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AN INDIGENOUS HERITAGE STUDY

CITY OF BOROONDARA
STAGE 2

Report prepared for City of Boroondara

Matt Chamberlain and Claire Nicholls

TerraCulture Pty Ltd

June 2004
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Preamble 1
1.2 Project Aims 1
1.3 Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV) 2
1.4 Aboriginal Community Consultation 2
1.5 Aboriginal Perspective 2

2.0 Legislative Protection for Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Sites 3

2.1 State and Commonwealth Aboriginal Heritage Legislation 3


2.2 Other Commonwealth Protection for Aboriginal Heritage 4

3.0 Ethnohistorical Background 5

3.1 Pre-Contact 5
3.2 First Contact 7
3.3 1830s-1850s 7
3.4 1850s- 10

4.0 Archaeological Background 12

4.1 Previous Archaeological Investigations 12

5.0 Timeline of European Settlement and Urbanisation of Boroondara 15

6.0 Summary and Implications of Background Information 18

6.1 Registered Site Locations 18


6.2 Ethnohistorical Evidence 18
6.3 Previous Archaeological Investigations 18
6.4 Urbanisation 19

7.0 Field Survey and Results 20

7.1 Reconnaissance Survey Areas 20


7.2 Field Survey Results 22

8.0 Conclusions and Site Prediction Model 25

8.1 Summary of Results 25


8.2 Discussion and Site Prediction Model 25

List of Maps

Map 1 Regional map showing the location of Boroondara


Map 2 Showing features such as main roads railway lines, and major waterways
Map 3 Showing the location of areas referred to in ethnohistorical sources
Map 4 Showing areas of archaeological sensitivity as defined in previous archaeological
investigations
Map 5 Areas investigated during the field component of the this investigation
Map 6 Showing areas of archaeological sensitivity within the City of Boroondara.

List of Plates

Plate 1 Walking track adjacent to Kew Billabong


Plate 2 Walking track adjacent to the Yarra River, alongside the Eastern Freeway
Plate 3 Yarra Bend Park
Plate 4 Yarra Bend Park adjacent to the Yarra River
Plate 5 Walking track alongside the Yarra River, Yarra Bend Park
Plate 6 Hilly terrain in Yarra Bend Park
Plate 7 Walking tracks in Yarra Bend Park
Plate 8 Dickinson Reserve
Plate 9 Walking track adjacent to the Yarra River, Dickinson Reserve
Plate 10 Hays Paddock
Plate 11 Hays Paddock
Plate 12 Glass Creek, Hays Paddock
Plate 13 Koonung Creek Reserve
Plate 14 Beckett Park
Plate 15 Fairview Park
Plate 16 Fairview Park

List of Appendices

Appendix 1 Annotated Bibliography


Appendix 2 Client Brief – City of Boroondara
Appendix 3 AAV Correspondence

Cover Ilustration

Detail from ‘Native encampment on the banks of the Yarra’, watercolour by J. Cotton, La
Trobe Collection, State Library of Victoria. Printed in Coutts, P.J.F, Readings in Victorian
Prehistory, Volume 2: The Victorian Aboriginals 1800 to 1860. Victoria Archaeological
Survey, Ministry for Conservation, Victoria May 1981. Figure 61.
Acknowledgements

This study was made possible with the assistance of the Rotary Club of Balwyn.

TerraCulture wish to acknowledge the following people and organisations for assistance in
this project:

Allan Wandin Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural


Heritage Council Inc.

Tony Garvey (Field Assistant) Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural
Heritage Council Inc.

Julia Cusack Aboriginal Affairs Victoria

Jeremy Smith Heritage Victoria

The following TerraCulture staff contributed to this report:

Matt Chamberlain Fieldwork, Background Research, Report Writing,


Mapping and Illustration, Report Production

Claire Nicholls Fieldwork, Background Research, Report Writing,


Mapping and Illustration, Report Production

Catherine Webb Editing


City of Boroondara
Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preamble

In 2001 TerraCulture Pty Ltd was commissioned to conduct an Indigenous Heritage Study for
the City of Boroondara, Stage 1 of which was completed in August 2002. In 2003 the
Council allocated funds for the continuation of the Indigenous Heritage Study, and
TerraCulture was advised to proceed with Stage 2.

The Stage 1 investigation was completed in 2002 by TerraCulture and contained a literature
review which identified sources of information in regards to the Indigenous heritage of
Boroondara, the type of information contained in these sources, and the location of this
information (TerraCulture 2002).

Stage 2 follows on from the recommendations made in Stage 1 and involves a more in-depth
analysis of the ethnohistorical and archaeological sources listed in Stage 1 and the
development of a site prediction model based upon background information and a field
survey. A more detailed description of the project aims are outlined below in Section 1.2.

The City of Boroondara (Map 1 and 2) is situated in the east-central suburbs of Melbourne
and is bounded by the Yarra River, Koonung Creek and the Eastern Freeway to the north,
Warrigal Road to the east, Gardiners Creek and the Monash Freeway to the south, and the
Yarra River and Gardiners Creek in the west. The municipality is located approximately four
kilometers from the Melbourne Central Business District, and includes the suburbs of Kew,
Glenferrie, Burwood, Kew East, Balwyn, Balwyn North, Hawthorn, Hawthorn East,
Camberwell, Canterbury, Surrey Hills, Mont Albert, Glen Iris, and Ashburton.

1.2 Project Aims

As recommended in the Stage 1 report, Stage 2 will involve the following

• A detailed review of ethno-historical and archaeological material listed in the Stage 1


report;

• Oral history interviews with Wurundjeri Elders by a Wurundjeri representative;

• Development of an Aboriginal archaeological site prediction model, which uses data on


known sites/places to help predict where unknown Aboriginal sites/places are located
within the municipality;

• An archaeological field survey within the municipality to identify both known and
potential Aboriginal heritage values. The field crew will consist of a qualified
archaeologist from TerraCulture assisted by a representative of the Wurundjeri
Community;

• Production of a report detailing the results of the study: ethno-historic review and
archaeological investigation. The report will contain literary, visual and possibly oral
history references to Boroondara’s Aboriginal past, as well as maps identifying known
and potential Aboriginal sites/places within the municipality. In addition to documenting
the existence and location of Boroondara’s tangible Aboriginal heritage, the maps can
be used as a planning tool to allow Aboriginal heritage values in Boroondara to be
protected within the local planning scheme.

As noted above, the Stage 1 report recommended that a Wurundjeri representative should
undertake oral history interviews with Wurundjeri Elders. However, throughout the course of
the Stage 2 investigation a Wurundjeri representative was unavailable. TerraCulture
archaeologists Matt Chamberlain and Claire Nicholls met with the City of Boroondara on the

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City of Boroondara
Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004
th
20 of April and informed them of this matter. It was decided that the oral history component
would be left out of this stage of the investigation.

1.3 Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV)


AAV Heritage Services Branch is the State Government body that administers the
Commonwealth and State Legislation that serves to protect Aboriginal heritage in Victoria.
This heritage includes archaeological sites, artefact collections and places of cultural
significance. Further to the above project aims, the standard Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV)
Outline Brief for Archaeological Survey Projects was adopted in order to meet their
requirements for undertaking and reporting on an archaeological investigation.

The objectives outlined in this brief are summarised below:

1. To locate archaeological sites within the project area, using a systematic strategy.
2. To record and interpret any archaeological sites found.
3. To establish the significance of any archaeological sites found, using criteria normally
applied to the assessment of cultural heritage resources.
4. To identify any areas or landforms of high archaeological potential.
5. To establish the implications which the presence of any archaeological resources
may have for the future management and/or development of the project area.
6. To establish the views of Aboriginal people, and of any other groups with a special
interest in the archaeology of the project area, on matters such as the interpretation
and significance of recorded sites, and on appropriate management procedures.
7. To develop recommendations and guidelines for:

• Management of each identified archaeological site, or areas of high


archaeological potential
• Methods to be used for carrying out additional work, including information on
permits /consents required if it is proposed that sites are to be disturbed or
destroyed
• Interpretation of each identified archaeological site, or areas of high
archaeological potential.

Prior to the fieldwork reported below and in accordance with Section 22 of the Archaeological
and Aboriginal Relics Preservation Act 1972, AAV was notified of the survey via a Schedule 2
survey notification. Their response is presented in Appendix 1.

1.4 Aboriginal Community Consultation


Under the Regulations of the Commonwealth Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage
Protection Act 1984, the City of Boroondara falls within the boundaries of the Wurundjeri Tribe
Land Compensation and Cultural Heritage Council Incorporated (Wurundjeri for short). Under
the heritage legislation, the Wurundjeri are the statutory authority for Aboriginal cultural
heritage sites in the Boroondara area. The Wurundjeri were contacted prior to the fieldwork
and a representative participated in this fieldwork. The field results were discussed with the
Wurundjeri representative during the course of the fieldwork. The Wurundjeri will be kept
informed of the progress of the project and will be provided with a copy of this report.

1.5 Aboriginal Perspective


The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 recognises a cultural
significance to artefacts, sites and places, distinct from an assessment based on scientific
values. As the statutory authority the Wurundjeri have their own views on the importance of
individual archaeological sites or areas as being generally sensitive for Aboriginal heritage
materials. This report focuses on the scientific values but records any views expressed by
the Wurundjeri representatives during this investigation.

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

2.0 LEGISLATIVE PROTECTION FOR ABORIGINAL


CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES
All heritage legislation is subordinate to the Coroner’s Act 1985 in relation to the discovery of
human remains.

2.1 State and Commonwealth Aboriginal Heritage Legislation

Victoria has both State and Commonwealth legislation providing protection for Aboriginal
cultural heritage. With the exception of human remains interred after the year 1834, the State
Archaeological and Aboriginal Relics Preservation Act 1972 provides blanket protection for all
material relating to the past Aboriginal occupation of Australia, both before and after
European occupation. This includes individual artefacts, scatters of stone tools, rock art sites,
ancient camp sites, human burials, trees with slabs of bark removed (for the manufacture of
canoes, shelters, etc.) and ruins and archaeological deposits associated with Aboriginal
missions or reserves. The Act also establishes administrative procedures for archaeological
investigations and the mandatory reporting of the discovery of Aboriginal sites. Aboriginal
Affairs Victoria (AAV) administers the Archaeological and Aboriginal Relics Preservation Act
1972.

In 1987, Part IIA of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 was
introduced by the Commonwealth Government to provide protection for Aboriginal cultural
property in Victoria. Immediately after enactment, the Commonwealth delegated the powers
and responsibilities set out in Part IIA to the Victorian Minister Responsible for Aboriginal
Affairs. Currently, the Hon. Gavin Jennings holds this delegation, and the legislation is
administered on a day-to-day basis by AAV.

Whereas the State Act provides legal protection for all the physical evidence of past
Aboriginal occupation, the Commonwealth Act deals with Aboriginal cultural property in a
wider sense. Such cultural property includes any places, objects and folklore that 'are of
particular significance to Aboriginals in accordance with Aboriginal tradition'. Again, there is
no cut-off date and the Act may apply to contemporary Aboriginal property as well as ancient
sites. The Commonwealth Act takes precedence over State cultural heritage legislation
where there is conflict. In most cases, Aboriginal archaeological sites registered under the
State Act will also be Aboriginal places subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth Act.

The Commonwealth Act prohibits anyone from defacing, damaging, interfering with or
endangering an Aboriginal place unless the prior consent of the local Aboriginal community
has been obtained in writing. The Schedule to the Act lists local Aboriginal communities and
each community's area is defined in the Regulations so that the whole of Victoria is covered.

