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3.

2 Material properties

3.2 Material properties

1R32 EN.dog

Contents
3.2.0

General

Page
76

3.2.1
Component values according to standards
3.2.1.0 General
3.2.1.1 Component values according to standards
of semi-finished products or test pieces
3.2.1.2 Component values according to
the drawing
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values

77

3.2.2
3.2.2.0
3.2.2.1
3.2.2.2

Technological size factor


General
Dependence on the effective diameter
Effective diameter

78

3.2.3

Anisotropy factor

80

Compression strength factor and


shear strength factor
3.2.4.0 General
3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor

3 Assessment of the static strength


using nominal stresses

76

Rm,N
Values
according
to standards
Component
values -

3.2.4

3.2.5
3.2.5.0
3.2.5.1
3.2.5.2
3.2.5.3

81

Temperature factors
General
~ormal temperature
Low temperature
Elevated temperature

3.2.0 General

de ff .N

-deff

(Jg)

Figure 3.2.1 Values according to standards and component values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or
values specified by drawings, Rm,z and Rp,Z .
Top: All kinds of material except GG, Rm ::: Rm.N, R" ::: R",N
Semi-logarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the
effective diameter d.n- .
Bottom: GG, Rm ::: or ~ Rm.N . Double-logarithmic decrease of the
mechanical material properties with the effective diameter dell'.

According to this chapter the mechanical material


properties like tensile strength R.n, yield strength R, and
further characteristics for non-welded and welded'
components are to be determined.

Values according to standards

All mechanical material properties are those of the


material test specimen. Values according to standards,
component values and component values according to
standards are to be distinguished, Figure 3.2.1.

The values according to standards (R.n,N , Rm , Rp,N , Rp)


correspond to an average probability of survival
Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter deff
and on the technological size factor.

Material test specimen

Component values

In the context of this guideline the material test


specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of
do = 7,5 mm diameter *1.

The component values CRm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid


for the effective diameter deff of the component, they
may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po,
however.

Specified values according to drawings Rm.z and

R",z.

Special case of actual component values

1 This definition is the basis of the present calculation, although


specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from

7,5 mm.

If specific values for a component (R.n,r , Rp,r) have been


determined experimentally, they normally apply to a
probability of survival Po = 50 % , and therefore they
are valid only for the particular component, but not for
the entirety of all those components. They may be used,
for instance, for a subsequent assessment of the strength

3.2 Material properties

3 Assessment of the static strength


using nominal stresses

77

of the particular component in case of a service failure,


if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in
addition.

product *3 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it


is the value from the test piece according to the material
standard.

Component values according to standards

The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum


value specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
product *3 or for the test piece defined by the material
standard *4.

The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp)


apply to an average probability of survival PD = 97,5 %
and are valid for the effective diameter, c1eff, of the
component. Their application is not limited to a
particular component, and therefore they may be used
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of
all those components.
To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield
strength R, *2 the technological size factor, the
anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be
considered in general. Furthermore compression
strength and shear strength values are to be considered.

3.2.1 Component values according to


standards
3.2.1.0 General
The component values according to standards,

Rm

and

R, , are to be determined from the values of semifinished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rm.N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in
the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally
determined actual component values, Rm.r and Rp,r , can
be applied.
For GG the yield strength is not defined and Eq. (3.2.1)
is not applicable.

3.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of

Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive


stresses the compression strength factor fa , Chapter
3.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor f, ,
Chapter 3.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
temperature factors Kt,m , ..., Chapter 3.2.5.

3.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing


The component value of the tensile strength, Rm, is
Rm =

0,94 . Rm.z.

(3.2.2)

The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is


the tensile strength of the material specified on the
drawing. As the value Rm.z is normally verified by
random inspection of small samples only *5, it is
assumed to have a probability of survival less than
PD= 97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value Rmz to a
component value Rm that is expected to conform with
the probability of survival of Pr, = 97,5 %.
The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile
strength Rm is *6 .

R, = Kd,p

. Rp,N

Kd,m

Rm,N

. Rm,

(3.2.3)

technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2,


values of the semi-finished product or
of a test pieces defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .

semi-finished products or of test pieces


The component values according to standards of the
tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm = Kd,m . KA ' Rm.N,
R, = K<J,p . KA ' Rp.N,

K<J,m, K<J,p
KA

Rm.N, Rp.N

(3.2.1)

technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2,


anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3,
values of the semi-finished product or
of a test piece according to standards,
Chapter 5.1 .

In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the


tensile strength, Rm.N , is the guaranteed minimum value
specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished

2 The term yield strength is used as a generalized tenn for the yield
stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2
proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as
aluminum alloys).

3 If different dimensions of that semi-finished product are given by


the standard.
4 A probability of survival Pii = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
properties according to standards Rm,N , Rp,N . This probability of
survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp is calculated therefrom.
5 The value R m Z is checked by three hardness measurements
(n=3) for exampl~, where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest of n = 3 tests
may be estimated to 75 % (= I - I/(n+ 1) = 1 - 1/(3+1) = 0,75), and
may be assigned to R m Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of
4% the conversion to P; = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (3.2.2).
6 A conversion proportional to R p N f R m N would not be correct
since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
strength than for the tensile strength.

