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Business Law and Business Ethics

By:

Andi Dea Kamala Bonita


NIM. 29113066
Syndicate 1
Class YP49 A

Master of Business Administration


School of Business and Management
Bandung Institute Technology
Bandung
2013

11th Hour (Film) - Global Warming


Why does global warming happen?
The earth's climate is constantly changing. We have recently
been on a warming trend for approximately the past half-century,
although that seems to have changed within the last decade. Many
thing cause global warming. In this movie, every expert interviewed
stressed the fact that human involvement in the fight against global
warming is mandatory.
When light from the sun enters our atmosphere it gets converted
to heat which gets trapped by greenhouse gases such as carbon
dioxide, methane, and water vapor. Global warming has begun because
since the industrial revolution, humans have been putting large
amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and over time these
have built up. Before that time, human activity didnt release
many greenhouse gases, but population growth, deforestation, factory
farming, and the widespread use of fossil fuels are creating an excess
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphereand contributing to global
warming.
This following are some of the humans bad habbit that can
caused the global warming:

Burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas).


This releases carbon dioxide that had been stored underground
for millions of years. This extra CO2 is causing the enhanced
greenhouse

effect.

Fossil

fuels are fuels formed

processes

such

as anaerobic

by

decomposition of

natural
buried

dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting


fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds
650

million

of carbon and

years. Fossil

fuels

contain

include coal, petroleum,

high

percentages

and natural

gas. They

range from volatile materials with low carbon: hydrogen ratios


like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials
composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane

can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or


in the form of methane catharses. The theory that fossil fuels
formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to

heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years


Cutting down the earth's forests without replanting.
Deforestation removes trees and vegetation that absorb and
store carbon. Half a tree's weight is carbon, but when trees die
they release their carbon and absorb no more. Deforestation
occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold
as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while
cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of
commodities and settlements. The removal of trees without
sufficient reforestation has

resulted

in

damage

to habitat

biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on bio


sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation is a
contributor to global warming,[32][33] and is often cited as one of

the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.


Releasing other greenhouse gases.
Methane, a greenhouse gas twenty times more powerful than
CO2, is belched by cattle. The world's demand for red meat
means more and more cattle, and sometimes forests cut down
for pasture. As frozen lands warm, from global warming, more

methane is released.
The world's growing demand for electricity.
Electricity causes pollution in many ways, some worse than
others. In most case, fossil fuels are burned to create electricity.
Some examples of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum. Many
pollutants (chemicals that pollute the air, water and land) are
sent into the air when fossil fuels are burned. Some of these
chemicals are called green house gasses.
The scientists who construct the computer models that analyze

climate data believe that even if we stop dumping greenhouse gases


into the atmosphere, CO2 levels are already so high that we are locked
into a significant increase in global temperatures. Disruptive climate
change is a certainty even if we make the economic shift away from
fossil fuels.

The rapid rise in greenhouse gases is a problem because it is


changing the climate faster than some living things may be able to
adapt. Also, a new and more unpredictable climate poses unique
challenges to all life.
Global warming is likely to continue for centuries, and that it is
already too late to stop some of the serious affecting it brings, such as:

It is affecting humans because as more and more fossil fuels


are burned, there is a higher is a higher risk of pollution-induced
asthma and other sicknesses. Pollution can hurt our health, it
can cause other sicknesses. Also, the climate change makes it so
much easier to have ticks and mosquitoes reproduce. They
produce more because extreme weather can contaminate water
and helps bugs reproduce which can cause bacterial diseases.
Therefore, they spread around sicknesses to humans. Global
warming can also lead to conditions that will increase really bad

nutrition and diarrhea; and increase heat waves and flooding.


It is affecting animals such as coral reefs. Because the earth
is becoming warmer so are the oceans and seas. The oceans
becoming warmer are causing coral reef bleaching which is
causing many coral reefs to die.

Also, there is becoming a

higher level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which changes


the chemistry of the seas and oceans. This makes it harder for
different species of coral to make up calcium carbonate
skeletons. It is also hurting wildlife communities. Their habitats
are being destroyed; trees are being cut down for energy, which
destroys their homes. Animals will have no shelter; this causes

animals to become extinct.


It is affecting environment. Global warming causes smaller
amounts in rainfall over areas where crops are trying to grow.
This may cause a shortage in crops, which means there may be
a shortage of food. Sea level is rising, flooding hometowns and
houses where people live today. Storms such as hurricanes and
tornadoes are increasing in frequency and intensity.