The City of Boroondara is in the community area of the Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation
and Cultural Heritage Council Incorporated. They can be contacted at:

Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation


& Cultural Heritage Council Incorporated
19 Barak Lane
Healesville Vic. 3777

Further information on the State and Commonwealth legislation protecting Aboriginal heritage
in Victoria and the role of Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV) Heritage Services Branch can be
obtained from:
Aboriginal Affairs Victoria
Heritage Services Branch
GPO 2392V
Melbourne Vic 3001
Phone: (03) 9208 3333

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

2.2 Other Commonwealth Protection for Aboriginal Cultural


Heritage
In August 2003 the Federal Parliament passed three new sets of legislation that identify,
conserve and protect cultural and natural heritage places of national significance. The
legislation also creates an independent body to advise the relevant Minister on the
registration and management of significant heritage places. These are:

1. Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2003


2. Australian Heritage Council Act 2003; and
3. Australian Heritage Council (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2003

2.3.1 The Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Act (No. 1) 2003:

This Act:

• Replaces the Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975


• Amends the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999;
• Sets out steps for entering places on the National Heritage List and Commonwealth
Heritage List (see below);
• Prescribes criteria for the nomination of places on these lists and sets out
management principals for listed places.

Under this Act, Australia’s National Heritage ‘…will be protected using the Commonwealth’s
constitutional powers and managed co-operatively with State and Territory governments and
private owners where appropriate’.

2.3.2 The Australian Heritage Council (Australian Heritage Council Act 2003)

st
As of the 1 January 2004, the Australian Heritage Council Act 2002 establishes the
Australian Heritage Council (AHC). The AHC replaces the Australian Heritage Commission
and as stated in the Bill its functions are to:

• Assess nominations in relation to the listing of places on the National Heritage List
and the Commonwealth heritage List
• Advise the Minister on specified matters relating to heritage
• Promote the identification, assessment and conservation of heritage.

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

3.0 ETHNOHISTORICAL BACKGROUND


This ethno-historical background is gleaned directly from sources outlined in the Stage 1
section of the investigation. While the full list of these sources was reviewed, the following
chapter discusses only material directly relevant to Boroondara. A fully annotated bibliography
is included. In the process of reviewing the sources, additional references were encountered
which deserved further investigation. These were also reviewed and added to the original
bibliography.

3.1 Pre-Contact
Many of the primary sources of ethnohistory highlighted in Stage 1 of this assessment have
been collated by Clark (1990) in his reconstruction of traditional language boundaries in
western Victoria. According to Clark, Aborigines of the Woi Wurrung language group were
the former occupants of the Melbourne region.

The Woi wurrung were part of the East Kulin Language area, which covered central Victoria
from the east side of Port Phillip Bay north to the Murray River (Clark 1990:363,364, Table
20). The Woi wurrung language group was divided into at least four clans. Clark defines the
clan as the ‘land owning, land renewing and land-sustaining unit of Aboriginal society’
(1990:4). Similarly, Barwick defines the term as ‘a named localised patrilineal descent group
... whose members had an historical, religious and genealogical identity’ (Barwick 1984:106).
She notes that ‘Clan territories were defined by ritual and economic responsibilities. Clan
names were distinguished by the suffixes -balluk or -bulluck meaning a number of people and
–(w)illam…meaning dwelling place’ (Barwick 1984:106). Barwick continues her discussion
on clan organisation noting that:

‘Clan lands were exploited by residential groups (now termed bands) whose membership
changed over time as nuclear families formed, aged and were replaced, and over the
course of each year because the families and individuals instilled to make use of a specific
clan estate were sometimes together (and) sometimes dispersed’ (Barwick 1984: 106).

Whilst the composition of a clan was fluid during an individual’s lifetime, ‘clan membership
was fixed at birth and these were inherited from a person’s father and retained … until death’
(Barwick 1984: 106).

3.1.1 Wurundjeri balug

One of the four Woi wurrung clans, the clan occupying land that may have included what is
now the Boroondara area were the Wurundjeri balug. They were divided into two patrilines;
the Wurundjeri willam and the Bulug willam - groups who were based around the Yarra River,
Western Port Bay and their catchments. The Wurundjeri willam were in turn divided into a
number of smaller clans. Following Clark (1990: 385 and Figure 13), Jacky Jacky’s mob,
whose territory included the 'tract on S bank of Yarra, from Gardiner's Creek upstream to
Yarra Flats and N slopes of 'Dandenong mountains', were the people most likely using the
land at the time of white settlement. Jacky Jacky (also known as Bor-run-up-ton,
Boronuptune, Borungyupton, Burrenupton, or Jaga Jagga) was a Ngurungaeta (headman)
and brother of Billibellary, Ngurungaeta of a Wurundjeri willam group associated with the
Maribyrnong river to Merri Creek, and to Mount William in the north (Clark 1990: 385). Jacky
Jacky was possibly a signatory of the Batman Treaty in 1835, at the junction of the Yarra
River and Merri Creek.

3.1.2 Hunting and Gathering

As hunters and gatherers the Wurundjeri willam clan subsisted on the plants and animals
within their clan estate. Their patterns of settlement were based on seasonal rounds following
the changing availability of plant and animal resources. There are few historic details on
traditional Woi wurrung subsistence for the language group as a whole. It is likely that Woi
wurrung patterns of settlement and movement were based on seasonal rounds following the

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

changing availability of plant and animal resources. Historical details on how animals were
traditionally procured (the techniques of hunting) and how and when plants were harvested
are extremely poor for most of Aboriginal Victoria. It is known that the Woi wurrung used
spears to hunt and that hunters would hide behind vegetation or construct hides of stone.
Nets were also used where game animals would be chased into them. Certain foods are
common to many accounts including:

• the Yam daisy or Murnong, the tuber of which was dug up by women;
• bull-rush roots which were collected from waterways and roasted;
• eels, which were a seasonal food caught in stone weirs and long fibre nets;
• kangaroos and other smaller macropods which were hunted;
• birds and their eggs;
• possums - the fur of brush tail possums was used to make cloaks and the
meat roasted and according to Presland (1994) preserved for later use.
Possum skin cloaks were a prestige item and there are only two surviving
examples of traditional cloaks.

Presland's (1994) reconstruction of a Wurundjeri camp on the Yarra River in late autumn,
presents an interpretation of Woi wurrung subsistence based on historical, archaeological and
other material evidence. Presland notes that the Wurundjeri traditionally spent the summer
months on the banks of the Yarra where food was abundant, and moved to higher ground on
the fringes of the Dandenongs in winter where there was more shelter. The Wurundjeri camp
activities are discussed in terms of the differing roles of men and women in procuring
supplies, and highlights the waterways and swamps as essential sources of plant and animal
resources.

Presland also highlights the importance of fish and fishing within the Wurundjeri subsistence
pattern;

"Both scaled and shellfish are caught as well as eels. Fish hooks are not
commonly used by these men but there is more than one way to catch fish. At a
number of places around the region there are traps set in rivers and streams at
points where the flow of water is restricted. Funnel shaped fishing pots take the
fish as they swim with the stream. [...] The men catch fish at night. They stand in
canoes on the river and hold lighted brands near the water's surface. The fish are
attracted to the light and are more easily speared. Fish spears are often tipped
with a bone point" (Presland 1994: 76).

While the men were hunting, Presland states that the collection of plant materials was the
work of Wurundjeri women;

"Autumn is the time of the year when the greatest number of perennials are
available and there is a wide variety of plant foods. Around the swamps and
marshes the young shoots and roots of bullrush can be collected and eaten.
There are also the fruits and seeds of various aquatic plants and the roots of
water ribbons [...] The women also collect rushes, which they will make into
baskets and items of jewellery such as reed necklaces" (Presland 1994: 78-79).

3.1.3 Religious Organisation and Significant Spiritual and Religious Places

The social organisation of the Woi Wurrung was based on a moiety system that recognised
clans and the individuals within them as belonging to one of two moieties; Waa (Crow) or
Bunjil (Eaglehawk). The marriage system was based on these moieties and determined
possible partners, which could only be of opposite moieties. In this way each generation of a
clan married outside that clan (often to other language groups), reaffirming the religious, trade
and social links between the separate groups. For the Wurundjeri willam it is known that their
moiety was Waa (the crow).

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

Presland and others have remarked on the lack of information on the spiritual and ceremonial
life of the Woi Wurrung and how initiation rites and the location of sacred sites was restricted
knowledge (Presland 1994: 87-88).

3.2 First Contact


One of the first references by Europeans to Aboriginal people in the Boroondara area was
made by James Fleming, a member of the survey party of Charles Grimes, which made its
way up the Yarra in 1803. Fleming was to report on the agricultural potential of the country:

"Monday 7th (February 1803) - Early in the morning the party went up the river
before with the doctor, went up the little hill (Batman's Hill) we had been at on the
4th, where we stopped to breakfast. Proceeded to a creek (Gardiner's Creek),
where we dined. Saw some natives..." (in Vaughan 1960: 11-12).

Smith's 1896 history of Hawthorn records that John Gardiner, one of the earliest settlers in the
Boroondara region, took up land on the south side of the Yarra in 1837. Gardiner established
his home at the junction of Gardiner's Creek and the Yarra River, in the grounds of what is
now Scotch College (Vaughan 1960: 13):

"Pushing his way round the bank of the stream, he came to large creek upon
which numbers of native wild fowl were found, and here he settled. It was not
long before the blacks found him out, and as he treated them well and they
became friendly. He asked them the name of the place and they said they called
it "Boroondarra", signifying "shady place". He also asked them the name of the
wild fowl on the creek, and they called these "Kooyongkoot". He therefore named
the district Boroondara [...] while he called the stream the Kooyongkoot Creek.
The former title has been retained to this day, but the latter has been discarded,
and the creek named after Gardiner himself" (Smith 1896: 8).

This history provides further detail about the Aboriginal people of the Boroondara area, who
Smith refers to as belonging to the 'Yarra tribe':

"The tribe was one of the most powerful in the whole Port Phillip district, and
ranged all over the country drained by the Yarra Yarra. The portion called by
them "Boroondara" was a favourite resting place for the tribe, and on top of the
hill now occupied by St. Xaviers College at Kew they used to meet to hold
periodical corroborees" (Smith 1896: 12).

3.3 1830s-1850s
Numerous sources quote an incident in April 1838 during which two Aboriginal men were
captured during an altercation at the Gardiner station. This commotion ensued after the
Aboriginal men had allegedly stolen potatoes from Gardiner's vegetable patch.

The mission report for April 1838 by George Langhorne, Superintendent of the Government
Mission states:

"From Mr Gardiner I learnt that the blacks had lately been stealing his potatoes
and had been fired on by his men who were set to watch at night. That on the
present occasion, his man Underwood had gone down to the potato field, and
observing two blacks, one of whom was the prisoner, stealing potatoes, he told
them he must take them to his master. The blacks then told Underwood to inform
his master that they were very hungry and wanted some potatoes, upon which he
attempted to seize them, when two blacks rushed out and one pointing a gun
threatened to shoot, upon which he left them and in getting away some distance
called out 'Murder', upon which the blacks were immediately pursued and fired
upon. One was slightly wounded and the other escaped with the exception of the

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

prisoner Tullamarine who was knocked down with the butt end of a musket and
secured" (Cannon 1982: 213)

Underwood's own statement in the Melbourne Court Register (Cannon 1982: 215) recounts
that he had seen a group of blacks, including two men named Tullamarine and Jin Jin, in the
potato field carrying bags of potatoes. Underwood had attempted to decoy the men to the
Gardiner house, then attempted to force one of them, at which point two of the Aborigines
produced weapons. Underwood then told them that he had to leave and invited them to take
the potatoes and that he would not tell Mr. Gardiner. Underwood then ran back to the house
and raised the alarm, leading to the capture of Tullamarine. Jin Jin was apprehended later.

Although the court records do not record a verdict (Cannon 1982: 215), Tullamarine and Jin
Jin were committed for trial and imprisoned in the Melbourne lock-up. The two contrived to
set fire to the thatch roof of the lock up and escape. A watercolour by W.F.E Liardet, held by
the State Library of Victoria, depicts this getaway (see Figure 1 below). They were eventually
recaptured and sent to Sydney for trial but the charges were dropped and the two were
returned to Melbourne (Cannon 1982: 219).

