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Whenthisnewschemewaspresentedtotheteachers,theyprotested

stronglyagainstsoformidableaprogram.Theysaid"wefindit
morethanwecandotoaccomplishallthatisnowrequired,andwe
haveonlyreading,spelling,arithmeticandgeography."Thereplyof
thesuperintendentwas,"Iexpectyouwilldotheworkrequiredin
thesebrancheswithverymuchmoreeasethanbefore,andinamuch
morerationalandefficientway."Theresultprovedallthathe
predicted,astheteachersfranklyacknowledged.Somefeaturesof
thisschemeareworthyofspecialattention;particularlythe
brevityoftheexercises,thegreatvariety,andthefrequentchange
ofwork.Inthelowestgradeoftheprimaryschools,theprogramof
allthenaturalhistoryworkchangedeverytwoweeks;inthe
highestgrade,everymonth.Duringthefirstyearofthe
introductionofthenewwork,thesuperintendentdevotedthemostof
histimeandattentiontotheworkoftheC.orlowestprimary
grade.Hemettheteachersofthisgrade12everySaturday
morninganddiscussedwiththemprinciplesandmethodsofwork,
givingsuchillustrativelessonsasseemednecessarytomakethe
planofworkclear.Duringtheweekhewentfromschooltoschool
inspiringanddirectingthework.Thesecondyearhetreatedthe
nextgradeinthesamewa^^andinthismannerthenewschemewas
carriedupthroughthevariousgradesoftheschools.Thenew
methodssoonattractedtheattentionofteachersand
superintendentsinotherlocalities,andtheybegantobidforthe
teacherswhohadbeentrainedintothenewwork.Manytookthebait
ofthehighersalariesofferedandlefttheOswegoschools.The
superintendentsoonfoundthathewastrainingteachersforother
schoolsthanhisown,andheproposedtohisBoardthatthe^'
shouldestablishaTrainingSchoolforthepreparationofprimary
teachers.Thepropositionwaspromptlyadoptedandtheschoolwas
openedMay1st,1861.Itisunnecessarytosaymoreinthis
connection.Thusmuchitseemeddesirabletosayasexplanatoryof
theoriginoftheschool.JThefollowinggentlemenweremembersof
theBoardofEducationatthetimeoftheintroductionofthenew
program,whichleddirectlytotheestablishmentoftheTraining
School:E.B.Talcott,RobertOliver,C.T.Richardson,B.
Doolittle,JamesDoyle,A.C.Mattoon,SimeonBates,E.C.Hart.
Atthetimeoftheadoptionoftheresolutionfortheorganization
oftheTrainingSchool,theBoardconsistedofthefollowing
gentlemen:E.B.Talcott,RichardOliphant,C.T.Richardson,B.
Doolittle,A.C.Mattoon,JamesDoyle,SimeonBates,Chas.E.Allen.
MembersoftheBoard.ofEducationatthetimeoftheopeningof
theTrainingSchoolin1861:RichardOliphant,E.B.Talcott,B.
Doolittle,M.Doyle,A.C.Mattoon,JamesDoyle,Chas.E.Allen,
GeorgeTalcott.Boardof1862.W.D.Smith,WilliamStewart,M.
Doyle,B.Doolittle,A.C.Mattoon,DavidHarmon,GeorgeTalcott,D.
N.Judson.Boardof1863.WilliamStewart,GilbertMollison,
MichaelDoyle,Benj.Doolittle,A.C.Mattoon,DavidHarmon,D.N.
Judson,SimeonBates.Boardfor1864.CharlesRhodes,John
McNair,MichaelDoyle,TracyGray,A.C.Mattoon,DavidHarmon,
SimeonBates,A.P.Grant.13Boardfor1865.CharlesRhodes,
JohnMcNair,MichaelDoyle,TracyGray,A.CMattoon,DavidHarmon,
A.P.Grant,DanielG.Fort.Asindicatingtheadvancedthoughtof
thePublicSchoolauthoritiesoneducationalprinciplesand
methodsofteachingintheearlyhistoryoftheOswegoschools,and
asshowingthefundamentalideasonwhichtheOswegoNormaland
TrainingSchoolwasfounded,wequotethefollowingextractsfrom
theAnnualReportoftheBoardofEducationfortheyearending

March31,1861."Viewingthepastfromourpresentstandpointit
seemstoustherehasbeenlittlesystem,orphilosophicprinciple
involvedinourmethodsofteachinginthiscountry."Wehave
paidlittleregardtothephilosophyofthehumanmind,toits
variousattributes,theorderoftheirdevelopmentandtheproper
adaptationofthesubjectsofstudy,andmodesofpresentingthem,
tothedifferentstatesandstagesofsuchdevelopment.Wehave
treatedthemindtoomuchasthoughitwascomposedofbuttwo
faculties,thememoryandreason;andtheseveritywithwhichthese
weretaxed,wasthetruemeasureofsuccessinmentaldiscipline.In
prosecutingthisidea,itwouldsometimesseemasthoughwehad
almostignoredtheunderstandingasnotworthyofbeingtakeninto
account,ormisapprehendeditsrealpowerandthetruesourcesof
itsdevelopment.Herewehavetakenquitetoomuchforgranted.It
isjustherethatthemostfatalmistakeisliabletobecommitted.
