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10-3.

10-4. (a)

227

(b)

(c)

10-6. (a) The cubic unit cell has side a = 2R; therefore the volume of the unit cell is:

Vcell = a3 = (2R)3 = 8R3

(b) The volume of the cell occupied by spheres (called the "packing fraction") is:

Because 1/8 of the volume of each sphere is within the cell and there are eight corners.

228

10-7. (a)

Cohesive

Energy

(eV)

Melting point, K

(b)

Co melting point = 1768 K, cohesive energy = 5.15 eV

Ag melting point = 1235 K, cohesive energy = 3.65 eV

Na melting point = 371 K, cohesive energy = 1.25 eV

10-8.

The quantity in parentheses is the Madelung constant ". The 35th term of the series (2/35)

is approximately 1% of the total, where " = 4.18.

10-9. (a)

229

(b)

10-10.

(a)

(b)

10-11.

(a) There are na conduction electrons per unit volume, each occupying a sphere of volume

:

(b)

10-12.

(a)

for 1 electron/atom

(b)

Both agree with the values given in Table 10-3.

230

10-13.

(a)

(b)

Both are in good agreement with the values in Table 10-3,

for Zn.

10-14.

(a)

(b)

(c)

231

for Mg and

10-15.

10-16.

(Equation 10-30)

For Mg:

10-17.

For Fe: Similarly, EF = 11.2 eV

(b)

Both results are in close agreement with the values given in Table 10-3.

232

10-18.

Note from Fig.10-14 that most of the excited electrons are within about 2kT above the Fermi energy

EF, i.e.,

is:

, so the number

and

Then,

10-19.

10-20.

233

of excited electrons

(a) for Na:

10-21.

because

This temperature is much higher than the Einstein temperature for a metal such as copper.

10-22.

Average energy/electron =

234

(Problem 10-22 continued)

For copper

, so

At T = 0K:

At T = 300K:

The average energy/electron at 300 K is only 0.0002 eV larger than at 0 K, a consequence of the fact

that 300 K is very small compared to the TF for Cu (81,600 K). The classical value of

, is far too small.

10-23.

Melting temperature of Fe = 1811 K (from Table 10-1)

TF for Fe =

The maximum Cv for the Fe electrons, which is just before Fe melts, is:

10-24.

235

10-25.

10-26.

10-28. (a)

(b)

10-29. (a)

(b)

236

10-30. (a)

(Equation 10-58)

(b)

(c)

or about 2%

10-31. (a)

(Equation 10-58)

(b)

(a) Al has a 3s2 3p configuration outside the closed n = 2 shell (3 electrons), so a p-type

semiconductor will result.

(b) P has a 3s2 3p3 configuration outside the closed n = 2 shell (5 electrons), so an n-type

semiconductor results.

237

10-33.

10-34. (a)

(b)

10-35.

charge carriers

(Equation 10-64)

(a)

, so

. Therefore,

(b)

10-36.

(a)

238

(Problem 10-36 continued)

(b)

10-37.

(Equation 10-64)

Assuming T = 300K,

Taking ln of both sides and solving for Vb,

(c) For (a):

239

10-39.

(Equation 10-70)

First, we find the constant for Pb using the mass of natural Pb from Appendix A, Tc for Pb from

Table 10-6, and " for Pb from Table 10-7.

For 207 Pb:

For 208 Pb:

10-40. (a)

(Equation 10-71)

Tc for I is 3.408 K, so,

(b)

10-41. (a)

(b)

10-42. At

where

So

240

(Equation 10-71)

(Problem 10-42 continued)

(a) For Sn:

(b) For Nb:

(c) For Al:

(d) For Zn:

10-43.

(a)

(a)

(b)

241

10-45.

!e

C

!6

+e

C

!5

!e

C

!4

+e

C

!3

!e

C

!2

+e

C

!1

!e

C

+e

!e

C

+e

!e

C

+e

!e

C

| r0 |

(a) For the negative ion at the origin (position 0) the attractive potential energy is:

(b)

Noting that

and

10-46.

and

242

10-47. (a)

(b)

Because

(c) For Cu

; at 300 K,

(b)

Energy resolution

10-49.

(Equation 10-17)

243

Substituting into 8:

For Cu:

(Example 10-6)

Substituting as above, 8 = 3.9 10!8 m = 39 nm

The mean free paths are approximately equal.

, so

(c) For Vb = +0.5 V;

Thus,

(d)

244

10-51.

silicon:

germanium:

10-52.

(a)

increases

by

and

where

and

. Therefore,

245

(b)

(Equation 10-19)

So we have

10-53.

(a)

where

The solution of this equation, as indicated following Equation 7-24, leads to solutions of the

form:

(b)

, where

where

(c)

For As electrons in Si

Energy 10!2 eV

246

10-54.

(b)

This is of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the infrared absorption bands in

NaCl.

10-55.

and

247

. Thus,

10-56.

(a)

For r, s, t all even (!1)r+s+t = +1 and the ion's charge at that location is:

Similarly, for any permutation of

r, s even; t odd (!1) r + s+ t = !1, ion charge = !1.60 10!19 C.

r even; s, t odd (!1) r + s+ t = +1, ion charge = !1.60 10!19 C.

r, s, t all odd (!1) r + s+ t = +1, ion charge = !1.60 10!19 C.

(b)

Similarly, for larger cubes (using spreadsheet). The value of " is approaching 1.7476 slowly.

10-57.

(a)

248

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