Figure 1: Tullamarine and Jin Jin set fire to the thatched roof of Melbourne’s first gaol and make their escape. A
watercolour by W. F. E. Liardet, painted about 1875. In the La Trobe Library, State Library of Victoria (in Cannon
1982: 214).

Many secondary sources also discuss the growing conflict between European settlers and
Aboriginal people in Boroondara during the early 1840s. C.G.A. Colles history of Hawthorn
contains numerous references including:

"In the years 1841 and 1842 many of the settlers in this locality were troubled
considerably by the blacks. [...] There are not a great many evidences of cruelty
on the part of the settlers, and such as occurred were mostly acts perpetrated by
the few ruffianly outlaws always to be found in a new country, which in some
cases the blacks themselves summarily avenged. Governor Latrobe, in
consequence of complaints of the settlers, arrested - or rather had driven, like a
flock of sheep, into the town - some 400 blacks - men, women and children.
Having caught his Tartars, he was at a loss what to do with them, and perforce
let them go again. A large number crossed the river, and held an immense
corrobboree on the hill now crowned by the Methodist Church, and having
speared several sheep and cattle - probably Captain Gardiner's - held a right
royal feast thereafter. [...] The settlers could make little use of these aborigines,
however kindly they may have been disposed towards them, save perhaps in

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some cases where the sheep farmers employed them as shepherds in a


desultory manner, until, in 1842, Captain H. E. Pulteney Dana formed a native
camp with, originally 25 Westernport natives, training them into an excellent
corps called the native police. Several of the Boroondara blacks were taken into
this corps, and for many years did good service in the suppression of
bushranging, and later on in the gold escorts" (Colles 1910:10).

In 1842, the confluence of the Yarra River and Merri Creek (on the Northern side of the
Yarra) became the location of the temporary headquarters of the Native Police Corps and
also the headquarters of the Assistant Protector of Aborigines, and as a result large numbers
of Aboriginal people descended on the area;

"Camps at the confluence of the Merri Creek and Yarra River became more
frequent during the Native Police occupation of the government reserve, with as
many as 500 people camped at the site during September 1842. As the
Protectorate officials sought to keep them from the Native Police quarters, camps
sprung up all around the site, south of the confluence, including present day
Studley Park west of the Merri Creek and north and south of Heidelberg Road"
(Clark and Heydon 1998: 63).

The Protectorate on the Merri was visited by tribes and clans from throughout Victoria, and it
is clear that by this time, European diseases were having an effect on the Aboriginal
population of Boroondara and elsewhere:

The effects of European diseases on Aboriginal people could be seen at the


government reserve at the confluence of the Merri Creek and the Yarra River.
Illness effected the Aboriginal people of the Melbourne area, as well as
clanspeople from the Duangwurrung, Wathawurrung, and Djadjawurrung . Illness
amongst the Duangwurrung people was recorded by Thomas at his quarters in
the government reserve in 1842. He stayed for a week with the sick south of the
confluence of the Merri Creek and Yarra River, opposite Dight’s Mill, which today
is Studley Park" (Clark and Heydon 1998:79-80).

Figure 2: ‘ Photograph of the Protectors Hut near Studley Park c. 1840-45’. Mitchell Library, Sydney. Possibly of
Protector W. Thomas’s hut with Thomas at the right of the photograph (in Coutts 1981: figure 128).

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

The theme of continuing complaints from settlers about an Aboriginal presence in Boroondara
continues into the later 1840s and early 1850s. References at this time are generally limited
to the locations at which Aboriginal people camped and efforts by local settlers to remove
them. A Major Davidson, who had taken over part of Gardiner's station, complained about an
encampment of Aborigines on his land near Gardiner's Creek in 1845 (McWilliam 1978: 2),
while James Pinnock, one of the early land buyers in Hawthorn who purchased land north of
present-day Burwood Road, noted in his diary in 1852:

"A lot of blacks in the paddock all night making a fire. Sent McDonald to send
them away but they would not go" (in McFarlane 2000: 13).

McWilliam (1978: 2) notes that this paddock was in the area of Creswick Street in Hawthorn,
just below 'The Hawthorns', the Gothic Revival house built for Pinnock in 1845.

It was also at this time that references to the murder of Aboriginal man Booby in Boroondara
occur. As discussed in the Stage One report, Booby was a Barrabool man who ‘either worked
for a squatter in the Pyrenees Ranges (Cannon 1995:81) or for Mr. Leslie Foster at Keilor
(Fels 1988:103). He was a member of a party that was attacked by four Aboriginal men on
Watson’s run five miles from Melbourne in late 1844 (Thomas; Journal 14/12/1844 in Clark
1990:319). Booby was speared and killed on the banks of the Yarra, just south of present
day Burwood Road in Hawthorn. The approximate location of the attack is listed by
Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV Site No. 8.2-17).

3.4 1850s-
By the 1850s, an Aboriginal presence in Boroondara is generally referred to in the past tense.
James Bonwick's contemporary “A Sketch of Boroondara” (1858: 12), notes the presence of
Aboriginal people near Dights Falls, Yarra Bend:

“The Falls was formerly a favorite place of Native Corobory. Friendly Tribes
assembled at the full moon, and shook their limbs in unison to the tum-tum of
swarthy charmers”

Indeed, most sources claim that after the 1850s, Aboriginal people were rarely seen in
Boroondara. Both Colles (1910) and Smith (1896) comment on this, with Colles (1910: 11)
noting that the decline in Aboriginal population had begun much earlier:

"And so it went on with the race, ever dwindling, until 1846 we find that for
every birth among the native tribes there occurred eight deaths. The
numbers had even at that date greatly diminished from the estimate of the
black population at the inception of the settlement...".

Colles noted that all traces of Aboriginal people had disappeared from Hawthorn since the
1850s and considered the decline in part a result of "...a taste for strong drink" on the part of
the Aborigines, which lead to an increase in heart disease. Smith was more circumspect; in
referring to the Yarra tribe, he states:

"For many years after the advent of the white man this tribe used to roam
about; but their numbers rapidly grew less, if tradition be correct not without
the aid of those who had taken forcible possession of the soil. Dark tales are
told of ambuscades and reckless shootings, while hints of flour poisoned with
arsenic are rife. Whether these had any foundation in fact, it is impossible to
tell; but certain it is that at the end of twenty short years many hundreds of
aboriginals had gone..." (Smith 1896: 12).

Peel et al (1993: 10) state that the remaining Aborigines of Boroondara eventually ended up
at Coranderrk, a 2000 hectare station at Healesville that opened in 1863:

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"Here, the remaining members of the Victorian tribes, including the


Wurundjeri, were herded together into a village-style settlement where their
nomadic lifestyle was forcibly replaced with farming".

Smiths earlier notes corroborate this:

"As time advanced, the members of the tribe gradually grew less and less,
and there is now a very small remnant at the reserve at Correnderrk..."
(Smith 1896: 13)

In what is perhaps the last clear historical reference in the listed sources to Aborigines in
Boroondara, Charles Fysh, a Hawthorn diarist, also recorded that few people recalled
Aborigines in Hawthorn after the 1850s, but stated that he had seen some when fishing at
(perhaps ironically) Gardiner's Creek in 1869 (McWilliam 1978: 2).

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4.0 ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

Stage 1 of the Indigenous Heritage Study for the City of Boroondara (TerraCulture 2002)
involved a literature review, including a listing of any archaeological investigations undertaken
in the area. There has been limited archaeological investigation undertaken in the Boroondara
region itself. Investigations have generally been broad-scale studies along the Yarra River
and its tributaries (Hall 1989, Murphy 2000), in the Melbourne Metropolitan areas (Presland
1983, du Cros and Rhodes 1998), and in the Yarra Valley (Witter and Upcher 1977). A
conservation management plan for a scarred tree has also been carried out (Hughes 2000).
These archaeological reports are reviewed here in detail.

4.1 Previous Archaeological Investigations


Witter, D. C. and Upcher, C. M. 1977

Witter and Upcher were commissioned by Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works to
provide recommendations for archaeological sites which will be affected by the proposed
Yarra Valley Metropolitan Park. The park will cover an area of the Yarra Valley between
Burke Road bridge at Ivanhoe and Pound Bend at Warrandyte. The aim was to locate
Aboriginal archaeological sites and associated artefacts within the proposed location for the
park (Witter and Upcher 1977:1). For the purposes of the archaeological survey, the study
area was divided into five physiographic features, including river channel, flood plain,
terraces, valley slopes and upland hills (Witter and Upcher 1977: 3-4). Four lithic sites,
twenty Aboriginal scarred trees (one previously recorded) and a single ground stone axe were
located during the survey (Witter and Upcher 1977: 1). Management proposals for the Yarra
Valley Survey area included a salvage study for scarred trees, intensive systematic collection
of lithic sites, monitoring of sites and protection of sites (Witter and Upcher 1977:15).

Presland, G. 1983

Gary Presland undertook an archaeological survey of the Melbourne Metropolitan area,


including the Yarra River and the City of Boroondara, for the Victorian Archaeological Survey.
The aims of the study were as follows:

• To develop a practical and economic strategy for surveying prehistoric archaeological


sites in the study area
• To identify areas of potential archaeological importance in the study area,
• To identify those parts of the study area where archaeological surveys can be
conducted effectively,
• To implement a pilot survey program and evaluate its effectiveness
• To prepare comprehensive proposals for future surveys of archaeological sites in the
study area.
• To prepare comprehensive proposals for future surveys of prehistoric archaeological
sites in the study area

The study area was divided into five separate landscape units based upon factors including
geology, topography, vegetation, and hydrology (Presland 1983: 4). Melbourne city comprises
Landscape Unit 1. Landscape Unit 1 was classified as a flat plain including the alluvial fans,
terraces and valleys of the Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers (Presland 1983:5). Landscape Unit
1 takes in the entire length of the Yarra River (Presland 1983:5) and covers a large portion of
Melbourne, including Boroondara. The aims of the field survey component of the study were
to identify those parts of the study area which have a high archaeological potential and/or
interest, to identify areas and recorded sites within the study area which are under threat due
to impending development, and to record sites discovered during the field surveys (for further
detail refer to Presland 1983:41). A total of 40 sites were recorded or re-recorded during the
surveys of all landscape units, with scarred trees and stone artefact scatters being the most
common site type (Presland 1983: 74). Ten sites were located during the survey of
Landscape Unit 1. These sites consist of six scarred trees and four isolated artefact scatters.

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Sites were located close to Carrum Swamp and on the Maribyrnong River (Presland
1985:55).

A series of detailed recommendations were made for the study area and included site
management procedures for recorded sites and future archaeological studies for the study
area.

Hall, R. 1989

In 1989 Hall carried out a study with the aim of providing a description and interpretation of
the archaeology of Merri Creek and the basic information necessary for making management
and research decisions in regards to the archaeological resource base (Hall 1989:ii). The
study area followed the Merri Creek corridor from Whittlesea to Collingwood, and also
included the Yarra River/Merri Creek junction in Collingwood. The study was commissioned
by the Merri Creek Bicentennial Committee, and specific aims were as follows:

• To carry out a survey of archaeological sites within the Merri Creek Parklands
• To document and interpret sites in terms of the region’s history and previous
archaeological work
• To assess the scientific and cultural significance of recorded sites
• To provide recommendations on the management and protection of recorded sites and
for their interpretation to the public (Hall 1989: 2).

21 stone artefact scatters and five scarred trees were identified during the survey (Hall 1989:
2). The report includes detailed documentation of the sites recorded during the survey,
including analysis of the stone artefacts located. Photographs of known Aboriginal
archaeological and historical sites along the creek are also included.

Du Cros, H. and Rhodes, D. 1998

Du Cros and Rhodes were commissioned by Melbourne Water Commission to report on


archaeology along the waterways of the Melbourne area, including the Yarra River. The
Waterway and Drainage Group within Melbourne Water was required to plan for a variety of
developments and improvements to waterways and floodplains in order to meet its waterway
management and regional drainage responsibilities. The aim of the project was to provide an
overview assessment of waterway and floodplain areas across greater Melbourne with regard
to their sensitivity for Aboriginal cultural material (du Cros and Rhodes 1998:1.2). The areas
of archaeological sensitivity were formulated from the background information and the site
distribution patterns revealed by generalities in the site prediction models in use around
Melbourne (du Cros and Rhodes 1998:1.4). These areas were classified as waterways or
floodplains of high or unknown sensitivity, as described below.