We call the effect of global warming, but it is causing a set of


changes to the Earth's climate, or long-term weather patterns, that
varies from place to place. As the Earth spins each day, the new heat
swirls with it, picking up moisture over the oceans, rising here, settling
there. It's changing the rhythms of climate that all living things have
come to rely upon. The primary way humans cause global warming is
by burning fossil fuels. This increases the amount of carbon in the
atmosphere, which leads to an increase in the Greenhouse Effect.

Greenhouse Effect
The greenhouse effect is the warming that happens when certain
gases in Earth's atmosphere trap heat. These gases let in light but
keep heat from escaping, like the glass walls of a greenhouse. The
greenhouse effect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on.
Without it, the earth would be freezing, or on the other hand it would
be burning hot. It would be freezing at night because the sun would be
down.
First, sunlight shines onto the Earth's surface, where it is
absorbed and then radiates back into the atmosphere as heat. In the
atmosphere, greenhouse gases trap some of this heat, and the rest
escapes

into

space.

The

more

greenhouse

gases

are

in

the

atmosphere, the more heat gets trapped.


Scientists often use the term "climate change" instead of global
warming. This is because as the Earth's average temperature climbs,
winds and ocean currents move heat around the globe in ways that can
cool some areas, warm others, and change the amount of rain and
snow falling. As a result, the climate changes differently in different
areas.

What should we do? How to overcome these problems?


Humans do not realize that our luxuries can cause suffering to
our earth and other animals and humans.

We think technology is

making or lives easier but it is really making our lives more


complicated. We can do a lot to stop global warming if people would
pay attention to this major problem. Global warming is even affecting
our health. I think that we should try to make a difference regarding
global warming and our earth. We should make more earth-friendly
products and try our best to make it the main product. We only get one
earth, we cannot go to another planet and kill that planet too. We only
get one chance and one life to live it on planet Earth. We should be
more respectful to our animals that live on this earth. It is as much our
Earth as it is the animals' Earth. It is as much as our earth as
everyone else. We have to work together and make this planet last as
long as it can.
As a human being we can help to reduce the demand for fossil
fuels, which in turn reduces global warming, by using energy more
wisely.
1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products
instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging
(including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will
help

to

reduce

waste.

And

whenever

you

can,

recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. If


there isn't a recycling program at your workplace, school, or in
your community, ask about starting one. By recycling half of
your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon
dioxide annually.

Recycling helps the Earth by not producing

more waste onto our planet. We are throwing away far too much
rubbish.

Our landfills are filling up. Many towns and cities have trouble
finding new holes to dump rubbish in.

All sorts of paper and cardboard can be recycled and turned


into fresh paper and card. This uses far less energy than

making new paper from trees.


All glass bottles and steel and aluminum cans can be
recycled as well as all other metals, again saving energy.
When we save energy we don't emit as much carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere, because usually we make electricity by

burning fossil fuels like coal.


All plastics can be recycled, again saving energy. In some
places only certain kinds of plastics are accepted, but all

plastics can be recycled, even styrofoam (polystyrene).


We throw away food scraps and other organic matter like
leaves, cotton, animal manure etc. These can all be
composted

to

become

garden

fertilizer.

Some

will

also generate methane gas which is good if we collect it and


use it for heating, cooking or generating electricity. But
methane gas is bad if we just let it seep out of landfills and
into

the

atmosphere

where

it

becomes

dangerous

greenhouse gas, twenty-one times more deadly than carbon


dioxide. And greenhouse gases are causing global warming.
2. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning
Adding insulation to your walls and attic, and installing weather
stripping or caulking around doors and windows can lower your
heating costs more than 25 percent, by reducing the amount of

energy you need to heat and cool your home.


Turn down the heat while you're sleeping at night or away during
the day, and keep temperatures moderate at all times. Setting
your thermostat just 2 degrees lower in winter and higher in
summer could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide each
year.

3. Change a Light Bulb


Wherever practical, replace regular light bulbs with compact
fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. Replacing just one 60-watt
incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save you $30 over the life
of the bulb. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent

bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less

heat.
If every U.S. family replaced one regular light bulb with a CFL, it
would eliminate 90 billion pounds of greenhouse gases, the

same as taking 7.5 million cars off the road.


4. Drive Less and Drive Smart
Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline,
walking and biking are great forms of exercise. Explore your
community mass transit system, and check out options for

carpooling to work or school.


When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. For
example, keeping your tires properly inflated can improve your
gas mileage by more than 3 percent. Every gallon of gas you
save not only helps your budget, it also keeps 20 pounds of
carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.

