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Ewa Majchrzak, ukasz Turchan, The Finite Difference Method for transient convection-diffusion problems, Scientific

Research of the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, pages 63-72.

The website: http://www.amcm.pcz.pl/

Scientific Research of the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science 1(11) 2012, 63-72

CONVECTION-DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

1

Silesian University of Technology, Poland

2

Institute of Mathematics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

ewa.majchrzak@polsl.pl, lukasz.turchan@polsl.pl

Abstract. The convection-diffusion equation (1D problem) is considered. At first, the unknown temperature T is expanded into a Taylor series with respect to time taking into

account its three components. Next, using the convection-diffusion equation and equation

obtained from the differentiation of this equation, the way of temperature T computations is

shown. In this new equation the high order derivatives with respect to spatial co-ordinate

appear and the approximation of these derivatives is also discussed. The explicit scheme is

used and the stability criteria are formulated. Finally, the results of computations are shown.

Introduction

The following convection-diffusion equation is considered [1-4]

0< x < L:

T ( x, t )

T ( x, t )

2T ( x, t )

c

+ u

=

+ Q ( x, t )

x

x2

t

(1)

where c is the specific heat, is the mass density, is the thermal conductivity,

denotes the porosity (the ratio of liquid volume to the total volume), u is the

velocity, T denotes the temperature, t is a time, Q(x, t) is the capacity of internal

heat sources. All thermophysical parameters in equation (1) are assumed to be

known and constant. The equation (1) can be written in the form

T

2T

T Q

= a 2 u

+

t

x c

x

(2)

The difficulties connected with the proper solution of convection-diffusion

equation (2) appear when the second term on the right-hand side (convection) is

dominated [5].

64

E. Majchrzak, . Turchan

Using the explicit scheme of the finite difference method [6-10] the following

approximation of equation (2) for the internal node i can be proposed

Ti f Ti f 1

T f 1 2Ti f 1 + Ti +f 11

Ti +f 11 Ti f11 Qi f 1

= a i 1

u

+

t

2h

c

h2

(3)

From equation (3) results that

2 a t

Ti f = 1 2 Ti f 1

h

f 1

a t ut f 1 a t ut f 1 Qi

+ 2 +

T

+

T

+

t (4)

i 1 2

i +1

c

2h

2h

h

h

1

2 a t

a u

0, 2

0

2

2h

h

h

2a

h2

, t

u

2a

(5)

In the paper the other algorithm based on the FDM is proposed. At first, the

function T is expanded into a Taylor series with respect to time taking into account

its three components. Next, using the equation (2) and equation obtained from the

differentiation of this equation with respect to time, the method of temperature

T f computations is shown. In this new equation the high order derivatives with

respect to x appear and the approximation of these derivatives is also discussed.

Function T is expanded into a Taylor series taking into account its three components [5]

2

T f = T f 1 + t

T f 1 ( t ) 2T f 1

+

t

2

t 2

(6)

T f T f 1 T f 1 t 2T f 1

=

+

t

t

2 t 2

(7)

2T

2 T

T 1 Q

=

a

u

+

2

2

x t c t

t

x t

(8)

65

T f 1

2T f 1

T f 1 Q

u

=a

+

c

t

x

x2

(9)

and

2T f 1

2 T f 1

T f 1 1 Q

=

a

+

x t c t

t 2

x 2 t

(10)

T f T f 1

2T f 1

T f 1 Q

=a

u

+ +

t

x

c

x2

t 2 T f 1

T f 1 1 Q

a 2

u

+

2 x t

x t c t

(11)

T f T f 1

2T f 1 t 2 2T f 1

T f 1 Q

=a

+

+

a

a

u

2 x 2 x 2

t

x

c

x 2

2T f 1

T f 1 Q 1 Q

T f 1 Q

u a

+

+

+

u

u

x

x

x

c c t

c

x 2

(12)

or

T f T f 1 a 2 t 4T f 1

3T f 1

2T f 1

a

u

t

+

a

+

2

t

x4

x3

x2

2u 2 t 2T f 1

T f 1 at 2Q ut Q t Q Q

u

+

+

+

2

2c x 2 2c x 2c t c

x

x2

(13)

Tf =

( at )2 4T f 1 au

x 4

( t )

2

( ut )2 2T f 1

3T f 1

+

a

t

2 x 2

x3

a ( t ) 2Q u ( t ) Q ( t ) Q tQ

T

u t

+ T f 1 +

+

+

2c x 2

x

2c x

2c t

c

f 1

(14)

66

E. Majchrzak, . Turchan

The next step of the algorithm presented consists in the approximation of derivatives appearing on the right-hand side of equation (14). Let us assume that

i = 0, 1,, n, where i = 0 and i = n correspond to the boundary nodes, while

i = 1, 2, , n 1 are the internal nodes. For the nodes i = 2, 3, , n 2 the following approximations are used [2]

T f 1 Ti +f 11 Ti f11

=

2h

x i

(15)

2T f 1 Ti +f 11 2Ti f 1 + Ti f11

=

2

h2

x i

(16)

=

3

2 h3

x i

(17)

=

4

h4

x i

(18)

2

Ti =

+

3 ( at ) 2ah 2 t ( uht ) + h 4

h4

( at )2 auh ( t )2 T f 1 + ( at )2 + auh ( t )2 T f 1

i+ 2

2h 4

2

i 2

2h 4

2h 4

2

Ti f 1

2h 4

Ti +f11

Qi +f 11 2Qi f 1 + Qi f 11

2h 2 c

t

+

Qi f + Qi f 1

2c

(19)

a ( t )

Ti +f11

u ( t )

Qi +f 11 Qi f 11

4hc

For stability conditions, the coefficients on the right-hand side terms must be positive, this means

3 ( at )2 2ah 2 t ( uht )2 + h 4 0

( at )2 auh ( t )2 0

2

2

2

2

3

4 ( at ) + 2auh ( t ) + 2ah t + ( uht ) uh t 0

2

2

2

2

3

67

(20)

h

a

u

2ah 2

t 2 2 2 2

4a u h

(21)

So, according to the conditions (21), at first the mesh step h should be determined

and next the proper time step t should be assumed.