• Waterways of potential high sensitivity (those known or predicted to have high sensitivity
levels and which are largely unmodified),

• Waterways of unknown potential or integrity (those which have little recorded sensitivity,
possible due to the lack of survey work and which have unknown levels of disturbance),

• Floodplains of potential high sensitivity (those known or predicted to have high


sensitivity levels and which are largely unmodified),

• Floodplains of unknown potential or integrity (those which have little recorded sensitivity,
possible due to lack of survey work and which have unknown levels of disturbance)

• Areas of known high sensitivity (areas with known cultural values) (du Cros and Rhodes
1998: Executive Summary).

The Yarra River and Merri Creek were identified as being waterways of high sensitivity.
Waterways of high sensitivity were defined as being those known or predicted to have high

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sensitivity levels and which are largely unmodified (du Cros and Rhodes 1998: 1.4). The
Yarra River, in particular, has important evidence of Aboriginal occupation for the period after
European settlement (du Cros and Rhodes 1998: 2.1.3). For waterways of potential high
sensitivity, it was recommended that all waterway works are preceded by a full survey to
locate, assess and make management recommendations for any cultural material found, or
likely to occur, within the affected area (du Cros and Rhodes 1998: 3.0).

Hughes, S. 2000

Hughes’ 2000 report documents an Aboriginal scarred tree located in Hawthorn. Two
registered Aboriginal scarred trees in the area are also described (the Burnley Park
Corroboree Tree and a scarred tree located elsewhere in Hawthorn). Hughes’ report contains
an existing condition report on the tree and a detailed listing of possible threats to the site.
Recommendations included a range of conservation treatment options. Hughes also made
recommendations that the site be included on the Aboriginal Affairs site register. However, it
appears that the site was registered at this time and Hughes did not realise this as there are
some discrepancies in the Aboriginal affairs registry information (see Section 6.1 below).

Murphy, A. 2000

Melbourne Water Corporation commissioned Murphy to conduct a preliminary cultural


heritage assessment of a section of Koonung Creek extending between Bowen Road and
Darvall Street, Donvale. While this survey did not extend into the current study area,
Koonung Creek runs through Boroondara adjacent to the Eastern Freeway in Balwyn North,
and contains similar disturbance to the creek line. Melbourne Water intended to conduct
creek bank rehabilitation work in the Koonung Creek area. Prior to this investigation no
cultural heritage sites had been previously recorded within the study area (Murphy 2000: I).
One of the aims of the study was to conduct and archaeological site survey to determine
whether any Aboriginal or historic sites, artefacts or cultural deposits exist within the study
area (Murphy 2000: 1).

No Aboriginal archaeological sites were located during the archaeological survey, and it was
determined that the immediate banks of Koonung Creek had low potential for archaeological
material due to the disturbed nature of the creek line. The northern hill slope of Koonung
Creek was considered to have moderate potential for surface and/or subsurface Aboriginal
archaeological material (Murphy 2000: I). Based on the results of the study, several
recommendations were made in regards to the study area including monitoring in areas of
potential archaeological sensitivity (Murphy 2000: II).

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5.0 TIMELINE OF EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND


URBANISATION OF BOROONDARA

As part of developing both an effective survey strategy and a site prediction model, it was felt
necessary to undertake some research into the European settlement of the Boroondara area
and subsequent urbanisation of the municipality. It was felt that this would aid in placing the
known and predicted Aboriginal heritage values in full context. As the timeline below shows,
the City of Boroondara is highly urbanised and the growth of residential areas has been
occurring throughout most of the city since at least the 1850s and in earnest since the 1880s.

1830s

1837 - John Gardiner takes up land near the Junction of Gardiner's Creek and the Yarra River
1837 - Hawthorn township reserve surveyed

1840s

1840 - John Hodgson takes squatting licence over 'Studley Park' - Kew
1841 - Henry Elgar's Special Survey - 8 square miles at northeastern corner of Boroondara
subdivided into small farms and grazing runs.
1843 – farm sized allotments surveyed in Hawthorn
1845 – “The Hawthorns” built, Creswick Street, Hawthorn
1845 - Camberwell area occupied for grazing

1850s

During the 1850s Crown Land Sales in Kew were predominantly allotments of between 15
and 80 hectares, though one large parcel of 495 hectares was sold off in quarter hectare
Streets were laid out during this period.

1851 – Construction of Burwood Road


1852 - “Invergowrie” Homestead and land settled, Hawthorn Hotel in Barton Street, Hawthorn,
built
1853 – Gothic Revivalist Church and Hawthorn Primary School built, Hawthorn
1853 - Inn erected at Camberwell Junction
1854 - two hotels erected in Kew - one at Kew Junction and one at the Corner of Harp Road
and High Street
1854 - Congregationalist Church, Kew
1855 - Baptist Church, Kew
1855 – The Governor Hotham Hotel on William Street built, Hawthorn
1856 - Methodist Church, Kew
1856 - Anglican School, Kew
1858 - Johnston Street Bridge connects Kew to Collingwood and the city
1858 - Camberwell school opens in Hartwell area. The school closes soon after this date
1858 - Anglican Church, Kew

1860s

1861 – Construction of the Burnley to Hawthorn Railway extension


1861 - Kew population reaches 1,439
1862 - Camberwell Post Office
1862 - Two small settlements in Camberwell arise - one at the Junction and the other at
Hartwell
1864 – Presbyterian Church, Glenferrie Road, Hawthorn
1865 - Glen Iris Methodist Church
1865 – Hawthorn Town Hall, market gardens, residences, businesses and brick fields were all
built by 1865
1867 - Camberwell school opens at the Junction

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1869 – The Railway Hotel, Hawthorn, opens

1870s

During this decade many residences and shops appear in Hawthorn. Camberwell is now an
area of small farms with fine villa residences at the northern end.
1871 – “Invergowrie” land in Hawthorn subdivided by George Coppin
1872 - school opens at Glen Iris
1876 - Horse Tram from Hawthorn railway station to Kew
1876 - Kew Population reaches 2,429
1876 – Tower Hotel, Camberwell Road, Hawthorn, opens

1880s

The 1880s sees residences continue to be built at a rapid pace in Hawthorn

1882 – Railway extension to Upper Hawthorn and Glenferrie is constructed


1882 - Extension of Railway from Hawthorn to Camberwell, to the north of the existing
Camberwell settlement at the junction
1882 - general store at Glen Iris
1883 - railway line extended from Camberwell to Lilydale
1886 - Horse tram from Kew Cemetery to cable tram on the other side of the river in
Collingwood
1886 - Surrey Hills primary school opens; two churches and post office are already present in
Surrey Hills, but area still predominantly rural
1886 - Growth of Burke Road shopping centre from the junction to the station
1886 - Stimulation of residential subdivision in Camberwell and Canterbury
1887 - Railway spur line replaces horse tram from Hawthorn to Kew. Operates until 1957

1890s

This decade saw the suburbanisation of Camberwell

1890 – Horse tram service to Hawthorn becomes available


1891 - Kew Population reaches 8,462
1890 - Auburn primary school opens
1891 - All of Canterbury subdivided but not built on
1891 - Outer-circle rail line through Kew, Canterbury, Camberwell, Glen Iris and Ashburton
opens, designed to stimulate residential growth but passenger services cease twoyears later
1897 – Grace Park, Hawthorn, opens
1897 - Subdivision of the northern part of Hawthorn East
1897 - Railway line from Burnley to Oakley via the Gardiners Creek Valley, with three stations
in Glen Iris

1900-1920

1903 - Surrey Hills Population is now approximately 1000


1911 - Camberwell Population reaches 12,551
1913 - 1915 - New tram lines in High Street, Cotham Road and Glenferrie Roads in Kew
1916 - New tram line along Burke Road, Camberwell
1916 – 1920 - Electric tramline opens along Burwood Road, Power Street and Riversdale
1916 – 1920 - Road to Princes Bridge, Melbourne city. Due to the construction of thetramline
with city access, many shops, factories (including Fowlers Bottling Company) open
throughout Hawthorn

1920-1940

1921 - Kew Population 17,382


1925 - Auburn South primary school opens

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1925 - Subdivision of the southern part of Hawthorn East


1928 - Ashburton primary school opens - Ashburton at this time mainly orchards and market
gardens, with a few shops
1920 - 1940 – From the 1920s to the 1940s Hawthorn’s population increased dramatically
from 25,000 to 40,000. By this time Hawthorn had many established homes, parks, and a
shopping precinct centred around the railway station

1940s - present

Most of Kew was developed by the 1940s, with the only undeveloped parts around Yarra
Bend Park and near Stradbroke Park.

1948 - Extension of railway to Alamein allowing development around Ashburton - mainly by


the Housing Commission
1970 - opening of South Eastern (Monash) Freeway to Glen Iris. Continuing development of
the freeway along the Gardiners Creek Valley saw the creek extensively revegetated and
modified.
1970s – During the 1970s many older Hawthorn residences were demolished to make way
for flats. By 1981 45% of Hawthorns housing was flats.

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6.0 SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF BACKGROUND


INFORMATION
6.1 Registered Site Locations

Aboriginal archaeological and Aboriginal historical sites within the City of Boroondara were
listed and discussed briefly in Stage 1. During the Stage 1 investigation a search of the site
register at Aboriginal Affairs Victoria was undertaken. The search revealed that there were, at
the time of the study, eleven Aboriginal sites located within the City of Boroondara (See
TerraCulture 2002: 13). Of the eleven sites, two were Aboriginal historic places (Booby’s
Murder and the Honorary Correspondent Depot at Hawthorn) and nine were archaeological
sites. All nine Aboriginal archaeological registered sites were scarred trees. All except for
one of the scarred trees are located within parks or reserves adjacent to the Yarra River.

6.2 Ethnohistorical Evidence (Map 3)

As far as ethnohistorical evidence, several locations within the City of Boroondara are
referred to, some frequently. These include the following;

• Gardiner’s Creek in general,

• Hill within the grounds of Xavier College, located near the corner of Barkers Road and
Denmark Street, Kew,

• Area surrounding Creswick Street, Hawthorn,

• Area around former Methodist Church, Oxley Road, Hawthorn,

• Dights Falls, along the Yarra River, Kew

• Studley Park, Kew

• Land around Yarra Street in Hawthorn

Aside from the clear references to Gardiner’s Creek, Studley Park and Dights Falls (see Clark
& Heydon 1998, McFarlane 2000, Bonwick 1858, Vaughn 1960, Smith 1896, and McWilliam
1978) the ethnographic references refer to hilltops and high points as the location of
corroborrees (see Smith 1896 and Colles 1910).

6.3 Previous Archaeological Investigations (Map 4)


A small number of studies, while not directly within the City of Boroondara itself, have
assessed the archaeology of the waterways running through the area (see Section 4.0).
These include broad-scale studies of the Melbourne Metropolitan area (Presland 1983), the
Yarra Valley (Witter and Upcher 1977), the Yarra River (Hall 1989, Du Cros and Rhodes
1998), and Koonung Creek (Murphy 2000). These studies are reviewed in detail in Section
4.1, and revealed the following:

• Sites are common on the floodplains and terraces of the Yarra River (see Witter and
Upcher 1977, Presland 1983),

• Common site types in the Yarra Valley and adjacent to the Yarra River and other
waterways are stone artefact scatters and scarred trees (see Witter and Upcher 1977,
Presland 1989, Hughes 2000),

• The Yarra River was identified as being an area of high archaeological sensitivity,
especially in areas which remained unmodified (du Cros and Rhodes 1998),

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• Koonung Creek, which runs through the study area, was determined to be of low
archaeological sensitivity due to its highly disturbed and landscaped nature (see Murphy
2000).

