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Fallacies:

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Mistake or error in thinking or reasoning.


Note: Superstition beliefs are not fallacy.
Characteristics:
Deceptive and misleading
Deliberately employed by the opposing party in order to persuave.
Illogical (although illogical, fallacies are acceptable)
Psychologically persuasive (attack the bias, prejudices of the other person)
2 Kinds of Fallacies
Formal

Informal

Are those fallacies which


can be identified by mere inspection of
the language, form or structure of the
argument. Found in deductive
argument.

It can be detected by
examination of the content. The argument
do not follow specific structure.

3 Kinds of Informal Fallacies:


1 Fallacy of Ambiguity
-commits misuse of the language.
2 Fallacy of Relevance
-disconnection of premises and the conclusion
3 Fallacy of Insufficient Evidence
-relationship between the premise and the conclusion
-the evidence is not strong enough to support the conclusion
Kinds of Fallacy of Ambiguity
Fallacy of Equivocation

-deliberately using a word in different sense s or meaning.


Ex:
Everyday people gamble. Therefore, gambling should be
legalized.

Fallacy Amphiboly

-is committed using a place whose meaning is ambiguous due


to a faulty grammatical instruction.
-in relation to syntactic ambiguity.

Fallacy of Improper Accent -by giving unnecessary emphasis on a word, phrase, or aspec
of an issue or claim.
-is also committed in distortion. Pulling out passage out of

context.
Ex:
Unlimited Text and Call
>which are not really unlimited.

Vicious Abstraction

-an abstract concept of idea is treated as a concrete thing.

Fallacy of Relevance
Personal Attack
(Argumentum Ad Hominem)

-attacking a person can be committed in 3 ways:

1.Through poisoning the well


>alleging that the opponent's argument is form from selfish
interest
2.Circumstancial
>attacking the circumstance
3.Through the use of abusive language or mudslinging
>fuming abusive words to attack the person
Appeal to Pity
(Argumentum Ad
Misericordiam)

-the argument evoked feeling of compassion and sympathy

Appeal to Force
(Argumentum Ad Baculum)

-using force, pressure, or threat and not presenting evidence.


-presenting the negative side to impart cautions.

Appeal to Desire

-ignoring the issue to achieve the goal of the desired claim


Ex:
In advertisement: in order to get the goal in advertising the
product, it is showing good sides not the bad sides.

Straw Man

-misrepresent, distort, restructure the argument of the


adversary and attack it to weaken the claim.

Begging the Question


(Petitio Principie)

-is committed by using the premise as a conclusion.


-it is similar to circular argument.
Ex:
That accused is an honest man. He will not tell a lie.

Fallacy of Insufficient Evident


Appeal to Popularity
(Argumentum Ad Populum)

-a bandwagon fallacy: many believes, therefore should be


accepted as a belief.
-is committed by attempting to win acceptance by appealing
to a large of people.

Appeal to Tradition

-appealing for some respect of their tradition, customs, or


norms.
-the argument is either "right" or "wrong"
-"what may be acceptable in the past, may not be acceptable
today."
-"what may be right to you, may not be right to others"

Appeal to Inappropriate
Authority

-is committed by persuading people by citing inappropriate


authority.
-the cited authority is actually an authority but has transfer o
authority. Means that he is an authority but is not on the sam
field of reasoning or field.
-the authority cited shows biased and partiality.

Fallacy of Accident

-is committed by applying a general rule to a particular case


Especially when the case must apply the exception to the
general rule but was not followed.

Fallacy of Hasty
Generalization

-is committed as a converse accident.


- use general rule brought from insufficient particular cases.
-applying the general rule that all cases.
Ex:

Fallacy of Division

-is committed by assuming is "what is true in general is what


is true in particular. "
2 varieties:
1. t
2. to assume that a collection is shared by the same
characteristics.

Fallacy of Composition

-is related with Fallacy of Hasty Generalization.


-wrongly assuming that what is good to an individual will also
good to some group of individuals.

Appeal to Ignorance
(Argumentum Ad Ignorantia)

-is committed by assuming that something is true because it


was not proven false.

Ex:
Presumption of Innocence.

In Science, we can only refer but we cannot conclusively claim


of such.
Fallacy of False Cause

-misstating a purely temporal sequence. It has causal


connection.
-the cause provided is not the proximate cause.
2 kinds:

Note:
>that this fallacy cannot be used in Criminal Law if evidence
is strong. But In circumstantial evidence, it can be assumed
that something causes such.
Rule:
>there must be more than one circumstances
>culpability of the accused
>possibility of the circumstance that the accused actually
committed the crime.
Motive is not an element of crime, but is used for
circumstantial evidence.
Slippery Slope Argument

-is a form of false cause.


-is assumed that one harmful event would also occur with
future more harmful events.

Fallacy of a Complex
Question
(Fallacy of Interrogation or
Fallacy of Presupposition)

-asking a question which presupposes the buried question.


-imposition of something without establishing the cases.

CIVIL LAW

COMMON LAW

>The Congress is the one


>The judge based his decision on
which creates the law and
the experiences and evolution of
promulgated by the President. society and state.
>There's a code or set of rules
which are followed for decision
making.

>Follows Stare Decisis, or the


standing decision.

>The jurisprudence is the source


of law.

Notes:
CIVIL LAW

COMMON LAW

>The Congress is the one


>The judge based his decision on
which creates the law and
the experiences and evolution of
promulgated by the President. society and state.
>There's a code or set of rules
which are followed for decision
making.
>Follows Stare Decisis, or the
standing decision.

>The jurisprudence is the source


of law.

continuation of discussion on March 1, 2015


For FALLACY OF INSUFFICIENT FALLACY
Fallacy of Negative Pregnant

-an argument is "negative pregnant"


>a rule that applies in pleading
>it is a denial pregnant with admission

False Dilemma or Bifurcation


(Black and White Fallacy)

Is committed when a premise presents a choi


a two alternative to a exhaustive.
A person is force to choose between to two ch
in-fact there are other choices.

Fallacy of False Analogy

Is committed drawing comparison between to


which have different significance.

OTHER FALLACIES
Argumentum ad crumenam

Is committed when the notion is that those w


money is always correct

Argumentum ad lazarum

Poorer is more logical than the wealthier (opp


crumenum)

Argumentum ad nauseam

It is incorrect belief that the assertion is more


true when heard

Fallacy of Many Questions


(Plurium interrogationum)

Is committed when not given the other party


the prior question

Fallacy of Non Sequitur

An argument which is not logically follow. App


zealous general rule.

Fallacy of Red Herring

Is committed to inject irrelevant matters whic


the other party to a different conclusion

Audiatur et altera pars

The premise of the argument is not stated ex


It is not strictly fallacy. It has suspicion since
is not provided even if there's evidence.
Proof vs Evidence