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Abstract of over current Protection of Transformer

(NEC 450.3)
Introduction:

The over current protection required for transformers is consider for Protection
of Transformer only. Such over current protection will not necessarily protect the
primary or secondary conductors or equipment connected on the secondary side
of the transformer.
When voltage is switched on to energize a transformer, the transformer core
normally saturates. This results in a large inrush current which is greatest during
the first half cycle (approximately0.01 second) and becomes progressively less
severe over the next several cycles (approximately 1 second) until the
transformer reaches its normal magnetizing current.
To accommodate this inrush current, fuses are often selected which have timecurrent withstand values of at least 12 times transformer primary rated current
for 0.1 second and 25 times for 0.01 second. Some small dry-type transformers
may have substantially greater inrush currents.
To avoid using oversized conductors, over current devices should be selected at
about 110 to 125 percent of the transformer full-load current rating. And when
using such smaller over current protection, devices should be of the time-delay
type (on the primary side) to compensate for inrush currents which reach 8 to 10
times the full-load primary current of the transformer for about 0.1 s when
energized initially.
Protection of secondary conductors has to be provided completely separately
from any primary-side protection.
A supervised location is a location where conditions of maintenance and
supervision ensure that only qualified persons will monitor and service the
transformer installation.
Over current protection for a transformer on the primary side is typically a circuit
breaker. In some instances where there is not a high voltage panel, there is a
fused disconnect instead.
It is important to note that the over current device on the primary side must be
sized based on the transformer KVA rating and not sized based on the secondary
load to the transformer

Over current Protection of Transformers > 600 V (NEC


450.3-A)
1) Unsupervised Location of Transformer (Impedance <6%)

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):


Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next higher
Standard size. or
Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 600% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next
higher Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):
Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 125% of Sec. Full Load Current or
Next higher Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):
Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher
Standard size. or
Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 300% of Sec. Full Load Current.

Example: 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer having Impedance of Transformer


5%

Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A


Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Standard Size of Fuse =125A.
OR Rating of Primary Circuit Breaker =6X39A=236A, So Standard Size of Circuit
Breaker =250A.
Full Load Current at Secondary side=750000/ (1.732X415) =1043A.

Rating of Secondary of Fuse / Circuit Breaker = 1.25X1043A=1304A, So Standard


Size of Fuse =1600A.

2) Unsupervised Location of Transformer (Impedance 6% to 10 %)

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):


Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Primary Full Load Current or Next higher
Standard size.
Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 400% of Primary Full Load Current or
Next higher Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):
Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 125% of Sec. Full Load Current or
Next higher Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):
Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 225% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher
Standard size.
Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next
higher Standard size.

Example: 10MVA, 66KV/11KV 3Phase Transformer, Impedance of Transformer is 8%

Full Load Current At Primary side=10000000/(1.732X66000)=87A


Rating of Pri. Fuse = 3X87A= 262A, So Next Standard Size of Fuse =300A.
OR Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker =4X87A=348A, So Next Standard Size of Circuit
Breaker =400A.
Full Load Current at Secondary side=10000000/ (1.732X11000) =525A.
Rating of Sec. Fuse = 2.25X525A=1181A, So Next Standard Size of Fuse =1200A.

OR Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker =2.5X525A=1312A, So Next Standard Size of


Circuit Breaker =1600A.

3) Supervised Location (in Primary side only) of Transformer:

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):


Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 250% of Primary Full Load Current or Next higher
Standard size.
Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 300% of Primary Full Load Current or
Next higher Standard size.
4) Supervised Location of Transformer (Impedance Up to 6%):

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):


Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 600% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next
Lower Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or
Next higher Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):
Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 300% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next
Lower Standard size.
Example: 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer having Impedance of
Transformer 5%
Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse
=110A.
OR Rating of Primary Circuit Breaker =6X39A=236A, So Next Lower Standard Size
of Circuit Breaker =225A.
Full Load Current at Secondary side=750000/ (1.732X415) =1043A.
Rating of Secondary of Fuse / Circuit Breaker = 2.5X1043A=2609A, So Standard
Size of Fuse =2500A.