• All other waterways within the area should be seen as having unknown potential or
integrity as they have little recorded sensitivity, possibly due to the lack of survey work
and hence have unknown levels of disturbance (see du Cros and Rhodes 1998),

6.4 Urbanisation
The main inference to be drawn about urban growth and development is that it has severely
impacted Aboriginal archaeological sites, both in terms of their presence and preservation.
While this may appear obvious for those areas which have been the subject of residential
development, background information on the urban development of Boroondara shows that
certain parklands which may have initially been thought to be less disturbed and thus suitable
for survey have also been dramatically altered since European settlement. For example, it is
known that both Fritz Holzer Park and land around John Gardiner Reserve in Hawthorn East
were formerly the locations of claypits for Brickworks (McWilliam 1978). Similarly, some linear
parks such as Outer Circle Park in Balwyn and Boroondara Park in Canterbury are located
along the former outer circle rail line. This does not mean that Aboriginal archaeological sites
will not be located within these parks, but in the interest of an effective survey strategy those
areas known to have been heavily disturbed during the historic period away from major
waterways were discounted as survey locations at the outset.

It is likely, however, that numerous other parks within the municipality have also undergone
similar major modification during the historic period.

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7.0 FIELD SURVEY AND RESULTS (Map 5)


The main objective of the field survey was to target parks and reserves within the City of
Boroondara. Parks and reserves remain as the only open spaces in Boroondara’s highly
urbanised environment, and hence were the most obvious choice for the field survey
component of this investigation.

The field investigation involved two stages;

1. Reconaissance survey

On the basis of known site distributions and the extensive open parklands along its course,
the Yarra River Corridor was slated for detailed survey from the outset. However, other areas
where pedestrian survey would be conducted were determined on the basis of a
reconnaissance survey of the City of Boroondara. This was carried out by TerraCulture
st
archaeologists Matt Chamberlain and Claire Nicholls on the 21 of January 2004. The
reconnaissance involved the assessment of a sample of parklands and reserves away from
the Yarra River corridor. In addition, three areas were visited simply on the basis that they
had appeared in the Ethnohistorical references. The reconnaissance did not involve any
actual ground survey of any the reserves; and was more a brief assessment of the level of
ground visibility and disturbance.

Survey areas were selected on the basis of the information gathered from background
information, ground surface visibility, disturbance and landscaping, the location of previously
recorded Aboriginal archaeological sites, and adjoining urban development. Detailed notes
were taken on the areas assessed and photographs were also taken.

2. Field Survey

TerraCulture archaeologists Matt Chamberlain and Claire Nicholls conducted the survey
along with Tony Garvey representing the Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural
Heritage Council Inc. As noted above, on the basis of known archaeological values the Yarra
River Corridor was selected as the most important area for detailed survey prior to any
reconnaissance. The remaining locations were selected on the basis of the reconnaissance
survey. The survey areas were assessed via a pedestrian survey. Due to extensive
vegetation cover over each of the survey areas, an opportunistic survey strategy was
adopted. Areas of adequate ground surface visibility, such as ground exposures adjacent to
pathways and erosion patches on hill flanks were targeted and investigated thoroughly.
Detailed notes were taken on the areas assessed and photographs were taken of each
survey area.

Any Aboriginal archaeological material was recorded according to AAV minimum standards.
Details were kept on the distances walked, GPS readings and the size and type of any
ground exposure. Aboriginal archaeological sites were defined using AAV procedures. A
detailed photographic record of the landscape itself and any sites located was also kept.

The field assessment was based on surface indications of Aboriginal archaeological sites and
did not involve any sub-surface testing for buried archaeological deposits.

7.1 Reconnaissance Survey Areas (Map 5)


Methodist Church, Oxley Street, Hawthorn

The survey area is situated in a suburban area with roads and residential development. The
area was deemed unsuitable for further investigation due to the insufficient ground surface
visibility and the highly disturbed nature of the landscape.

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Creswick Street, Hawthorn

Creswick Street is adjacent to Yarra Bank Reserve. The general area is highly urbanised,
and Yarra Bank Reserve is landscaped.

Xavier College, Kew

Most of Xavier College was inaccessible, however most of the grounds surrounding the
college appears to be highly disturbed due to extensive landscaping. The college also
contains several car parks, recreational ovals and buildings. The area was deemed to be
unsuitable for field survey due to the its highly modified and disturbed nature.

Kew Residential Services – proposed development.

This area comprises open parkland with vehicle and pedestrian tracks crossing the reserve.
The ground surface visibility was very poor and limited to small exposures. The area is highly
modified and landscaped with extensive grass cover throughout. Due to very poor ground
surface visibility and heavy landscaping it was deemed unsuitable for further survey.

Kew Cricket Ground and park (Victoria Park).

Visibility was extremely poor due to grass cover, with some small ground surface exposures
around trees and adjacent to walking tracks. The park has been heavily landscaped and
modified, with a cricket ground to the north of the park. The area contains a number of older
Eucalypt trees. Due to the poor ground surface visibility and highly disturbed nature of the
cricket ground and the park was deemed unsuitable for further survey.

Stradbroke Park – Corner Burke Road and Harp Road.

The park has been heavily landscaped and there was generally no ground surface visibility
with the exception of small erosion patches close to walking track. Due to the poor ground
surface visibility and its highly modified nature, the area was deemed unsuitable for further
survey.

Hays Paddock

Glass creek runs through the reserve, and has been modified by drainage construction in
places. The ground surface visibility was generally very low, however exposures adjacent to
gravel walking tracks, around trees and erosion patches provided the survey team with some
visibility. Both sides of the creek were easily accessed. Due to its location adjacent to
Glass Creek the area was deemed suitable for further survey.

Myrtle Park

Myrtle Park consists of heavily landscaped parkland with a series of ovals used for
recreational purposes. The park is possibly situated in a former
watercourse/swampland/depression. There was no ground surface visibility due to extensive
grass cover. Due to the poor ground surface visibility and its highly modified nature, the park
was deemed unsuitable for further survey.

Hislop Reserve

Hislop reserve comprises landscaped parkland and a series of ovals used for recreational
purposes. Ground surface visibility was limited to surface exposures and erosion patches
around trees. Due to the poor ground surface visibility and its highly disturbed nature, the
reserve was deemed unsuitable for further survey.

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Beckett Park

Beckett Park is situated on a high hill overlooking the suburbs of Balwyn and Surrey Hills. A
Lookout tower is situated towards the center of the park on the crest of the hill. The park
contains a small section of native bush land and grassland, which is fenced off. Despite the
poor ground surface visibility, the park was deemed to be suitable for further survey due to
the section of bush land. The park was also selected for further survey because of its locality
on a high hill overlooking the suburbs below.

Belmont Park

A highly landscaped parkland with large lawn/grassed areas used for recreational purposes.
There was extremely poor ground surface visibility throughout the park. Due to the lack of
ground surface visibility and its highly landscaped nature, Belmont Park was deemed
unsuitable for further survey.

Cooper Reserve

The reserve comprises gently undulating terrain and is located in a slight depression at the
end of Hercules creek. The park is heavily landscaped and contains an open oval used for
recreational purposes. Ground surface visibility was extremely poor. Due to the poor ground
surface visibility and the highly disturbed nature of the area, Coopers Reserve was deemed
unsuitable for further survey.

Markham Reserve, Gardiners Creek

A golf course is situated on the southern side of Gardiners Creek. The northern side of the
creek is heavily grassed/regenerated native bushland. Visibility was limited to small patches
of erosion. Due to the poor ground surface visibility and the highly disturbed nature of the
area, Markham Reserve was deemed unsuitable for further survey.

Hill n Dale Park

Hill n Dale Park is possibly located on an old creek line (Back Creek or tributary thereof) and
is moderately landscaped. Low ground surface visibility adjacent to paths. Due to the low
ground surface visibility and the moderately disturbed nature of the area, the park was
deemed unsuitable for further survey.

H. A. Smith and Patterson Reserves - Gardiners Creek

H. A. Smith and Patterson Reserves comprise a series of landscaped parklands with planted
natives and exotic species. The parks are used for recreational purposes and ground surface
visibility was very poor. Due to the poor ground surface visibility and the modified nature of
the area, the reserves were deemed unsuitable for further survey.

7.2 Field Survey Results (Map 5)


Kew Billabong (Plate 1)

The survey area comprises gently undulating terrain surrounding a billabong adjoining the
Yarra River to the west. The land rises slightly toward the Eastern Freeway to the south of
the survey area. A small, landscaped reserve, Willsmere Chandler Park, and the Green
Acres Golf Club are situated to the east of the billabong. Currently the subject land is used
as a public open space and contains regenerated native vegetation and landscaped
gardens/lawns used for recreational purposes. Thick native bushland occurs around the
billabong, which is fenced off in some areas next to walking tracks. Walking and bicycle
tracks encircle the billabong and cross the park toward the Yarra River. While any areas of
good ground surface visibility were assessed, the survey of Kew Billabong and surrounds
concentrated on the banks of the billabong and ground surface exposures along the sides of

M. Chamberlain & C. Nicholls 22 TerraCulture Pty Ltd


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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

walking tracks where visibility was adequate. Large trees were also checked for any
evidence of Aboriginal scarring.

Kew Billabong to Yarra Bend (Plate 2)

The survey area comprised gently undulating terrain, rising slightly to the east adjacent to the
Eastern Freeway. The subject land consists of landscaped and grassed areas marked by
small pockets of native bushland, particularly in a small band adjacent to the Yarra River.
Walking and bicycle tracks follow the course of the Yarra River. Currently the survey area is
used as a recreational area. The survey focused on the banks of the Yarra River where
erosion had caused small areas of the ground to become exposed. Ground surface
exposures adjacent to walking tracks and on hill slopes were also targeted. Large trees were
also checked for any evidence of Aboriginal scarring.

Yarra Bend Park and Studley Park Boathouse (Plates 3 to 7)

The survey area comprised undulating, hilly terrain with steep cliff embankments along some
sections of the Yarra River. Grassed/lawn areas are used for recreational purposes. There
are also areas of bushland, with large river red gums along the banks of the Yarra. A dirt
walking track cut into the side of the river bank runs through native bushland. Other gravel
and bitumen walking tracks cross the park. Visibility throughout the survey area was very
poor and limited to exposures along the banks of river, around the base of trees adjacent to
walking tracks and paths. Exposures on the flanks of steeper hills also provided the survey
team with good ground surface visibility. A picnic area with barbeque facilities and public
conveniences are located adjacent to the Studley Park Boat House. This area has been
extensively modified with bitumen paving and landscaping. Large trees were also checked
for any evidence of Aboriginal scarring.

One Aboriginal archaeological site was located during the survey

Dickinson Reserve (Plates 8 and 9)

Dickinson Reserve comprises slightly undulating terrain with landscaped gardens and lawns
used for recreational purposes. The area has been highly modified and disturbed by
landscaping. Gravel walking tracks cross the reserve and a dirt path runs adjacent to the
Yarra River. Ground surface visibility was generally very poor throughout the subject land
due to grass cover and was limited to exposures around the base of trees. Large trees were
checked for any evidence of Aboriginal scarring.

Hays Paddock (Plates 10 to 12)

The survey area consists of gently undulating terrain and is surrounded by suburban
residential development. Glass Creek runs through the reserve in a north-south direction
before terminating at Kilby Road. The creek has been extensively modified due to
landscaping, drainage construction and waterway improvement works (including the re-
planting of native vegetation on both sides of the creek). The reserve contains bitumen car
parks, several gravel paths, play grounds, picnic areas, sports ovals, and a landscaped
wetland/billabong. Some native vegetation and grassland still exists, which is possibly
replanted/regenerated. Generally there was very low ground surface visibility, however
ground surface exposures adjacent to gravel walking tracks, around trees and erosion
patches provided the survey team with some visibility. Both sides of the creek were easily
accessed.

