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Transboundary Use and Protection of

Natural Resources Project (TUPNRP) in


the SADC Region

Lubombo Eco Trails Program (LETP)


Funding Proposal

Background and Introduction


1
The Eco Lubombo Program (ELP) and the Lubombo Eco Trails Initiative 3
Managed Partnership Network for Program Implementation
4
The Eco Lubombo Program and the LTFCA Integrated Development Plan
4
Lubombo Eco Trails Program (LETP) Funding Proposal
5
LETP Objective
5
Components and Activities
5
Component 1: Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Development 5
Component 2: Eco Business Planning (EBP)
6
Component 3: Eco Trails Design and Implementation
8
Component 4 Research Monitoring and Evaluation
9
Potential Value of Eco Trails to the SADC TFCA Program
11
Economic benefits, improved participation and decision-making for
local communities
11
Mobilizing and consolidating the support of the private sector and
NGOs
11
Enhancing ecological connectivity and ecosystem resilience
11
Proposed GIZ Technical Support Activities to the Lubombo Eco
Trails Program

11

ANNEXES
14
ANNEX 1: Indicative Budget for Eco Trails (10 years) with proposed GIZ
support budget (3 years) in USD
14
ANNEX 2 Lubombo Eco Trails Program (LETP) Link to Logical Framework
for the SADC TFCAs Program (STP)
15
ANNEX 3 Lubombo Eco Trails Program Partners
20
Annex 4 List of Mozambique NGO partners with project details
(communities and activities)
21
Annex 5 Proposal for the Lubombo Spine Biodiversity Corridor to link the
Swaziland-South Africa TFCA and iSimangaliso Wetland Park
29
Benefits beyond Boundaries:
31

Background and Introduction


The General Transfrontier Conservation and Resource Area Protocol
was signed between the Governments of the Republic of South
Africa, Republic of Mozambique, and Kingdom of Swaziland on 22
June 2000 establishing the Lubombo TFCRA, now generally known as
the Lubombo TFCA.
The objectives of the LTFCA as defined in the protocol strongly
emphasize the importance of optimizing the use of natural assets
for economic benefits, holistic and integrated planning to ensure
ecosystem integrity and the participation of local communities in
economic development, governance and decision-making processes.
The future of the LTFCA will largely depend on maintaining its major
assets: the integrity of its extraordinary mountain, savannah and

coastal landscapes and ecosystems; the cultures of the Swazi,


Tonga, Zulu and Tembe peoples, and the remarkable biodiversity
that has made it a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot.
Capitalizing on these outstanding assets to provide meaningful
benefits to local communities requires a comprehensive long-term
strategy that takes into account the SADC regions rich experience
of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) and
valuable and well-documented lessons learned on Community Based
Tourism (CBT), both regionally and globally.
Equally important to achieving this objective is to create an
equitable partnership of government and civil society, managed as a
network of motivated stakeholders, all sharing a vision, but each
with clear roles and responsibilities and a harmonious framework for
collaborative action.
The Lubombo Eco Trails is proposed as a large scale and long-term
program with substantial benefits to the conservation of the
biodiversity, landscapes and ecosystems of the LTFCA and to the
empowerment and economic development of local communities.
The landscape and ecosystem management approach will be
implemented at both the micro community landscape scale, as well
as that of the broader TFCA. This approach will result in increased
ecological and social connectivity and a network of community
conservation areas, recreational zones and sustainable land use
practices in a more integrated TFCA. Apart from benefits to
biodiversity, this will have positive results in addressing climate
change impacts. The Research, Monitoring and Evaluation
component will maximize benefits to biodiversity conservation and
climate change by ensuring that adaptive management measures
are implemented in a timely manner.
The quality of life for participating communities will be greatly
enhanced through knowledge and skills gained through the
participatory and knowledge sharing Eco Business Planning process,
by the development of ecotourism and associated enterprises, and
the enriching interactions between local communities in the three
countries, which will help maintain and strengthen the integrity of
the regions rich cultural assets.
Governance systems within the Lubombo TFCA will be strengthened
at the local and regional level through community based natural
resource management and enterprise development forums, and by
strengthening and expanding institutional frameworks at sub TFCA
levels (Conservation and Resource Areas) to be more participatory
and inclusive of civil society.

The Lubombo Eco Trails is an effective means of bringing TFCA


stakeholders together: the rapidly growing partnership network
inspired by the Lubombo Eco Trails vision and goals has provided
strong evidence for this.
Under the GIZ Transboundary Use and Protection of Natural
Resources in the SADC Region Program, technical assistance is
being offered to selected TFCAs to support programs which give
focus to cross border CBNRM and local governance, improve cross
border collaboration and demonstrate benefits to local communities.
The alignment between the proposed GIZ support and the Lubombo
Eco Trails program is clearly demonstrated in this proposal. The
implementation of the Lubombo Eco Trails Program (LETP) detailed
in the funding proposal, will support the objectives of the GIZ TUPNR
Program, while closely supporting the strategy outlined by the SADC
TFCA Program (see Annex 1).
The Eco Lubombo Program (ELP) and the Lubombo Eco Trails
Initiative
The Lubombo Conservancy in Swaziland initiated its Eco Lubombo
Program (ELP) in 2013 in partnership with the Swaziland National
Trust Commission (SNTC) with the aim of strengthening and
expanding the Conservancy and supporting Swazilands role in the
Lubombo TFCA. The programs primary objective was to ensure the
long-term sustainability of the Conservancy through significantly
increasing the appeal and significance of its tourism and
conservation product. To this end, the Conservancy initiated a
collaborative program around establishing a community based
Lubombo Eco Trails network within an ecosystem management
framework. Eco-agriculture and other sustainable livelihood
activities are supported through the ELPs main implementing
partner, COSPE a rural development NGO.
The Lubombo Eco Trails envisages an adventure network including
hiking, mountain biking, 4x4 routes, bird-watching, cultural routes,
river rafting and horse back riding.

Initial market research has underscored the potential for the


Figure 1 Proposed Northern Circuit of Lubombo Eco Trails. In the Lubombo TFCA
showing targeted and potential Eco Trail participating communities. Links to JoziniPongola and iSimangaliso form the Southern Circuit not shown here.

Lubombo Eco Trails. For instance, South Africa has literally hundreds
of formally established and popular adventure trails, while
Swaziland and Mozambique, with access to similar markets, to date
have not a single one.
The Eco Trails will initiate a number of community-based
enterprises, such as eco lodges, campsites and cultural attractions.
To ensure the maximum opportunities in terms of ecotourism and
multiplier effects, the Eco Trails will develop within an integrated
landscape and business planning framework defined as Eco
Business Planning (EBP). This will be applied at both the micro
(community) and the macro (landscape) level, as mutually
reinforcing processes.

