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TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE


HOUSING
KISELEVA NADEZHDA
Vologda State Technical University, Russia
KIYANENKO KONSTANTIN (Graduate thesis faculty adviser)
Vologda State Technical University, Russia

ABSTRACT
The study stems from theoretical and practical
aspects of adaptive structure design. The goal
of this study is to develop a new method for
affordable housing and urban residential
environment design through the study of
adaptable structures. Created method opens
up an opportunity to determine new potentials
for use of residential space. Taking into
account the dynamism and variety of
residential living, the method helps to forecast
the possible adaptations of dwelling during its
lifetime and therefore prolong its service life.

KEYWORDS
affordable
housing;
scenario
planning;
programming; permanent frame; adaptive
structure.

Figure 1. Social processes

INTRODUCTION

RESEARCH METHODS

Currently in Russian residential design practice


the essential qualities of architecture as
adaptability, flexibility, changeability and
transformation are perceived as a privilege of
luxury housing or commercial building. The
hypothesis of this research is that these
qualities are even more necessary within the
affordable housing realm. Inhabitants in the
subsidized housing sector usually have no
chance to move to a new housing unit each
time when dynamics of their residential life
causes a conflict with current living conditions.

In the aspect of stated problem the author


considers theoretical and design approaches of
Wright, Le Corbusier, Hertzberger, Priemus,
Cache, Lynch, Schroeder, and also concepts of
two-level development of space of Habraken,
Kendall, Brand, Laugier, Semper, Duffy,
Leupen, Heijne, van Zwol, be considered.
The aim of the research is the consideration of
spatial structures as the main source for
adaptation in the architecture of affordable
housing.
The key stages of the research are:
1. a study and review of basic concepts and
techniques in the sphere of adaptability
and adaptive structures;

2 TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

2. architectural programming for adaptive


residential environment design;
The research methods are:
-analysis of social problems and observation
of different residential life models;
-consideration of the latest theoretical and
design approaches in architecture of
adaptive housing;
-survey and interviewing of residents of
several well-known adaptive social housing
complexes in Denmark and Netherlands;
-application of considered approaches into
the affordable housing model development.

as kitchens, bathrooms and stairs is built, this


core organizes a particular structure that
specifies the space and order of future
development. The building is being built
gradually, according to the occurrence of needs
or opportunities.

Figure 2.1 Quinta Monroy, 2004. Arch.Elemental

TIME CYCLES
The source of requirements of adaptability in
the architecture of social housing is the
overlapping of a dynamic residential life with
the inability of inhabitants to adjust into it.
Major demographic, cultural and economic
processes and their time cycles are identified
and studied as a precondition and a ground for
adaptation.
"Mini cycle" is presented as a
change of events within days, weeks and
months. "Midi cycle" is a type of changes a
from one to ten years long period (changes in
family size, lifestyle, income and social status
etc.). "Maxi cycle" presented in research as
chain of changes within a longer than ten years
period (changes in building codes, financial and
building industry cycles, "aging" of population,
processes of modernization and globalization in
society, culture and economics, etc.).
THE CONCEPTS OF ADAPTABILITY
RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE

IN

The interest in time factor in the residential


architecture sphere had been formed in late
XVIII century and is still actual in our time.
The study gave that the six basic concepts of
adaptability are created till now.
The concept of "GROWING HOUSE", "SOUND
HOUSE" was applied first time in the twentieth
century, by F.-L. Wright in the project of
"Broadacre City". Later these concepts had
been repeatedly used by H. Herttsberger.
("growing house" in Almere), R. Cepezed
(residential unit Heiwo), A. Aravena (quarter
Quinta Monroy). (Fig.2.1) According to the
"GROWING HOUSE" concept in the first stage
of construction the part of house components

The concept of "OPEN PLAN AND DIRECTING"


originated in the late 1960s. This concept
provides an opportunity to inhabitant to
determine a particular spatial structure of
home. The first experiment was performed set
in Galgebakken (Denmark) by architects H.
Marcussen and J.P. Storgaard and achieved a
success the project was dubbed in Greve
town.(Fig. 2.2) House, according to this design
method, gets plenty of opportunities for
division of diverse space within a special
system of wooden rails. Whereas the walls as a
mobile element allow residents to create their
own unique structure.

Figure 2.1. Flexibo. 1972.

The concept of "SUPPORT AND INFILL" or


"OPEN BUILDING" was first appeared in the
early 1960s by Dutch architect N.-J. Habraken.
An idea is to divide the residential structure
into two components: stable over time
constructive as engineering basements and
independent from it free replacement infill
with the form of residential units or cells. This
structuralism idea formed the basis of
numerous projects and buildings, ranging from
Archigrams (1960) proposals to the residential
complex Next 21" in Osaka (1996) (Figure
2.3). The concept of "SUPPORT AND INFILL"
was a key idea in the international movement
called "Open Building".

TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Figure 2.3 Next 21, 1996

The "CASCO" concept is related to the principle


of separation, individualization and isolation.
"Casco" can be called a low-rise version of the
"support and infill" idea as a continuation of
the N.-J. Habrakens logic, developed in the
late 1960s, with the collapse of industrial
technology. Dutch word, "casco" has the
meaning of a "body". Its circuit-use the model
resembles the "cocoon", where all the changes
take place in a confined space. The structure is
a coupe that provides the necessary isolation
between the cells. In the early 1970s, the
Dutch architect S. Haaksma was the first who
applied the concept into practice. Two-story
structure of "support" like tunnel had an open
area in the middle, which could be used as the
empty space or overlapped one. The back side
can expand the width of the structure (Fig.
2.4). R. Piano in his project in Perugia also
uses the idea of a cocoon. U-shaped brackets
form a double decker tunnel where the interior
is flexible. And with the beams and modular
panels one can build their own floors between
levels (Fig. 2.5).

Figure 2.5 Casco, 1976

The
concept
of
"POLIVALENT
SPACES"
nominated by H. Hertsberger and interpreted
as "the quality of spaces that enables them to
do used in different ways without needing to
make architectural or structural changes". A
classic example is the concept of a residential
project "Diagon" in Delft, where are some
places that provide the possibility of their
different use and interchangeability (Fig. 2.6).

Figure 2.6 Diagoon housing, 1971

The concept of "LOFT" is an undivided space


for live and work, which is organized using the
post-and-beam structures.
The unit for
engineering services is driven out of the living
space, the construction of double floor provides
the connectivity to any place. The example is
the residential complex "Australia - Boston"
(Figure 2.7)

Figure 2.4 Double-height base building, 1978

Figure 2.7 Australia-Boston 2002

4 TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

PEOPLE IN TIME-BASED ARCHITECTURE


In the foreign practice of designing adaptable
housing its a long and repeatedly tested thing.
The author decided to use this fact to find out
how the residents rate the quality of similar
houses of adaptability and how it is recently
claimed. It was necessary to establish the
direction of transformation and to ensure the
viability of the concept. To do this, the author
conducted interviews with the residents in the
complexes of the Netherlands and Denmark,
recognized model "Time-based architecture"
Total authors surveyed by questionnaire and
photo-fixing 10 residential and public housing
complexes in these two countries. (Fig. 3-11)

Figure 5. Housing America plads, Copenhagen,


Denmark, arch. Moller, 2006. Universal, polyvalence
spaces.

Figure 6. Housing Australia - Boston, Amsterdam,


2002, arch. DKV Architecten. Concept of LOFT cell.

Figure 3. Social housing Flexibo Greve, Denmark,


1972 . arch. Fallenstegnestuen ApS. Concepts of
free plans and directing.

Figure
7.
Housing
Developers
freedom
Amsterdam, Holland, arch. Ana-architecten, 2005).

Figure 4. Dwelling Diagoon, Delft, Holland, 19671971, arch. H. Hertzberger. Concept of polyvalent
spaces.

Figure 8. Housing in Kvitsgard city, Denmark, arch.


Juul&Frost. Modular structure.

TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Figure 9. Housing Ggrowth Homes, Almere,


Holland. Architectuurstudio Herman Hertsberger,
2002. Concepts of sound homes and growing homes.

space by removing dividing walls (Figure, 3).


The residents moved kitchen to the second
floor, thus, organizing on the first floor of an
office and a guest room (Fig. 8).
There are a lot examples of making adaptable
transformations and life situations previous it.
The inhabitants tell with a pride about their
adaptable places and show all the majorities of
a flexible design.
It is established that people have a necessity
to change their houses often and it can easily
be done using the particular scenarios and
possibilities provided by architects. The theory
works successfully on the practice.

CONCEPTS OF ADAPTIVE STRUCTURE

Figure 10. Housing fortress on the sound, Malmo,


Sweden (arch. G. Wingardh , 2001)

Figure 11. Mixed-used commercial building INIT


Building, Amsterdam, Holland, (Groosman Partners,
2003)Two levels of the faade.

First lets consider the "Diagon" housing (H.


