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E206: ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

POLICIOUS, Mark Angelo F.

OBJECTIVE

b. Brass
1 pc cork

The purpose of this experiment is to showcase


the science behind Archimedes principle,
determination of the density and specific gravity
of unknown solid and liquid model through their
weight loss with the help of Archimedes principle
and the experiment.
What is Archimedes Principle? Archimedes
principle states any liquid applies buoyant force
(upward force exerted by the liquid that opposes
the weight of the submerged object) to a solid
object that is partially or completely submerged
in it. Thus, the magnitude of the buoyant force
equals the weight of the fluid that the object
displaces. It means the weight of the solid body
in air minus its weight in liquid is equivalent of
the liquid that the body displaced. It is
mathematically defined as:
Density:

Figure 1:Set of Materials


Procedures:
This experiment comes with 4 different subexperiments and it is noted with A, B, C, and D
letter.
A. Determining the Specific Gravity of an
Unknown Solid Sample Heavier.

Specific Gravity (SGs):

Note: Sample 1 is Aluminum.


Sample 2 is Brass.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


These are needed materials
objectives of the experiment:

to

meet

the

Iron Stand
Digital Weighing Scale (Manufacturer
DHAUS)
Hydrometer (Manufacturer ZHMIE)
2 pcs 250 ml graduated cylinder
(Manufacturer W-Germany Brand) with
unknown substance.
3 pcs beaker (Manufacturer PYREX)
2 metal specimens
a. Aluminum

Figure 2: Weighing the


Brass

Figure 3: Weighing the


Aluminum
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The
determination
of
weight of the First metal
(WA) was done by hanging
the first the metal to the
notch located underneath
the digital weighing scale
and the double check was
done by placing the first
metal on the weighing
scale itself. Afterwards,
Sample1 was immersed
completely in a beaker fill with water and its
weight is determined (Ww). The loss of weight of
water was computed using this formula:

The specific gravity of the liquid was computed


by using the formula:

Same metal and procedures were used to


determine the loss of weight of water and specific
gravity of the 2nd Sample Liquid.
C. Determining the Specific Gravity of an
Unknown Liquid Sample
Note: 1st Sample Liquid is alcohol.
2nd Sample Liquid is water.

From then, the specific gravity was determined


using the formula:

Same procedures were used to determine the


loss of weight of water, specific gravity and
weight itself of the Sample 2.
B. Determining the Specific Gravity of an
Unknown Liquid Sample.
Note: 1st Sample Liquid is alcohol.
2nd Sample Liquid is water.
Aluminum was used in this part.
Aluminum WA will be used in this portion.
Before performing this
part, the metal was
ensured
that
it
is
thoroughly dry before
immersing it in the
sample liquid. Then, the
metal was submerged
completely in the 1st
sample liquid and the
weight
was
recorded
(WL)
using
digital
weighing scale. Loss of weight of the body in the
liquid was determined using the formula

This part of this


experiment is the
verification of Part B
using a hydrometer.
What
is
a
hydrometer?
Hydrometer is used
to
measure
the
specific gravity or
relative density of
liquids. It is consists
of weighted float
and
a
calibrated
stem that projects from the liquid after the float
submerged
completely.
Unfortunately,
Hydrometer was made of fragile glass and it
needs an extra care before using because of
sensitivity.
The sample liquids were transported to their
respective thoroughly dry graduated cylinders.
The hydrometer was push downward until its tip
will touch the bottom part of the cylinder and was
released and allowed to float. The specific gravity
was determined by the reading on the
hydrometer. The results were compared to the
data gathered in part B.

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D. Determining the Specific Gravity of a


Solid Lighter than Water.
Note: The metal used as sinker was brass.
The cork was places
on the digital weighing
scale to obtain its
weight (WA). The cork
was then suspended
to the string and the
sinker (Brass) was
hung below it. We
used some tape to
ensure
that
it
is
attached
on
the
thread. The weight of
the sinker under water
and both the
sinker and cork under water,
was
determined. The loss of weight of the cork was
computed using this formula:

The specific gravity of the cork was determined


using this equation:

TABLE A. Determination of Specific Gravity of


Unknown Solid Samples Heavier than Water.
Sample 1
Sample 2
weight in air, WA
33.3 g
49.8 g
weight in water, WW
21.0 g
43.9 g
Specific Gravity
Name of Sample
Percent Error

2.707

8.441

Aluminum
.027 %

Brass
.008%

Table A shows the how experimental specific


gravity related to the actual of two metal
samples.
In the Part B of the experiment: Determining
the Specific Gravity of an Unknown Liquids. A
sample computation of specific gravity and
percent error as well as the table is presented
below.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS


In the Part A of the experiment: Determining
the Specific Gravity of an Unknown Solid Sample
Heavier. A sample computation of specific gravity
and percent error as well as the table is
presented below.

