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Name: ________________________ Class: ____________________ Date:

ID: A

Logarithms Practice Test


Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
_____

1. Which of the following statements is true?


a. The domain of a transformed logarithmic function is always {x R}.
b. Vertical and horizontal translations must be performed before horizontal and vertical
stretches/compressions.
c. A transformed logarithmic function always has a horizontal asymptote.
d. The vertical asymptote changes when a horizontal translation is applied.
1

_____

2. Express 27 =3 in logarithmic form.


a. log327=3

c.

log273= 1

d.

log33=27

3. Solve logx 81 =4 for x.


a. 3
b. 9

c.
d.

20.25
324

4. Evaluate logm m2n.


a. n
b. n2

c.
d.

mn
2n

b.

log1 3 =27
3

_____

_____

_____

5. The function S(d)= 300logd+65 relates S(d), the speed of the wind near the centre of a tornado in miles per
hour, to d, the distance that the tornado travels, in miles. If winds near the centre of tornado reach speeds of
400 mph, estimate the distance it can travel.
a. 130 miles
c. 13000 miles
b. 13 miles
d. 1.1666 miles

_____

6. Evaluate log2 45.


a. 4
b. 5

_____

c. 7
d. 10

7. Which of the following statements will NOT be true regarding the graphs of

f(x)=log 3 (3x), f(x)=log 3 (9x),and f(x)=log 3


a.
b.
c.
d.
_____

They will all have the same vertical asymptote


The will all have the same x-intercept
They will all curve in the same direction
They will all have the same domain

8. Evaluate log2 3-764


a.2
b.3

c.8
d.16

Name:

ID: A
9
.
W
h
i
c
h
d
o
e
s
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l
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p
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i
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c
a
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u
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e
t
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l

a
w
s
o
f
l
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g
a
r
i
t
h
m
s
t
o
e
x
p
a
n
d
o
r
s
i
m
p
l
i
f
y
l
o
g
4

(
3
y
4
)
?
a.
The
expr
essi
on

3y 4
cann
ot be
fact
ored
.
b.
The
expr
essi
on
3y 4 is
not
raise
d to
a
pow
er.
c.
3y
and
4 are
neit
her
mult
iplie
d
toge
ther,
nor
are
they
divi
ded
into
each
othe
r
d.
Eac
h
term
in
the
expr
essi
on
does
not
have
the
sam
e

vari
able.
1
1
0
.
S
o
l
v
e
52

-----

125

=
f
o
r
x
.
c. 5 53 a.
7 d. 3
b.
-1
1
1
.
S
o
l
v
e
l
o
g
(
3
x
+
1
)
=

c.

5
.
300

d.

33 333
4 a.
3
b.
8

____
12.
Which
of the

followi
ng is
NOT a
strateg
y that
is often
used to
solve
logarith
mic
equatio
ns?
a.
Expr
ess
the
equa
tion
in
expo
nent
ial
form
and
solv
e the
resul
ting
expo
nent
ial
equa
tion.
b.
Sim
plify
the
expr
essi
ons
in
the
equa
tion
by
usin
g the
laws
of
loga
rith
ms.
c.
Repr
esen

1
_
_
_
_
1
3
.
S
o
l
v
e
l
o
g

t the
sum
s or
diffe
renc
es of
logs
as
singl
e
loga
rith
ms.
d.
Squ
are
all
loga
rith
mic
expr
essi
ons
and
solv
e the
resul
ting
quad
ratic
equa
tion.

1c. d.
6
4

t
h
e
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
y
o
u
w
o
u
l
d
u
s
e
t
o
s
o
l
v
e

8
=
.

.
D
e
s
c
r
i
b
e

2
a.
-64
b.
-16
1
4

l
o
g
6

x
=

l
o
g

s
i
d
e

4
+

o
f

l
o
g

t
h
e

8
.
a.
U
s
e
t
h
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
r
u
l
e
t
o
t
u
r
n
t
h
e
r
i
g
h

e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
i
n
t
o
a
s
i
n
g
l
e
l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
.
R
e
c
o
g
n
i

z
e
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
r
e
s
u
l
t
i
n
g
v
a
l
u
e
i
s
e
q
u
a
l
t
o
x
.
b.
E
x
p
r
e
s
s
t
h
e