Webeginbyteachingtheunknownthroughthemediumofthings,or
theirsymbolsorrepresentatives,whichareequallyunknown.We
requirethechildtorepeatthetableswithoutgivinghimthe
slightestconceptionastothecharacterofthesenumbers,orwhat
theyrepresent.Hesayssixtimessixarethirtysix,sixtimes
sevenarefortytwo,withouthavingfirstformedacorrectand
definiteideaastohowmuch36and42reallyare.Hesaysnineis
containedinsixtythreeseventimes,ineightyoneninetimes,but
hasnojustideaoftheprocesshereininvolved.Herepeatsthree
feetmakeoneyard,twentylivepoundsonequarter,threemilesone
league,withouthavingbeenpreviouslytaughtwhatafoot,apound,
andamileare.Wearecontinuallydescribingobjectsbytheir
position,form,size,weight,colorandnumber,withoutstoppingto
considerthatthechildhasneverbeentaughtthetruemeaningof
thetermsweareusing.Ifdescribingananimal,wesayheissix
feetlongfromthetipofhisnosetotheendofhistail,weighs
fortypounds,isofafawncolor,andcanrunamileinfive
minutes.Butinallthiswehaveconveyednoaccurateideaofthis
animal14tothechild.Hehasyettolearnwhatafoot,a
pound,amileandaminutemean;andofcolorheabsolutelyknows
nothing.Wesayofanobjectitisoblong,ortriangular,or
octagonal,orrhomboidalinsomeofitsparts,hascertainsides
parallel,perpendicular,horizontal,orinclined,butnotoneof
thesetermsconveysanyclearlydefinedideatothechild,forthe
verysimplereasonthatthemeaningofthesetermshasneverbeen
properlytaughthim.Thesenameshaveneverbeenappliedtothese
formsandlineswhileundertheinspectionofhissenses,those
faithfulteachersuponwhichhesolelyreliesforallhisearly
acquisitionsinknowledge."Thuswecontinuetaxingthememory
with,tohim,unmeaningnamesandterms,andundertaketoteachhim
toreason,beforethisfacultyhasscarcelyanyperceptible
development,bygivinghimformulastorepeat,whichconveytohis
mindnoclearlydefinedideas.Inallthiswearesatisfiedwith
mereform,withoutthesubstance;andcanitbedoubtedthatsuch
aprocessfailstogiveussymmetrical,harmoniousdevelopment?The
habitinthechildofacceptingthewordsandformswithout
thoughts,isinitselfhighlyinjurious.Inthisweareteachinghim
tobesuperficialaperniciousinfluencethatwillfollowhimin
allhisfutureprogress.PESTALOZZIANSYSTEMITSAIMS."The
systemwhichwehaveadoptedisjustlytermedPestalozzian,forto
Pestalozzi,thatgreatestofallmodernreformersineducation,may
becreditedthedevelopment,andinmanyimportantpoints,the
originofthoseideaswhichlieattheb;asisofthissystem.Itis

truethattheseideas,andthemodesofapplyingtheminthe
developmentofthehumanfaculties,havebeensomewhatmodified
andimprovedduringtheexperienceofhalfacentury,buttheyare
nonethelesstherealthoughtsanddiscoveriesofthisgreat
philosopher.Itsprincipleshavebecomemoreorlesswidelydifl!
used,buthavebeenmoregenerallyandthoroughlyincorporated
withthemethodsofteachinginsomeofthecountriesofEurope,
thaninourown.EspeciallyisthistrueofGermany,Switzerland,
PrussiaandFrance.Butinnocountry,perhaps,havethese
principlesbeenmorethoroughlysystematizedanddevelopedthanina
fewtrainingcollegesinGreatBritain.Theseareprivate
institutions,oratleastbutpartiallysustainedbygovernment
funds.Fromtheseinstitutionshavebeensentoutthousandsof
teachersthoroughlypreparedfortheworkofprimaryinstructionon
theseimprovedprinciples.k15"Thisplanclaimsto
begin,whereothersystemshaveeverfailedtocommence,atthe
beginning,andhere,layingsurelyandfirmlythefoundation,to
proceedcarefullyandbynaturalandprogressivestepstorearthe
superstructure,everadaptingthemeanstotheresulttobe
obtained.Followingthiscourse,wefirstbeginwiththings,the
qualitiesofwhicharecognizablebythesensesofthechildren
awaken,leadout,andguidetheobservationandquickenthe
perception.Thattheobservationmaybemoreaccurate,thevarious
sensesarecarefullycultivated"Thesearetheearliest,andin
childhood,themoststronglydevelopedofthehumanfaculties.This
factmustsettle,beyondadoubt,thecorrectnessofthismodeof
procedure.SaysHerbertSpencer:^Everyfacultyduringtheperiod
ofitsgreatestactivitytheperiodinwhichitisspontaneously
evolvingitself^iscapableofreceivingmorevividimpressions
thanatanyotherperiod.'Moreover,ifwefailjustattheright
timetocultivatethesefaculties,theybecomebluntedanddull,and
comparativelyincapableofvigorousandhealthyaction.Nowthese
sensesgaindevelopmentbycomingincontactwithsurrounding
objects,indiscoveringtheirvisibleandtangiblequalities."
Thereisapointhere,however,thatshouldbecarefullyguarded.
Thedangeris,thatweshallbeginwiththecomplex,apointwhich
thechildcanonlyreachthroughthemediumofthesimple,
indecomposableelements.^Following,therefore,thenecessarylaw
ofprogressionfromthesimpletothecomt)lex,weshouldprovide
fortheinfantasufficiencyofobjectspresentingdifferentdegrees
andkindsofresistance,asufficiencyofobjectsreflecting
differentamountsandqualitiesoflight,andasufficiencyof
soundscontrastedintheirloudness,theirpitchandtheirtimbre.'
