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Sexual

Differentiation and Male Reproductive Physiology


True hermaphrodite individuals have ___ due to ___.
Male Pseudohermaphoditism: Define
Female pseudohermaphoditism: Define
What might cause male pseudohermaphoditism?
What might cause female pseudohermaphoditism?
What weeks do testes begin to develop?
What weeks do ovaries begin to develop?
In androgen insensitivity syndrome (testicular
feminization) how developed are the male internal
tracts?
5a-reductase deficiency (5-ARD): how developed
are the male internal tracts?
How is GnRH reeleased? What is the effect?
FSH vs LH levels:
1. Prepuberty
2. Reproductive Age
3. Post reproductive Age
Who goes through puberty first? M vs F
How does sertoli cell control FSH release via
negative feedback?
How does leydig cell exert negative feedback
control?
How is high concentration of testosterone
maintained in testes?

Both gonands and ovaries ; XY/XX mosaicism


Male sex organs (testis, XY) but female genitalia
Female sex organs (ovaries, XX) but male genitalia
Testicular feminization syndrome or 5a-reductase
deficiency
Exposure to androgens in utero
6-7 weeks gestational age
9 weeks gestational age
Not developed (testosterone NOR DHT can bind do
its thing)
Well developed
Pulsatile; upreg of gonadotropin receptors on
gonadotrophs
1. FSH>LH
2. LH > FSH
3. FSH > LH

Female
GnRH FSH Sertoli cell inhibin blocks
FSH
GnRH LH Leydig Cell Testosterone
blocks LH and GnRH
Sertoli cells Androgen Binding Protein (ABP)
binds testosterone and keeps it in high
concentration in testes!
How can exogenous use of testosterone cause
Circulating levels of testosterone control LH.
infertility?
Exogenous testosterone use elevated circulating
levels inhibition of LH leydig cells make less
testosterone locally infertility
You have a male patient with XS circulating levels
1. XS adipose tissue
of E2-estradiol. What might you suspect?
2. Sertoli cell tumor
Describe sertoli cell role in estradiol
They have aromatase so they contribute to 1/3 of
circulating estradiol in men.
What is the effect of testosterone on growth?
Cessation of lengthening of bones, fusion of
epiphyseal plates
What might you suspect if a young male has growth He is either taking steroids or has testosterone
that prematurely ceased?
synthesizing tumor
Androgen effect on muscle mass:
Increase
Testosterone actions:
1. def leads to osteoporosis
2. abdominal visceral fat
3. Increase in VLDL, LDL, decr in HDL
DHT actions
1. Beard growth, prostate development, ext
genitalia development, seminal vesicles dev
Emission is?
Movement of semen along genital tract
Emission is mediated by which nervous system
Sympathetic
activity?
Erection is mediated by which nervous system
Parasympathetic

Sexual Differentiation and Male Reproductive Physiology


activity?
What prevents retrograde ejaculation?
Ejaculation is ___ ____ nerves mediated rhythmic
contraction of bulbospongiosus and
ischocavernosus m.

Sympathetics close internal urethral sphincter


Somatic motor