5. Buy Energy-Efficient Products


When it's time to buy a new car, choose one that offers good gas
mileage. Home appliances now come in a range of energyefficient models, and compact florescent bulbs are designed to
provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy

than standard light bulbs.


Avoid products that come with excess packaging, especially
molded plastic and other packaging that can't be recycled. If you
reduce your household garbage by 10 percent, you can save
1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.

6. Use Less Hot Water


Set your water heater at 120 degrees to save energy, and wrap
it in an insulating blanket if it is more than 5 years old. Buy lowflow showerheads to save hot water and about 350 pounds of
carbon dioxide yearly. Wash your clothes in warm or cold water
to reduce your use of hot water and the energy required to
produce it. That change alone can save at least 500 pounds of
carbon dioxide annually in most households. Use the energysaving settings on yourdishwasher and let the dishes air-dry.
7. Use the "Off" Switch

Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights


when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you
need. And remember to turn off your television, video player,

stereo and computer when you're not using them.


It's also a good idea to turn off the water when you're not using
it. While brushing your teeth, shampooing the dog or washing
your car, turn off the water until you actually need it for rinsing.
You'll reduce your water bill and help to conserve a vital
resource.

8. Plant a Tree
If you have the means to plant a tree, start digging. During
photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide
and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural
atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few
of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused
by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities.
A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide
during its lifetime.

What should the business do?


Planet Earth should in theory be capable of supporting life,
including human life, for thousands of years to come - indeed, some
estimates say millions. It all depends on the human race. Not long ago
the greatest danger seemed to come from nuclear war between the
superpowers now i can sai that global warming was the dangerest
issue for our earth.
Global Warming is not only an environmental issue or an issue of
social responsibility, it is now being looked at from an ethical and
religious sense. It has became a topics that has been in the news,
classroom, and discussed in many media outlets.

This controversial

topic has many wondering if global warming is fact or if it is hype in


order to create demands in certain markets for product marketing and
profits. Even the science community cannot come to an agreement on
the reality nor severity of global warming.
I believe that people across all continents of the world regardless
of their stance on global warming should agree that we all have a
moral responsibility for our actions and to ensure that we are causing
no harm for that which the planet cannot bear. Certainly, we as people
understand that there are consequences, or rather re-actions, to our
every action.
The fastest way to save the world is for every business to take
action now. It ias the right thing to do and makes great business
sense. Ignore this issue and your business could auto-destruct. Take
the message, boost your sales and grow your profits.
Faced with an unimaginable catastrophe, the business response
to global warming will dwarf anything ever seen before in the history of
the world, in numbers of companies, research efforts and sales.
Somehow there a lot of disagreement among scientists about
whether or not global warming is happening. When climate change is
discussed, mainstream outlets sometimes strive for a falsebalance that
elevates marginal voices and enables them to sow doubt about the
science even in the face of mounting evidence. There are some
documents suggest that there has been a concerted effort by global
warming researchers to prevent a vocal minority of scientists who
disagree with their conclusions from getting published.
Climate change has been described as a "perfect moral storm"
because it brings together three major challenges to ethical action in a
mutually reinforcing way:

The first challenge stems from the fact that climate change is a
truly

global

phenomenon.

Once

emitted,

greenhouse

gas

emissions can have climate effects anywhere on the planet,

regardless of their source.


The second challenge is that current emissions have profoundly
intergenerational effects. Emissions of the most prominent
greenhouse

gas,

carbon

dioxide,

typically

persist

in

the

atmosphere for a long time, contributing to negative climate

impacts for centuries, or even millennia.


The third challenge to ethical action is that our theoretical tools
are underdeveloped in many of the relevant areas, such as
international

justice,

intergenerational

ethics,

scientific

uncertainty, and the appropriate relationship between humans


and the rest of nature
Climate change involves serious ethical issues, especially in its
global,

intergenerational,

and

ecological

dimensions.

Despite

challenges owing to underdeveloped theories and pragmatic issues,


there is an important initial consensus concerning the need for, and the
overall shape of, serious action and the relevance of key ethical
concerns, such as fairness and responsibility. Climate ethics is an
emerging field that has much to offer, but within which much more
work remains to be done.
There are challenges and opportunities that businesses should
be preparing for as we look forward to a destabilizing climate thanks to
the effects of global warming, such as:

Uncertainty. Without a doubt, the number one impact on


business will continue to be uncertainty. Businesses will need to
become far more agile and far more strategic, with contingency
plans in place that must look bravely into the upcoming crisis
without blinking and relegating as little as possible to the realm
of the unthinkable.

Crowded. Its likely that there will be some negative feedback


effect.

