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Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

The next big thing in energy crisis and reduced pollution?

A presentation by
Tousif Ahmed
Graduate Student
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Overview
Introduction
HEVs and their types
Technologies offered by HEVs for waste energy recovery

Comparison between HEVs and conventional vehicles


Consumer views on HEVs: A survey study

Recommendations
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Introduction
Expansion of cities, growth of population and increased annual travel distance.
44 millions of LDVs were sold only in the year 2014

Increasing at a rate of 3.4% per year


Regions

2012

2013

2014

Europe

9,893,574

9,200,506

9,448,752

America

11,633,356

12,430,755

12,486,009

Asia/Middle East

19,267,063

20,201,507

21,347,806

Africa

742,884

809,256

790,695

All countries

41,536,877

42,642,024

44,073,262
Source: International Organization
of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers
website

Introduction (contd.)
Increasing energy consumption leading to energy crisis and pollution

Source: Transport, energy and CO2, IEA publications

Source: Official website of EPA

Introduction (contd.)
Enforcing new emission standards by governments
Pollutant

% reduction

Pollutant

% reduction

SO2

43

NOx

13

CO

22

particulate matter

Switching to alternative fuel technologies


Fuel

Nationwide Average Fuel


Price July 2014/USG

Nationwide Average Fuel


Price April 2014/USG

Gasoline (regular)

$3.70

$3.65

Diesel

$3.91

$3.97

CNG

$2.17

$2.15

Ethanol (E85)

$3.23

$3.41

Propane

$3.07

$3.31

Biodiesel (B20)

$3.98

$4.01

Electricity

$2.34

$2.34

Source: US Department of Energy 5

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)


First appeared commercially in 1997
Utilizes both conventional fuel and electricity
Offers different energy recovery system

Toyota Prius XW10 (First Generation)


fuel economy of 47.5 mpg
Power
Engine: 58 hp
Motor: 40 hp
CO2 Emission : 138 gm/km

Image: Wikipedia.org

HEV Types
The degree of hybridization (DOH) factor (Lukic SM et. al)
Based on operation
Mild HEV
Full HEV

Based on powertrain configuration


Parallel
Series
Hybrids

Mild HEV

Full HEV

Engine

Downsized

Downsized

Motor Power

10-20kW

15-100kW

Operating voltage

60-200V

200-600V

Fuel Economy Improvement

15-20%

20-30%
Source: autocaat.org

Technologies for energy recovery


Regenerative braking

Source: cvel.clemson.edu

Can recover upto 70% of the wasted energy from braking system

Regenerative braking (contd.)


Energy storage
mechanism
Electric energy
storage
Flywheel energy
storage
Gravitational energy
storage

Energy converter Recovered energy Example current


from braking
application
Electric
~50%
HEV, AEV
motor/generator
Rotational kinetic
>70%
F1
energy
Spring storage
Train
system

Fuel EPA
20%

43%
5%

KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System)


Driveshaft

Generator/Motor

Electricity

Motor attached to
flywheel
Driveshaft

Motor/Generator

Electricity
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Technologies for energy recovery (contd.)


Automotive Thermoelectric Generators (ATEG)
Exhaust manifold can have temperature as high as ~1200oC
ATEG converts this heat into electricity using Seebeck effect
Can be 40% to 70% efficient

Source: clarkson.edu
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HEVs vs Conventional Vehicles (CVs)


Study conducted by R. Graham
Used HEVX notation for different HEVs under consideration

All Electric Range (AER) is denoted by X


Series HEVs were not considered in the study

Vehicles considered (mid-sized)

A conventional vehicle
HEV0
HEV20
HEV60

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HEVs vs CVs
Comparison of fuel economy
Vehicle (compact sedans)

Total Fuel Cost (U.S. Dollars)

Conventional

$12.10

Hybrid Electric

$7.95

Plug-in Hybrid Electric

$7.25
Source: US department of energy website

Standards used
UF Weighted
J1711 UF Weighted

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Fuel economy (contd.)


Gasoline only fuel economy is applicable for both CV and HEV0 at all driving
modes
HEV0 is 45% more efficient than CV

HEV20 and HEV60 has better fuel


efficiency than CV and HEV0
Electric Only efficiency of HEV20
And HEV60 exceed CV efficiency by
300%

Source: Comparing HEV options by R. Graham

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HEVs vs CVs
Emissions
Smog precursor and greenhouse gas emissions were examined
Smog emission reduces with increasing DOH

Source: Comparing HEV options by R. Graham

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Emissions (contd.)
CO2 Emission

Vehicle (compact
sedans)

Conventional

Greenhouse Gas
Emissions
(pounds of CO2
equivalent)
87 lb CO2

Hybrid Electric

57 lb CO2

Plug-in Hybrid
Electric

62 lb CO2

Source: Comparing HEV options by R. Graham

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Blue Map Scenario


Energy Information Administrations (EIA) Blue Map Scenario
A targeted 50% reduction of CO2 by 2050
Requires very aggressive market penetration with yearly 50 million sales

Source: EIA Technology perspectives 2010


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Consumer views (contd.)


A survey study by M. Kubik in January, 2006
Set of questions were asked to vehicle owners
Payback period of HEV for higher fuel economy
Majority of public wants payback in 2 years
Average payback period is 9 years

Extra cost of HEV for higher fuel economy


Majority of public wants pay do not want to pay more
and average want to pay $2800
Average extra payment necessary is $4000
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Consumer Views (contd.)


To choose 50% fuel efficient HEV base on availability of charging station
66% public wants conventional vehicles if only 1 charging stations in 10 gas stations
62% public wants conventional vehicles if only 1 charging stations in 5 gas stations
43% public wants conventional vehicles if only 1 charging stations in 3 gas stations

Only about 9 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide
by September 2014 (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers website)

Higher market price


Lower power
Time required to charge the battery
Space required for the battery

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Recommendations
Subsidize industries those are producing HEVs

Easy loan and reduced insurance for the consumers


Invest more on super-capacitor and other energy storage technology
research

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Thank You
Questions

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