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# Lesson 6 PID control Of Heat Exchanger Temperature

## Students will be able to:

1. Understand when derivative action is needed.
2. Understand how the derivative action will help the loop performance.
3. Express the PID algorithm in terms of transfer function, equation in time domain.
4. Distinguish the difference between the ideal form (non-interacting) and electronic
or pneumatic form.
5. Understand why the derivative action is usually taken on the measurement instead
of error.
Procedure:
1. Explain the fact that the derivative of a change in error or measurement creates an
immediate action in the controller output. Therefore it is also known as
anticipatory action.
de(t )
1 t
] . An
2. An ideal PID has the form of u (t ) = bias + k c [e(t ) + e(t )dt + d
i 0
dt
dm(t )
1 t
alternative form is u (t ) = bias + k c [e(t ) + e(t )dt + d
] to avoid taking
0
dt
i
derivative on a sudden change in error (caused by set point change).
3. The transfer function of the controller using error only as input is
U
1
= k c (1 +
+ d s) . With measurement for derivative it is not possible to find
E
is
the TF (why?). Some people prefer this form for the PID controller:
U
1
= k c (1 +
)(1 + d s ) . If one multiplies out the two factors, the result is the
E
is
same as the first form.
4. Pure derivative action is impossible to realize with pneumatic or electronic circuit.
Therefore a denominator is added so that the controller form
1 1+d s
) . The value of is made small to approximate the
becomes: k c (1 +
)(
i s 1 + d s
numerator of the derivative factor. This is called a lead-lad circuit with the
numerator as lead and the denominator as lag. It is frequently encountered as a
compensator in feed-forward control. (Covered later)
5. What is the response of a lead-lag to a step input? First d is known as the lead
time constant and d is the lag time constant. The magnitude of the initial

d
1
and the final value is 1 (obtained by letting s approaching
=
d
0). The way it is approaching the final value is based on a first order behavior
with time constant equal to d . With this lead-lag derivative implementation, it
adds an additional protection as a limiter, namely the ratio of the two time
constants. Thus even in the presence of a step change in set point the controller
response is

1

## output will be clamped. In digital implementation ideal form of controller is used.

Therefore the derivative is usually acting on the measurement since no clamp is
imposed.
6. The initial kick gives rise to the term anticipatory control added to the feedback action. In contrast to feedback control, feed-forward control utilize the kick
for quick action.
7. Another way to look at the derivative control is that it counter-acts the integral
control which contribute to the sluggishness or laziness to the system.

Discussion:
1. Why in the experiment does the derivative action dampen the oscillation?
Because it increases the gain margin so that for the same PI setting, it is further
away from instability if derivative action is added.
2. In the presence of measurement noise, it is a trade-off between the detriment of
taking the derivative of a noisy signal (without filtering) and the loss of
performance for not using the derivative mode.