Webeginthenbj^presentingsimpleforms,andtheprimitiveand
moredistinctivecolors.Oncefamiliarwiththese,thechildrenare
ledtotracethemintheobjectsofnatureaboutthem,andlastlyto
observetheirvariousresultantcombinations.Ineachobjecttheir
attentioniscalledtotheindividualcharacteristicsorqualities
which,combined,constitutetheobject,anddistinguishitfrom
everyotherobject."Fromtheconcretetheyareledtothe
abstract.Throughthemediumofthingsknown,theyareledtothe
unknown.Theyarenowpreparedtoformclearconceptionsofthings
theyhaveneverseen,throughthemediumofthingstheyhaveseen.
16Ayear'sexperienceTHERESULTS."Itisnowafullyear
sinceweadoptedthissystemofinstruction,andofits
superiorityovertheoldmethodswecanspeakwithsomedegreeof
assurance."Theannualexaminationoftheseschoolshasjust
closed.TheExaminingCommittee,whohadthisincharge,havetaken

specialpainstoobservecarefullytheresultsofthissystemin
awakeningmind,quickeningthought,perception,andalltheearly
facultiesofthechild,andtheyreturnthemostflatteringreports
ofitssuccessasameansofmentaldevelopment."Whereverthe
teachershavecaughtthespiritoftheplan,andmadeapractical
applicationofit,theeffectisverymarkedintheawakenedand
quickenedfacultiesofthechildren.Itwasneverourpleasure
beforetowitnesssomuchinterestinanyclassexercises.They
werenodullroutineofquestionsandmonosyllabicanswers,nomere
recitationofdryandstereotypedformulas,noapparentunloadingof
thememory,butweseemedasinthepresenceofsomanyyouthful
adventurersfreshfromtheirvoyagesofdiscovery,eacheagerto
recountthestoryofhissuccesses.Intheirexplorations,the
fields,thewoods,thegarden,andtheoldhouse,fromthecellarto
thegarret,willtestifytotheirvigilance.Theknowledgebothof
theparentsandtheteacherisoftenputtotheseveresttest.They
areconstantlypliedwithquestionstoodifficultforthemto
answer."Teachersnowsaytous,'Wehavenolongeranydull
pupils.'Allarewideawake.Thechildrensayitis'realfun'to
gotoschoolnow.Itisnotthattheworkoftheschoolroomisless
realandearnest,butitisbetteradaptedtotheirchildnature,
meetsthedemandoftheiryounglifeenergies.Thisiswhatwecall
education,initstruespiritandpurpose.Thereisanevident
fitnessinit,whichmustcommenditselftoeveryintelligent
observer.THETRAININGSCHOOLITSOBJECTS."Someofthe
principalreasonswhichledtheBoardtoestablishthisschoolare
giveninareportofthecommitteeonTeachers,andintheremarks
ofthePresidentfoundinanotherpartofthisreport,and
thereforelittleneedbesaidhereinexplanation.Itistobea
kindofpracticingschool,wherebeginnersservetheirap
prenticeship.Inmanymechanicaltrades,yearsoftoilsomeap
prenticeshiphavetobeservedoutbeforetheartisanistrusted
alonewithhistools.Ifthensuchgreatcareistakentoprepare
forhisworkhimwhohastoformthesenselessblockofwoodor
marbleintolinesandformsofbeauty,howmuchmoreinfinitely
more,importantisit,thathewhohastomouldandgiveformand
17symmetrytotheimmortalmind,shouldmakesomepreparationfor
hiswork;shouldatleastreceivesomehintsandsuggestionsfroma
master'shand.Heoughtalsotohavesomeunderstandingofhis
subject,aswellasthetoolsheistouse,andthebestmethodof
usingthem.Pupilsareexpectedtospendoneyearinobservationand
practiceinthisschool,beforereceivinganappointmenttoteach
inourcityschools.Atleastonehalfofeachdayistobespentin
thisway,andtheotherportioninstudyandrecitationinthose
branchesofNaturalHistoryandMentalScienceofimmediate
importanceinconnectionwiththissystemofinstruction.Two
hourseachdaywillalsobedevotedtoinstructioninmethodsof
teaching.PrimarySchoolNo.4hasbeenselectedforthisModel
School.Thereareaccommodationshereforthreepupilteachersto
beengagedinpracticeatthesametime.Theteacherwhoisto
organizeandtakechargeofthisschoolforthecomingyearisa
ladywhohasforfifteenyearshadchargeofanimportant
departmentoftheHomeandColonialTrainingInstitution,Gray'sInn
Road,Londonaschoolestablishedbyapupilandfriendof
Pestalozzitwentyyearsago,forthepreparationofteachersfor
theworkofprimaryinstructiononphilosophicandChristian
principles.Hencethetrainingofteachersiswithherapro
fession.InthisarrangementtheBoardhopenotonlytogreatly

benefitandimproveourownschools,butbethemeansofintro
ducingthesystemintothecountryunderthemostfavorableaus
pices.TheNormalSchoolsofseveraldifferentStateshavealready
madearrangementstosendrepresentativesheretobecomefamiliar
withthissystem,forthepurposeofintroducingitintothese
institutions.Someofourbestandmostexperiencedteachersat
home,andseveralfromabroad,havealsoarrangedtojointhis
class.Personsofthischaracterwill,ifdesired,beexemptedfrom
thestudyandrecitationasconnectedwiththeHighSchool.FURTHER
CHANGESINCOURSEOFSTUDY."HithertotheObjectTeachinghasbeen
exclusivelyconfinedtothePrimarySchools.IntheJuniorSchoolsa