3.2 Material properties

3 Assessment of the static strength


using nominal stresses

78

3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values


If only an experimental value of the tensile strength

Rm,I

is known the value of the yield strength Rp,I may be


computed from Eq. (3.2.3) with Rm = Rm,I.

For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.


For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
values deff,max, ... ,
(3.2.11)

deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 00 ,

unless otherwise specified in the material standards.

3.2.2 Technological size factor

Aluminum alloys

3.2.2.0 General
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of
the material strength values usually observed with
increasing dimensions of the component. It is specified
as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 3.2.1. It
is different for non-welded and for welded components
*7

For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors


for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as
follows: For deft':::; deft:N,m = deft:N,p = 12 mm

3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter


Non-welded components

:KI.m = :KI.p =

Steel and cast iron materials

(3.2.4)

for deff > 7,5 mm *8


Kd,m = 1,207' (deff/7,5 mm)-0,1922.

(3.2.5)

For stainless steel within the dimensions given in


material standards there is
Kd,m = Kct,p =1.

(3.2.7)

For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For deff s deff,N,m
KcI,m = Kd,p =1,
for deff,N,m < deff :s; deff,max,m *9:
KcI,m

(3.2.8) .
(3.2.9)

1-0, 7686ad,m lg(deff /7,5mm)


,
1-0, 7686ad,m .lg(deff,N,m /7,5mm)

for deff ~ deff,max,m it is:


~m = ~m (deff,max,m).

deff
deff,N,m, ad,m

(3.2.12)

1,

for 12 mm < deft' < deft:max.m =

For GG the following technological size factor applies


to the tensile strength: For deff :s; 7,5 mm
Kd,m = 1,207,

For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of


the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp,
are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material
and its condition, and depending on the thickness or
diameter of the semi-finished product. To these values
the technological size factors Kj., = :KI.p = 1 apply.

(3.2.10)

effective diameter, Chapter 3.2.2.2 ,


constants, Table 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.

Considering the yield strength the values Kct,m , deff,N,m ,


and act,m have to be replaced by the values ~p , deff,N,p ,
and ad,p (except for GG).

deft:max.p =

v.
= v.
= 1, 1 . (d
.J..~m
.J..~p
Ueff /7 , 5 mm)
for deft'~

deft:max.m

deft:max.p

:KI.m = :KI.p = 0,6 .


Welded components

150 mm

-0,2 ,

(3.2.13)

= 150 mm
(3.2.14)

*10

For all kinds of material the technological size factor for


the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *11
KcI,m = Kct,p = 1.

(3.2.15)

For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,


stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
applied with caution.

3.2.2.2 Effective diameter


For components with a simple shape of the cross section
- as far as a cross section may be defined - the effective
diameter is given according to the cross section in Table
3.2.3.
In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is
specified in the material standards.

For the determination of the effective diameter deff two


cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.

Table 3.2.1 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and adm, ... , for


steel
7 The influence factors according toChapter 3.2.3 (KA), Chapter 3.2.4
(fer, f't) and Chapter 3.2.5 (KT m- ...) are supposed tobe valid for both
non-welded and welded compon~nts.
8 Footnote an Eq. (3.2.6) cancelled.
9 0,7686 = 1 fig 20.

10 Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys.


11 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to
DIN 18800, part 1, page 40.

134
5 Appendices

5.1 Material tables

Table 5.1.4 Mechanical properties in MFa for quenched and tempered steels in the quenched and tempered
condition, after DIN EN 10 083-1 (1996-10-00) --1. Notes? 1 to --4 see next page.
Type of
material,
after DIN EN
10 027-1
C22E
C22R
C22
C25E
C25R
C25
C30E
C30R
C30
C35E
C35R
C35
C40E
C40R
C40
C45E
C45R
C45
C50E
C50R
C50
C55E
C55R
C55
C60E
C60R
C60
28Mn6
38Cr2
38CrS2
46Cr2
46CrS2
34Cr4
34CrS4
37Cr4
37CrS4
41Cr4
41CrS4
25CrMo4
25CrMoS4
34CrMo4
34CrMoS4
42CrMo4
42CrMoS4
50CrMo4
36CrNiMo4
34CrNiM06
30CrNiMo8 -- 1
36NiCrMo16?1
51CrV4

Type of
material,
after
DIN 17200
Ck 22
Cm22
C 22
Ck 25
Cm25
C25
Ck 30
Cm30
C 30
Ck 35
Cm35
C 35
Ck40
Cm40
C40
Ck45
Cm45
C45
Ck 50
Cm50
C 50
Ck 55
Cm55
C 55
Ck60
Cm60
C60
28Mn6
38 Cr 2
38 CrS 2
46 Cr 2
46 CrS 2
34 Cr4
34 CrS 4
37 Cr4
37 CrS 4
41 Cr 4
41 CrS 4
25 CrMo4
25 CrMoS 4
34 CrMo 4
34 CrMoS 4
42 CrMo 4
42 CrMoS 4
50 CrMo4
36 CrNiMo 4
34 CrNoMo6
30 CrNiMo 8
50 CrY 4

Material
No.