Figure 2 The map shows the different


circuit options that can be explored
during early project implementation. The
different hubs identified in the circuits
represent a well balanced and
exceptionally diverse tourism,
conservation and cultural product

Managed Partnership Network for Program Implementation


The Eco Lubombo Program is implementing its strategy through a
managed network of partners, identified as key stakeholders or for
their relevant academic and technical skills, local knowledge and
experience.
Over the past two years of implementation, the Eco Lubombo
Program has attracted the interest and support of a number of
NGOs, donors and private sector agencies and individuals. These are
listed in Annex 2. The Mozambique partner NGO activities related to
community based natural resource management (CBNRM) are listed
in Annex 3.
The Eco Lubombo Program and the LTFCA Integrated
Development Plan
The Eco Lubombo Program and the Eco Trails Initiative was
presented at the Usuthu-Tembe-Futi TFCA Integrated Development
Planning (IDP) meeting in June 2014, resulting in the following
recommendations:
1. To consolidate the Lubombo Conservancy-Goba and the
Usuthu Tembe Futi TFCAs into one TFCA.
2. To use the Lubombo Eco Trails initiative as the basis for the
development of cross-border tourism products for the LTFCA.
The three countries making up the LTFCA are working together, and
have proposed the supporting Governance Structures for a
consolidated area that combines the Lubombo Conservancy-Goba
and Usuthu Tembe Futi TFCAs. The possibility of further connectivity
between the sub-TFCAs was raised and is being followed up in this
proposal.

The
Eco
Lubombo
Program (ELP) and the
proposed Lubombo Eco
Trails
network
were
presented
to
the
Lubombo
TFCA
Commission in December
2014 in Maputo. The ELP
was endorsed by the
Commission
together
with a funding proposal
of USD 10 million for the
Lubombo Eco Trails. This
document is based on
the approved Lubombo
Eco Trails Program (LETP)
proposal.
Lubombo
Program

Eco

Trails
(LETP)

Funding Proposal
LETP Objective
To substantially increase benefits and equity for communities and
improve biodiversity and ecosystem management in the Lubombo
TFCA by establishing a community based Eco Trails network,
consolidating and strengthening the LTFCAs conservation and
tourism assets.
Components and Activities
Component 1: Institutional Strengthening and Capacity
Development
Objective:
To strengthen institutional frameworks, collaboration and capacity
of LTFCA stakeholders to implement and manage the Lubombo Eco
Trails within an integrated business planning and sustainable
landscape and ecosystem management approach.
The main outputs envisioned here are:
1. To strengthen the existing LTFCA structures
2. To create a well managed network of partners in which
different stakeholders have a clear and complementary role in
implementing the eco trails and business plans
3. Key stakeholder groups (government, communities, private
sector, NGOs) form equitable governance frameworks in the
identified Conservation and Resource Areas (CRAs) with

emphasis on expanding community conservation and


sustainable enterprise opportunities
4. Training program identified and designed in partnership with
regional institutions with focus on local communities
5. Strengthening and expansion of cross border stakeholder
natural resource management and enterprise forums
To fully enhance opportunities for community empowerment, and
the sustainability of the Eco Trails, it is planned, in the long term
that all participating communities are consolidated into a single,
overarching Community Based Organisation (CBO). This will take the
form of a corporate governance structure whereby communities will
combine all Eco Trails related products. The CBO will develop its own
management and equity structures, including branding, marketing,
training and human resource development. This concept is based on
lessons learned in community tourism, which has identified
capacity, long-term business planning, and issues of scale as critical
areas of concern. The CBO will be given external support throughout
the timeframe of the LETP (10 years) after which it is expected to be
sustainable.
The initial stages for this type of institutional development have
been established between the Mhlumeni and Shewula communities
in Swaziland and the Goba community in Mozambique with the
communities participating in a transboundary natural resource
management forum (GIZ and CEPF funded).
It should be noted that capacity building is also addressed in the Eco
Business Planning process through participatory spatial planning
and knowledge exchange on the value of ecosystems, biodiversity
and landscapes.
Component 2: Eco Business Planning (EBP)
Objective:
To ensure that at the local and regional level sound business
planning is integrated with landscape and ecosystem approaches
through a holistic and participatory spatial planning process and
implemented through equitable and effective governance
structures, thereby laying the foundation for the long-term
sustainability of the Lubombo Eco Trails network.
Eco Business Planning has been piloted successfully in the Mhlumeni
Community in Swaziland1. This is a carefully designed participatory
1 This was an important test case, as the community was historically hostile to
conservation. The EBP process reconciled the community with the conservation
authorities, and resulted in the allocation of communal land for an ecotourism
facility, recreational use and conservation management. An eco trails network is
being established linking the community to the formal conservation areas of the
Lubombo Conservancy.

planning process ensuring that the local community is fully engaged


in the management and protection of its ecosystems and
biodiversity, as the basis for sustainable enterprise development.
The Mhlumeni EBP was evaluated by GIZ, which concluded that it
potentially represents best practice for community participation and
a model for an integrated community ecotourism and sustainable
livelihoods program.
While community based Eco Business Plans (EBPs) are key to
ensuring this high level of community engagement and capacity
development, the full economic benefits and opportunities for
ecotourism can only be unlocked at a higher landscape level, where
communities are able to engage with more mainstream actors in
conservation, tourism and ecosystem management.
To address landscape level conservation planning and ecosystem
management issues, and to maximize economic development
opportunities, the EBP process will take place in the formally
established Conservation and Resource Management Areas (CRAs)
with a focus on 1) establishing equitable and effective collaborative
governance arrangements including civil society (communities,
private sector and NGOs) necessary to identify and unlock greater
economic opportunities for local communities2 and 2) establishing
business plans and investment frameworks linked with ecosystem
and landscape management plans for the CRAs. The EBP will also
identify the possible expansion or modification of the CRAs to
achieve their full economic and ecological potential.
The Conservation and Resource Areas (CRAs) are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Maputo Special Reserve-Tembe Elephant Park


Lubombo Conservancy-Goba
Mambane-Usuthu Gorge-Ndumo
Jozini-Pongola-Mkhuze
Kosi Bay-Ponta do Ouro

These CRAs have 1) existing institutional frameworks within the


Lubombo TFCA; 2) exceptional potential as hubs and anchor points
for the Lubombo Eco Trails and as catalysts for rural development. In
total they represent a balanced circuit consolidating the LTFCAs
major conservation, tourism, cultural and landscape assets. 3 The
2 The Lubombo Conservancy in which government, private sector and local
communities have equal authority in the management of the conservation area is
a possible model for the CRAs.
3 In future, the remaining CRA or sub-TFCA, Malolotja-Songimvelo, could be
incorporated into the Lubombo Eco Trails circuit. This area has a lot to offer in
terms of added value and the linkages through the Swaziland landscape are
feasible.

southern anchor of iSimangaliso Wetland Park provides an important


contribution, as it is the major tourism draw card for the region both
for the regional and domestic markets.
CRAs 2 and 3 have been integrated as a combined TFCA, and it
needs to be established at what level the EBP can most effectively
be implemented.
It should be emphasized that the CRAs are seen as hubs and anchor
points to the Eco Trails, and that the emphasis of the Eco Trails
program is on the creation of new opportunities for connectivity
economic, social, ecological and infrastructural. Social connectivity
is being created at different levels through the networking of TFCA
professionals and other interested experts and through trans-border
community forums; ecological connectivity will be established by
implementing a landscape approach using proven methodologies for
conservation planning in the region; infrastructure linkages will be
defined through business planning and feasibility studies identifying
the key constraints and opportunities to the Eco Trails network, such
as the crossing of the Usuthu River at the 3 Corners where the
three TFCA countries meet.
These potential linkages are essential to enhance the viability of the
community based Eco Business Plans, addressing issues of linkages,
scale and critical mass, often outlined as major constraints to the
success of CBT.
At the community level, the EBP is based on two components: 1)
participatory mapping, assessment, evaluation and zonation of
ecosystem services and natural resources, including landscape
features and ecotourism assets and 2) identification of economic
values of all assets, market opportunities, and the definition of an
integrated investment framework and management plan within the
context of the overall Eco Trails initiative. An EBP implementation
manual is presently being formulated with support from the
Netherlands Government. The participatory process is described in
Annex
The EBP process ensures that community conservation and
development is based on strong ownership, sound governance
structures, and fully informed decision making, while optimizing the
economic opportunities available.
Ecotourism sustainability will be enhanced by the creation of
supportive conservation areas and recreational zones and the
application of protected landscape principles. Conservation planning
process are integrated into the EBP to ensure maximum connectivity
and opportunities for the trail networks and larger scale ecosystem