somewhatrigidcourseofdisciplinehasbeenpursuedinMentaland
PracticalArithmetic,inconnectionwithGeography,Reading,Writing
andSpelling.Infuture,thecourseinArithmeticwillbemuchmore
simple,andatthesametimepassovermuchmoreground.Themore
rigidformsofanalysisrequiredwillbeabandoned."Theexamples
givenwillbesimple,butabundant;andMentalArithmeticwillonly
beusedbywayofafeweasyexercisesfortheintroductionand
explanationofeachnewprinciple,andforthereasonthatsmall
numbersaremoreconvenientforthispurposeB18thanlarge
ones.Thesedemonstrationsshouldallbeocular,andasfaras
practicable,.throughthemediumofobjects.Fewrulesor
definitionsaretobeused,butmuchpracticegivenintheworking
ofexamples.TothiscoursehasbeenaddedNaturalHistory,
includingBotany,ZoologyandMinerology,tobetaughtorallyas
objectlessonexercises,butwithmoresystemandthoroughness
thaninthePrimarySchools.Drawingisalsotobepursuedasa
regularbranchofschoolexercise."Thesemodificationsweregard
asadecidedimprovementupontheformercourse,andtheywilladapt
itmorenearlytothesystemnowinoperationinthePrimary
Schools.CONCLUSION.'^Inclosingthisreport,althoughwemay
congratulateourselvesthataflatteringdegreeofprogresshas
beenmadeinourschoolsduringthepastyear,wehavebynomeans
reachedtheacmeofourhopesandaims."Sincethere
organizationofourschoolseightyearsago,wecanseethatgreat
improvementshavebeenmade,butshouldwenotduringthenexteight
yearsmakeanadvanceequallymarked,weshouldclearlyfail
properlytofulflllourmission.Ifwemistakenot,weareonthe
eveofagreatrevolutioninourmethodsofteachinginthis
country.Wesaymethods,forwehavehithertohadnothingthatis
worthj^ofbeingcalledanationalsystemofeducation.Wehavebeen
teachingtoomuchatrandom;withnointelligentviewsofthetrue
characterofthehumanmindinitsearlydevelopment,andtheproper
adaptationofstudiestosuchdevelopment.Aseducators,wehave
beenverymuchintheconditionofthefarmersofthiscountry.They
tilltheirland,orturnoverthesod,andsowtheseed,not
stoppingtoinquirewhetherthereisaproperadaptationofthe
conditionandingredientsofthesoil,tothesuccessfulgrowingof
thecroptheyanticipate.Sowehavebeenendeavoringtocultivate
anddevelopmind,withoutstoppingtoinquirewhetherthemeanswe
wereemployingwerebestadaptedtotheaccomplishmentofthe
desiredend.Butwearehappytosay,anewdayisdawningonour
educationalhorizon;newlightisbeginningtobreakin;onlyjust
enough,asyet,itistrue,toletusseethatweareinthedark,
butitisthesureharbingerofafullorbedluminarj'^,whose
geniallightandheatshallawakentonewlife,andleadintonew
channelsthatvitalenergyandunparalleledenthusiasm,whichhave
evercharacterizedtheteachersofourland;anenergyanddevotion

whichhave,evenunderabadarrangementandmuchmisdirection,
wroughtoutresultsworthyofabettersystem.Wespeaknotthe
languageofprophecywhen19wesaythatweareontheeveofa
greatrevolutioninourmethodsofteachinginthiscountry.Already
thepopularmindismorethanwaitingforititisdemandingit.
Educationalmeneverywhere,asifbysomeallpervadingimpulse,
areawaketoitsnecessity,andareonlystoppingtoinquirehow
thischangeistobeeffected.^*Thefirstdifficultyor
obstructionthatpresentsitselfisthewantoftextbooksproperly
adaptedtoimprovedmethodsofinstruction.Thosenowinuseare
forthemostpart,butpoorlyadaptedtothemethodsforwhichthey
weredesigned,muchlesstothosewehopesoontoseeinaugurated.
Wemust,then,havebooksadaptedtoouruse;andforthisweshall
nothavelongtowait.Asfastasthedemandisfelt,theywillbe
produced.Someoftheablestmindsinthecountryareevennow
engagedinthework;andhavealreadyissuedthroughthepresssome
valuablelittlebooks,happilyadaptedtothenichestheyare
designedtofill,whileothersstillareinprogress."Teachers
mustbeliberallysuppliedwithapparatus,booksofreferenceand
specimens,pictures,&c.,especiallyinthedepartmentsofNatural
History,manufactures,andthemechanicarts;fortodemandofour
teacherstodothiswork,toeffectthisreform,withouttheproper
facilitiesforcarryingitforwardsystematicallyand
successfully,wouldbeasirrationalandunreasonableasitwasin
theEgyptiantaskmasterstodemandthefulltaleofbricksofthe
Israelites,withoutsupplyingthemwiththenecessarystraw.They
musthavethematerialswithwhichtowork.*^Muchpreparationis
alsonecessaryonthepartoftheteachers.Itisimportantthat
theyshouldhaveathoroughknowledgeofNaturalHistoryinallits
departments;oftheprocessesandhistoryofmanufacturesandthe
mechanicarts;andhaveareadyhandatdrawing;pointshitherto*
greatlyneglectedintheirpreparatoryeducation.Theymustalso
cultivatethehabitofeasycommunicationwithchildren,learnto
expressthemselvesinlanguagewithintheircomprehension,and
havethepowertoarrestandholdtheirattention.'*Allthis
willrequiremuchlaborandapplication,butthetrueteacherwill
findgreatpleasureinit,andreapherrewardsasshegoesalong.
