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diagrams

THE method used to determine the final position of the centre of gravity was

examined in the previous chapter. To ascertain the GM for any condition of

loading it is necessary also to calculate the KB and BM (i.e. KM) for any draft.

To find KB

The centre of buoyancy is the centre of gravity of the underwater volume.

For a box-shaped vessel on an even keel, the underwater volume is rectangular

shape and the centre of buoyancy will be at the half-length, on the centre line,

and at half the draft as shown in figure 65(a).

Therefore, for a box-shaped vessel on an even keel: KB

1

draft

2

95

Fig. 65 9(b)

For an ordinary ship the KB may be found fairly accurately by Simpson's

Rules as explained in Chapter 10. The approximate depth of the centre of

buoyancy of a ship below the waterline usually lies between 8/20 and 9/20 of

the ship's draft. A closer approximation of this depth can be obtained by using

Morriss Formula, which states:

Depth of centre of buoyancy below waterline

where d

V

A

1 d V

3 2 A

= Mean draft

= Volume of displacement and

= Area of the water-plane

In figure 66, let ABC be the curve of water-plane areas plotted against drafts

to the load waterline. Let DE = V/A and draw EG parallel to the base cutting

the diagonal FD in H.

Fig. 65 (b)

For a vessel which is in the form of a triangular prism as shown in figure 65(b)

underwater section will also be in the form of a triangular prism. The

centroid of a triangle is at 2/3 of the median from the apex. Therefore the centre

buoyancy will be at the half-length, on the centre line, but the KB = 2/3 draft.

94

Fig. 66

96

Rectangle AH = Rectangle HC

and Area AHCD = Area AGED

Area AGED = V/A X A

=V

but Area DABC = V

Area DAHC = Area DABC

The distance of the centroid of DABC below AD is the distance of the centre

of buoyancy below the load waterline. It is now assumed that the centroid of

the area DAHC is the same distance below the load waterline as the centroid of

area DABC.

To find the distance of the centroid of area DAHC below AD.

1

AG.GD

Area AGH

2

Area AGED

AG. AD

1 GH

2 AD

1 GF

2 AF

1 AF - AG

2

AF

1 d - AG

2

d

Area AGH 1 d V / A Area AGED

2

d

1V

from AD

The centroid of AGED is

2 A

Now let triangle AGH be shifted to HEC.

The centroid of AGED will move parallel to the shift of the centroid of AGH

and the vertical component of this shift (x) is given by:

1 d V / A d

AGED

AGH d / 3 2

d

3

x

AGED

AGED

CALCULATING KB, BM, AND METACENTRIC DIAGRAMS

97

1 d - V/A d

2

d

3

1

d V / A

6

The new vertical distance of the centroid below AD will now be given by:

1 V 1

V

d-

2 A 6

A

1V 1

d

3A 6

1 d V

3 2 A

Therefore the distance of the centre of buoyancy below the load waterline is

given by the formula:

Distance below LWL

1 d V

3 2 A

This is known as Morrish's or Normand's formula and will give very good

results for vessels of ordinary form.

2. To find Transverse BM

The Transverse BM is the height of the transverse metacentre above the centre

of buoyancy and is found by using the formula:

BM

I

V

the centre line, and

V = The ship's volume of displacement

The derivation of this formula is as follows:

98

2

y 3 dx

3

Fig. 67 (b)

The sum of the moments of

L

Fig.

Let Y be the half-breadth.

Since is a small angle then arc WW1 = arc LL 1

=y

Also: Area of wedge WOW1 = Area of wedge LOL1

1

y2

2

Consider an elementary wedge of longitudinal length dx as in figure 67(b)

The volume of this wedge

1

y 2 dx

2

about the centre line

1

2

y2 y

2

3

1

y 3 dx

3

67 (a)

2

y 3 dx

3

L

But

y 3 dx

2 3

y dx

3

centre line (I)

of the wedges

=IX

But the sum of the moments = v X gg1

where v is the volume of the immersed or emerged wedge.

I X = v X gg1

or I =

Now: BB1 =

v gg 1

v gg1

V

and BB1 = BM X

BM X =

Substituting in (1) above:

v gg 1

V

.............................1

99

BM B

BM X V = I

6d

BM = VI

For a rectangular water plane area the second moment about the centre line is found

by the formula:

3

LB

I

12

where L = the length of the water-plane, and B = the breadth of the water-plane,

(the derivation of this formula is shown in Chapter 30).

Thus, for a vessel having a rectangular water-plane area:

Example 1

A box-shaped vessel is 24 m. X 5m . X 5m. and floats on an even keel at 2 m.

draft. KG = 1.5 m. Calculate the initial metacentric height.

KB =

1

draft

2

B2

12d

52

=

12 2

BM =

KB = 1 m.

KB = 1.00 m.

BM = 1.04 m.

KM = 2.04 m.

KG = 1.50 m

GM = 0.54 m.