management through community forums and the CRA governance


structures.
Within the CRAs, the communities residing in the areas of Licuati,
Tikhuba, Catuane, Hlatikhulu, and Ubombo have been identified as
important potential linkages and satellites.
In particular, the importance of the ecological link along the
Lubombo Spine needs to be highlighted. The ecological integrity of
the Lubombo Mountain Ecosystem forms a critical aspect for the
conservation of biodiversity in the Lubombo TFCA and conservation
linkages through various types of protected areas following the
national legislation of the three countries is proposed, such as
community conservation areas, protected landscapes and protected
environments. Furthermore, a form of protected area linkage
between iSimangaliso and Nsubane-Jozini-Pongola TFCA is required
to conserve the existing but threatened ecosystem integrity of the
Ubombo Communal land which forms the critically important
ecological connection between the Lubombo Mountain Ecosystem
and the Wetland, Forest and Coastal Ecosystems of iSimangaliso. A
proposal for the Lubombo Spine Corridor is attached in Annex 5.
Component 3: Eco Trails Design and Implementation
Objective:
To create a globally recognized and inspirational community based
ecotourism product by consolidating and strengthening the LTFCAs
conservation, tourism and cultural assets through a process of
increased participation, connectivity and integrated product
development.
While the Eco Business Planning process is designed to ensure the
long-term sustainability of the Eco Trails initiative, the Eco Trails
component can be seen as the economic driver. Combined, the
EBP and the Eco Trails will comprehensively address the many
constraints that have bedeviled CBT and CBNRM in the region and
elsewhere. Primarily, the key factors relate to issues of scale,
capacity, quality and time. CBNRM and CBT require long term time
frames in order to establish the economic base to derive incomes
that can be directly linked to TFCAs. These incomes need to be
linked to quality products that are commercially viable, which are in
turn based on the strength of the broader destination. The Lubombo
Eco Trails is designed to help ensure that the strength of the LTFCA
as a destination provides the programs long-term sustainability,
and continuing and growing benefits to the communities and the
environment.
Outputs include:
i.

Eco Trails feasibility study and scoping, including identification


of project areas, participating communities, key stakeholders,

ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

markets and economic opportunities, associated enabling


infrastructure, cost-benefit analysis etc.
Selection of target communities based on well defined criteria,
such as quality of potential product, location, governance
structures, etc.
Eco Trails design and construction (hiking, mountain biking,
birding, 4x4, cultural, river rafting etc.)
Eco Lodge design and construction
Associated enabling infrastructure (roads, bridges, border
posts).
Product (destination) development, management and
marketing
Training of communities in all associated skills and livelihoods
(linked with component 1)
Enterprise development facilitation

Component 4 Research Monitoring and Evaluation


Objective:
To establish a comprehensive research program supporting
knowledge management, data collection and an appropriate
participatory monitoring and evaluation system to ensure effective
adaptive management of the LTFCA
Significant data has been collected related to the LTFCA, in
particular the Maputaland Conservation Assessment (MCA)
undertaken by Durrell Institute for Conservation and Ecology (DICE)
at the University of Kent, to guide conservation planning in the
Lubombo region. It used a geographic information system and a
systematic conservation planning approach to identify priority areas
and corridors for conserving the regions important vegetation
types, species and ecological processes whilst minimising impacts
on local livelihoods. This work was published in the journal Biological
Conservation in 2008 and has subsequently informed a number of
land-use planning decisions, including the development of the
corridor linking Maputo Special Reserve in Mozambique with Tembe
Elephant Park in South Africa.
One advantage of the Maputaland Conservation Assessment is that
it provides a regional conservation context that can inform localand landscape-level decision-making. This is especially relevant for
the Eco Lubombo Program, as it allows stakeholders to identify
priority areas for conservation that have local value but also
conserve globally important biodiversity and create a network of
conservation areas, thus reducing the impacts of climate change.
However, the biodiversity data in the Maputaland Conservation
Planning System has not been updated since 2011 and it lacks the
latest information on where new conservation areas and initiatives
have been established or planned. Thus, there is a need to update
this information and rerun the analyses to provide information to
guide the Eco Lubombo Program. This work would be done by

Masters students and staff from DICE and would involve the
following:
1. Use the latest Landsat 8 and Aster satellite imagery to update
the Maputaland land cover map to reflect changes in land
cover through urbanisation, infrastructure and the expansion
of agriculture. Check the accuracy of the changes by groundtruthing the map through visiting randomly selected points
and comparing the actual landcover type with that predicted
from the satellite imagery.
2. Update the distribution maps for the 44 vegetation types, 53
species and 14 ecological processes based on changes in the
land cover map and import the data into the Maputaland
Conservation Planning System.
3. Collect the available data on the boundaries of the current and
planned conservation areas found in the Lubombo region and
digitise maps or paper plans where necessary, so they can be
imported into the planning system. Collect similar data on
areas that are not suitable for conservation, given current and
planned development projects.
4. Work with local experts and stakeholders to rerun the
Maputaland Conservation Assessment to identify priority
networks of conservation areas and linkages that achieve
conservation goals and fit in with ecotourism and other
development goals.
The University of Florida and the University of Tarleton have
expressed an interest in supporting the development of a
comprehensive research program for the LTFCA, as well as to utilize
the facilities of the community eco lodges as base camps for their
research students.
All community eco lodges will therefore be designed and
constructed with research activities in mind, enabling the lodges to
be also used as research facilities.
M and E activities will be defined in the context of further project
development in terms of performance indicators established through
the design and implementation of the components. There will be an
emphasis on adaptive management and community participation in
these activities.

Potential Value of Eco Trails to the SADC TFCA Program


Economic benefits, improved participation and decisionmaking for local communities
The Eco Trails program represents an important initiative for the
Lubombo TFCA and other TFCAs where there is significant potential
for the TFCAs to catalyse local economic development for
communities. In the Lubombo TFCA, agricultural opportunities are
limited, and existing livelihoods increasingly threatened by climate
change. The outstanding natural assets of the LTFCA represent the
best means to achieve economic development, yet this is predicated
on the conservation and sustainable use of these resources. The Eco
Trails initiative is carefully designed to maximize the economic
opportunities available while ensuring long term sustainability.
Mobilizing and consolidating the support of the private
sector and NGOs
The concept of the Eco Trails as a comprehensive and long-term
community focused program with the potential to transform the
LTFCA into an outstanding and integrated ecotourism product of
international significance has been a source of inspiration and
motivation for many stakeholders in the region. The rapidly
developing network of partners attests to the success of the
concept.
Enhancing ecological connectivity and ecosystem resilience
Integrating the creation of the Eco Trails with a participatory and
integrated spatial and business planning process that balances
ecological sustainability and biodiversity conservation with
economic development at the local and regional levels ensures that
all stakeholders are involved in the maintaining critical ecological
infrastructure and ensuring long-term ecosystem resilience.