Koonung Creek – Bulleen Road to Doncaster Road, North Balwyn (Plate 13)

The focus of the survey was the Koonung Creek Reserve, which follows the Eastern Freeway
to Balwyn. The reserve comprises slightly undulating terrain with landscaped parkland and a
series of pathways. The subject land is dominated by landscaped and grassed areas which
continue along the length of the creek, with replanted native vegetation in some areas. The

M. Chamberlain & C. Nicholls 23 TerraCulture Pty Ltd


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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

reserve is used for recreational purposes. Ground surface visibility was extremely poor
throughout the reserve due to grass cover.

Beckett Park (Plate 14)

Beckett Park is located on the crest of a hill rise overlooking suburbs of Balwyn and Surry
Hills below. The Yarra River can also be seen from the hill. The park is situated in a
suburban residential area and contains a lookout tower, parking areas, recreational area
(BBQ and playground), small botanical gardens (Maranoa Gardens), and a fenced off Gum
and Kangaroo grass woodland re-vegetation area. Ground surface visibility was poor due to
dense vegetation cover and limited to small exposures on the crest and flanks of the hill.

Fairview Park to Wallen Reserve (Plate 15 and 16)

The survey area is located on the Yarra River floodplain between the river itself and
residential development on higher ground to the north and east. The area has been
extensively modified, with landscaped garden/lawn areas, paved pathways, and play grounds.
The banks of the Yarra River have also been heavily disturbed and are lined with stone or
cement in places. The park is located in a residential area adjacent to the Yarra. Visibility
across the survey area was generally poor, however there were a number of large surface
exposures on open recreational areas probably caused by frequent sporting activities. Large
River Red Gums were located along the banks of the river. These were checked for evidence
of Aboriginal scarring.

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8.0 CONCLUSIONS AND SITE PREDICTION MODEL


8.1 Summary of Results

• One new site - a scarred tree - has been registered within the Boroondara
municipality. This brings the total number of registered Aboriginal archaeological
sites within the City of Boroondara to ten.

• Portions of Yarra Bend Park, including the Studley Park area, were surveyed in
detail. The results indicate that this park is far less disturbed than other sections
of the Yarra River surveyed during this investigation. Yarra Bend Park extends
from Dickinson Reserve in the south to the Chandler Highway in the North and
contains one registered site. Six other registered sites are located in close
proximity to the park.

• Large stretches of the Yarra River within the City of Boroondara were surveyed in
detail and these have been substantially modified and disturbed by both public
and private development. The stretch from Yarra Bend Park to Kew Billabong is
largely landscaped and disturbed by Freeway construction, while other reserves
such as Dickinson Reserve, Wallen Road Reserve and Fairview Reserve are also
modified and landscaped.

• Sections of Koonung Creek were surveyed in detail. The results show that this
creek has been heavily modified, particularly by the construction of the Eastern
Freeway.

• Gardiners Creek has been heavily modified, especially by the construction of the
Monash Freeway, channeling work dating back to the early twentieth century and
landscaping of surrounding reserves, but was not surveyed in detail.

• A large portion of Glass Creek was surveyed in detail, and this waterway has
been heavily disturbed, landscaped and modified.

• Most of the locations referred to in the Ethnohistorical references have also been
heavily modified and disturbed by suburban residential development. Only the
Dights Falls/Studley Park area remains in an area that is relatively less disturbed.

• Most parks and reserves away from the major stream courses visited during this
survey have been significantly modified through the removal of vegetation,
landscaping, levelling, and building construction. Only one of these parks was
surveyed in detail, but no Aboriginal archaeological material was recorded.

8.2 Discussion and Site Prediction Model (Map 6)

8.2.1 Discussion of Ethnohistoric References

The ethnohistoric sources clearly state that the Aboriginal population of Boroondara was in
decline from the earliest period of European settlement, and particularly from the 1840s
onwards. These references point out that illness and disease, conflict and displacement hit
the Aboriginal people of the Boroondara area, and by the 1860s most Aboriginal people were
residing at reserves like Coranderrk. This decline is also evident in the location of areas
appearing in the ethnohistorical sources. Map 4 shows that most of the ethnohistorical
locations are in those areas settled earliest by Europeans. There are no ethnohistorical
references in those suburbs and localities that grew later, particularly in the east and south of
the municipality.

It should be noted that there is a relative lack of ethnohistorical information - both written and
visual - for the Boroondara area. There is a comparatively large range of sources for general

M. Chamberlain & C. Nicholls 25 TerraCulture Pty Ltd


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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

localities which may have included Boroondara; particularly references to Melbourne or the
Yarra River in general, but none are specific enough to be assumed to belong to the
Boroondara area specifically. This highlights the difficulty of dealing with historical sources
within the context of a modern municipal boundary.

8.2.2 Site Prediction

In an area as highly urbanised as the City of Boroondara, predicting the location of unknown
Aboriginal archaeological sites is highly problematic. Therefore, perhaps the clearest way to
proceed is to discuss areas in terms of their potential archaeological sensitivity. Several areas
had been highlighted in previous investigations (see Section 4.1) as being of high, low or
unknown sensitivity, so these areas have been addressed first.

The previous archaeological investigations suggested that the Yarra River is an area of high
archaeological sensitivity, particularly in areas that remained unmodified. The results of the
current investigation confirm this. Some of the surveyed areas along the Yarra River have
been landscaped and modified. Nevertheless, there are a number of registered sites along
the Yarra corridor, both within Boroondara and in adjoining municipalities. The course of the
Yarra through Boroondara is also bordered by large areas of open space, some of which are
relatively less disturbed and modified, particularly in the north of the city. For these reasons
the Yarra River corridor throughout Boroondara should be seen as having moderate to high
archaeological sensitivity. For the northern portion of the city, the Yarra corridor of sensitivity
is delineated by existing parkland, but for all other areas the band of sensitivity should be
considered to include all areas within 200 metres of the Yarra River bank.

As noted above, Yarra Bend Park (including the area known as Studley Park) is a large and
relatively less disturbed park along the Yarra River in the northwestern corner of the City of
Boroondara. There are now seven Aboriginal archaeological sites clustered in and around the
park. There are also numerous references to the use of the area by Aboriginal people
(Chapter 3), including the importance of the Dights Falls area as a Corroboree area and
Studley Park as a camping area during the early 1840s. The lack of substantial disturbance
also increases the likelihood that in situ archaeological deposits may be present within the
park. When these factors are considered, Yarra Bend Park should be seen as an area of high
archaeological sensitivity and as the most sensitive area for Aboriginal archaeological sites
within the municipality. The fact that only one site was recorded in the park during the field
component of this investigation can be attributed to poor ground surface visibility and the
dense bush land that characterises the park.

Koonung Creek had been described as being of low archaeological sensitivity on the basis of
investigations outside the City of Boroondara that suggested that this waterway was
considerably altered and disturbed. The results of this investigation confirm this for the
course of the creek within the City of Boroondara. Surveyed areas along Koonung Creek are
alongside the Eastern Freeway, where the watercourse itself has become little more than an
underground drain bordered by the heavily landscaped Koonung Creek Reserve. Under these
circumstances, any Aboriginal archaeological material present is likely to also be heavily
disturbed and dispersed. Koonung Creek should therefore be seen as being of low
archaeological sensitivity.

On the basis of a report by du Cros and Rhodes (1998 see Section 4.1), the remaining
existing waterways within the city (Gardiners Creek, Glass Creek) were defined as being of
unknown archaeological potential. The results of the survey suggest that both are of low
sensitivity for Aboriginal archaeological sites. While Gardiners Creek was not surveyed in
detail, the reserves alongside the creek visited during the reconnaissance survey are heavily
modified and landscaped. Previous investigations have been conducted along the creek
within or adjoining the City of Boroondara (Brown 1995) and these have not recorded any
archaeological sites and have also highlighted the disturbed nature of the creek. Glass Creek
has also been heavily disturbed. The course of the creek itself has been lined with rock and
concrete in various areas and the surrounds have been landscaped and converted into
playing fields and the like. As was noted for Koonung Creek, the types of disturbance present

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Indigenous Heritage Study - Stage 2
June 2004

along Gardiners and Glass Creeks is likely to have dispersed any archaeological material
present.

No other predictive statements were made for the remainder of the municipality. As was noted
in Section 7.0, the parks and reserves within the municipality were the object of the surveys.
All of the parks visited during the reconnaissance survey, however, exhibited a high degree of
modification, while others were known to have undergone substantial disturbance during the
historic period, and were thus not visited. Only one park away from the river corridors was the
subject of detailed survey and no sites were recorded. This park has also been modified.
While it is not known whether all parks within the City of Boroondara have been modified, the
results of the surveys indicate that, like Koonung, Gardiners and Glass Creeks, other parks
and reserves within the municipality have undergone the types of disturbance that will have
dispersed and Aboriginal archaeological material that may have been present. These
reserves should therefore be seen as being of low sensitivity for Aboriginal archaeological
sites.

Those areas away from the major waterways mentioned in the ethnohistorical information
were also visited. Most of these occur in highly urbanised areas where large-scale ground
disturbance has occurred, and once again is likely to have dispersed any Aboriginal
archaeological material that may have been present.

As for the urbanised areas of the municipality in general, it is likely that the construction of
infrastructure and housing and the associated clearance and leveling of the landscape, has
disturbed, dispersed, and buried any archaeological material present, and/or otherwise
created a situation whereby any such material is unlikely to be found.

Ultimately it cannot be stated that areas will not contain Aboriginal archaeological sites. It is
more appropriate to state that in all areas of the municipality away from the Yarra Corridor
and particularly Yarra Bend Park, there is some potential for locating Aboriginal
archaeological sites, but as a result of severe disturbance and modification resulting from the
urbanisation of the city, these sites are likely to occur in low densities and in disturbed
contexts.

M. Chamberlain & C. Nicholls 27 TerraCulture Pty Ltd


Plate 1: Walking track adjacent to Kew Billabong. Note
the thick bushland and low ground surface
visibility

Plate 2: Walking track adjacent to the Yarra River,


alongside the Eastern Freeway, west of Kew
Billabong. Note the poor ground surface visibility

Plate 3: Yarra Bend Park. Ground surface visibility was


limited to walking tracks beside the Yarra River
Plate 4: Yarra Bend Park adjacent to the Yarra River

Plate 5: Walking track alongside the Yarra River, Yarra Bend


Park. Note the dense bushland. Ground surface
visibility was limited to exposures adjacent to the
walking track and around the bases of larger trees

Plate 6: Hilly terrain in Yarra Bend Park. Exposures on the


flanks of steeper hills provided the survey team
with good ground surface visibility
Plate 7: Walking tracks in Yarra Bend Park

Plate 8: Dickinson Reserve. Ground surface visibility was generally


poor throughout the survey area, and limited to exposures
around the bases of trees
Plate 9: Walking track adjacent to the Yarra River,
Dickinson Reserve. Note the dense bushland

Plate 10: Hays Paddock. Note the ground surface


exposures adjacent to the pathways.

Plate 11: Hays Paddock. The park has been extensively


landscaped. Some areas of native vegetation
exist along Glass Creek
Plate 12: Glass Creek, Hays Paddock. The creek has been
extensively modified due to landscaping,
drainage construction, and waterway
improvement works

Plate 13: Koonung Creek Reserve. The reserve follows


the Eastern Freeway. The reserve is dominated
by landscaped areas, grassed areas, and small
areas of replanted native vegetation. Ground
surface visibility was very poor throughout the
area

Plate 14: Beckett Park is a high point and overlooks the


suburbs below. The Yarra River can also be
seen from the park. Visibility was limited to
small exposures on the crest and flanks of the
hill
Plate 15: Fairview Park. The park runs alongside the Yarra River to
join Wallen Reserve. The park has been extensively
modified and the banks of the river have been highly
disturbed

Plate 16: Fairview Park. While visibility was generally poor, there
was a number of large ground surface exposures on open
recreational areas. These provided the survey team with
good ground surface visibility
APPENDIX 1

Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources

Reference Description

Aborigines Progressive Association 1841 Reference to Aboriginal land use in the Melbourne area. No direct
Aborigines of Port Philip [sic] Extracts, papers and proceedings. References to Aboriginal people in the Boorondara area.
Aborigines Protection Society 11:28.