5) Supervised Location of Transformer (Impedance 6% to 10%):

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):


Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 400% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next
Lower Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):
Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or
Next higher Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):


Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 225% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next
Lower Standard size.
Example: 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer having Impedance of
Transformer 8%
Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse
=110A.
OR Rating of Primary Circuit Breaker =4X39A=157A, So Next Lower Standard Size
of Circuit Breaker =150A.
Full Load Current at Secondary side=750000/ (1.732X415) =1043A.
Rating of Secondary of Fuse / Circuit Breaker = 2.5X1043A=2609A, So Standard
Size of Fuse =2500A.

Difference in C.B between Supervised & Unsupervised


Location

Here we see two notable conditions while we select Fuse / Circuit Breaker in
Supervised Location and Unsupervised Location.
First notable Condition is Primary Over current Protection. In Unsupervised
Location Fuse in Primary side is 300% of Primary Current or Next Higher Standard
size and in Supervised Location is 300% of Primary Current or Next Lower
Standard size. Here Primary Over current Protection is same in both conditions
(300%) But Selecting Size of Fuse/Circuit Breaker is Different.
Lets us Check with the Example for 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer.
Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A
In Unsupervised Location: Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next
Higher Standard Size =125A
In Supervised Location: Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Lower
Standard Size =110A
Second notable Condition is Secondary Over current Protection increased from
125% to 250% for unsupervised to Supervised Location.

Summary of over current Protection for more than 600V:

Maximum Rating of Over current Protection for Transformers more than 600 Volts
LocationLimitation TransformerRate Primary Protection Secondary Protection
s
d Impedance
(More than 600
More than 600 Volts Less than
Volts)
600 Volts
Circuit Fuse
Circuit Fuse
C.B or
Breaker Rating
Breaker Rating
Fuse
Any location
Less than 6%
600%(NH 300%(NH 300 %(
250%(NH 125%(NH
)
)
NH)
)
)
6% To 10%
400%(NH 300%(NH 250%(NH 225%(NH 125%(NH
)
)
)
)
)
Supervisedlocations Any
300%(NH 250%(NH Not
Not
Not
)
)
required required required
only
Less than 6%
600%
300%
300%
250%
250%
6% To 10%
400%
300%
250%
225%
250%
NH: Next Higher Standard Size.

Over current Protection of Transformers< 600 V (NEC


450.3-B)
1) Only Primary side Protection of Transformer:

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Less than 2A):


Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Example: 1KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri.
Side=1000/(1.732X480)=1A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X1A= 3A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =3A.
Over Current Protection at Primary Side (2A to 9A):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 167% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Example: 3KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri.
Side=3000/(1.732X480)=4A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.67X4A= 6A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =6A.
Over Current Protection at Primary Side (More than 9A):
Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 125% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Higher
Standard size.
Example: 15KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri.
Side=15000/(1.732X480)=18A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.25X18A= 23A, So Next Higher Standard Size of Fuse
=25A.

2) Primary and Secondary side Protection of Transformer:

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Less than 2A):


Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 250% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Primary Side (2A to 9A):
Rating of Sec. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 250% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower
Standard size.
Over Current Protection at Primary Side (More than 9A):
Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 250% of Pri. Full Load Current or Lower Higher
Standard size.
Example: 25KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri.
Side=125000/(1.732X480)=30A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 2.50X30A= 75A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse
=70A.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Less than 9A):
Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point B= 167% of Sec. Full Load Current or Lower
Standard size.
Example: 3KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Sec.
Side=3000/(1.732X230)=8A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.67X8A= 13A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =9A.
Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (More than 9A):
Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 125% of Pri. Full Load Current or Higher
Standard size.
Example: 15KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Sec.
Side=15000/(1.732X230)=38A
Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.25X38A= 48A, So Next Higher Standard Size of Fuse
=50A.

Summary of over current Protection for Less than 600V:


Maximum Rating of Over current Protection for Transformers Less than 600
Volts
ProtectionMethod Primary Protection
Secondary Protection
More than 2A to 9A Less than More than
Less than
9A
2A
9A
9A
Primary only
125%(NH) 167%
300%
Not required Not required
protection
Primary and
250%
250%
250%
125%(NH)
167%
secondary
protection
NH: Next Higher Standard Size.

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