Proposed GIZ Technical Support Activities to the


Lubombo Eco Trails Program
The Eco Trails initiative is part of the Eco Lubombo Program, which
has been implemented successfully through the partnership of The
Lubombo Conservancy, with the support and guidance of the SNTC
and the Italian NGO Cospe. GIZ, CEPF and the Netherlands
government have provided critical and innovative funding as well as
technical advice. PPF has shared their extensive knowledge of the
area and of trail design and development. Space for Elephants has
facilitated collaborative activities in South Africa and the
Mozambique NGO Consortium, with extensive local knowledge and
experience, is formalizing its role as partners in the Eco Trails. The
foundation for the Eco Trails program is well established, but needs
to move from pilot and conceptual stage to full implementation. The
GIZ program will support this implementation for the first 3 years of

its proposed 10 year program, during which GIZ will help strengthen
the projects viability and funding resources to take it to the next
phase.
1. Title of the support area:
GIZ Support to Lubombo Eco Trails Program (GS-LETP)
2. What should be achieved with the support (objective)?
To take the LETP from conceptual stage and pilot activities to
first phase of implementation, defining full activities and work
program, required technical expertise, commencement of
participatory planning activities at local and regional hub level
(CRA), and supporting M and E.
3. Would the support project build on previous project
(experiences)? Is the project embedded in a bigger project,
which is currently being implemented or planned to be
implemented?
The support project will build on the experiences of the Eco
Lubombo Program and its ongoing Lubombo Eco Trails
initiative. Eco Business Planning has taken place with GIZ
support together with the formation of the Mhlumeni-Goba
Transborder Community Forum as part of the Mhlumeni-Goba
Cross-border Tourism and Conservation Initiative (MG-CTCI).
4. Who from the TFCA would be involved in the project
(organizations)? Government agencies including SNTC
(Swaziland), ANAC (Mozambique), Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife and
iSimangaliso Wetland Authority (South Africa) as well as all
Lubombo Eco Trails Partners (see Annex 2), many of whom are
part of the TFCA network.
5. Where would the support project take place? Which countries
are involved?
Swaziland, Mozambique and South Africa
6. What are potential partners for the support project?
A broad range of stakeholders involved in and supporting
conservation and tourism, ecosystem management, eco
agriculture, community sustainable livelihoods, but primarily
local communities. See Annex 2 for LETP official partners
7. What budget is required to implement the support project (not
including salaries of staff)?
USD 790,000 or Euro 695, 000.
8. How are communities involved in the support project?

Communities are involved in the pilot phase, through Eco


Business Planning in Swaziland (Mhlumeni, Tikhuba,
Mambane) Eco Lodge and Trails (Shewula) and in CBNRM-CBT
Forums (Mhlumeni-Shewula-Goba).
9. What is the own-contribution from the TFCA in this support
project?
Swaziland with support from GIZ, CEPF and the Netherlands
has contributed to the development of the pilot phase through
the Eco Lubombo Program (USD 500,000) and will continue to
support
through
its
recently
approved
GEF-SNPAS
(Strengthening National Protected Area System) project.
Mozambique has resources available for community
development through its Community Development Fund
(CDF)from the World Bank (MOZBIO) and the COmON
Foundation.
10.
What could be the contribution from communities in this
project?
In the pilot phase the communities have shown willingness to
have land zoned for conservation and ecosystem
management, to create conservation areas, and to be fully
engaged in community based tourism. They have contributed
land, labor and time. It is expected that this type of
engagement will continue and improve as communities
interact and engage more intensively in the project.
11.
Is there a possibility to place a Technical Advisor at the
TFCA level? Where would a TA best be placed? Would there be
an office space? Who would be the partner organization
hosting the TA (in which TFCA country)?
A Technical Advisor would be valuable in supporting the many
complex technical aspects of the project, identifying and
supporting the consultancies required, and supporting the Eco
Lubombo Project Unit based in Siteki in Swaziland. The TA
could be placed in Siteki at the ELP offices or at the SNTC HQ
in Swaziland. The TA would need to have a broad range of
skills: experience in TFCAs, ecotourism and conservation,
community engagement, networking skills and proven
expertise in raising funds.

Figure 3 Goba (Mozambique) and Mhlumeni (Swaziland)


communities at First Transborder Community Forum visiting
Mhlumeni Community Eco Lodge Site. Funded through GIZ
Mhlumeni-Goba Community Tourism and Conservation
Initiative (MG-CTCI). See http://youtu.be/vLq-K-XSvO0

ANNEXES

ANNEX 1: Indicative Budget for Eco Trails (10 years) with proposed GIZ support budget (3
years) in USD

Component
1. Institutional Strengthening

Activities

Total cost10 yr
500,000

GIZ share 3 yr
150,000

220,000

50,000

70,000

30,000

Participatory GIS and ecosystem assessment,


including biodiversity and rangeland assessments,
etc.

250,000

80,000

Zonation and conservation and NRM management


plans

100,000

50,000

Community based Eco Business Plans

200,000

100,000

CRA Eco Business Plans

160,000

80,000

Landscape wide ecosystem management


plan/business plan

50,000

50,000

Feasibility study

60,000

60,000

100,000

20,000

Trail Construction and management (10 years)

1,500,000

100,000

Eco lodge construction and management, and


associated infrastructure (10 years)

6,000,000

Training Communities
Training NGOs (training of trainers, training for
funding proposals)
Forum meetings and exchange activities

2. Eco Business Plans

3. Eco Trails Design and


Implementation

Trail design (all trails)

4. Research, Monitoring and


Evaluation

Desktop surveys

40,000

Research programme formulation

50,000

Research activities

100,000

Monitoring and Evaluation

100,000

Project Preparation, Management


and Logistics (10 years)

20,000

50,000

500,000
TOTAL

10,000,000

840,000

ANNEX 2 Lubombo Eco Trails Program (LETP) Link to Logical Framework for the SADC TFCAs Program
(STP)
Overall Goal of the STP
A function and integrated network of transfrontier conservation areas developed where shared natural resources
are sustainably co-managed and conserved to foster economic and social development, tourism and regional
integration for the benefit of those living within and around TFCAs and mankind at large.
Overall Goal of LETP
To substantially increase benefits and equity for communities and improve biodiversity and ecosystem
management in the Lubombo TFCA by establishing a community based Eco Trails network and integrated planning
framework, consolidating and strengthening the LTFCAs conservation and tourism assets.
LETP Component
and objectives

Links
to
Components
Objectives

STP
and

LETP Outputs

Links to STP Outputs

Component 1:
Institutional
Strengthening
and Capacity
Building

Links to Component 3:
Capacity Building for
TFCA stakeholders

Objective:
To strengthen
institutional
frameworks,
collaboration,
networking and
capacity of LTFCA
stakeholders to
implement and
manage the Eco
Trails and Eco
Business Plans
within an
sustainable
landscape and
ecosystem
management
approach

Links to Component 3
Objective:
To enhance capacity for
the successful
development and
management of the
TFCAs