Ans. GM = + 0.54 m.

BM = 1.04 m.

100

BM

Example 2

A vessel is in the form of a triangular prism 32 m. long, 8 m. wide at the top. and

m.

deep. KG = 3.7 m. Find the initial metacentric height when floating on even keel at 4 m. draft F and

A.

LB 3

12V

Then

I

BM =

V

LB 3

12V

= 3.2 m.

KB = 2/3 draft

BM =

B2

6d

KB = 2.67 m.

= 2/3 X 4

were B = the beam of the vessel, and d = the draft of the vessel.

For a triangular-shaped prism:

I

BM =

V

LB 3

12V

x 4

4 5

16

x=

5

L B

12 L B draft

B2

BM

12d

101

6.4 6.4

6 4

BM = 1.71 m.

KM = 4.38 m.

KG

BM

GM

=

=

3.70 m.

L B3

1

12 L B draft

2

1.71 m.

0.68 m.

Ans. GM

= + 0.68

placements.

Figure 69 shows a metacentric diagram drawn for a ship having the following

particulars:

Loaded condition:

Fig. 68

Example 3

The second moment of a ship's water-plane area about the centre line is 20,000m 4 units.

The displacement is 7,000 tonnes whilst floating in dock water of density

1,008 kgs. per cu. m.

KB = 1.9 m., and KG = 3.2 m.

Calculate the initial

metacentric height.

7000 1000

cu.m.

Volume of water displaced =

1,008

I

V

CALCULATING KB,BM,AND METACENTRIC DIAGRAMS

Light condition:

12 m.

6.20 m.

11.30 m.

11 m.

5.71 m.

l1.4m.

10m.

5.20 m.

11.10m.

9 m.

4.60 m.

ll.15m.

8 m.

4.10 m.

11.48 m.

7 m.

3.62 m.

11.94 m.

6 m.

3.08 m.

12.81 m.

5 m.

2.52 m.

14.30 m.

4 m.

206 m.

16.63 m.

3 m.

l.55m.

20.54 m.

BM =

102

BM =

20,000 1,008

7,000 1,000

BM = 2.88 m.

KB = 1.90 m.

KM = 4.78 m.

KG = 3.20 m.

Ans. GM = + 1.58 m.

Metacentric diagrams

It has been mentioned in Chapter 6 that the officer responsible for loading a

ship should aim to complete the loading with a GM which is neither too large

normal or to small. A metacentric diagram is a figure in graph form from which the

KB, I, and thus the KM can be found for any draft by inspection. If the KG is

shown and the KM is found from the diagram, the difference will give the GM.

o, if a final GM be decided upon, the KM can be taken from the graph and the

reference will give the required final KG.

The diagram is usually drawn for drafts between the light and loaded

103

The following is a description of the method used in constructing this diagram. The

scale on the left-hand side represents a scale of metres, and it is from this

scale that

all measurements are to be taken.

First, the curve of the Centers of Buoyancy is plotted. The KB at 13 m. draft

6.5

m. From the point R in PQ which is 6.6 m. above the base, measure RS horizontally a

distance equal to the draft, 13 m. The KB at 3 m. draft is 1.55 m.

from the point T in

PQ which is 1-55 m. above the base, measure TU horizontala distance equal to the

draft, 3 m. This procedure may be repeated for as

any drafts as are required

between the light and loaded drafts. The points are

then joined by a smooth curve

and this curve is the centre of buoyancy curve.

For a box-shaped vessel the curve

would be a straight line, since KB =

Fig. 69

104 CALCULATING KB. BM. AND METACENTRIC DIAGRAMS

1

draft in every case. In the. case of a box-shaped

2

plot two points on the curve and draw a

straight line through them.

Next, the KM curve, or Locus of Metacentres, is plotted in a similar manner

the

centre of buoyancy curve. The KM at 13 m. draft is 116 m. From V in

Q which

is 11.6 m. above the base, measure VW horizontally a distance equal to

the draft, 13

m. The KM at 3 m. draft is 20.54 m. From X in PQ which is

.54 m. above the

base, measure XY horizontally a distance equal to the draft,

m. The KM may be

calculated and plotted for as many intermediate drafts as

is required. These points

are then joined by a smooth curve and the result is

the Locus of Metacentres as

shown in figure 63.

To complete the diagram, draw the line QZ at an angle of 45 degrees to the

se

line.

When it is required to find the BM for any particular draft, draw a line horizontally

from the draft on the scale to cut the 45 degree line. Erect a perpendicular through the

point of intersection with the 45 degree line. Measure

the vertical distance on this line

between the Locus of Metacentres and the centre buoyancy line using the draft scale. This

will give the BM for the draft concerned.

For example, to find the BM at 7.5 m. draft, draw a horizontal line from E in

to

cut the 45 degree line in F. Erect a perpendicular through F to cut the

Locus of

Metacentres at H and the centre of buoyancy line at J. The distance

(7.8 m.) will be

the BM at 75 m. draft.

