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Practice Questions for Quiz 2

1. The owner of a 25-year old commercial building intends to carry out retrofit works to
improve the buildings energy performance. The table below shows the electricity
demand and consumption data over a period of 1 year, for before and after the retrofit
is carried out, as well as the electricity tariffs. The pre-retrofit data were obtained via
actual meter readings while the post-retrofit data were estimated by various means
including energy modelling.
Description
Maximum
Demand
(average over 1
year)
Contracted
Capacity
On-Peak
Consumption
Off-Peak
Consumption

Before (Actual)

After
(Estimated)

Type of Tariff

Tariff

2,855 kW

2,755 kW

Uncontracted
Capacity

$11.24/kW/mth

2,500 kW

2,500 kW

665,075 kWh

460,552 kWh

144,810 kWh

105,366 kWh

Contracted
Capacity
On-Peak Period
(0700 2300 hrs)
Off-Peak Period
(2300 0700 hrs)

$7.49/kW/mth
$0.2105/kWh
$0.1271/kWh

Table 1: Actual & Estimated Electrical Demand & Consumption Data & Tariffs
a. Calculate the total electricity bill both before and after the retrofit. Hence,
determine the percentage electricity bill savings that can be achieved after the
completion of retrofitting (rounded up to the nearest dollar).
b. Evaluate each of the scenarios below, based on after the retrofit is completed:
i.

If the building owner successfully applies to the utility company to


increase the contracted capacity to 3000 kW, compute the percentage
change in the total electricity cost and state whether this is a savings.
(You may assume that the on-peak and off-peak consumption remain
unchanged).

ii. The average power factor at the buildings consumer substation was
initially measured to be 0.78 after the retrofit. The average power factor
improved to 0.92 following the addition of capacitor banks. If the base (ie.
reference) power factor is 0.85, compute the total demand charges before
and after the addition of the capacitor banks and hence determine the
savings in total electricity cost in dollars per year. (You may again
assume that the on-peak and off-peak consumption remain unchanged
and that the contracted demand remains at 2500 kW).
2. The owner of a retail mall building wishes to install a small microturbine-based
cogeneration system to serve the electricity and heating demand of a relatively large
food court in the building. The specifications of the microturbine system are as follows:

Practice Questions for Quiz 2

Heat (fuel) input


Electrical power output
Recoverable heat

= 64.6 kW t
= 15 kW e
= 39.7 kW t

Compute the electrical efficiency (elect), thermal efficiency (thermal), and overall efficiency
(overall) of the cogeneration system.

3. An AHU serves a section of a building and operates 24 hours per day over 365 days
(ie. 8760 hours) throughout the year. As part of a package of energy efficiency
improvement measures, the Facility Manager proposes to convert the existing
Constant Air Volume (CAV) fan to a Variable Air Volume (VAV) type. The data for the
fan and its motor, under two different operating scenarios, are shown in Table 2:
Fan Operating Data
Supply Air Flowrate
Fan Total Pressure
Fan Efficiency
Motor Rated Data
Electrical
Characteristics
Motor Speed &
Operating Duration

Scenario A
At constant speed & flow
5 m3/s
900 Pa
65%
Scenario A
At constant speed & flow
415 V / 3 / 50 Hz

Scenario B
At variable speed & flow

1445 RPM for


8760 hours/year

1445 RPM for


5840 hours/year
1084 RPM for
2920 hours/year
86% @ 1445 RPM
85.5% @ 1084 RPM
95.5% @ 1485 RPM
91.8% at 1084 RPM

Motor Efficiency

86% @ 1445 RPM

VFD Efficiency

No VFD installed

Not determined
Scenario B
At variable speed & flow
415 V / 3 / variable Hz

Table 2: Typical Belt-Driven AHU Fan & Motor Data


a. Calculate the fan brakepower and hence the motor input power, when
operating under Scenario A in Table 2.
b. Calculate the fan brakepower and hence the motor input power when
operating at motor speeds of 1445 RPM and 1084 RPM respectively, under
Scenario B in Table 2.
c. Given that the average electricity price is $0.1827/kWh, determine the total
electricity cost savings (in dollars per year) for operating this AHU under
Scenario B compared to Scenario A.