e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
i
n
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
f
o
r
m
,
s
e
t
t
h
e
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
e
q
u
a
l

t
o

v
e

e
a
c
h

t
h
e

o
t
h
e
r
a
n
d
s
o
l
v
e
.
c.
U
s
e
t
h
e
f
a
c
t
t
h
a
t
t
h
e

s
a
m
e
b
a
s
e
t
o
a
d
d
t
h
e
e
x
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
s
o
n
t
h
e

l
o
g
s

r
i
g
h
t

h
a

s
i

d
e
o
f
t
h
e
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
t
o
g
e
t
h
e
r
.
E
x
p
r
e
s
s
t
h
e
r
e
s
u
l
t
s
i
n
e
x
p

o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
f
o
r
m
,
s
e
t
t
h
e
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
e
q
u
a
l
t
o
e
a
c
h
o
t
h
e
r
a
n

d.
U
s
e

a
v
e

f
a
c
t

l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
s

t
h
a
t

w
i
t
h

s
i
n
c
e

t
h
e

t
h
e

b
o
t
h
s
i
d
e
s
o
f
t
h
e
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
h

s
a
m
e
b
a
s
e
t
o
s
e
t
t
h
e
e
x
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n

s
e
q
u
a
l
t
o
e
a
c
h
o
t
h
e
r
a
n
d
s
o
l
v
e
.
1
5
.
G
i
v
e
n
t
h
e
f
o
r
m
u
l
a
f
o
r
m
a

g
n
i
t
u
d
e
o
f
a
n
e
a
r
t
h
q
u
a
k

e+
,B
,
Rd
e
=t
e
lr
om
gi
n
e
t
h
e
h
o
w
m

a
n
y
t
i
m
e
s
l
a
r
g
e
r
t
h
e
amp
litud
ea
is in
an
eart
hqua
ke
with
R=
6.9,
B=
3.2,
and
T=
1.9s
com
pare
d to
one
with
R=
5.7,
B=
2.9,
and
T=
1.6s
a.
1.2
time
s as
large
c.

9.4
time
s as
larg
e
b.
1.6
time
s as
large
d.
15.8
time
s as
larg
e

Name:

ID: A
____
16.
Solve
log( x +
3) +
log( x)
= 1.
a.
-5,2
c.
2
b.10
d.
7
____
17.
Which
of the
followi
ng does
not
describ
e the
use of
logarith
mic
scales?
a.
W
h
e
n
t
h
e
r
a
n
g
e
o
f
v
a
l
u
e

v
a
r
y

1
0
m
a
k
e
s

g
r
e
a
t
l
y
,

c
o
m
p
a
r
i
s
o
n
s

u
s
i
n
g
a

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c

v
a
l
u
e
s

s
c
a
l
e

m
o
r
e

w
i
t
h

m
a
n
a
g
e
a
b
l
e
.

p
o
w
e
r
s
o

b.

e
S
c
a
l
e
s
t
h
a
t
m
e
a
s
u
r
e
a
w
i
d
e
r
a
n
g
e
o
f
v
a
l
u
e
s
,
s
u
c
h

p
H
s
c
a
l
e
,
t
h
e
R
i
c
h
t
e
r
s
c
a
l
e
a
n
d
d
e
c
i
b
e
l
s
c
a
l
e
s

a
s

a
r
e

t
h

l
o

g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
s
c
a
l
e
s
.
c.
L
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
s
c
a
l
e
s
m
o
r
e
e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
e
a
n
d
c
o
m
p
a
r
e
v
a
s
t
o
r
l
a
r
g
e
q
u
a
n
t
i
t
i
e
s
t
h
a
n
t
h
e
y

d
o
s
m
a
l
l
o
r
m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
i
c
q
u
a
n
t
i
t
i
e
s
.
d.
T
o
c
o
m
p
a
r
e
c
o
n
c
e
n

t
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
m
o
d
e
l
l
e
d
w
i
t
h
l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
s
c
a
l
e
s
,
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e
t
h

_ 18. A
ra
di
oa
cti
ve
su
bs
ta
nc
e
ha
sa
ha

e
q
u
o
t
i
e
n
t
o
f
t
h
e
v
a
l
u
e
s
b
e
i
n
g
c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d
.