Blackhouse, J. 1843 A Narrative of a visit to the Australian Colonies. General references to indigenous people around Melbourne. No specific
Hamilton Adams and Co.: London. references to Boorondara.

Bride, T.F. 1969 (1898). Letters From Victorian Pioneers. References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe traditions and incidents in
Heinemann: Melbourne. the Melbourne area. No direct references to Aboriginal people in the
Boorondara area, general references to Woi wurrung only.
Cannon, M. (ed) 1982
Historical Records of Victoria. Foundation Series. Volumes 1-6. References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe traditions and incidents in
Victorian Government Printing Office: Melbourne. the Melbourne area and Merri Creek. No direct references to Boorondara.

Clark, I. D. (ed) 2000 References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe traditions and incidents in
The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port the Melbourne area and Merri Creek. References to Jacky Jacky’s mob
Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate. Heritage Matters: Melbourne. located on the south bank of the Yarra, from Gardiners Creek to Yarra
Flats and the northern slopes of the Dandenong Mountains (referenced
as Barwick 1984: 124).

Shillinglaw, J. J. 1972 (1879) References to seeing Aboriginal people in the Port Phillip area. Does
Historical Records of Port Phillip. Heinemann: Melbourne. not mention specific areas where Aboriginal people were sighted. No
references to Boorodara.

Thomas, W. Journals and undated memoirs. In Bride, T. F., References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri traditions and
1969 (1898). Letters from Victorian Pioneers. Heinemann: Melbourne incidents in the Melbourne area. No specific references to Boorondara.
. References to Aboriginal people on the Yarra River.

Thomas, W. Journals and undated memoirs. In Cannon, M. (ed) References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri traditions and
1982. Historical Records of Victoria. Foundation Series Volume 2A. incidents in the Melbourne area. Recounts the story of Aboriginal
The Aborigines of Port Phillip 1835-39. Victorian Government Printing people allegedly stealing potatoes from John Gardiner’s property near
Office: Melbourne. Gardiners Creek (pp. 213-214).

Thomas, W. Journal and undated memoirs. In Cannon, M. (Ed) 1983 Refereces to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri traditions and
Historical Records of Victoria. Foundation Series. Volume 2B. incidents in the Melbourne area. Only general information and no
Aborigines and Public Records Office 1838-1839. Victoria Government specific references to the Boorondara area.
Printing Office: Melbourne

Thomas, W. n.d. ‘Noteboook’ (Unpublished original manuscript). In R. B. References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri traditions and
Smyth Papers Box 1176/6a, La Trobe Library: Melbourne. incidents in the Melbourne area.

Thomas, W. n.d. Private Papers. 16 Vols. And 8 boxes of papers, References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri culture and
Letterbooks, reports etc. Uncatalogued MSS, set 214, items 1-24. and traditions.
Mitchell Library: Sydney.

Secondary Sources

Reference Description

Bonwick, J. 1856. Discovery and Settlement of Port Phillip: being a General references to Indigenous people around Melbourne.
History of the country now called Victoria, up to the arrival of Mr. Discusses contact with Aboriginal people in Port Phillip Bay, focusing
Superintendant La Trobe, in October 1839. George Robertson: Melbourne. on the Geelong and Werribee regions. Descriptions of relationships
between Aboriginal people and early settlers in the Port Phillip region.
No specific references to Boorondara.

Bonwick, J. 1857. Early Days in Melbourne. J. J. Blundell: Melbourne. General references to Indigenous people around Melbourne and the Port
Phillip Bay Region. No direct references to Boorondara.

Bonwick, J. 1883. Port Phillip Settlement. Sampson: London. General references to Indigenous people around Melbourne.
Descriptions of Aboriginal people in the Port Phillip Bay area, particularly
Indented Head, Geelong, Werribee River, Merri Creek, Yarra River and
Gellibrand Harbour. No specific references to Boorondara.

Bonwick, J. 1968. A Sketch of Boorondara. References to the early European history of Boroondara, including a
2nd Edition. Book Collectors Society of Australia: Melbourne. number of descriptions of encounters with Aboriginal people in the region.
This includes a description of Aboriginal people holding a corroboree at
Yarra Bend (P. 12), and sightings of Aboriginal people near the junction of
the Yarra and Gardiner’s Creek (p. 14-15).

Clark, I. D. and Heydon, T. 2002. Dictionary of Aboriginal Placenames Brief descriptions of Aboriginal placenames including Boorondara (no
of Victoria. Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages and Specific meaning given) and the Yarra River.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.

Colles, C. G. A. 1910. History of Hawthorn. Citizen Printing works References to the early European settlement of Hawthorn. The
Hawthorn. document includes an extensive description of the Aboriginal people of
the Boroondara region. Includes names of Aboriginal people, conflicts
between the European settlers and Aboriginal people, and locations
where corroborees and gatherings were held (pp. 8-11).

Fison, L. 1890. ‘The Aborigines of Victoria’. Handbook of the References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri culture
Australasian Society. Pp. 45-55. and traditions. Unable to obtain a copy to examine.

Howitt, A. W. 1904. The Native tribes of South-East Australia. McMillan: References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri
London. culture and traditions. Brief references to Gardiners Creek
and the Wurundjeri (p. 72).

Smyth, R. B. 1878. The Aborigines of Victoria and other parts of Australia. References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri
John Ferris: Melbourne. culture and traditions. No specific references to Boorondara.

Tindale, N. B. 1974. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. Australian National References to Woi wurrung; Yarra Tribe; Wurundjeri
University Press: Canberra. culture and traditions. Some details about Victorian tribes
But no specific areas mentioned.

Smith, A. N. 1896. The History of Hawthorn to 1895. Smith and Corrigan: Notes on the early settlement of Melbourne. Aboriginal
Hawthorn. people mentioned generally. References to John Gardiner and the
Aboriginal people residing near where he chose to settle (p. 8). Also
refers to the naming of Boorondara, which was named when John
Gardiner asked the Aboriginal people what they called the area (p. 8).
References to Kooyongkoot Creek (re-named Gardiners Creek by John
Gardiner). Describes Aboriginal people stealing potatoes from John
Gardiner’s garden on his property at the junction of the Yarra River and
Gardiners Creek (p. 10-12).

Other Written Sources

Reference Description

Barwick, D. E. 1984. ‘Mapping the Past: An Atlas of Victorian Clans Reference to Wurundjeri willam clan and tribal organization.
1835-1904. Part 1’. Aboriginal History 8:100-131. Discusses culture and traditions. Includes original sources.
Describes details of Woi wurrung clans, including location, moiety,
clan names and clan heads.

Billis, R. V. and A. S. Kenyon. 1930. Pastures New: An Account of References to early pastoral occupation of the area. Only very general
The Pastoral Occupation of Port Phillip. MacMillan: Melbourne. information on the Aboriginal people of the Melbourne area. No specific
references to Boorondara

Blainey, G. 1964. A History of Camberwell. Jacaranda Press: Notes on the early settlement of Melbourne. Aboriginal people
Melbourne. mentioned generally. Only a very brief mention of Aboriginal
People in the Camberwell district and the naming of Boorondara,
which translates as “shady place” (Blainey 1964: 1). Focuses on
the European settlement of Camberwell and the Boorondara district.

Bunce, D. 1971 (1859). Travels with Dr. Leichardt. Oxford University Small reference to Aboriginal people camping along Gardiners Creek.
Press: Melbourne. (pp 66-67), and at the confluence of the Yarra River and Gardiners
Creek (p. 65). Most of the text deals with Aboriginal people in the
Dandenong Creek area.

Christie, M. F. 1979. Aborigines in Colonial Victoria. 1835-86. Sydney References to Aboriginal people throughout Victoria, with general
University Press: Sydney. references to Melbourne and Port Phillip Bay. The formation of the
Merri Creek camp and school are discussed at length (pp. 143-139).

Clark, I. D and T. G. Heydon. 1998. The Confluence of the Merri Creek This report documents the results of historical research into Assistant
And Yarra River. A History of the Western Port Aboriginal Protectorate Protector William Thomas’ Quarters at the Government Reserve, Merri
and the Merri Creek Aboriginal School. A Report to the Heritage Services Creek, and the Merri Creek Aboriginal School, both of which were located
Branch, Aboriginal Affairs Victoria. at the confluence of the Yarra River and Merri Creek in the 1840s.
The report provided the details of the history of the site, and collates
information on Aboriginal people who frequented the school and the
station. Includes references to Aboriginal people camping along the Yarra
River and in Studley Park (pp. 63 and 79).

Daley, C. 1925. ‘Reminiscences from 1841 of William Kyle a pioneer’ General references to Aboriginal people at the junction of Merri
Victorian Historical magazine 10: 158-172. Creek and the Yarra River, including Aboriginal school. Describes the
Corroborees held on the banks of the Yarra River and Merri Creek (p.
164-165), and the school for Aboriginal children near the junction of Merri
Creek and the Yarra River (p. 165).

Ellender, I. and P. Christiansen (T. Faithfull, ed.). 2001. People of the References to Mission Station, Thomas’ Hut, Merri Creek Camp,
Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days. Merri Creek Management potato stealing incident at Gardiner’s, Native Police, Merri Creek
Committee Inc. School, Burial Place of Bebejan and Billibellary. Wurundjeri culture
and traditions. References to early encounters with the Woi wurrung
in the Melbourne and Port Phillip Bay area, including John Batman’s
negotiations with the Aboriginal people on the banks of the Merri Merri
Creek (pp. 18-19). Describes the Merri Creek School established on
a narrow strip of land between the junction of the Yarra River and
Merri Merri Creek (pp. 94-95). The confluence of the Yarra River and
Merri Creek is also mentioned as an important location for Wurundjeri-
willam gatherings and ceremonies (p. 116). This confluence was also
the burial place for Bebejan and Billibellary (p. 116) and the location of
the Native Police before they relocated to Narre Narre Warren (p. 116).

Gott, B. and Zola, N. 1992. Koorie Plants, Koorie People. Traditional Traditional Indigenous plant use. Describes Aboriginal plant use along
Aboriginal Food, Fibre and Healing Plants of Victoria. Koorie Heritage Victorian river systems and the coast, including Port Phillip Bay and
Trust. Melbourne (pp. 19). Plants used by the Wurundjeri for food and fibre are
Listed, including plants in the Yarra River region.

Massola, A. 1959. ‘History of the Coast Tribe’ Victorian Naturalist Particularly Bunurong, Woi wurrung discussed. General references to
76 (7): 180-181. Aboriginal people. No references to Boorondara – general references to
Melbourne only.

Massola, A. 1969. Journey to Aboriginal Victoria. Rigby Ltd: Adelaide Reference to sites in Melbourne area including the Langhorne’s mission,
and the burial place of Bebejan. According to Massola, “Bebe-jern lies
buried in the grounds of the Mental Hospital at Kew” (1969:1). Mentions
the school for Aboriginal children (established in 1845) located at the
junction of Merri Creek and the Yarra River (p. 2).

McFarlane, G. 1999. Hawthorn Sketches: Life on the Hill. Peppercorn Contains very brief references to Aboriginal people camping on the Yarra
Press: Hawthorn. in the Hawthorn area, including description of a garden and house owned
by Sir James Palmer which once contained a scarred tree (p. 27).
Focuses on European settlement and pioneers of the Hawthorn area.

McWilliam, G. 1978. Hawthorn Peppercorns. Brian Atkins: Melbourne. General references to the Woi wurrung and Bunurong. References to the
Effects of white settlement on Aboriginal people of the Melbourne area.
References to the sightings of Aboriginal people near Gardiners Creek by
a later owner of Gardiners Station, Major Davidson, in 1845 (p. 2).
References to Aboriginals reputedly stealing potatoes from Gardiner’s
potato patch on his property (p. 2). Aboriginal archaeological sites in
Hawthorn are discussed, and include the remains of a canoe true in
Creswick Park and a scarred tree at 21 Coppin Grove. The Aboriginal
meaning of Boorandara is discussed (p. 3).