(Wepurposelyusethefemininepronounhere,forwemustdependupon
womansolelyforallthepatienttoilofteachinglittlechildren;
forasHoraceMannonceaptlysaid,^Foramantoteachlittle
children,islikeanelephantundertakingtobroodchickens;the
morehebroodsthem,themorehecrushesthem.')20"Our
preparatoryandprofessionalschoolshavealsoanimportantwork
todointhisreformation.Thenaturalsciencesanddrawing"must
haveamoreprominentplaceintheircurriculums.OurNormalSchools
mustbenolong^erpreparatory'schoolsinthevariousbranchesof
study,butintheartofteachingalone."Thisreformationisnot
theworkofaday,butofyears.Thatitisdestinedultimatelyto
triumph,andeducationbecomebetterknownandunderstoodasa
science,withitswelldefinedlawsandprinciples,andteaching
morethoroughlystudiedandpracticedasagreatart,therecanbe
noreasonabledoubt;andhewhowillnotjoinhandsandaidin
forwardingthisgreatwork,mustconsenttobeleftbehind."
MODELORTRAININGSCHOOL.ReportofCommittee,1860.The
undersigned,committeeonteachers,desiretocallattentionofthe
BoardofEducationtoasubjectwhichtheydeemofvitalimportance
totheinterestsandprogressofourpublicschools.Itisknown,at
leasttosomemembersofthisBoard,thatithaseverbeenapartof

theplan,inconnectionwiththeHighSchool,tohaveateachers'
classformedfrommembersofthegraduatingclass,composedofthose
whodesigntoteach,whoshouldspendaportionoftheirtime,
duringthelastyearoftheircourse,inasortofmodelclass
exercisesintheprimaryandjuniordepartmentsinthesame
building,inadditiontospecialinstructioninthetheoryand
practiceofteaching.Theplan,yourcommitteeregardasan
excellentone,butforseveralreasons,withthepresent
arrangement,theydeemitimpracticable;andexperiencehasthus
farsoprovedittobe.Inthefirstplace,thecourseofstudy,as
prescribed,leavesnotimeforadditionalstudiesorduties.ItIs
asmuchasthemembersoftheclasscando,toaccomplishallthat
isrequiredinthisdirection;anditseemstousthereisno
subjectofstudythererequired,thatcanbeomitted,butonthe
otherhand,therearesomesubjects,notherepursued,thatwouldbe
ofgreatutilitytoeveryperson,andespeciallytotheteacher.
Again,tohavethesemodelclassexercisesconductedsoastobeof
anygreatutilitytothepupillearners,theteachertotakecharge
ofthemshouldbeapersonoflargeexperience,eminentlj'
successful,andineverywayamodelofexcellenceinherprofes
sion,apersonofgoodjudgmentandgreatdiscriminationonewho
cancriticiseclosely,pointoutdefects,andshowtheirremedy.
Lastly,asiswellknowntotheBoard,wehavebeenintroducing
intoourPrimarySchoolsasystemofinstruction,inmanyrespects
quitenewtoourteachers,andwhiletheyare,forthemostpart,
workingintoitverywell,muchbettereventhanwecouldhave
anticipated,yettheyfeelagreaterorlessdegreeofawkwardness
anddiffidenceinconductingthenewexercises,andarenotprepared
toinstructothers.Thepupilscomingfromour22HighSchool,
andapplyingforsituationsasteachers,are,forthemostpart,
quiteyoung,andwithoutanyexperience;andifweshouldputthese
pupils,withtheiryouthandinexperience,intoourPrimarySchools,
theplacewhere,evenundertheoldsystem,thegreatestde^eeof
judgment,discretion,patience,ingenuity,experience,andskillare
demanded,withallournewmethods,asnowadoptedintheseschools,
wecouldexpectnothingbutfailureastheresult.Thesenewmethods
alsorequireathoroughknowledgeofNaturalHistoryinitsvarious
departments,togetherwithaquickandreadyhandinlineardrawing;
subjectswithwhich,inthepresentcourseofstudy,theyhave
comparativelylittleacquaintance.Toobviatealltheseobjections,
andcarryouttheoriginaldesignofamodelschooldepartment,your
committeewouldofferthefollowingresolutions,andmovetheir
adoption:Besolved,ThatinconnectionwiththeHighSchool,there
beorganizedadepartmentcomposedofgraduatesfromthisschool,
andpersonsfromabroad,whomayapplyforadmission,tobestyled
theModelPrimarySchoolTeachers'Department,theobjectofwhich
shallbetoprepareteachersfortheimportantworkofprimary
instruction.Besolved,Thatnopersonshallbeadmittedintothis
Departmentwhodoesnotholdacertificateofgraduationfromthe
OswegoHighSchool,orfromsomeinstitutionwhosecourseofstudy
andmentaldisciplineareequallythorough,orwhoshallnoton
Examination,giveevidencethatshehasthoroughlymasteredthose
EnglishbranchestaughtinourbestAcademiesandHighSchools,and
thatshesustainsagoodmoralcharacter.Besolved,Thatthetime
ofthiscourseshallbeoneyear,andshallembracethefollowing