lflif
e
of
7
h.
If
a
sa
m
pl
e
of
th
e
su
bs
ta
nc
e
ha
s
an
ini
tia
l
m
as
s
of
20
00
g,
es
ti
m
at
e
th
e
in
st
an
ta
ne
ou
s
rat
e
of
ch
an
ge

in
m
as
s
1.
5
da
ys
lat
er.
a.
-5.6
g/ h
c.707
g/h
b.
-56
g/h
d.0.84
5
g/h

_ 19. Which of
the
followi
ng
stateme
nts
regardi
ng rates
of
change
of
expone
ntial
and
logarith
mic
functio
ns is
NOT
true?

tant
for
exp
one
ntial
and
loga
rith
mic
func
tion
s.
b.
T
h
e
m
e
t
h
o
d
s
f
o
r
f
i
n
d
i
n
g
t
h
e

a.
The
aver
age
rate
of
cha
nge
is
not
cons

i
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
n
e
o
u
s

r
a
t
e
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e
a
t
a
p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r
p
o
i
n
t
f
o
r
l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
f

u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
a
r
e
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
t
h
a
n
t
h
o
s
e
u
s
e
d
f
o
r
f
i
n
d
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
n
e
o
u
s
r
a
t
e
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e
a
t
a
p
o
i
n
t
f
o
r
a
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
.
c.
T
h
e
g
r
a
p
h
o
f
a
n
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
o
r
l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
f

u
n
c
t
i
o
n

o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e

c
a
n

i
s

b
e

t
h
e

u
s
e
d

l
e
a
s
t

t
o
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e
w
h
e
n
t
h
e
a
v
e
r
a
g
e
r
a
t
e

o
r
g
r
e
a
t
e
s
t
.
d.
T
h
e
g
r
a
p
h
o
f
a
n
e
x

p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
o
r
l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
i
c
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
c
a
n
b
e
u
s
e
d
t
o
p
r
e
d
i
c

t
t
h
e
g
r
e
a
t
e
s
t
a
n
d
l
e
a
s
t
i
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
n
e
o
u
s
r
a
t
e
s
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e

a
n
d
w
h
e
n
t
h
e
y
o
c
c
u
r
.

_ 20. Suppose
the
populat
ion of a
given
town is
increasi
ng for a
given
period
of time.
What
can you
tell
about
its
instanta
neous
rate of
change
of the
populat
ion
during
that
period?
a.
The
inst
anta
neo
us
rate
of
cha

nge
cont
inue
s to
get
larg
er
duri
ng
the
entir
e
inter
val.
b.
The
inst
anta
neo
us
rate
of
cha
nge
will
be
posi
tive
at
each
poin
t in
the
inter
val.
c.
The
inst
anta
neo
us
rate
of
cha
nge
may
be
zero
, but
can
not
be
neg
ativ
e.

d.
T
h
e
i
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
n
e
o
u
s
r
a
t
e
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e
a
t
a
n
y
p
o
i
n
t
i
n
t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
v
a
l
w
i
l
l
b
e
l
a
r
g
e
r
t
h
a
n
t
h
e
a
v
e
r
a
g
e
r
a
t
e
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e

f
o
r
t
h
e
i
n
t
e
r
v
a
l
.
Short
Answe
r

2
1
.
S
t
a
t
e
t
h
e
d
o
m
a
i
n
a
n
d
r
a
n
g
e
o
f

t
h
e
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
e
d
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
f
(
x
)
=
6
l
o
g
1
0

2
(
x
5
)
.

2
2
.
T
h
e
p

a
r
e
n
t
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
f
(
x
)
=
l
o
g
1
0

x
i
s
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
l
y
s
t
r
e
t
c
h
e
d
b
y
a

f
a
c
t
o
r
o
f
3
,
r
e
f
l
e
c
t
e
d
i
n
t
h
e
y
a
x
i
s
,
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
tran
sfor
med
4
unit
s to
the
left

and
verti
call
y
tran
sfor
med
2.5
unit
s
up.
Wh
at is
the
equ
atio
n of
the
verti
cal
asy
mpt
ote
of
the
tran
sfor
med
func
tion
?

Name:

ID: A
1 be changed, and
+5 must
(x -1.5)
4
23.
State
which
of the
values
in the
transfor
med
functio
n
f(x)=2lo
g1
w
ha
t
th
ey
m
ust
be
ch
an
ge
d
to,
so
th
at
th
e
res
ult
in
g
fu
nc
tio
n
ha
s
an
as
y
m
pt
ot
e
at
x

=
6
wi
th
th
e
cu
rv
e
of
th
e
gr
ap
h
to
lef
t
of
th
e
ve
rti
cal
as
y
m
pt
ot
e.

