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# DETERMINATION OF THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT

1
2
B.C. HUELGAS
1

## INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE

INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY 1101, PHILIPPINES
DATE SUBMITTED: 4 MARCH 2015
DATE PERFORMED: 20 FEBRUARY 2015
2

1. Write the net ionic reaction for the precipitation of Ca(OH)
2 and give the K
sp
expression of the reaction.
The net ionic reaction for the precipitation of Ca(OH)
be expressed as,
2 can

2+
Ca(OH)
(s) Ca
+ 2OH
2

## For this equation, the K

expression of the reaction is,
sp
2+
-2
K
] [OH
]
sp =
[Ca

[1]

2+
2. What is the working equation for the determination of the [Ca
] in the saturated
solution of Ca(OH)
?
2
The working equation for the determination of the [Ca2+

## ] in the saturated solution of

Ca(OH)
can be represented by,

2
2+ [OH]
[Ca
]= 2
or
2+
[Ca
]=

(V titrant)[H+]
(V ianalyte)

-
2+
3. Write the K
of Ca(OH)
in terms of its (a) molar solubility
s,
(b) [OH
] and (c) [Ca
].
sp
2
The Ksp

of
Ca(OH)
written in terms of its molar solubility is

2
K sp = 4s3
2-
in terms of
[OH
],
3
]
4([OH
2 )

## and in terms of [Ca2+

]
3

4[Ca2+]

[2]

4. Discuss the effects of common ions and increasing ionic strength on the solubility of
the Ca(OH)
precipitate. Do they coincide with theoretical effects? Explain.
2
The presence of another common ion in the solution can reduce the solubility of the
precipitate, shifting the equilibrium of it back to the reactant side [3]. In general, the solubility of
a slightly soluble salt is decreased by the presence of a second solute the furnishes a common ion
[4]. However, in the data gathered it can be seen that the opposite was observed.

On the other hand, the data obtained did not have a definite trend with respect to the
effect of ionic strength. The data at first decreased, from to 0.010 M to 0.050 M, then from this
point it gradually increased starting from 0.050 M to 0.50 M. This data however, do not coincide
with the diverse-ion theory, which deals with inter-ionic contacts of the ions present in a
solution. It states that
the interactions between ions become stronger as the ionic concentration
of the solution rises. The increase in attractions leads to lesser activities of the participating ions
or their effective concentration thus causing an increase in solubility [5].
5. What are the possible sources of errors and their effect on the calculated
parameters? Rationalize.
Possible sources of errors are improper measurement of the reagents. If the
concentrations of the reagents are not accurate, then it will change the results obtained since it
depends upon the concentration of the substance. Another source of error may have been from
the preparation of the sodium carbonate suspension. The suspension may not have been
saturated enough before an analyte was measured out of it. This will result to lesser K
sp than the
theoretical. Last possible cause would have been from the titration process. Improper way of
titrating, wrong measurement of the used volume of titrant etc., will all lead to a gross error on

## the calculation of the [OH-

] and may cause failure of the experiment.
REFERENCES
[1] UPD Analytical Chemistry Group (ACAG).
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Manual.
Quezon
City: Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, 2013 ed.. Print.
[2] Zumdahl, Steven S., and Susan A. Zumdahl.
Chemistry
. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage
Learning, 2014. Print.
[3] Brown, Theodore L., H. Eugene LeMay, and Bruce Edward. Bursten.
Chemistry: The Central
Science
. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print.
[4] Chang, Raymond, and Kenneth A. Goldsby.
Chemistry
. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Print.
[5] Petrucci, Ralph H., and William S. Harwood. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern
Applications. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.