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VB TU Ostrava

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

FULL SPECTRA AS A TOOL FOR


ANALYSIS OF A SHAFT ROTATING IN
JOURNAL BEARINGS
Ji Tma & Jan Bilo
17. listopadu 15, Ostrava Poruba
Czech Republic
jiri.tuma@vsb.cz & bilos@volny.cz

Outline
Bently Nevada Rotorkit
Instrumentation arrangement
Orbit plot, one-side versus two-side spectrum

RPM profile & displacement time history


RMS full multispectrum
Fluid induced instability
Bently and Muszynska model
Equation of motion
Shaft/fluid wedge bearing/system as a servomechanism
Vibration modes

Bently Nevada Rotorkit

Bently Nevada Rotorkit - detail

Instrumentation arrangement
Proximity probes
Y
X

Displacement
y(t)

Journal bearing
Shaft
Fluid
lubrication

Displacement x(t)
Journal
x(t) real part
Complex coordinate
of the shaft centre position: y(t) imaginary part

Orbit plot
Both the vectors A and B are rotating in opposite direction at
the same frequency .
(Im) Y

+
-

(Im) Y

Ellipse

A
X
(Re)
B = A*

Real harmonic
function of time

+
-

Complex harmonic
function of time

X
(Re)

One-side versus two-side spectrum


Two-side spectrum
symmetry

0,6
0,4
0,2

0,5

1,5

0,0
-1,5

FT

0,0

-1,5

1,5

0,0

0,5
Time [s]

1,0

Frequency [Hz]

Fourier
Transform

Time history

X, Y (Re, Im)

Y (Im)

0,2

Frequency [Hz]

1,5

X (Re)

0,4

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

1,0

Orbit plot

0,0

0,6

0,0

0,0

Time [s]

-1,5

0,8
RMS X

FT

Autospectrum

Autospectrum

0,8

Two-side spectrum
RMS X + j Y

1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
-0,5
-1,0
-1,5
0,0

RMS X

X (Re)

Time history

One-side spectrum

1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0

Autospectrum

non-symmetry

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Frequency [Hz]

RPM profile & displacement time history


Tachometer

RPM

2500
2000
1500
1000
0

10

15

Time [s]

Steady-state vibration
Time History

500
400
micron

300
200
100

X
Y

;;

0
-100
-200
0

10
Time [s]

15

RMS full multispectrum of signal


x(t) + j y(t)
Autospectrum : X + jY

0.475 ord 1.0 ord 2.0 ord

Frequency [Hz]

100

90

80

70

50

40

30

20

10

-10

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80

-100

1693

-90

1935

-20

1727
1975
2212
2406
RPM
2378
2183

60

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

RMS
m
60-70
50-60
40-50
30-40
20-30
10-20
0-10

Tim e : X (Resam pled) ; Y (Resam pled)

X (Resam pled)
Y (Resam pled)

80

Self- excited
whirl vibration

4 5 6 7
Revolution [-]

Y [m ]

150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150

R M S [m ]

Fluid induced instability

10

Orbit plot
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-150

0
X [m]

Autospectrum : X (Resampled) + jY (Resampled)

60

Low
rotational
speed
vibration

0,475 ord

40
20
0
-3,0 -2,5 -2,0 -1,5 -1,0 -0,5

0,0

Order [-]

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

150

Full order-multispectrum of signal


x(t) + j y(t)
Autospectrum : X (Resampled) + Y (Resampled)

0.475 ord

1.0 ord

RPM

-0.475 ord

1350
1555
1734
1896

Proportionality of
the whirl vibration
frequency
to the shaft
rotational speed

30-35

2181
2299

25-30

2392

15-20

2401
2384

10-15

2194
2057

1,8
2,0

1,4
1,6

1,2

0,8
1,0

0,6

0,2
0,4

0,0

-0,4
-0,2

-0,6

-1,0
-0,8

-1,2

-1,6
-1,4

1907
-2,0
-1,8

35-40

2045

2325

Order [-]

RMS
dB / ref 1 m

1746

20-25

5-10
0-5

Bently and Muszynska model


Average fluid angular velocity

Shaft

vavg

Spring and damper system


rotating at the angular
frequency

Bearing

Fluid wedge
Fluid circumferential
velocity ratio
v avg
=

Fluid forces acting


on the rotor
Frot = K rrot + D r&rot

Fluid forces in stationary coordinate


Transform to stationary
coordinates

i ng
t
a
ot

t
Stationary

rrot = r exp( jt )
r&rot = ( r&rot j r ) exp( jt )

Fluid forces
F = K r + D r& jD r

Direct

Quadrature

An example of force balance


Direct
force

Tangentional
force

Gravity
force

Equation of motion
Perturbation balance force
FPerturbati on = mru 2 exp( j (t + ))

Angular velocity is
completely independent of
the rotor angular velocity

Equation of motion

M &r& + D r& + (K jD ) r = mru 2 exp( j (t + ))


Solution takes a form r = A exp( j (t + ))

Amplitude A and phase of the rotor shaft centre-line rotating at


the angular velocity
mru 2 exp( j )
A exp( j ) =
(K M2 )+ jD( )

Shaft/fluid wedge bearing/system as


a servomechanism
Rotor
load

Equation of motion
+

Fluid
wedge
support

Rotor shaft
eccentricity
position

Direct stiffness
K Direct ( j) =

K Direct ( j )

= K + jD M2

Positive feedback

Quadrature stiffness

K Quadrature ( j )

KQuadrature ( j) = jD

Open-loop frequency transfer function


D
G0 ( j) =
D + j K M2

Closed-loop stability margin


According to the Nyquist stability criterion, a margin of stability is
resulting from
Nyquist plot of G0 ( j)
G0 ( jCrit ) = 1
in complex plane
=> Mechanical resonance
Imag
2
Crit = K M
(-1,0) < Crit

=> Fluid resonance


Crit
Crit = Crit
stable
> Crit
=0

=> Bently and Muszynska


threshold
K M
Crit =

=0
=0
Real

margin
= Crit
unstable

Vibration modes

micron

Unbalance effect

= Crit

< Crit

120
80
40
0
-40
-80
-120

> Crit

= Crit Unbalance effect


< Crit

> Crit

Fluid Induced vibration


;;
0

Wall

G0 ( j) = 1 => K (eccentricity ) = M2

Centre

Stiffness K

Eccentricity

10

15

Harmonic envelopes

Time [s]

Magnitude self-control
70

100
x

10

2 x
1x
2x

3x

Magnitude

Magnitude

60
50
40

coast
down

20

run
up

10

0,1

30

10
Time [s]

15

20

1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500


RPM

Whirl & Whip


Fluid Induced Instabilities
An example
Whip vibration
Whirl vibration

Bently &
Muszynska
threshold

Subharmonic

Harmonics
of rotational
frequency

Measurement
range
for this paper

Conclusion
This presentation describes using full spectra for
rotor system diagnostics
The full spectrum is a good tool for studying rotor
instability in journal bearings
The presentation demonstrates whirl vibration and
the independence of the ratio relating the
precession speed to the shaft rotational speed with
respect to the shaft absolute rotational speed
Bently and Muszynska model gives explanation of
the rotor instability