23. Es

u
t
t
h
e
f
o
l
l
o
w
i
n
g
i
n
o
r
d
e
r
f
r
o
m

timate
the
value of
lo g 3 91
to two
decimal
s
places.

s
m
a
l
l
e
s
t

24. Si

t
o

mplify
4log 4
64 +10log
100
.

25. Ev
aluate
log 5
625
+log 2
32.

26. P

l
a
r
g
e
s
t
:
l
o

g
2

1
6
,
l
o
g
1
0
0
,
l
o
g
3

3
0
,
l
o
g
5

4
0
,
l
o
g
2
0

2
0
0

27. St
ate the
product
law of
logarith
ms and
the
expone

nt law
it is
related
to.

28. W
rite 4
log2+lo
g 6 -log
3 as a
single
logarith
m.
3
0
.
R
e
w
ri
t
e
x
=
l
o
g

in
ex
po
ne
nti
al
for
m.

29. I
f
y
o
u
i
n
v
e
s
t
e
d
m
o
n
e
y
i
n
t

o
a
n
a
c
c
o
u
n
t
t
h
a
t
p
a
y
s
9
%
/
a
c
o
m
p
o
u
n
d
e
d
w
e
e
k
l
y
,
h
o
w
m
a
n
y

r
s
w
o
u
l
d
i
t
t
a
k
e
f
o
r
y
o
u
r
d
e
p
o
s
i
t
t
o
d
o
u
b
l
e
?

3
0
.
S
o
l
v
e
1
0
x

y
e
a

+
2

1
0

t
w
o

=
9
9
0
0
f
o
r
x
.

3
1
.
S
o
l
v
e
3

d
e
c
i
m
a
l
p
l
a
c
e
s
.
1
3
4
.

2
x

=
7
3
x

S
o
l
v
e

f
o
r
x
.
R
o
u
n
d
y
o
u
r
a
n
s
w
e
r
t

2
4
x

=
f
o
r
x
.
32

3
2
.
W
h

r
e

v
a

a
b

s
t

i
c

o
n

a
t

i
o

o
g

)
?

x
2
2

g
2

(
x

4
.

S
o

35. T

h
e
p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
a
t
o
w
n
i
s
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
a
t
a
r
a
t
e
o
f
6
.
2
%
p
e
r

y
e
a
r
.
T
h
e
c
i
t
y
c
o
u
n
c
i
l
b
e
l
i
e
v
e
s
t
h
e
y
w
i
l
l
h
a
v
e
t
o
a
d
d
a
n
o
t
h

e
r
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
r
y
s
c
h
o
o
l
w
h
e
n

f
t
h
e
r
e
a
r
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
y
7
6

t
h
e

0
0
0

p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

p
e
o
p
l
e

r
e
a
c
h
e
s
1
0
0
0
0
0
.
I

l
i
v
i
n
g
i
n
t
h
e
t
o
w
n
,
h

o
w
l
o
n
g
d
o
t
h
e
y
h
a
v
e
b
e
f
o
r
e
t
h
e
n
e
w
s
c
h
o
o
l
w
i
l
l
b
e
n
e
e
d
e
d

36. I
f
f
(
x
)
=
a
(
b
+
1
)
x

m
o
d
e
l
s
a
n
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
g
r
o
w
t
h
s
i
t
u
a

t
i
o
n
,
w
r
i
t
e
a
n
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
t
h
a
t
m
o
d
e
l
s
a
n
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
e
c

a
y
s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
.