1) Create a well managed


network in which different
stakeholder groups have clear
and complementary roles in
implementing the Eco Trails
network, and Eco Business
Plans, incorporating landscape
and ecosystem approach;
2) Key Eco Trails stakeholder
groups (communities, private
sector, government, NGOs)
form governance frameworks in
the Conservation and Resource
Areas (CRAs) with emphasis on
expanding community
conservation and development
opportunities
3) Training program designed
by regional institutions for

1) Different stakeholder
groups have an improved
understanding of their role
in TFCA development

2) Capacity of key TFCA


stakeholder groups
strengthened

3) Regional partnerships
between training and
educational institutions
established

community members and NGOs


and establishment of cross
border forum for knowledge
exchange
Component 2:
Eco Business
Planning

Links to Component 5:
Enhancement of Local
Livelihoods

Objectives:

Link to STP Component 5


Objectives:

To ensure that at
the local and
regional level
sound business
planning is
integrated with
landscape and
ecosystem
approaches
through a holistic
and participatory
spatial planning
process, and
implemented
through equitable

1) Empower local
communities, especially
women, to participate in
TFCA decision making
processes; 2) Increase
opportunities for
investment in income
generating activities for
local communities

Facilitate public and


private investments in

Link to Component 5
Outputs
1) CRAs established with Eco
Business Plans (EBPs)
incorporating Community based
EBPs. The CRAs will have
governance frameworks
ensuring full and equitable
participation of communities.
2) Development opportunities
identified for local communities
with CRAs based on Eco Trails
and other sustainable livelihood
activities
3) TFCA wide Business Plan

1) An enabling
environment for local
participation in TFCA
decision making processes
created;

2) Benefit flow to local


communities; 3) Local
economies improved

and effective
governance
structures,
thereby laying the
foundation for the
long-term
sustainability of
the Lubombo Eco
Trails network.

transboundary
infrastructure, trade and
tourism projects

based on Eco Trails


development identifies
infrastructure and investment
requirements to create
sustainable community based
tourism product

Links to Component 7:
Development of TFCAs
into marketable regional
tourism products

TFCA wide Business Plan based


on Eco Trails development
identifies infrastructure and
investment requirements to
create sustainable community
based tourism product
Community based Eco Business
Plans incorporate participatory
GIS mapping and planning, and
other educational tools to
create awareness and
understanding of value of
ecosystems to peoples
livelihoods and to improved
climate change adaptation,
leading to ecosystem
management planning
integrated into business plan

Links to Component 6:
Reducing the
vulnerability of
ecosystems and people
to the effects of climate
change

Link to Component 7
Outputs
Private sector and
community partnerships in
tourism improved
Vulnerability of
ecosystems and
communities living in and
around TFCAs to the
effects of climate change
reduced

Component 3: Eco
Trails Design and
Implementation

Links to Component 7:
Development of TFCAs
into marketable regional
tourism products

Objective:

Creation of Integrated TFCA


wide Community Based Tourism
Product effectively promoting
adventure trails and cultural
assets.

To consolidate and
strengthen the
LTFCAs
conservation and
tourism assets
through increased
participation,
connectivity and
integrated
product
development

Link to Component 7
Outputs
1) Tourism to the region
increased
2) Private sector and
community partnerships in
tourism improved

Links to Component 5:
Enhancement of Local
Livelihoods
Component 4:
Research,
Monitoring and

Link to Component 4:
Establishment of data
and knowledge

Update the Maputaland land


cover map to reflect changes in
land use; update all biodiversity

Information
exchange
between
stakeholder
groups, TFCAs and SADC

Evaluation

management systems

Objective:
To establish a
comprehensive
research program
supporting
knowledge
management, data
collection and an
appropriate and
participatory
monitoring and
evaluation system to
ensure effective
adaptive
management of the
Lubombo TFCA

data; update data of current


Secretariat enhanced
and planned conservation areas
to improve planning system;
Mechanisms
for
data
work with stakeholders to
capture and dissemination
identify priority networks of
conservation areas and linkages
to achieve conservation goals
to fit in with ecotourism and
other development goals.
Establish an M and E system
based on updated data,
improved conservation planning
and output indicators from Eco
Business Plans

ANNEX 3 Lubombo Eco Trails Program Partners


Country

Community

NGO

Academic
Institution

Private Sector

Donor/
Government

Swazilan
d

Mozambi
que

South
Africa

Shewula Trust
Mhlumeni Trust

The Lubombo
Conservancy
COSPE

Tikhuba Trust

Operation Hope

Mambane Trust

All Out Foundation

Ntava Yedzu Goba

LUPA

Nkosi Myeni, Nsindi


Traditional Authority
Nkosi Nyawo, Nyawo
Traditional Authority

VIDA
Kuwuka JDA
AACEM
CESVI
Peace Parks
Foundation
Space For
Elephants
Foundation
Kingsley Holgate
Foundation
Wildlands
Conservation Trust

Nkosi Tembe, Tembe


Traditional Authority
Nkosi Gumbi,
Somkhanda Traditional
Authority

Birdlife SA

UNISWA

Swazi Trails

SNTC

Hall and Stacey


Architects
Times of Swaziland

SEA
Siteki Town
Council

Linda Loffler
Biodiversity
Specialist
ANAC

African Insight

DEA

Utshwayelo Lodge

Ezemvelo KZN
Wildlife

Hluhluwe River
Lodge
White Elephant
Lodge

Isimangaliso
Wetland Authority
Boundless
Southern Africa

Bluegreen Planning
and Design
Penny Parker MBA

Internati
onal

Birdlife
International

Prof Kevin Mearns,


UNISA
Professor
Munyaradzi
Chitakira, UNISA
University of Florida
University of
Tarleton
University of Kent

GIZ
CEPF
Netherlands
Government

Annex 4 List of Mozambique NGO partners with project details (communities and activities)
VIDA
Communi
ty
Djabula

PA
(Admin
Post)
BELA
VISTA

Activity

Key Area

1) DJABULA COMMUNITARY DEVLOPMENT


CENTER CDCD were since 2002 and up to 2015
over 80 short term courses on improving
farming and cattle herding techniques, honey
production; and usefull skills like handicrafts,
sewing and on making bread. (2) DJABULA
COMMUNITY traditional houses improved, wells
opened, promotion of cattle ownership (5)
DJABULA COMMUNITY Legal constitution of local

LubomboGoba- Licuati
OR Lubombo
- CatuaneLicuati

Potential Eco
Tourism
Opportunities
CDCD/Licuati ecotourism and ecotrails. Off-road
adventure

rural Association 'Pfukani Djabula' APD (6)


PFUKANI DJABULA ASSOCIATION Legal
constitution of rural handicraft brand 'Djabula'
100% owned by APD (7) APD Small store about
to open in Boane for 'Djabula' brand (8)
UAAMAT-APD is now member of the first small
scale (familiar scale) farmers Union 'Unio das
Associaes Agrrias de Matutune' UAAMAT
Ncassane CATUANE

1) NCASSANE Built Ncassane only Primary


school (2) NCASSANE 2 wells opened (3)
NCASSANE COMMUNITY was benneficiary of the
short term courses held in CDCD since 2002 and
up to 2010 (3) NCASSANE COMMUNITY Legal
constitution of local rural Association 'Hundzuka
Ncassane'