Herttsberger), One of residents - the elderly
couple, grandchildren or guests have arrived,
the owners isolated guest room by a sliding
wall. (Fig. 4). The other residents created an
extra room after the birth of a child, or it can
serve as a hobby room also (Fig. 7). Young
couple planned to rent the second floor after
they child had birthed. (Fig. 8). The Woman
has separated room for working and sleeping
spaces. (Fig. 9). Elderly couple expanded living

The most prospective thing for adaptable


architecture of affordable housing seems to be
the concept of layers developed by Steward
Brand and Bernard Leupen. The idea of
dividing the building into layers (categories)
has been evolving for a long time.
In the 18th century French architect Marc
Antoine Laugier made a hut model, as the
basis of the overall architecture, which
allocates layers support branches and leaves of
the protective (support and shell). In the next
century
in
Germany
Gottfried
Semper
distinguishes four categories, which are:
hearth, earthwork, roofwork and enclosure. In
the early 1990s, the Englishman Francis Duffy
says threefold combination: shell, services and
scenery. Stewart Brand, an American architect,
based on the ideas of F. Duffy, identifies six
layers: structure, skin, space plan, services,
stuff and site. Furthermore, in the Netherlands
Bernard Leupen, based on the classification of
Brand and using it, the term "layer", stops on
five components. He does not consider the
stuff and site, but adds "access" (stairs,
galleries, corridors), as he is interested in an
multi-apartment housing. (Fig. 12)

6 TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Figure 12. Evolution the concept of the layers.

The author prefers a system of five layers:


structure, skin, scenery, services and access.
Dividing into the layers follows the logic of a
combination of fixed and variable structures.
Without the definition of the building
constructive constant any adaptation is
impossible. The constant determines the
location and nature of the change.
Further understanding of the logic of forming
adaptive structures in architecture led the
author to idea in the possible extension of its
boundaries to the living area. Based on the
experience in the development of adaptive
structures and the last classification B. Leupen
invited to consider the components of the
external living space. The unit "layers", so is
applicable in the range of living cells to urban
spaces.
INTERPOLATION CONCEPTS OF ADAPTIVE
STRUCTURE TO THE TERRITORY
For the organization of adaptive living area
author can determine the additional layers, as
a "red facade" - the main facade like an urban
screen, with the regulation of norms, "atrium"
- enclosed and semi-enclosed courtyard space;
"infrastructure" is networks, and pathways
communications;
"parking";
"children's
playgrounds"; "public spaces"; "eco places" green spaces, natural landscape. As in the
building, some layers can work as a permanent
structure, and create a framework for spatial
changes in other layers. This program can be
used as a basis to design of adaptive
architectural environment (Fig. 13).

Figure 13. The layers of living area.

THE PROGRAM FOR DESIGN ADAPTIVE


RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

With the concept of "layers" it is possible to


organize
all
levels
of
adaptive
living
environment - from the living cell to the yard
area and beyond. Design becomes important
to
develop
new
spatial
structures
as
programming architectural potential. The issue
of adaptability is also relevant for people who
are willing to use adaptive design solutions
laid down by architect. For example, you can
increase the part of the building using the
resources of the out layers. The apparatus
"layers" is applicable in the range from the
living cells to urban spaces.

Figure 14. The program


residential environment.

for

design

adaptive

The program strategy of designing adaptive


living environment consists of the definition of
social, functional, structural changes and their
control:

TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

SCENARIO PLANNING AND LAYERS


At first designed scenario planning for every
scale of residential spaces and each time
cycles, predicting the social processes. It is
start project and features options of living
spaces. Living environment is divided into
levels of design: cell and residential urban
space. And each of them is determined by its
layers and tools of constructive.
PERMANENT STRUCTURE AND CHANGEABLE
SPACES
Based on the logic of structuring principles of
adaptation such as "spatial flexibility" and
"functional flexibility", which introduced by the
architects J. v. Eldonk, H. Fassbinder the
author
classified the basic concepts of
flexibility
in the ways of adaptability:
adaptation
through
transformation
and
adaptation through using. The first way is
consists of the concepts polyvalent spaces,
directory plan, the second way is loft, open
building, growth homes and casco. For each
way and their concepts of adaptability formed
the permanent structure with own set of fixed
and changeable layers.

Figure 15. The examples of modeling framework for


design adaptive living environment.

INTERFACE AND CONTROL


The interface system is between permanent
and changing structures. It is the set of
variants scenario projects for every space
levels and time cycles, standardized technical
rules of usage, module construction for making
transformation and central control of all
changes by special residential architects.

CONCLUSION
The result of this research is a creation of the
new method for the residential environment
design, through the concept of adaptive
structure. The
program opens up an
opportunity to determine potentials for using
space. As opposite to the traditional urban
design approaches, the concept of adaptable
structure design with a close consideration of
social and spatial aspects, has been advanced
during this research.

8 TIME FACTOR AND ARCHITECTURE OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING

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