Disrupted. All of this dislocation will put a tremendous strain on


all kinds of services unless action is taken in advance that
anticipates the challenges. Robust and resilient systems need to
be put in place that can withstand the weather impacts while
building in enough capacity to serve all of those who will be in
need. Heavy weather events will cause injuries, deaths, days of
work missed, as well as damage to infrastructure such as
bridges, tunnels, roads, power lines, hospitals, power plants, etc.

Wet and dry. Water will be the primary vector through which
climate change will make its presence known. Because a warmer
atmosphere can hold more water, precipitation patterns will
change dramatically, with the trend being towards more water
coming down at once, leading to increased runoff and flooding,
with less water being absorbed into the ground. Other areas will
be deprived of rain altogether, becoming deserts as a result.
There is a saying, You dont miss your water till your well runs
dry. The same can also be said for the precipitation patterns
that until now, made such a large portion of the planet viable for
human activity.

Hungry. In addition to existing farmland falling prey to heat


waves and

drought,

low lying

coastal

regions also face

contamination from salt water. All of this will place tremendous


stress on our ability to feed a steadily growing population. This,
in some regions of the world, has already led to social
unrest.These will be the primary impacts. The secondary
impacts, which are the human responses to these conditions,
could potentially be even more severe, depending on our
abilities to navigate through these challenges. Secondary
impacts will include.

Civil unrest. People are going to be unhappy. They will protest,


they will demonstrate, they will riot, they will sue. As Admiral
Locklear said, If it goes bad, you could have hundreds of

thousands or millions of people displaced and then security will


start to crumble pretty quickly. People will want someone to do
something about all of the things that are making them unhappy.

Government action. Given the increasing severity of these


impacts, and in some cases, you might say, finally, governments
around the world will have no choice but to issue increasingly
stringent regulations in an attempt to manage continuing
emissions, as well as any scarcities of food and water and other
services that might be occurring, while at the same time
maintaining security. These regulations will undoubtedly add to
the unhappiness of a great many people. It will certainly strain
our leaders ability to lead, far beyond anything that is being
seen today.

Longer summers. This will not only provide more time for
outdoor recreation, but more importantly, given the increasing
population, a longer growing season. This could well prove to be
critical in meeting the demands of feeding all these people.

Milder winters. According to some studies, warmer winters


will mean lower mortality from disease. One Stanford study says,
Most people would enjoy higher temperatures,

and the

evidence supports the proposition that humans would live longer


and avoid some sickness.

Open trade route. A melted Arctic will provide an open trade


route from the Atlantic Ocean to Asia. This will allow much
shorter transit times and will, somewhat ironically, save energy.
Its not too late to try and avoid the collision, or at least reduce

its severity, and at the same time, its not too soon to start bracing for
the impact, either. As Admiral Locklear said, The ice is melting and sea
is getting higher. Im into the consequence management side of it.
Globally Go Green

Not only the human being but also the people from business are
trying to make some action to stop it. The new normal undoubtedly
means companies will have to move server rooms, reinforce supply
chains, and reposition those backup generators. But thats only
treating a symptom. Real resilience means attacking the cause. And
thats going to require everyone even business included to embrace a
longer view of their place in the world, and start acting accordingly.
Fortunately, there are plenty of good examples:

Walmart has promised to eliminate 20 million metric tons of


greenhouse gas emissions from its global supply chain by 2015,
on the road to a larger goal to be supplied by 100% renewable
energy. For five years, Environmental Defense Fund has been
working with the relentlessly cost-conscious retailer to identify
strategies to improve environmental performance across the
company and to push those solutions out to thousands of

vendors.
Unilever,

the

global

consumer

products

company

that

announced plans in 2010 to cut its greenhouse emissions, water


use and waste in half over a decade--all while doubling sales.
CEO Paul Polman attributes the companys record share price

strong earnings directly to its sustainability vision.


Microsoft decided to make each of its business units financially
accountable for their own greenhouse emissions, and created an
internal accounting price for carbon--based on market rates for
renewable energy and carbon offsets--that will serve as the
incentive to drive energy savings in data centers, labs and
offices in more than 100 countries. Proceeds from the internal
fees will go to company-wide emissions reduction efforts.
These companies arent doing this out of the goodness of their

hearts. They are doing it because this is the business model that fits
the world as it is becoming. No single company can cut enough
emissions on their own to hold back the rising seas, or stop the climate
from warming. But every ton they dont emit is a cost savings as well

as a step to safer, stronger and more prosperous environment and


economy.

Which industries and companies cause of the global warming?