2.707

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TABLE B. Determination of Specific Gravity of


Unknown Liquids
Sample 1 Sample 2
weight in air, WA
weight in water, WW
weight in the liquid, WL
Loss of weight in liquid,
WA-WL
Specific Gravity,
Name of Sample
Percent Error

33.3 g
21.0 g
23.0 g

33.3 g
21.0 g
20.4 g

10.3 g

12.9 g

.8374

1.0

Alcohol
2.12 %

Water
4.88 %

This table shows the two unknown liquids are


water and alcohol.
In the Part C of the experiment: Determining
the Specific Gravity of an Unknown Liquids Using
Hydrometer. A sample computation of percent
error as well as the table is presented below

percent error as well as the table is presented


below.

TABLE D. Determination of Specific Gravity of Solid


Lighter than Water
Name of sample: CORK
weight of cork in air, WA
3.0 g
weight of cork and sinker in water,
43.9 g
WCA-SW
weight of both sinker and cork in
32.7 g
water, W(C+S)W
Specific Gravity,
0.2679
This table shows the specific of the cork using
brass as the sinker.
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

TABLE C. Determination of Specific Gravity of


Unknown Liquids Using Hydrometer
Sample 1
Sample 2
Specific Gravity
0.835
0.985
Name of Sample
Alcohol
Water
Percent Error
1.829 %
1.5 %
This table shows the verification of the gathered
data in Part B using a hydrometer.
In the Part D of the experiment: Determining
the Specific Gravity of Solid Lighter than Water. A
sample computation of specific gravity and

In the first part of the experiment, obviously that


the mass of brass is greater than the mass of
aluminum but the aluminum can displaced
greater amount of water compared to brass. It is
just because brass is denser than aluminum.
In the second part of experiment, the two
unknown liquid samples were revealed. The
weight of the sample metal in air is greater than
the weight of the sample metal in water. The

science behind it is the buoyant force in Archimedes


principle. Again, buoyant force is upward force
exerted water that makes the weight smaller. It can
be seen in the table the comparison of the loss of
weight between the two liquids. Alcohol can loss
fewer weight than water. It means alcohol is
more buoyant and contains higher density.

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In the last part of the experiment, materials lighter


than water will totally float on water and it is difficult
to submerge and determination of its specific gravity
is a little bit hard thats why a sinker was used during
this portion of experiment. Using Archimedes
principle loss of weight of cork is simply the

http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science
/archimedes-principle.html

buoyant force exerted by the water to the cork.

In conclusion, the tendency goes when the loss of


weight in liquid increases, expecting that the specific
gravity also increases. It means when the liquid is
more buoyant, the liquid has higher density. This
density is the force to rise up the object that is being
or totally immersed that makes the materials
submerged weight smaller.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT & REFERENCE
I would like to thank my group mates for making
every experiment fill with humour, intellect and
excitement. Truly, our teamwork, courtesy and
unity are indisputably the secrets on having a job
well done work. I would not have done all these
experiment by myself. Thank you.
Acknowledging Prof. Ricardo De Leon for sharing
us his ideas, hints and tips for all the
experiments we have done. We could not have
done this without you. Once again, thank you sir.
I would like to acknowledge the lab assistants for
their politeness, generosity and approachable
until the last of the experiment.
Especially, I would like to thank Almighty God for
giving me knowledge, perseverance and insight
in performing all the experiments and doing all
the lab reports. Indeed, God is good.
http://fiziknota.blogspot.com/2008/05/applicatio
n-of-archimedes-principle.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/archimedesprinciple-definition-formula-examples.html
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/pbuoy.html
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