asked for help to repel the Muslims never-ending drive to conquer and convert.

The foundations were laid for the first ‘organized’ Christian response to 500 years of constant Jihad, genocide, slaughter, plunder, ethnic cleansing, apartheid conditions, extreme intolerance, supremacy, imperialism, war, rape, torture, beheadings, and more.

1096-1099 - The First Crusade was launched November 27, 1095, by Pope Urban II, with the primary goal of responding to an appeal from Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, who requested that Western volunteers come to his aid to help repel the invading Seljuk Turks. An additional goal soon became the principal objective—the Christian reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and the freeing of the Eastern Christians from the intolerant and vicious Muslim rule.

NOW PLEASE READ PAGE 1 AGAIN - it seems that not much has changed

1095 - November 18 - Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors ofscribd.com/rheizman 17 " id="pdf-obj-16-19" src="pdf-obj-16-19.jpg">

by Rick Heizman, San Francisco, Feb 26, 2015

see more of my papers at: scribd.com/rheizman

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