subjectsofstudy:FirstTerm.AreviewofBotany,Mental
Philosophy,ZoologyandLinearDrawinginitspracticalapplication
indelineatingobjectsinnatureontheblackboard.Second

Term.MineralogyandreviewofBotanycontinued,andMoral
Philosophybegun.LinearDrawingaslastterm.ThirdTerm.Moral
PhilosophyandMineralogycontinued.Drawingasbefore.There
shallalsobeacourseofReading,tobecontinuedthroughtheyear,
consistingofsuchstandardworksonthetheoryandpracticeof
teaching,astheBoardshallapprove.Besolved,ThatPrimarySchool
No.2,locatedintheHighSchoolbuilding,beregardedasaModel
orExperimentalSchool,tobetaughtbythemembersoftheModel
Teachers'Class,underthesuperintendenceofsuchateacherasthe
Boardshallprovide.Besolved,Thatthedivisionoftimebetween
study,recitationandpracticeinteachingshallbearrangedasmay
seematthetimebesttosubservetheinterestsoftheclassandthe
school.23Resolved,Thatadiploma,orcertificateof
gradnation,beawardedtoallthosewhopassthroughtherequired
courseofthisDepartment,andshowbytheirpracticeintheschool
roomanaptnessandabilitytoteach;andthatthenecessarysteps
betakentoentitletheholderofsuchcertificatetoequalrankand
privilegeswiththoseholdingStatecertificates.ResolvedfThat
thetermsoftuitionfortheadmissionofforeignpupilsintothis
Teachers*Departmentshallbeeightdollarsperterm,payablein
advance.ResolvedjThattheSecretaryofthisBoardbe,andthe
sameisherebydirectedtocorrespondimmediatelywiththePrincipal
oftheTrainingSchool(forthepreparationofteachersforthe
primaryinstruction,)underthepatronageoftheHomeandColonial
SchoolSocietyinthecityofLondon,withaviewofobtaininga
teacherofhighorder,onefamiliarwiththesystemofprimary
teachingasnowadoptedinourschools,andcapableoftakingcharge
ofandinstructingateachers'class,suchastheforegoing
resolutionscontemplate;andthathemakeallthenecessary
arrangementsforenteringupontheproposedplanontheopeningof
thespringterm.B.DOOLITTLE,C.E.Allen,A.C.Mattoon,
Committee.AtthecloseofthecommencementexercisesintheHigh
SchoolintheSpringof1861,Mr.C.T.Richardson,Presidentofthe
BoardofEducation,madethefollowingremarks:"Ladiesand
Gentlemen:AstheBoardofEducationhasdecideduponsome
changes,notonlyintheorganizationoftheHighSchool,butinthe
systemofteachingtobepursuedintheotherschoolsintheCity,
ithasbeenthoughtbestatthistimethatIshouldmakesome
explanationofthosechanges,ofthereasonforthem,andtheir
cost,thattheBoardma}'^notbeaccusedofinnovatingrashly,or
oftryingexperimentsfromwhichnogoodmaybeexpected;orthe
taxpayersbeafflictedwiththosequalmstowhichtheyareso
liable."FromapartialtrialduringthepastyearinthePrimary
Schools,whichhasbeenverysatisfactory,andfrominformation
obtainedfromvarioussources,theBoardhasdecidedtointroduceas
faraspracticablethesystemofteachingknownasPestalozzian,the
basisofwhichisObjectLessons.Itwillbenecessarytomakea
briefexplanationoftheS3'^stem.ThenameoriginatedwithPes
talozzi,aSwissphilanthropistofItalianextraction,whofirst,
aboutonehundredyearsago,amongthechildrenofSwitzerland
introduceditsdistinctivecharacteristics.Sincehistimeithas
beenmodifiedandimproved,andhisideashavebeenestablishedand
developed,untilunderonenameoranother,theyformthebasisof
alltrulyphilosophicalmentalculture.Thecentralideasofthe
systemareasfollows:First:Thatalleducationshouldbe
accordingtothenaturalorderofdevelopmentofthehuman
faculties.24Second:Thatallknowledgeisderivedinthe
firstinstancefromtheperceptionsofthesenses,andtherefore

thatallinstructionshouldbebasedupontheobservationofreal
objectsandoccurrences.Third:Thattheobjectofprimary
educationistogiveaharmoniouscultivationtothefacultiesof
themind,andnottocommunicatetechnicalknowledge."The
developmentofthefacultiesofthemindinthenaturalorderisin
thiswise,firstthepowertoreceiveimpressions;afterthatthe
powertoconceivethoughts;afterthatthepowertoreason.In
otherwords,theSense,theUnderstandingandtheReason.Theproper
method,then,consistsinpresentingtothechild'smindthequality
ofknow^ledgesuitedtoitsstateofdevelopment.Theordinary
methoddisregardsthisprincipleandisfrequentlyjustthe
reverseofthispractice.Inarithmetic,forexample,thechildren
aretaughttorepeatrules.Nowaruleisageneralizationfrommany
simplefacts,andtoachildignorantofthosefactsconveysnoidea
whatever,althoughitmayrepeatitbyaneffortofthememory.