1.1151
1.1149
1.0402
1.1158
1.1163
1.0406
1.1178
1.1179
1.0528
1.1181
1.1180
1.0501
1.1186
1.1189
1.0511
1.1191
1.1201
1.0503
1.1206
1.1241
1.0540
1.1203
1.1209
1.0535
1.1221
1.1223
1.0601
1.1170
1.7003
1.7023
1.7006
1.7025
1.7033
1.7037
1.7034
1.7038
1.7035
1.7039
1.7218
1.7213
1.7220
1.7226
1.7225
1.7227
1.7228
1.6511
1.6582
1.6580
1.6773
1.8159

R,N

crW,zd,N

crSch,zd,N

crW,b,N

LW,s,N

LW,t,N

ad,rn

llci,p

?2

--3

--3

?3

?3

?3

?4

?4

340 225

210

250

130

145

0,19

0,43

370 250

225

275

145

160

0,29

0,40

600

400 270

245

295

155

175

0,26

0,37

630

430 285

255

310

165

185

0,20

0,39

650

460 295

260

320

170

190

0,12

0,36

700

490 315

275

345

180

205

0,16

0,36

750

520 340

290

365

195

215

0,21

0,35

800

550 360

305

390

210

230

0,19

0,35

850

580 385

320

415

220

245

0,18

0,34

800
800

590 360
550 360

305
305

390
390

210
210

230
230

0,30
0,37

0,38
0,52

900

650 405

335

435

235

260

0,41

0,54

900

700 405

335

435

235

260

0,33

0,49

950

750 430

345

460

245

270

0,32

0,46

1000

800 450

360

480

260

285

0,30

0,44

900

700 405

335

435

235

260

0,33

0,49

1000

800 450

360

480

260

285

0,30

0,44

1100

900 495

385

525

285

315

0,32

0,43

1100 900 495


1100 900 495
1200 1000 540
1250 1050 565
1250 1050 565
1100 900 495

385
385
410
420
420
385

525
525
570
595
595
525

285
285
310
325
325
285

315
315
340
355
355
315

0,28
0,32
0,33
0,36
0,28
0,28

0,38
0,38
0,39
0,42
0,32
0,33

Rm,N

500
550

135
5 Appendices

5.1 Material tables

Table 5.1.5 Mechanical properties in MPa for quenched and tempered steels in the normalized condition,
after DIN EN 10 083-1 (1996-10-00) -9-1.
Type of
material,
after DIN EN
10 027-1
C22E
C22R
C22
C25E
C25R
C25
C30E
C30R
C30
C35E
C35R
C35
C40E
C40R
C40
C45E
C45R
C45
CSOE
C50R
C50
C55E
C55R
C55
C60E
C60R
C60
28Mn6

Type of
material,
after
DIN 17200

Material
No.

Ck22
Cm22
C 22
Ck 25
Cm25
C 25
Ck 30
Cm30
C 30
Ck 35
Cm35
C 35
Ck40
Cm40
C40
Ck45
Cm45
C45
Ck50
Cm50
C 50
Ck 55
Cm55
C 55
Ck60
Cm60
C60
28Mn6

1.1151
1.1149
1.0402
1.1158
1.1163
1.0406
1.1178
1.1179
1.0528
1.1181
1.1180
1.0501
1.1186
1.1189
1.0511
1.1191
1.1201
1.0503
1.1206
1.1241
1.0540
1.1203
1.1209
1.0535
1.1221
1.1223
1.0601
1.1170

Rn,N

Re,N

crW,zd,N

CJSch,zd,N

CJW,b,N

't W,s,N

'tW,I,N

-9-2

~m

ad,p

-9-3

-9-3

430

240

195

185

215

110

125

0,08

0,19

470

260

210

200

235

120

140

0,10

0,18

510

280

230

215

255

135

150

0,10

0,19

550

300

250

225

275

145

160

0,10

0,19

580

320

260

235

285

150

170

0,09

0,19

620

340

280

250

305

160

180

0,10

0,20

650

355

295

260

320

170

190

0,10

0,19

680

370

305

270

335

175

195

0,09

0,20

710

380

320

280

350

185

205

0,09

0,19

630

345

285

250

310

165

185

0,07

0,17

-9- 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 16 rom.


-9- 2 Re,N / Rm,N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-9- 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.

Notes referring to Table 5.1.4:


-9- 1 Effective diameter deff,N;= 40 rom for 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16, deff,N = 16 rom for all other types of material listed.
-9- 2 Re,N / Rm,N < 0,75 up to and including 46 Cr 2, 46 CrS 2; Re,N / Rm,N > 0,75 from 34 Cr 4, 34 CrS 4 on.
-9- 3 The fatigue strength values of the sulphur bearing steels 38 CrS 2 to 42CrMoS 4 are lower than the values listed for 28 Cr 2 to 42 CrMo 4.
-9- 4 M ore specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.