Name:

ID: A
40. If
t
h
e
a
n
n
u
a
l
c
o
s
t
o
f
a
g
i
v
e
n
g
o
o
d
r
i
s
e
s
2
.
3
%
p
e
r
y
e
a
r
f
o
r
t
h
e

n
e
x
t
2
0

c
o
s
t
o
f
t
h
e

y
e
a
r
s
,
w
r
i
t
e

g
o
o
d
d
u
r
i
n
g

a
n
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
y
y
e
a
r
i
n

t
o

t
h
e

m
o
d
e
l
t
h
e
a
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e

n
e
x
t
2
0
.
Proble
m
4
1
.
D
e

s
c
r
i
b
e

x
)
=

t
w
o

l
o

1
0

c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
o
f
t
h
e
g
r
a
p
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o
f
t
h
e
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
f
(

x
t
h
a
t
a
r
e
c
h
a
n
g
e
d
a
n
d
t
w
o
t
h
a
t
r
e
m
a
i
n
the
sam
e
und
er
the
foll
owi

ng
tran
sfor
mati
on:
a
hori
zont
al
com
pres
sion
by a
fact
or
of 2,
a
refle
ctio
n in
the
yaxis
and
a
verti
cal
tran
slati
on 3
unit
s
up.

37. W
i
t
h
o
u
t
g
r
a
p
h
i
n
g
,
c

o
m
p
a
r
e
t
h
e
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
a
s
y
m
p
t
o
t
e
s
a
n
d
d
o
m
a
i
n
s
o
f
t

h
e
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
f
(
x
)
=
3
l
o
g

3
l
o
g
1
0

[
(
x
+
5
)
]
+
2
.

38. T
h
e

1
0

(
x
5
)
+
2
a
n
d
f
(
x
)
=

h
a
l
f
l
i
f
e
o
f
r
a
d
i
u
m
i
s
1
6
2
0

y
e
a
r
s
.
I
f
a
l
a
b
o
r
a
t
o
r
y
h
a
s
1
2
g
r
a
m
s
o
f
r
a
d
i
u
m
,
h
o
w
l
o
n
g
w
i
l
l
i

t
t
a
k
e
b
e
f
o
r
e
i
t
h
a
s
8
g
r
a
m
s
o
f
r
a
d
i
u
m
l
e
f
t
?

39. D
e
s
c
r
i
b
e
t
h
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
s
t
h
a
t
t
a
k
e
t
h
e

x
t
o
t
h
e
g
r
a
p
h
o
f
g
(
x
)
=
l
o
g
4

g
r
a
p
h
o
f
f
(
x
)
=
l
o
g

x
3

l
o
g
4

8
.
J
u
s
t
i
f
y

l
e
l
o
g
a
r
i
t
h
m
.
A
s
s
u
m
e
t
h
a
t
a
l
l
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
p
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
32
6
num
bers
.

y
o
u
r
r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
a
l
g
e
b
r
a
i
c
a
l
l
y
11
1
4
5
.
W
r
i
t
e
l
o
g
a
x
+
l
o
g
a
2
y
l
o
g
a
4
z
a
s
a
s
i
n
g

46.
E
x
p
l
a
i
n
t
h
e
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n

c
e

t
h

i
n

s
i
d
e
s
a
r
e

t
h
e
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
o
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v
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t
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a
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q
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a
t
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n
s
w
h
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r
e
b
o

w
r
i
t
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n
a
s
p
o
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e
r
s
o
f
t
h
e
s
a
m
e
b
a
s
e
a
n
d
s
o
l
v
i
n
g

e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
e
q
u
a
t
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o
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s
w
h
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r
e
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s
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e
s
a
r
e
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o
t
w
r
i
t
t
e
n
a
s
p

o
w
e
r
s
o
f
t
h
e
s
a
m
e
b
a
s
e
.
x1 (lo
+
3gx
log
y),
sho
w
that
I x22 +
y =
f 11x
y. 2
4
7
.

l
o
g

40. H
o
w
m
a
n
y
y
e
a
r
s
w
i
l
l
i
t

t
a
k
e
f
o
r

e
r
e
s
t
r
a
t
e

a
$
4
0
0
i
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t
t
o
g
r
o
w
t
o
$
1
0
0
0
w
i
t
h
a
i
n
t

o
f
1
2
%
/
a
c
o
m
p
o
u
n
d
e
d
m
o
n
t
h
l
y
?

41. T
h
e
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
S

(
d
)
=
8
6
l
o
g
d
+
1
1
2
r
e
l
a
t
e
s
t
h
e
s
p
e
e
d
o
f
t
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w
i
n
d
,
S
,
i
n

m
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l
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r
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n
e
a
r
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o
f
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t
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r
n
a
d
o
t
o
t
h
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d
i
s
t

a
n
c
e
t
h
e
t
o
r
n
a
d
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r
a
v
e
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s
,
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,
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n
m
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s
.
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s
t
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m
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t
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r
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t

e
a
t
w
h
i
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o
f
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d
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t
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r
n
a
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s
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h
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n
g
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n
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o
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s
t
r
a
v
e
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l
e
d
i
t
s
5
0
t
h
m
i

l
e
.