To illustrate the point in another way, work backwards to find the BM's at

h the

light and loaded drafts:

From the light draft of 3 m. draw a horizontal line to cut the 45 degree line

C.

Erect a perpendicular through C. This perpendicular will cut the Locus of metacentres at

Y and the centre of buoyancy curve at U. When the distance UY measured on the scale, it

will give the light BM (18.99 m.).

Similarly, from the load draft, 13 m., draw a horizontal line to cut the degree line at D.

Erect a perpendicular through D. The distance WS will be the load

BM (4.95

m.)

105

106

To find the KB's and KM's the vertical distances are measured from the base

line to the curves.

Fig.

70

Example 1

Construct the metacentric diagram for a box-shaped vessel 64 m. long,

10 m. beam, and 6 m. deep, for even keel drafts at 0.5 m. intervals between the

light draft 1 metre and the load draft 5 metres. Also, from the diagram find:

(a)

(b)

The BM at 3.5 metres.

Draft

1 m.

l.5m.

2 m.

2.5 m.

3.0 m.

3.5 m.

40 m.

4.5 m.

50 m.

KB =

1

draft

2

0.5 m.

075 m.

l.0m.

1.25 m.

1.5 m.

l.75 m.

200 m.

2.25 m.

2.5 m.

BM = B2/12d

KM =KB+BM

8.33 m.

5.56 m.

4.17 m.

3.33 m.

2.78 m.

2.38 m.

2.09 m.

1.85 m.

1.67 m.

8.83 m.

6.31 m.

5.17 m.

4.58 m.

4.28 m.

4.13 m.

4.09 m.

4.10m.

4.17m.

Explanation. To find the minimum KM, draw a horizontal tangent to the lowest

point of the curve of metacentres, i.e. through A. The point where the tangent

cuts the scale will give the minimum KM and the draft at which it occurs.

107

Note. It is shown below that for a box-shaped vessel the minimum KM and the

draft at which it occurs are both given by B/\/6, where B is the beam. From this,

it follows that for a box-shaped vessel the point A will always lie on the 45-degree

line.

Therefore, the answer to part (a) of the question is:

Minimum KM = 4.08 m. occurring at 408 m. draft

To find the BM at 3.5 m, draft, draw a horizontal line from 3.5 m. draft on

the scale to cut the 45 degree line at C. Erect a perpendicular through C cutting

the curves at D and E respectively. Measure the distance DE on the scale and it

will give the BM (2.38 m.).

Therefore, the answer to part (b) of the question is:

BM at 3.5 m. draft = 2.38 m.

To show that, for a box-shaped vessel, the minimum KM and the draft at which

it occurs are both given by the expression B/ 6 where B is equal to the vessel's

beam.

KM = KB + BM

For a box-shaped vessel:

KM

d

B2

2 12d

dKM 1

B2

dd

2 12d 2

For minimum KM:

dKM

0

dd

1

B2

0

2 12d 2

B 2 = 6d2

and d = B/ 6

Substituting in equation 1 above:

B2 6

12 B

2 6

6B 6B

12 6

minimum KM = B/ 6

minimum KM

108

EXERCISE 12

6 m. draft. Calculate the KM.

2. Compare the initial metacentric heights of two barges, each 60 m. long, 10 m. beam at

the waterline, 6 m. deep, floating upright on an even keel at 3 m.. draft, and having KG = 3 m.

One barge is in the form of a rectangular prism and the other is in the form of a triangular

prism, floating apex downwards.

3. Two box-shaped vessels are each 100 m. long, 4 m deep, float at 3 m. draft, and have

KG = 2.5 m. Compare their Initial Metacentric Heights if one has 10 m. beam and the

other has 12 m. beam.

4. Will a homogeneous log of square cross-section and relative density 0.7 have a positive

initial Metacentric Height when floating in fresh water with one side parallel to the

waterline? Verify your answer by means of a calculation.

A box-shaped vessel 60 m. X 12 m. X 5 m. is floating on an even keel at a draft of 4 m.

metacentric diagram for drafts between 1 m. and 4 m. From the diagram find:

(a) the KM's at drafts of 2.4 m. and 0.9 m., and

(b) the draft at which the minimum KM occurs.

5.Construct a metacentric diagram for a box-shaped vessel 65m.X12m.X6m for drafts

m. and 6 m. From the diagram find:

(a) the KM's at drafts of 1.2 m. and 3.6 m.. and

(b) the minimum KM and the draft at which it occurs.

6. Construct a metacentric diagram for a box-shaped vessel 70 m. long and 10 m. beam, for

between 1 m. and 6 m. From the diagram find:

(a) the KM's at drafts of 1.5 m, and 4.5 m., and

(b) the draft at which the minimum KM occurs.

Construct a

between 1

drafts

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