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Original Title: 2.Similitude Laws in Centrifuge Modeling

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centrifuge modelling

Content

Scaling

g laws for centrifuge

g tests

Scaling laws of water flow in centrifuge

Grain size effects on interface and shear band pattern

Vaschy-Buckingham theorem

If we have a physically meaningful equation involving a certain number, n, of physical

variables, and these variables are expressible in terms of k independent fundamental

physical quantities, then the original expression is equivalent to an equation involving a

set of p = n k dimensionless p

parameters constructed from the original

g

variables

f X 1 , X 2 ,..., X n = 0

i=1,n

X i r11i r2 2 i ... rk ki

i=1,n-k

i X 1 X 2 ... X n

1i

2i

ni

f 1 , 2 ,..., nk = 0

Significance : Two systems for which these dimensionless parameters coincide are called

similar (they differ only in scale); they are equivalent for the purposes of the equation,

div p + p g p + 2 p = 0

t

p

n=6

p: stress tensor

up: distance

p: density

gp: volumic forces

tp: time

p: displacement

k=3

L: meter

M: mass

T: time

- Direct method

= m

p

*

= m

p

*

g* =

gm

gp

t* =

tm

tp

* =

m

p

L* =

Lm

Lp

*

gL

*

* *

*

* *2

gt

=1

=1

- Second method

f ( , u, , g, t , ) = 0

M

-2

-1

-3

-2

dimensional parameters

i = u

i

ui

gi

t ti

Rank 3 p=3

1 = 1 =

*

gh

*

* *

2 =1=

* *

gt

3 =1=

u*

5

Experimental work on geotechnical structures

* = 1/n

scaling

l

ffactor L*=1/n

* /

Test at 1g : g*=1

*= 1

* = 1/n

density:

*=1

=1

tt* = 1/n

Hooke law

ij =

kk ij

ij +

1 +

1 2

'

E

1

ij =

n

1 + '

'

ij +

kk ij

'

1 2

E' =

1

E

n

material must be modified

'=

- Bearing capacity of shallow foundation (De Beer cited by Cort, 1989; Garnier, 2003)

Terzaghi

g ((1943))

1

qu = BN ( )

2

1

4A

3

qu = BN (B ) N (B ) =

+

2

3

2B

Sol : E=E0(1+z)

1+ sin

Ratio Kn

Comabrieu (1997)

Ratio B/B0

(Garnier, 2003)

Full scale

model

(Garnier, 2001)

Full scale

model

d l

(Garnier, 2001)

Centrifuge tests

- First idea : Phillips (1869) France

1 scaling factor is fixed same stress in the model and in the prototype

* =1

+

Same soil

* =1

g* = n

9

Technical committee 2 ((TC2)) of the ISSMGE

Catalogue of scaling laws and similitude questions in geotechnical centrifuge modelling.

J. Garnier, C. Gaudin, S.M. Springman, P.J. Cullingan, D. Goodings, D. Konig, B. Kutter, R.

Phillips, M.F. Randolph and L. Thorel. IJPMG, Vol. 3 (2007)

Available one line : http://www.tc2.civil.uwa.edu.au

10

1 = 1 =

Scaling factor

* g *h*

3 =1=

distance

u*

1/n

stress

*soil

u*

soil density

gravity

g*

g *t *

displacement

1/n

dynamic time

t*dyn

1/n

strain

velocity

v*

acceleration

a*

frequency

f*

F * = * u*2

force

F*

1/n2

m * = * u*3

Unit weight

mass

m*

1/n3

2 =1=

*

v * = * / t dyn

a =v /t

*

*

dyn

*

f * = 1 / t dyn

= g

*

11

Center of rotation

R0 R1 RN

R

Surface of the soil layer

y

Schofield A. N. (1980)

dR

2 =

acceleration varies with depth

G

Rn

Rn= H/3 below the soil surface

d v = Gdr = R 2 dR

R

R0

2 Rn

v = R 2 dR =

(R

R02

12

Navier Stokes equation (incompressible and Newtonien fluid)

u p

+ u p grad p u p = g p 1fl grad p Pp + pfl p u p

p

t p

Dimensional analysis (direct method)

*u*fl2

u*fl2

um

+ u m grad m u m = * * g m

P*

t m

g x

Froud number

F =

*

r

u*fl2

g* x*

=1

*fl u*fl2

P

=1

pfl

grad p Pp +

u*fl x *

pfl p u p

Reynolds number

Re* =

u*fl x *

=1

P * = 1 and *fl = 1

u*fl = 1

13

Dimensionall analysis

l

((second

d method)

h d)

Hypothesis : not deformable porous media, incompressible and Newtonian fluid

f P, ufl,dp, L, , =0

P: fluid pressure

Ufl: microscopic fluid velocity (interstitial velocity)

(Babendrier, 1991; Stephensen, 1979;

Menand, 1995)