42. D
i
s
c
u
s
s
w
h
y
e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
o
f
t
h
e
f
o
r
m
f
(
x
)
=
a

b
x

a
l
w
a
y
s
h
a
v
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
i
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
n
e
o
u
s
r
a
t
e
s
o
f
c
h
a
n
g
e
w
h
e
n

a
i
s
p
o
s
i
t
i
v
e
a
n
d
b
i
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
o
n
e
,
a
n
d
w
h
y
t
h
e
y
a
l

w
a
y
s
h
a
v
e
n
e
g
a
t
i
v
e
i
n
s
t
a
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t
a
n
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o
u
s
r
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o
f
c
h
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e
w
h
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n
a
i

s
p
o
s
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t
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v
e
a
n
d
b
i
s
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
0
a
n
d
1
.

ID: A

Logarithms Practice Test


Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE

43. ANS: D

PTS: 1
REF: Communication OBJ:
8.2 - Transformations of Logarithmic Functions
44. ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms
45. ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms
46. ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms
47. ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: Application OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms
48. ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms
49. ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: Thinking
OBJ: 8.4 - Laws of Logarithms
50. ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.4 - Laws of Logarithms
51. ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: Communication OBJ:
8.4 - Laws of Logarithms
52. ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations
53. ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
54. ANS: D
PTS: 1
REF: Communication OBJ:
8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
55. ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
56. ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: Thinking OBJ:
8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
57. ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: Application
OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
58. ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
59. ANS: C
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.7 - Solving Problems with Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
60. ANS: A
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.8 - Rates of Change in Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
61. ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: Communication OBJ:
8.8 - Rates of Change in Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
62. ANS: B
PTS: 1
REF: Thinking OBJ: 8.8
- Rates of Change in Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

ID: A
SHORT ANSWER
21. ANS:
Domain: {x R | x < 5}
Range: {x R}
PTS: 1
22. ANS:
x = -4

REF: Application OBJ: 8.2 - Transformations of Logarithmic Functions

PTS: 1
REF: Thinking
OBJ: 8.2 - Transformations of Logarithmic Functions
23. ANS:
Change 1.5 to 6. The curve is already to the left of the vertical asymptote.
PTS: 1
24. ANS:
4.11

REF: Application OBJ: 8.2 - Transformations of Logarithmic Functions

PTS: 1
25. ANS:
164

REF: Knowledge and Understanding

REF: Thinking

PTS: 1 26. ANS: 9

OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms

OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms

PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
27. ANS:
log 20 200, log100, log5 40, log3 30, log2 16
REF: Communication

OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms

OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms

PTS: 1 28. ANS:


log a (mn ) =log a m+lo g a n
x

x+y

a a =a
PTS: 1
29. ANS:
log 32
PTS: 1
30. ANS:
1
2x
PTS: 1

REF: Knowledge and Understanding

REF: Knowledge and Understanding

REF: Knowledge and Understanding

OBJ: 8.4 - Laws of Logarithms

OBJ: 8.4 - Laws of Logarithms

OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations

ID: A
31. ANS:
7.7 years
PTS: 1
32. ANS:
2

REF: Application OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations

PTS: 1
33. ANS:
0.53

REF: Knowledge and Understanding

PTS: 1
34. ANS:
5
-4

REF: Thinking

PTS: 1
35. ANS:
x> <s/5

REF: Knowledge and Understanding

OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations

OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations

OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations

PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
36. ANS:
16
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
37. ANS:
8
PTS: 1 38. ANS:
4.6 years

REF: Thinking

OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations

PTS: 1
REF: Application
OBJ: 8.7 - Solving Problems with Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
39. ANS:
f(x) = a(b - 1) x , 1 < b < 2
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.7 - Solving Problems with Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
40. ANS:
C f = Cp (1.023)t C f = Future Cost, Cp = Current Cost
PTS: 1
REF: Communication
OBJ: 8.7 - Solving Problems with Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