"Bythenewmethodtheideaofnumbersismadefamiliartothechild
byappealingtothefacultiesthatarealreadydeveloped;thatis,
byshowingthemobjects,marbles,pebbles,&c.Whentheideaof
concretenumberisattained,theyareledtodispeifjewiththe
objectsanddealwithfigureswhicharesjanbols,.andruleswhich
areabstract.Howmanychildrencanrepeattheordinarytablesof
weightandmeasure,buthowfewhaveanyrealconceptionofwhat
constituesaninchorapound!Usuallyachildistaughtasa
vesselisladenatthewharf,inbulk;factsarethrowninloose
withoutanyregardtothefitnessofthechild'sfacultiesto
receivethem,and,whenacertainamounthasbeencommittedto
memorythechildisconsiderededucated.Thetruecourseisto
presentnootherfacts,andnofaster,thancanbeassimilatedand
organizedintothemind.Bythismethodeducationanswersits
definition;itistoleadoutthefaculties.Itisorganic,itis
growthfromwithin,notanadditionfromwithout.Itisjustthe
differencebetweenknowledgechemicallycombinedwiththechild's
mind,andknowledgemechanicallyheldinsolution."Takethe
growingplantputtingforthinalldirectionsitsrootsandfibres
seekingfood.Butputtherightelementsinitswayandtheplant
willorganizethemintoitsgrowth,varyingitsdemandaccording
toitsdifferentstages,obstinatelyrefusingatalaterperiodwhat
isobstinatelydemandedatanearlier,andviceversa,tillwehave
firsttheblade,thentheear,thenthefullcornintheear.So
withachild'smind.Ifwhenitrequiressimpleim25
pressionsonthesensesyoufeeditwithcomplexabstractions,it
pinesandwithers,oratbestattainsbutthedevelopmentofone
facultyattheexpenseoftherest.Butifyouplacebeforeitthe
rightelements,itabsorbsthem,organizesthem,eachfacultytak
ingwhatitneeds,tillthesimpleelementsreappear,intheleaf,
theflower,theripefruit,ofvigorous,healthymentalgrowth."
Itisinsimplyplacinginthechild'swaytheknowledgesuitedto
itsnaturalrequirementsthattheartofTeachingconsists.The
Teachermustfurnishthematerialattherighttime.Thechildmust
educateitself."InordertoaccustomourTeacherstothenew
methods,theBoardhasorganizedanewdepartmentintheHigh
School,tobecalledthe^ModelPrimarySchoolTeachers'
Department.'ThecourseofstudyconsistsofMentalandNatural
ScienceandtheArtofTeachingbyObjectLessons.Thetimeoccupied
isoneyear,dividedintothreeterms.Pupilsfromabroadare
admittedattherateof$24peryear.Inadditiontothetheoryof
teachingaslearnedinthisdepartment,thepupilswillberequired
todevoteapartoftheirtimealternatelytothepracticeinthe

ModelPrimarySchool,underthesupervisionofathoroughly
competentpersonaccustomedtothenewmethod.PrimarySchoolNo.4
isdevotedtothispurpose."Afterduedeliberation,andafter
correspondingwiththosebestinformedinEducationalmattersinthe
country,andwiththeSecretaryoftheHomeandColonialSchool
SocietyofEngland,theBoardhasdecidedtoemployasPrincipalof
thePrimarySchool,aladyfromLondon,England."TheHomeand
ColonialSchoolSocietyissupportedpartlybythecontributionsof
individualsandpartlybyGovernmentbounty.Itsobjectsas
expressedinitspublications,are'Fortheinstructionof
teachers,andfortheImprovementandExtensionofEducationon
ChristianPrinciples.'"Thissocietyhasalreadytrainedsome2800
Teachersinthemethodsofthenewsystem.Theladywhomwehave
employedhas,foralongtime,beenprincipalofoneofthe
Society'strainingschools,andisrepresentedtobeperfectly
competenttoexplainandintroducethesystemhere."Nowwhat
willallthiscost?Iamhappytoinformthetaxpayersthat
exclusiveofthefeesofforeignpupils,theexpensewillnotexceed
thirtydollarsoverlastyear,thesalariesoftheteachers(three)
displacedinthePrimarySchoolNo.4,whichwillofcoursebe
saved,amountingtothesumpaidunderthenewarrangement,within
thatsum.26"We,asaBoard,thinkthearrangementagood
thing,andsoMissJonescomesoutinthenextsteamertoteachour
Teachersthenewsystem."Thepaperswhichfollowgivea
sufficientlyclearconnectedhistoryoftheschool;all,atleast,
thatthelimitsofthisbookwilladmit.Atsomefuturetimewe
trustsomeonewillundertaketomakeamorefullandcomplete
historyofboththePublicandTrainingschoolsofOswego,inview
oftheimportantparttheyhavetakenintheintroductionintothis
countryofwhatissometimestermed,withverylittle
appropriateness,asitseemstous,**TheNewEducation.'^Suchan
accountwouldrequiremoreofdetail,includingplansand
illustrationsofworkandtheprinciplesunderlyingthem,thanthe
spaceallowedthislittlevolumewilladmit.Thatthismovementin
thepublicschoolsofOswego,whichbeganin1859,hashadavery
markedinfluenceinrevolutionizingmethodsofinstructioninthis
country,noonewillpresumetodeny.Webelieveitwasthefirst
effortintheUnitedStatestosystematicallyapplytheobjective
methodstoasystemofpublicschools,carryingouttheprinciples
involvedinallthegrades,inalltheinstruction,given,inall
thebranchesofstudypursued.Thefollowingpaperswerereadon
theoccasionofthe25thAnniversaryoftheSchool,heldJuly8th,
1886:ADDRESSOFWELCOME.BYTHEPRESIDENT,E.A.SHELDON.