LubomboGoba- Licuati
OR Lubombo
- CatuaneLicuati

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Manhian
e

1) MANHIANE COMMUNITY was benneficiary of


short term courses held in CDCD since 2002 and
up to 2015 (2) MANHIANE COMMUNITY Legal
constitution of local rural Association 'Thutuca
Manhiane' ATM (3) UAAMAT-ATM is now member
of the first small scale (familiar scale) farmers
Union 'Unio das Associaes Agrrias de
Matutune' UAAMAT

LubomboGoba- Licuati
OR Lubombo
- CatuaneLicuati

Licuati- ecotourism .
Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

BELA
VISTA

Manhang
ane

CATUANE

1) MANHANGANE FARMERS ASSOCIATION


Beneficiary of around 15 short term courses on
improved agriculture, cattle herding techniques
and associativism since 2011 to the present
date (2) UAAMAT-MANHANGANE farmers
Association is member of UAAMAT

LubomboCatuaneLicuati

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Tinongan
ine

BELA
VISTA

1) TINONGANINE FARMERS ASSOCIATION


Beneficiary of around 15 short term courses on
improved agriculture, cattle herding techniques
and associativism since 2011 to the present
date (2) UAAMAT-TINONGANINE farmers
Association is member of UAAMAT

MSR-Buffer
Zone OR
CatuaneMSR

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Caiado

BELA
VISTA

(1) CAIADO FARMERS ASSOCIATION Beneficiary


of around 15 short term courses on improved
agriculture, cattle herding techniques and
associativism since 2011 to the present date (2)
UAAMAT-CAIADO farmers Association is member
of UAAMAT

MSR-Buffer
Zone OR
CatuaneMSR

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Salaman
ga

BELA
VISTA

1) SALAMANGA FARMERS ASSOCIATION


Beneficiary of around 15 short term courses on
improved agriculture, cattle herding techniques
and associativism since 2011 to the present
date (2) UAAMAT-SALAMANGA farmers
Association is member of UAAMAT

MSR-Buffer
Zone OR
CatuaneMSR

Hindu Temple built in


1908/ Economic centre
of Matutuine.
Ecotourism.
Zx``A1~ZEco-trails .

Off-road adventure
Fabrica
De Cal

BELA
VISTA

1) FABRICA DE CAL FARMERS ASSOCIATION


Beneficiary of around 15 short term courses on
improved agriculture, cattle herding techniques
and associativism since 2011 to the present
date (2) UAAMAT-FABRICA DE CAL farmers
Association is member of UAAMAT

MSR-Buffer
Zone

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Macassa
ne

BELA
VISTA

(1) MACASSANE FARMERS ASSOCIATION


Beneficiary of around 15 short term courses on
improved agriculture, cattle herding techniques
and associativism since 2011 to the present
date (2) UAAMAT-MACASSANE farmers
Association is member of UAAMAT

MSR-Buffer
Zone OR
CatuaneMSR

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Ponta
Douro

ZITUNDO

(1) PONTA DOURO FARMERS ASSOCIATION


Beneficiary of around 15 short term courses on
improved agriculture, cattle herding techniques
and associativism since 2011 to the present
date (2) PONTA DOURO FARMERS ASSOCIATION
Legal constitution of farmers Association 'Hilua
Ni Ndlala' Ponta Douro(2) UAAMAT-PONTA
DOURO farmers Association is member of
UAAMAT

Tembe-Kosi
Bay-Ponta

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Zitundo

ZITUNDO

(1) ZITUNDO FARMERS ASSOCIATION Beneficiary Tembe-Kosi


of around 15 short term courses on improved

Eco-trails . Off-road

agriculture, cattle herding techniques and


associativism since 2011 to the present date (2)
UAAMAT-ZITUNDO farmers Association is
member of UAAMAT

Bay-Ponta

adventure

Machia

BELA
VISTA

1) MACHIA FARMERS ASSOCIATION Beneficiary


of around 15 short term courses on improved
agriculture, cattle herding techniques and
associativism since 2011 to the present date (2)
UAAMAT-MACHIA farmers Association is member
of UAAMAT

MSR-Buffer
Zone

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Hindane

BELA
VISTA

(1) UAAMAT-HINDANE farmers Association is


member of UAAMAT

Licuati

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Cuache

MUGAZIN
E

1) CUACHE APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

Licuati

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Pochane

BELA
VISTA

(1) POCHANE APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

Licuati

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Nguenha

BELA
VISTA

(1) NGUENHA APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

MSR-Buffer
Zone OR
CatuaneMSR

Mussong
ue

ZITUNDO

1) MUSSONGUE APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

MSR-Buffer
Zone

Huco

ZITUNDO

(1) HUCO APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

MSR-Buffer
Zone

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Guebeza

ZITUNDO

(1) GUEBEZA APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

MSR-Buffer
Zone

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Matuvula

CATUANE

(1) MATUVULA APE Communitary Health Agent


(through District Health Services) improving
food and nutritional status of the community

LubomboCatuaneLicuati

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

KUWUKA JDA

Eco-trails . Off-road
adventure

Communi
ty
Massoha
ne

PA

Activity

Key Areas

BELAVISTA

(1) CBNRM for biodiversity Conservation


and sustainable use of forest resources

MSR-Buffer
Zone

Zitundo

ZITUND
O

(1) CBNRM for biodiversity Conservation.


(2) Community nursery for reforestation
Tembe-Kosi Bay-Ponta

Tembe-Kosi
Bay-Ponta

Ponta
Douro

ZITUND
O

(1)CBNRM for sustainable use of forest


resources

Tembe-Kosi
Bay-Ponta

Manhang
ane

CATUA
NE

1)CBNRM for sustainable use of forest


resources for income generation
activities(charcoal,firewood)

MambaneUsuthuNdumuCatuane

Chucha

CATUA
NE

1) CBNRM for biodiversity Conservation


and sustainable use of forest resources

MambaneUsuthuNdumuCatuane

Potential Eco Tourism


Opportunities
Ecotrails
. Canoe- Crocodile view
. CBNRM committees for
biodiversity conservation .
Camping
Ecotrails
. CBNRM committees for
biodiversity conservation .
Nursery with native and
medicinal plants
. Camping
Ecotrails
. Beach
. Water sports . Camping
. Ecotrails
. CBNRM committees for
sustainable use of forest
resourses
. CBNRM- fishing
. Bird watch
. Community cultural groups
. Ecotrails
. Canoe- hippo view
. Bird watch
. Community cultural group .
Camping

LUPA
Community

PA

Activity

Key Area

Machia
Chia
Salamanga
Madjedjane
Gala

BELA-VISTA
BELA-VISTA
BELA-VISTA
BELA-VISTA
ZITUNDO

(1) Environmental
education in schools;
(2) Handicraft
production with
direct connection to
the markets in
Maputo; (3)
Beekeeping with
direct link to the
markets in Maputo
through Natura (4)
Community Based
Tourism

MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
Tembe-Kosi BayPonta

PA

Activity

Key Area

Potential Eco
Tourism
Opportunities
Eco trails
Eco trails
Eco trails
Eco tourism
Eco tourism

CESVI
Community

Potential Eco
Tourism

NtavaYedzu

GOBA

Chia
Machia
Guebeza
Massale
Mussongue
Huco

BELA-VISTA
BELA-VISTA
ZITUNDO
ZITUNDO
ZITUNDO
ZITUNDO

(1) Environment; (2)


Livelihoods; (3) Small
scale fishing

Lubombo- GobaLicuati
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone
MSR-Buffer Zone