L: length

:dynamic viscosity

:density of the fluid

Friction factor

F =

*

f

i *d *p g *

u*fl

Reynolds number

* * *

u x

*

Re =

=1

*

14

Flow

o regimen

g

Flow

o medium

du

Friction factor

F =

*

f

Permanent flow

Reynolds number

i *d *p g *

u

* * *

u x

Re* =

*

*

fl

Flow

o domain

do

Forchheimer equation

u ffl = K ffl i

i = av fl + bv + c

2

fl

v fl

t

Creeping flow

Laminar flow without or

with non-linear convective

inertia forces

Transient flow

Flow ((ex:waves))

Froud number

F =

*

r

u*2

*

g x

Forchheimer equation

u fl = K fl i

i = au fl + bu 2fl

15

Same fluid

Scaling factor

distance

soil density

gravity

dynamic time

velocity

L*

1/n

*soil

g*

t*dyn

1/n

v*

First approach

v fl = K fl i =

i=

h

h

i* = 1

L

K*fl =

i

=n

v fl

Diffusion time

T*diff

1/n

Fl id velocity

Fluid

l i

V*fl

Dynammic

viscosity

Second approach

Darcys formulation

k

kg

Scaling factor

Same soil

v fl = K flp gradP =

i* =

*

flp

P*

L*

=

i*

v *fl

gradP

=n

=1

16

Fluid flow in porous media - permanent flow regimen

Scaling

factor

Same fluid

Scaling factor

distance

soil density

gravity

dynamic time

velocity

l it

L*

1/n

*soil

g*

t*dyn

1/n

v*

*

Friction factor

F =

*

f

i *d i* g *

v *fl

n 1 n

=

=n

n

Same soil

Diffusion time

T*diff

1/n

2nd

approach

Fluid velocity

V*fl

Dynammic viscosity

Intrinsic permability

K*

Pressure gradient

Grain diameter

d*i

Pore size

p*

p

R

Reynolds

ld number

b

* * *

v fl d i 1 n 1

*

Re =

=

=n

*

1

17

Static domain permanent regimen: limit of validity of the Darcy law

(Khalifa et al., 2000 ; Goodings, 1994 ; Bezuijen,2010 ; Wahuydy, 1998)

Ff =

ign 3d eq

3v fl (1 n) )

Ff =

id 50 gn 2

v 2fl

Re =

2 v fld eq

3 (1 n )

v fl d 50

Re =

n

(Goodings, 1994)

Re=3.3

(Goodings, 1994)

18

Static domain permanent regimen: limit of validity of the Darcy law

Pokrovski & Fyodorov, 1975 : maximum hydraulic gradient for static

geotechnical problems : imax=1

Fontainebleau

Labenne

Hostun

Le Rheu

Loire

d50

0.21

0.3

0.35

0.55

0.65

5% error

78

36

21

12

10% error

155

72

43

23

Maximum gravity level for similar behaviour between model and prototype (Khalifa et al., 2000 )

19

v

0

t

t

Dynamic domain

Same fluid

Scaling factor

dynamic time

velocity

t*dyn

1/n

v*

Same soil

Scaling factor

2nd

approach

Diffusion time

T*diff

1/n

Fluid velocity

V*fl

Forchheimer equation

i = av fl + bv + c

2

fl

v fl

t

2 stages

During the shaking : consolidation+dynamic strains

20

Stewart et al.,, 1998

Nondimensional time factor (consolidation)

T=

cv t diffff

h2

kmv t diffff

Iff *=n, t*diff=t*dyn

30g centrifuge

HPMC = 10 water

v fl =

v *fl = v * = 1

gradP

m = n p

*

*

t diff

= t dyn

*v *fl d i* 11 1 1

R =

=

=

*

n

n

*

e

11s

+4.5s

+45s

(Stewart et al., 1998)

21

- Scale effects on shear mobilisation (Garnier & Knig, 1998)

Scaling effects ?

- roughness effect : R/D50

- pile diameter effect

ff

: B/D50

D (1/n)

R (selected)

D50 (1)

B (1/n)

22

Normalized roughness: Rn=Rmax/D50

Shear box tests

(steel/sand

interface)

Knig, 1998)

(Paikowski et al

al., 1995)

t t on vertical

test

ti l

piles (b=12mm,

D50=0,2mm 50g)

Three different zones of roughness

- smooth interface : interfacial shear along the soil-grain contact, small strength, no dilatency

-Intermediate roughness : frictional resistance increases with the increase in roughness, low

dilantency

-Large

Large roughness (rough interface): internal shear localised in shear band into the sand friction

angle independant from the roughness, large dilantency

23

Balachoski tests (1995)

Hostun sand d50=0.32mm

Pile diameter BB: 16 to 55mm

Centrifuge acceleration : 100g

LCPC tests

Fontainebleau sand D50=0.2 mm

Pile diameter B from 2 to 36 mm

Centrifuge acceleration 50g

(Garnier & Knig, 1998)

p is limited

24

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