Many

industrial

processes

emit

CO2 through

fossil

fuel

combustion. Several processes also produce CO2 emissions through


chemical reactions that do not involve combustion, for example, the
production and consumption of mineral products such as cement, the
production of metals such as iron and steel, and the production of
chemicals.
Before the Industrial Revolution, the greenhouse effect was a
natural process in which gases, like carbon dioxide and water vapor,
trapped some of the sun's heat within the atmosphere, allowing life to
exist on Earth. Human-caused pollution, from factories, fossil fuel
combustion and other activities, is contributing to an enhanced
greenhouse effect and global warming.

Power plants, industrial facilities and vehicles are the main


producers of carbon dioxide. Commercial buildings and homes

also release carbon dioxide.


Factories or industial facilities involved with industrial processes,
like manufacturing metals or chemical solvents, contribute to

ground-level ozone production.


Power plants, vehicle emissions and burning fossil fuels also
produce ozone. Although these processes do not directly release
ozone, they produce nitrogen and volatile organic chemicals.
When these chemicals combine in the presence of sunlight, they

form ozone.
Landfills, livestock
combustion

also

manure,
produce

coal

mining

significant

and

fossil

quantities

of

fuel
this

greenhouse gas.
Cement Industry, cement is a crucial component in buildings and
roads, which is why some 80 percent of it is made and used in
emerging

economies.

But

making

cement means making

pollution, in the form of carbon dioxide emissions. Cement plants


account for 5 percent of global emissions of carbon dioxide.
Oil Companies VS Global Warming
We all know oil companies make an amazing amount of money
by selling gasoline and other petroleum products to the world. The oil
companies spend big to keep the system running this way. They fund
organizations and people that make the case for denial and inaction.
So this is an industry that profits from products that science shows will
change the climate, and then spends money on cover-up. Actually,
though, it gets even stranger. When it comes to protecting their profits,
oil companies explicitly acknowledge that climate change poses a
threat to their bottom line.
The oil companies with the highest profile on the climate change
issue are BP, Shell and ExxonMobil. While all three companies now
publicly admit that climate change exists (a marked change for
ExxonMobil in recent years), their level of commitment to pursuing
alternatives remains extremely low.

ExxonMobil noted that the

companys operations around the world include remote and offshore


areas that present challenges from existing climate extremes and
storms. These severe weather events may disrupt supplies or interrupt
the operations of ExxonMobil facilities
Most of the world largest carbon dioxide emitting companies are
failing to assess, disclose and address the financial risks posed by
climate change. Such strategies leave them and their shareholders
especially vulnerable to the increased financial risks and missed
market opportunities posed by climate change. The open question is
why the industry persists in denial in the face of an endless body of
fact showing climate change is the greatest danger weve ever faced.
So according to Exxon, climate change could disrupt their business
model. Its easy to see through the rhetoric when giant fossil fuel
companies financially react to the risk of disruption and damage from
climate change.

Part of its simple enough, the giant energy companies are


making so much money right now that they can not stop gorging
themselves. ExxonMobil, year after year, pulls in more money than any
company in history. Chevrons not far behind. Everyone in the business
is swimming in money. Still, they could theoretically invest all that cash
in new clean technology or research and development for the same. As
it happens, though, they got a deeper problem, one thats become
clear only in the last few years. Their value is largely based on fossilfuel reserves that will not be burned if we ever take global warming
seriously.
The fossil fuel companies are not trying to do what they say
needs to be done to solve climate change. Instead, they are preparing
for its impacts, with profits gained from our pockets.
Our individual efforts are important, but the biggest impact on
climate change will come from large-scale in international, national,
and regional policies, thoughtful systematic efforts to reduce polluting
fossil fuel energy sources and unsound land use practices and steady
progress toward a green, sustainable future.
''Climate change is an issue which raises fundamental questions
about the relationship between companies and society as a whole, and
between one generation and the next.''
''Companies composed of highly skilled and trained people can't
live in denial of mounting evidence gathered by hundreds of the most
reputable scientists in the world.''
It is our capacity for hope that distinguishes The 11th Hour
and that speaks so powerfully, in part because it is the human quality
that may finally force us to fight the good fight against the damage we
have done and continue to do.
As a human being, we tend to follow the trends. This leads us to
consumerism lifestyle, which needs a large amount of resources and
generally polluting the ecosystem. It began from the industrial

revolution, the amount of resources they used is is increasing and the


resource is depleted too fast.
The government also has massive influence in the cause of
global warming. Generally

they create policy which benefits the

industrial organization and the government itself without considering


the environment. However, sometimes the government is being
controlled by private sector by bribing to gain advantages for
themselves.
If you are holding this review in your hands, do not forget to
recycle the paper.