Opportunities
Bird watching, local
culture interaction,
village tours

Annex 5 Proposal for the Lubombo Spine Biodiversity


Corridor to link the Swaziland-South Africa TFCA and
iSimangaliso Wetland Park
This is a submission from Lubombo Eco Trails partner, Space For
Elephants Foundation (an NGO with a long history of working with
local communities) as a contribution to the overall conceptual
development of the Lubombo Eco Trails focusing on the key linkages
along the Lubombo Ridge to iSimangaliso.
Rationale
To establish informal conservation linkages from the Lubombo
Conservancy in Swaziland to Hluhluwe in South Africa, along the
lines of such a protected environment, with key joint management
areas such as the MSR (Maputo Special Reserve) TEP (Tembe
Elephant Park) core area, and eventually the area around the
Pongola dam across the international boundary, and others. To link
the Swaziland TFCA (Transfronteir Conservation Area) with the
iSimangaliso Wetlands Park (formerly Greater St Lucia Wetland Park,
a World Heritage Site), through Nsubane, Pongola Game Reserve
and Mkuze Game Reserve including Senekal private land and Nkosi
Myeni and Nkosi Nyawo Traditional Authorities, and to create a
corridor along the Lubombo Mountain to link the Swaziland South
Africa TFCA (Transfronteir Conservation Area) with the
Mozambique/South Africa TFCA (Transfronteir Conservation Area), to
enhance the biodiversity potential of the Maputaland Conservation
Area Hotspot and to promote and enhance general biodiversity by
eliminating the Island effects of small reserves by allowing wildlife
to migrate and disperse naturally, thereby creating source sink
effects and taking the pressure off local vegetation. To protect
several endangered species of fauna and flora (e.g. cycads,
butterflies, fish, amphibians, rhinos and elephants). Finally to
integrate the needs of the edge communities and promoting
economic opportunities. Creating the linkages does not necessarily
mean removing fences between existing protected areas which
operate autonomously.
To achieve the four key goals of linkages: ecological, economical,
institutional and cultural, according to the Benefits Beyond
Boundaries principles as set out by the World Parks Congress.
The areas to be included are:
Greater Lubombo Conservancy - Goba;
Mambane - Usuthu Gorge - Ndumu;
Tembe Elephant Park - Maputo Special Reserve
Border Cave - Nsubane - Greater Pongola Game Reserve;

Mkuze - Phinda - ISimangaliso Wetland Park (with a possible link to


HIP Hluhluwe Umfolozi) - Terrestrial component
Marine component - PPNR (Pongola Port Nature Reserve) and
iSimangaliso Wetland Park
This would cover all the key protected areas, current and potential,
and address aspects such as the supporting and restoring of
landscape dynamics, ecosystem functionality and cultural
connectivity, and form the basis for integrated regional tourism
development.
Expected projects by Space for Elephants Foundation
Nkosi Myeni, Nsindi traditional authority, Jozini Municipality
Mavela Community Project, Emaweni View Site, Puza Moya Campsite
Nkosi Nyawo, Nkosi Nyawo traditional authority, Jozini Municipality
Mountain Lake Adventures gorge
Nkosi Tembe, Tembe traditional authority, Umhlabuyalingana
Municipality
Bhekamanzi Community Project
Nkosi Gumbi, Somkhanda traditional authority, Zululand District
Municipality
Jozini Dam Community Project
Project Motivation - Micro tourism projects
Small tourist business ventures that can be run by one or several
people from the local communities and that live in the area of a
proposed biodiversity corridor, such as hiking and birding trails,
handcrafts, fishing and canoeing, medicinal plant propagation and
usage etc., are essential for the future prosperity and economic
development of our country.
The proposed Corridor not only links a variety of habitats: Sand
forests, Lubombo grasslands, Lubombo woodland, wetland, forests,
aquatic etc. (For details see Smith et al. 2008.) but is in the center
of the Maputaland Centre for Endemism (MCE). The conservation
importance of this MCE (Smith et al. 2008) is globally recognised, as
it forms part of the MaputalandPondolandAlbany biodiversity
hotspot, which contains the iSimangaliso Wetland Park World
Heritage Site, five RAMSAR sites and ten Important bird areas
(Steenkamp et al. 2004; Smith and Leader-Williams 2006). Several
community owned game reserves have developed in the area
(Gaugris et al. 2004; van Rensburg et al. 1999). It also proposes to
link three Transfronteir Conservation Areas (TFCAs): the Lubombo
TFCA initiatives between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique.
The area includes several endangered or endemic species such as
the endemic and endangered cycad (Encephalitis lebomboensis),
the endemic white sapphire butterfly , four bird species (see van
Rensburg et al. 2000), black and white rhinos and elephants. The
proposed corridor links two of the defined aquatic biogeographic
regions of KwaZulu-Natal, Pongola and Zululand. (Rivers-Moore et
al. 2007). Therefore it is important that the patchy distribution of

protected habitat be linked through a corridor system, to allow


movement and dispersion. The region still contains much of its
natural vegetation and its low agricultural potential makes naturebased tourism and the sustainable use of natural resources
economically competitive. However the area falls into the low
water area as defined by Rivers-Moore et al (2007).
A high proportion of the region, private and state, already has
protected area (PA) status, and these PAs are the responsibility of
Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife and the iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority
in South Africa and the Swaziland National Trust Commission in
Swaziland, and the appropriate Mozambique authority. However,
some biodiversity elements remain under-represented in these PAs
in relation to their conservation targets (Smith et al. 2008).
Moreover, many of the PAs are not large enough to contain viable
populations of wide-ranging species, or to conserve important
ecological processes.
Examples of Space for Elephants achievements in this endeavor are:

Building of class rooms, water supply, soccer field and


equipment at Mykene primary school situated in
Somkhanda traditional authority focusing on nature
conservation linked to Pongola Game Reserve. (SEF and
Rotary International).

Securing a 3 year contract with volunteer organisations.


The focus of the projects was conservation,
rehabilitation and protection of the wilderness areas
within impoverished communities including the
establishment of a conservation research centre at
Thanda/Mduna Royal Game Reserve. (SEF)

Active mediator with Nkosi Gumbi. (SEF and private


international funding)

Establishment of Rhino monitoring and security project


at Pongola nature reserve. (SEF and private funding)

Completion of a stewardship programme leading to the


proclamation of 15 000 HA of private and community
land as a protected nature reserve under the national
biodersity act. (SEF, Conservation international CEPF)

Establishment of Mavela community centre adjoining


Pongola poort nature reserve and Nsindi traditional
authority.

Acquiring of approximately 100 HA Stannards land


adjoining Mavela which is being used for biodersity
protection of endangered species and a conservation

training base for local community.

Establishment of a traditional Thonga village at Tembe


traditional authority.

Biodiversity will balance once again, bringing visitors to areas


previously neglected by tourism, with many opportunities for the
edge communities to practice Benefits beyond Boundaries. (An
example is iSimangaliso Wetlands Park.)
Benefits beyond Boundaries:

Indigenous knowledge skills training, storytelling, Bush Theater as


well as printing and binding of story books African tales from long
ago (e.g. How the Rhino got his horn) and short stories written by
famous early game rangers, using elephant dung paper.

Geology and gemstone trails.

Canoeing, donkey cart trails, photographic safaris, and tracking of


Elephants and Rhinos

4x4 trails, ancient man and other cultural sites.