ID: A
PROBLEM
41. ANS:
The transformed function, f(x)= log10 - 2x+3, has the same range as the parent function, since the range of all
transformed logarithmic functions have a range of all real numbers. The y-intercept is the vertical asymptote of
both the parent and transformed functions.
The transformed function curves to the left, the original function curve to the right. The two functions will
have different x-intercepts, the intercepts being reflected over the y-axis.
PTS: 1
REF: Communication
OBJ: 8.2 - Transformations of Logarithmic Functions
42. ANS:
The vertical asymptote helps define the domain of a function. The vertical asymptote changes when a
horizontal translation is applied.
The vertical asymptote of f(x)= 3log10(x-5)+ 2 is x = 5.
The vertical asymptote of f(x)= 3log10 [-(x+ 5)] + 2 is x =- 5.
The graph of the first function curves to the right of the asymptote. The domain of f(x)= 3log10(x-5)+ 2 is
{x e R | x > 5}.
Since the expression (x + 5) is multiplied by -1, the graph is reflected in the y-axis and curves to the left of the
asymptote. The domain of f(x)= 3log10[-(x+5)] + 2 is {x e R | x < -5}.
PTS: 1
REF: Communication
OBJ: 8.2 - Transformations of Logarithmic Functions
43. ANS:
The equation for relating the amount of radium, r, in grams and the amount of time, t, in years is
(t+ 1620)

r =12 x
(t+1620)

Substituting 8 in for r gives 8 =12 x ( 1 )


2
\(t+ 1620) 1
2
3
Using guess and check gives ^=0.59
1620
t=956 years
REF: Application OBJ: 8.3 - Evaluating Logarithms
PTS: 1
1by first
x ANS:
44.
Using the laws of logarithms, log4x3 -log48 can be rewritten as the single logarithm 3log4
2
applying the quotient law and then the product law of logarithms. Comparing the new form of g(x) to f(x) produces a
vertical stretch by a factor of 3 and a horizontal stretch by a factor of 2.
PTS: 1

REF: Communication

OBJ: 8.4 - Laws of Logarithms

ID: A
45. ANS:
1
1
1
3 log x+ 2 log 2 y- 6 log 4z
= loga 3x +loga ^/2y-loga 64z =loga
PTS: 1
REF: Knowledge and Understanding
OBJ: 8.4 - Laws of Logarithms
46. ANS:
We use the fact that when two exponential expressions with the same base are equal their exponents are equal
to set the exponents equal to one another and solve. If am =an, then m=n.
When we have two exponential expressions with different bases set equal to each other, we use the fact that
taking the log of equal expressions maintains their equality to start the solution process. If M=N, then log M
=log N . Given that M and N are powers, we use the power rule to continue the solution process.
2

PTS:
1
47.
log 2
ANS:
x -y 3
log
x-y
3
2
x -y
3
log
x -y
3

REF: Communication

OBJ: 8.5 - Solving Exponential Equations

1
(logx + log
y) 2
= log x +log y =
log xy
= log xy

x -y

xy

xy x2 -2xy + y2
9
2
x - 2xy + y2 = 9xy x2 + y2 = 11xy
REF: Thinking
PTS: 1 48.
ANS:
1000 = 400(1.01) 12t
2.5 = (1.01)12t
log 2. 5 = log(1.01) 12t log 2. 5
= 12tlog 1. 01 0.3979 =
12t(0.00432) t = 7.7 years

OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations

PTS: 1
REF: Application OBJ: 8.6 - Solving Logarithmic Equations
5

ID: A
49. ANS:
S(d) = 86 logd + 112
S(d)=86log49.9+112
S(d)=86log50.1+112
= 258.0366
= 258.1860
Instantaneous Rate of Change
258.1860 - 259.0366
= 0.747 mph/mi
50.1 - 49.9
PTS: 1
REF: Application
OBJ: 8.8 - Rates of Change in Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
50. ANS:
The graph of f(x) = abx is constantly increasing when a is positive and b is greater than 1. The graph rises
slowly and then more rapidly, but at no point does its direction change. Similarly, the graph of f(x) = abx is
constantly decreasing when a is positive and b is between 0 and 1. The graph first decreases rapidly and then
much more slowly but, again, at no point does its direction change.
PTS: 1
REF: Communication
OBJ: 8.8 - Rates of Change in Exponential and Logarithmic Functions