It should be pointed out that for the node i = 1 the following approximations are

applied

T f 1 Ti +f 11 Ti f 1

=

h

x i

(22)

2T f 1 Ti f 1 2Ti +f 11 + Ti +f 21

=

2

h2

x i

(23)

=

3

h3

x i

(24)

=

4

h4

x i

(25)

T f 1 Ti f 1 Ti f11

=

h

x i

(26)

2T f 1 Ti f 21 2Ti f11 + Ti f 1

=

2

h2

x i

(27)

68

E. Majchrzak, . Turchan

=

3

h3

x i

(28)

=

4

h4

x i

(29)

The way of boundary conditions approximation is the same as in the classical finite difference method [6, 7].

3. Results of computations

The layer of thickness L = 0.05 m is considered. The following input data are

introduced: thermal conductivity = 0.5 W/(mK), specific heat c = 4000 J/(kgK),

density = 1000 kg/m3. For x = 0 and x = L the zero heat fluxes are assumed. The

initial temperature is equal to 30C. The source function is of the form

106 W / m 3 , x [ 0.02 m, 0.03 m ] , t 10 s

Q ( x, t ) =

(30)

x

t

>

0,

0.02

m

0.03

m,

0.05

m

,

10

s

)

(

[

]

0,

In Figures 1-6 the temperature distributions in the domain considered for chosen moments of times and different values of velocity u and porosity are shown.

In Figures 7 and 8 the temperature history at the central node for different values of porosity under the assumption that u = 0.01 m/s (Fig. 7) and u = 0.03 m/s is

shown.

Fig. 1. Temperature distribution after 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds (u = 0.01 m/s, = 0.001)

Fig. 2. Temperature distribution after 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds (u = 0.03 m/s, = 0.001)

Fig. 3. Temperature distribution after 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds (u = 0.01 m/s, = 0.005)

Fig. 4. Temperature distribution after 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds (u = 0.03 m/s, = 0.005)

69

70

E. Majchrzak, . Turchan

Fig. 5. Temperature distribution after 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds (u = 0.01 m/s, = 0.01)

Fig. 6. Temperature distribution after 15, 25, 35 and 45 seconds (u = 0.03 m/s, = 0.01)

71

Figure 9 illustrates the temperature distribution after 25 seconds for different velocities under the assumption that porosity is equal to = 0.01.

In the case of small porosity the changes of temperature due to the change of

velocity are rather imperceptible (compare Figures 1 and 2). The similar situation

takes place for different porosities and small velocity (compare Figures 2, 3 and 5).

When porosity is greater than 0.001 and velocity is equal to u = 0.03 m/s the

maximum temperatures are moved for next moments of times (compare Figures 4,

6 and 9). Observing the temperature history at the central node of the domain considered (Figures 7 and 8) it is visible that in time of heating (10 seconds) the temperature profiles are independent on porosity and velocity, after this time the temperature is changed importantly.

It should be pointed out that for small values of velocity and porosity the results

of computations have been compared with the results obtained using the classical

72

E. Majchrzak, . Turchan

were practically the same.

Conclusions

The algorithm based on the finite difference method for numerical solution of

the 1D convection-diffusion equation has been proposed. The explicit scheme of

FDM has been considered and stability criteria have been formulated. The examples of computations for different values of porosity and velocity have been presented. The drawback of the presented method is the necessity of high-order derivatives approximation.

Acknowledgements

The paper is a part of the project sponsored by the National Science Centre

DEC-2011/01/N/ST6/05231.

References

[1] Raffray A.R., Pulsifer J., Tillack M.S., Modeling flow and heat transfer through porous media

for high heat flux applications, University of California Energy Institute, Berkeley 2000.

[2] Strzelecki T. et al., Modelowanie przepyww przez orodki porowate, Dolnolskie Wydawnictwo Edukacyjne, Wrocaw 2008.

[3] Khaled A., Vafai K., The role of porous media in modeling flow and heat transfer in biological

tissues, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2003, 46, 4989-5003.

[4] Kaviany M., Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media, 2nd edition, Springer, 1995.

[5] Lewis R.W., Morgan K., Thomas H.R., Seetharamu K.N., The Finite Element Method in Heat

Transfer Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester 1996.

[6] Mochnacki B., Suchy J.S., Numerical Methods in Computations of Foundry Processes, PFTA,

Cracow 1995.

[7] Majchrzak E., Mochnacki B., Numerical Methods. Theoretical Bases, Practical Aspects and

Algorithms, Publ. of the Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice 2004.

[8] Mochnacki B., Dziewoski M., The evaporation effect in the domain of tissue subjected to

a strong external heat source, Scientific Research of the Institute of Mathematics and Computer

Science Czestochowa University of Technology 2008, 1(7).

[9] Mochnacki B., Lara-Dziembek S., Weighted residual method as a tool of FDM algorithm construction, Scientific Research of the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science

Czestochowa University of Technology 2010, 1(9), 147-153.

[10] Ciesielski M., Mochnacki B., Szopa R., Numerical modeling of biological tissue heating. Admissible thermal dose, Scientific Research of the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science Czestochowa University of Technology 2011, 1(10).

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