Overnight accommodation, indigenous food hospitality venues.

Tiger and fly Fishing

Birding and butterflying There are over 6 million birders and


butterfly enthusiasts registered with birding and lepidopterist
associations.

Establishment of hiking trail camps

Promotion of ecofriendly bio fuels and stoves

Vegetable Gardens -- These need to be established along the routes


, to supply the overnight camps and lodges in the area

Security Guards These will be necessary for the protection of


visitors motor vehicles and guarding the overnight villages

Resource management and litter control

The Proposed Corridors (outlined in red)

In conjunction with PPF and EKZNW, SEF have developed a proposed


corridor to follow the southern end of the Greater Rift Valley and
eventually link the Kruger National Park in the North with the
iSimangaliso Wetland Park in the South and Swaziland. The current
proposal deals with the first section of this corridor, between
Swaziland TFCA and iSimangaliso Wetland Park. The exact locality
and size of the areas to form part of this corridor system can only be
defined once a survey has been completed, meetings with the
relevant authorities and communities have been held and a general
agreement has been reached. To this end the FIRST PHASE of the

proposal consists of surveys and meetings. The overall idea is to link


existing national Game Reserves with international TFCAs and
including communities living in the area. There are no larger towns
or major roads in the Maputaland biodiversity conservation area,
therefore this is an ideal opportunity to create a corridor system,
already planned with EKZNW.
Methodology
The implementation will need to follow a phased development plan.
SEF together with Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife (EKZNW), iSimangaliso
Wetlands Park and Peace Parks Foundation (PPF) will develop an
integrated development and management plan. Working groups
involving private land owners, Traditional Authorities (TA) and other
interested and affected parties have been established. A number of
exploratory meetings have been held.
Funding
A suitable task group to steer the initiative needs to be established.
Funding requirements for 3 years has been documented, and attached.
It is estimated that this project is a 10 year project.
Proposed Phased Programme
A three phased programme is suggested: A planning Phase,
Implementing phase and maintenance phase.
Planning and Implementation Phase Total costs 1 Year
Estimated Cost of this phase will be R3, 445 490
Maintenance Phase Total costs per year thereafter, a 2 year
budget has been submitted
Estimated Cost of this phase will R626, 415 for year two (2) and
R653, 490 for year three (3)
The most important initial steps will be:
1. A feasibility study. For this it is imperative that meetings with all
stakeholders can be implemented. These will need funding. Tribal
authorities as well as all land owners and governmental bodies need
to be part of the consultation process. Only once a common
consensus has been reached, can the corridor implementation
process begin, which will include developing ecological management
plans, micro tourism projects, land use and zoning plans, and setting
up of local management committees.
2. List landowners and agreements. A comprehensive list of all
interested and affected landowners along the corridor must be
compiled.

3. Survey - A topographical survey of the corridor will establish


estimates of where fences and other infrastructure obstacles or
barriers exist and the solutions to overcome these established. It will
be necessary to fly over the area taking aerial photographs to
identify residential homes and access points. Biological
considerations will guide this planning. Zoning, mapping and
business plans will have to be done together with government
bodies and land owners.

References:
Linkages in the Landscape IUCN Andrew F. Bennett
The Ecology of Natural Resource Management. ML Hugo, AT Viljoen,
JM Meeuwis
De Boer WF, Ntumi CP, Correia AU, Mafuca JM. 2000 Diet and
distribution of elephant in the Maputo Elephant Reserve,
Mozambique. East African Wild Life Society, Afr. J. Ecol., 38,188-201.
Belton LE, Dalerum F, Van Rensburg BJ. 2008. Factors associated
with suni distribution in Tembe Elephant Park, South Africa:
implications for management and conservation of a small antelope.
Afr. J. Ecol., 46, 631636
Gaugris JY, W.S. Matthews WS, Van Rooyen MW, Du P. Bothma J.
2004. The vegetation of Tshanini Game Reserve and a comparison
with equivalent units in the Tembe Elephant Park in Maputaland,
South Africa. Koedoe 47/1
Guldemond R, and van AardR. 2007. The impact of elephants on
plants and their community variables in South Africas
Maputaland.,Afr. J. Ecol., 45, 327335.
Harris GM, Gareth J. Russell GJ, van Aarde R, Pimm SL. 2008 Rules of
habitat use by elephants Loxodonta africana in southern Africa:
insights for regional management. Oryx Vol 42 No 1

Ntumi CP, van Aarde R, Fairall N, de Boer WF. 2005. Use of space
and habitat by elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Maputo
Elephant Reserve, Mozambique South African Journal of Wildlife
Research 35(2), 139146.
Smith RJ. et al. 2008. Designing a transfrontier conservation
landscape for the Maputaland centre of endemism using
biodiversity, economic and threat data Biological Conservation 14,
2127 2138
Rivers- Moore NA., Goodman PS. and Nkosi MR. 2007. An
assessment of the freshwater natural capital in KwaZulu-Natal for
conservation planning.
Water SA Vol. 33 No. 5 October 2007
van Rensburg BJ, McGeoch MA, Chown SL, Van Jaarsveld AS. 1999
Conservation of heterogeneity among dung beetles in the
Maputaland Centre of Endemism, South Africa. Biological
Conservation 88, 145-153
van Rensburg BJ, Chown SL, van Jaarsveld AS, McGeoch MA. 2000.
Spatial variation and biogeography of sand forest avian
assemblages in South Africa.
Journal of Biogeography, 27, 13851401
TFCA Annual Budget - R3,445,490 - Year One
Description
Institutional Strengthening
Training and facilitation of workshop with Ndunas and Nkosi
Travel costs for members
Forum meetings and exchange activies
School and community training

Totals
R
72,9
R
18,00
R
18,90
R
6,00
R
30,00

Project Implementation
Salaries/fees
Project co-ordinator
Financial controller
Desktop surveys
Research program including travel and accomm for surveyors
Local Community
Educator
View Site, and trail construction team (1 teams of 4 people for 21
days of month - 8 months)
Administrator
Road Construction team (1 teams of 4 people, 90 days )
Plumbing and Water team

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

382,09
162,00
78,00
60,00
9,00
15,00
220,09
72,00

R
R
R
R

65,52
48,00
24,57
10,00

Eco Business Plans


Gis and ecosystem assessments excl ARCGIS software
Biodiversity rangeland and fire assessments
Natural Resource management plans
Business plan for small eco trails and camp site

R
R
R
R
R

385,00
35,00
30,00
45,00
45,00

Business plan for Isimangaliso Wetlands Park Ubombo


Landscape wide ecosystem plans

R
R

200,000
30,00

Equipment, materials
Purchase of equipment as required
Laptop or desktop for admin and registration details
2 x 10 000 l water tanks, Borehole, piping and cement slab
Radios and support security infrastructure - Parrot repeater
Repairs to existing Gate for entrance to Stannard land/Elephant

R
R
R
R
R

263,50
6,50
200,000
47,00
10,00

Operational Costs
Petrol, maintenance and tollfees
Accommodation and per diems (Management/trainers/technical
assistants)
Administration
Cellphone/communication
Security

R
R

342,00
204,000

Buildings
Eco lodge - Ubombo (Isimangaliso Wetlands Park initiative)
Budget total

R 2,000,00
R 2,000,000
R 3,445,49

R
R
R
R

96,00
6,00
30,00
6,00