Peel, V., Zion, D. and J. Yule. 1993. A History of Hawthorn. Melbourne General notes on Aboriginal people living in the Melbourne area, including
University Press: Carlton. Melbourne tribes. Specific anecdotes about Hawthorn, such as conflicts
between whites and Aboriginal people at Gardiners Creek (pp. 8, 9, and
10). Gardiners Creek was originally called ‘Kooyongkoot’ by the Woi
wurrung and re-named Gardiners Creek after early settler John Gardiner
(pp. 5-6). Details concerning the impact of settlement on the Aboriginal
people of the Boorondara region, including population estimates, the
effects of disease, and conflicts between settlers and tribes (pp.8-9).
Recounts the story of Aboriginal people captured while removing potatoes
from John Gardiner’s vegetable patch on Gardiners Creek in 1838 (p.9).

Presland, G. 1994. Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost land of the Kulin People. Aboriginal sites and places around Melbourne. Discusses the Aboriginal
Penguin Books: Ringwood. people of the Port Phillip region and Melbourne, including Wurundjeri and
Bunurong. References to Gardiner’s Creek (p. 25), Merri Creek and the
Yarra River, including areas along these waterways where Aboriginal
people exploited food resources and camped (pp. 25-31). Detailed
information regarding the Mission Settlement at South Yarra (pp. 92-94)
and the Aboriginal Protectorate (pp. 95-103). The effects of white
settlement on the Woi wurrung and Bunurong are also discussed. No
direct reference to Boorondara.

Spreadborough, R. and H. Anderson. 1983. Victorian Squatters. Red Discusses early settlers, runs and stations, however no references to
Rooster Press: Ascot Vale. Aboriginal people in the Melbourne area. A brief reference to Batman and
The treaty with the Aboriginal people of the lower Yarra (pp. xxiv).

Sutherland, D. 1999. Wurundjeri Garden: Guide For Visitors. Hawthorn Plant names used by Wurundjeri people. Brochure produced by the
Historical Society. Hawthorn Historical Society as aguide to the Wurundjeri Garden situated
on the banks of the Yarra River in Hawthorn. The brochure describes
What plants would have been exploited by Aboriginal people along the
Yarra and in the Hawthorn area before European settlement.

Vaughan, W. D. 1960. Kew’s Civic Century. W. D. Vaughan P/L: Kew. References to Fleming’s journal on Grimes’ 1803 expedition. Extracts
from Fleming’s journal states that the survey party came across a group
of Aboriginal people on Gardiner’s Creek (pp.11-12). Also discusses the
Treaty made by John Batman and Aboriginal people on the banks of Merri
Creek near Studley Park (p. 12). Gardiner’s Creek was originally known
by its Aboriginal name Kooyong Koot Creek.

Wiencke, S. W. 1984. When the Wattles Bloom Again: the Life and Reference to Barak, Simon Wonga, Billibellary and other Wurundjeri men.
Times of William Barak, Last Chief of the Yarra Yarra Tribe. Woori Yallock General information on William Barak and the Yarra Tribe. Barak’s father
Old Chief Jerrum Jerrum was buried in the grounds of Studley Park.
Discusses Conflicts between settlers and Aboriginal people in the
Melbourne area. Also discusses John Batman’s treaty and the relocation
of Aboriginal people to missions such as Corranderk.

Oral History Sources

Reference Description

Oral History Program, Koorie Heritage Trust. Contact for information.


Contact Cliff Greet: ph 9639 6555

Jackomos, A. and D. Fowell. Living Aboriginal History of Victoria: Biographical details of selected Victorian Aboriginal people. One reference
Stories in the Oral Tradition. Museum of Victoria: Melbourne. to the Aboriginal people gathering on the banks of the Yarra River “On
Sundays Doug Nicholls, Marg Tucker and William Cooper gathered at
Melbourne’s Yarra Bank, a one acre reserve where anyone with a cause
Could speak (p. 32)”, however exact location is not given. No specific
references to Aboriginal people living in Boorondara.

Indigenous Image Collection. Access via the Web at Picture Australia www.pictureaustralia.org. The
collection features general Indigenous images, including camp sites and
portraits. Images of William Barak and missions such as Lake Tyers and
Corranderk. No images specific to Boorandara. Unable to narrow down the
search to Wurundjeri, Yarra River or Gardiners Creek.

Visual Sources and Collections

Reference Description

Coutts, P. J. F. 1981. Readings in Victorian Prehistory. Volume 2. Contains many visual sources relating to Victorian Aboriginal people.
The Victorian Aboriginals 1800 to 1860. Victorian Archaeological Survey Includes paintings, drawings, sketches and photographs. Contains one
Ministry for Conservation, Victoria, May 1981. photograph relating to Aboriginal people in the Boroondara area:
‘Photograph of Protectors Hut near Studley Park c. 1840-45’. Mitchell
Library, Sydney. The photograph is possibly of Protector W. Thomas’s hut
with Thomas to the right of the photo (see Figure 128).

Partos, L. 1996. The Victorian Aboriginal Photographic Collection in


The Museum of Victoria. COMA Bulletin 28:63-65.

Pescott, R. 1992. Collections of a Century. The History of the First No references or images relating to Aboriginal people.
Hundred Years of the National Museum of Victoria. National Museum
Of Victoria.

Sculthorpe, G. (ed.). 1990. Guide to the Victorian Aboriginal Collections Catalogue of Aboriginal artefacts from the Melbourne area, including
In the Museum of Victoria. Museum of Victoria: Melbourne. hafted axes, baskets, and boomerangs manufactured by the Wurundjeri and
Bunurong. Also artefacts collected from the banks of the Yarra River,
however no details of specific locations available. A list of photographs kept
by the museum is also included, some of which are depictions of Aboriginal
people along the Yarra River (No specific areas given).

Indigenous Image Collection, Melbourne Museum (Museum of Victoria) General Indigenous images – landscapes and people.

Indigenous Image Collection, Picture Collection, State Library of Victoria. General Indigenous images – landscapes and people. Some images of
http://statelibrary.vic.gov.au/slv/mmcatalogue/ Aboriginal people camping on the Yarra River and portraits of Aboriginal
people living in the Melbourne area during the 19th and 20th centuries.
No images relating to the Boorondara region.

Indigenous Image Collection, National Library of Australia, Website: General Indigenous images – landscapes and people. Some images of
http://www.nla.gov.au/catalogue/pictures/ Aboriginal people on the Yarra River and Merri Creek, no specific locations
given for photos.

Indigenous Image Collection, Picture Australia, www.pictureaustralia.org General Indigenous images – landscapes and people. Catalogue includes
images from a large number of libraries and other agencies including the
State Library of Victoria, the National Library of Australia and the University
of Melbourne. No specific images relating to Boorondara.

Archaeological Reports

Reference Description

Brown, S. 1995. An Archaeological Survey of the Tullamarine Freeway Brown was commissioned to undertake an archaeological survey the
and South Eastern Arterial, Melbourne. Volume 1 Archaeological Melbourne City Link Authority in regard to the City Link Project. The
Report. Report to Melbourne City Link Authority. Survey area included the South Eastern Arterial, including sections of
Gardiner’s Creek. No Aboriginal archaeological sites were located during
this investigation, and it was recommended that no further archaeological
work needed to be carried out.

Presland, G. 1983. An Archaeological survey of the Melbourne Archaeology within the Melbourne Metropolitan Area.
Metropolitan Area. VAS ORS No. 15. Ministry for Planning and Gary Presland undertook an archaeological survey of the Melbourne
Environment: Victoria. Metropolitan area for the Victorian Archaeological Survey. The aims of the
study were to identify areas of potential archaeological importance in the
study area, to identify those parts of the study area where archaeological
surveys can be conducted effectively, and to prepare comprehensive
proposals for future surveys of archaeological sites in the study area.
Recommendations included site management procedures for recorded sites
and future archaeological studies for the study area.

Hall, R. 1989. Merri Creek Parklands: Aboriginal and Historical Heritage Archaeology along sections of the Merri Creek. This report provides a
Survey. Merri Creek Bicentennial Committee. Vols. 1 and 2. description and interpretation of the archaeology of Merri Creek, with the
aim of providing basic information necessary for making management and
research decisions in regards to the archaeological resource base (Hall
1989:ii). Specific aims included the documentation and interpretation of
known Aboriginal archaeological sites and the provision of
recommendations in relation to the management and protection of these
sites. The report includes descriptions and photographs of known
Aboriginal archaeological and historical sites along the creek.

Johnston, C and Ellender, I. 1993. Merri Creek Concept Plan, Strategic Discusses archaeology along sections of the Merri Creek. This report was n
And Statutory Planning Project: Cultural Heritage Report. Vols. 1 and not reviewed in detail, as it concentrates on Merri Creek outside of the study
2. Melbourne Water and Merri Creek Management Committee. Area.

Du Cros, H. and Rhodes, D. 1998. Aboriginal Archaeological Sensitivities Archaeology along waterways of the Melbourne area, including the Yarra.
Study of the Water Ways and Flood Plains of Greater Melbourne. The Waterways and Drainage Group within Melbourne Water was required
Melbourne Water Corporation. to plan for a variety of developments and improvements to waterways and
floodplains to meet its waterway management and regional drainage
responsibilities. The aim of the project was to provide an overview
assessment of waterway and floodplain areas across greater Melbourne
with regard to their sensitivity for Aboriginal cultural material (du Cros and
Rhodes 1998:1.2). The areas of archaeological sensitivity were formulated
from the background information and the site distribution patterns revealed
by the generalities in the site prediction models in use around Melbourne
(du Cros and Rhodes 1998:1.4). These areas were classified as waterways
of high, medium and low sensitivity, areas of high sensitivity and floodplains.
The Yarra River and Merri Creek were identified as being waterways of high
sensitivity.

Hughes, S. 2000. Conservation Management Plan for an Aboriginal Canoe


Tree, Yarra Bank Reserve, Hawthorn. Report documenting an Aboriginal scarred tree located within the Site
Registry, boundaries of the Yarra Bank Reserve, Hawthorn. Two registered
Aboriginal scarred trees in the area are also described (the Burnley Park
Corroboree Tree, site number 79223/025 and a scarred tree located in the
grounds of ‘Invergowrie’, 21 Coppin Grove). Contains an existing condition
report on the tree and threats to the site. Recommendations included
conservation treatment options.

Murphy, A. 2000. Koonung Creek, Donvale. A Preliminary Cultural Heritage Archaeology along section of the Koonung Creek. Melbourne Water
Investigation. Melbourne Water Corporation, Waterways and Environment. Corporation commissioned Murphy to conduct a preliminary cultural
heritage assessment of a section of Koonung Creek extending between
Bowen Road and Darvall Street, Donvale. No Aboriginal archaeological
sites were located during the archaeological survey, and it was determined
that the immediate banks of Koonung Creek had low potential for
archaeological material due to the disturbed nature of the creek line.

Witter, D. C. and Upcher, C. M. 1977. An Archaeological Survey: Yarra Archaeology in the Yarra valley Area.
Valley area, Melbourne, MMBW. This archaeological survey was funded by the Melbourne and Metropolitan
Board of Works to provide recommendations for archaeological sites which
will be affected by the proposed Yarra Valley Metropolitan Park. The aim
was to locate Aboriginal archaeological sites and associated artefacts
within the proposed location for the park (Witter and Upcher 1977:1). Four
lithic sites, twenty Aboriginal scarred trees (one previously recorded) and a
single ground stone axe were located during the survey (Witter and Upcher
1977: 1). Management proposals for the Yarra Valley Survey area included
a salvage study for scarred trees, intensive systematic collection of lithic
sites, monitoring of sites and protection of sites (Witter and Upcher
1977:15).
APPENDIX 2

Client Brief - City of Boroondara


APPENDIX 3

AAV Correspondence