MyDearFellowTeachersandFriends:Theoccasionthathascalled
ustogethertoda}^isoneofnoordinaryinterest.Twentyfive
yearshavepassedsincetheorganizationof"TheOswegoTraining
SchoolforPrimaryTeachers."TheunpretendingaimofthisSchool
wastotrainprimaryteachersfortheOswegoPublicSchools.The
beginningwasinsignificantand,toallhumanappearance,not
likelytoattractmuchattentionortoworkoutgreatresults.The
firstclassintrainingconsistedofninepupils.TheSchoolhad
nofundsofanykindforitssupport.Notevenabuildingatthat
timehadbeensetapartforitsoccupancy.Inoldentimes,andin
timesnotsofaraway,theteacherssometimes"boardedaround."If
theteacher(forthefirstfacultyconsistedofasingleteacher)
didnot"board'round,"theSchooldid.Theteachermetherclass
oneweekinoneschoolbuilding,andthenextweekinanother,
endeavoringtoshownopartialitytoanyparticularlocality.Such

wasthebeginningoftheOswegoStateNormalandTrainingSchool,
whichnowhasanattendanceofnearlythreehundredpupilsandover
1,200graduates,w^ithacorpsoffifteenteachers,anannual
appropriationof18,000,withabuildingthatisprobablynotsur
passedbyanyinthecountry,foritsconvenienceandadaptationfor
thetrainingofteachers.Weareheretodaytoexchange
congratulationsontheworkthathasbeenaccomplishedinthisfirst
quarterofacenturyinthisSchool.WithmanyofusitisourAlma
Mater.Weareboundtoitbytiesofaffection,thatareeverkept
alivebytheremembranceofassociationsofthemostendearing
character.Wehavebeenassociatedasteachersandpupils,andthis
meansagreatdealtothosewhosesympathieshaveeverbeenmarked
bygenuineaffectionsuchasisknownonlytothefaithfulteacher,
andtheloving,confidingpupil.Wewelcomeyouwhohavebeen
pupilsintheSchool,andwhonow,asteachers,havepupilsofyour
own.Youarewelcometotheoldschoolhome.Wearerightgladto
takeyoubythehand.2Sandtowelcomeyou,nolongeras
pupils,butasbrethren,asfellowteachers.Wewelcomeyouwho
havebeen,notonlypupils,butassociateteachersinourschool.
Youhavemadeyourselvesdoublydeartousassharersofourtoil,
ourresponsibilities,ourhopesandoursuccesses.Wewelcomeyou,
who,thoughneverrelatedtousinourSchoolwork,eitheras
pupilsorteachers,have,byyourinfluenceandbyyoursympathies,
notonlymadeitpossibletocarryontheworkofinstructionand
training,buthavegivenusconstantinspirationtoworkforhigher
attainments,andamoreperfectorganization.Youmaywellclaima
seatamongusasfriendsandcoworkers.Youhavedoneforthe
Schoolwhatyoucouldnothavedoneinanyothercapacity.Toyou,
infact,theSchoolowesitsexistence,itsmaterialsupport,and
itsopportunitiesforusefulness.Wewelcomeyoumostheartilytoa
participationinthecongratulationsanddiscussionsappropriate
tothisoccasion.Nonehaveabetterrighttospeak,andtonone
shallwelistenwithmorepleasure.Wewelcomeyouall,pupils,
fellowteachers,coworkersandfellowcitizens.Wehaveone
interestandoneaim,toraisethisSchooltoitshighestdegree
ofusefulness.Weareheretoday,onthistwentyfifthanniversary
ofitsexistence,toreviewitssuccessesanditsfailures;to
gatherlessonsofinstructionfromthepast,andinspirationforthe
future.Itwillbequiteinkeepingwiththeoccasiontoboth
criticiseandmagnif}'^ourwork.Inlookingovertheworkofthe
pasttwentyfiveyears,whileweshallfindsomethingstoregret,
workthatmighthavebeenbetterdone,weshallfindmuchofwhich
wemaywellbeproud,andinviewofwhichwehavearightto
rejoice.Ifourbeginningsweresmallandunpromising,ourgrowth
hasbeenhealthfulandvigorous,andhasresultedinanoble
manhood.Weverynaturallyinquirewhathavebeenthecausesthat
ledtotheorigin,growthandprosperityofthisSchool.Oneof
thesurestelementsofprosperitj^inanyundertakingisloyaltyto
truth.Tothis,morethananyotheronething,hasoursuccessbeen
due.Thoroughlyimbuedwiththebeliefthattherearecertain
unchanginglawsofmentalgrowthwhichmustformthebasisofall
trueeducationalprogress,wehavemadethemthefoundationstones
ofourstructure.Theprincipleswhichhavemoldedtheworkofour
Schoolarebynomeansnewineducation.Theydidnothavetheir
origininOswego,norinmenofourday;theyhavebeenurgedupon
teachersformorethanthreecenturies,andalwayswithgood
results,whenwiselyapplied.Thepresentcenturj^,however,has
furnishedthesoilinwhichtheyhavetakenthedeepestroot,and

arenowbringingforththemost29abundantharvest.Individual
influenceandeffortonthepartofworthycitizensinprocuring
legislativeenactmentsandappropriationsofmoneyforthe
erectionofabuilding,forprovidingbooks,furniture,apparatus
andotherfacilitiesforinstruction,havealsobeenveryimportant
factorsinthegrowthofourSchool.Anotherimportantelementof
successhasbeenthecharacteroftheteacherswhowereemployedto
carryonthiswork,especiallyintheearlystagesofits
development.Withlesswiseandcapableteachers,theresultofthis
movementmighthaveendedinfailureattheveryoutset.Theylaid
wellthefoundationsonwhichthosewhohavefollowedhavebuilded.
Butinenumeratingthecauseswhichhavecontributedtoourgrowth,
Ishouldleaveoutoneofthemostimportantelements,wereIto
neglecttospeakoftheinfluenceofthosewhohavegoneoutfromus
asgraduates.Infact,ifweweretogivemoreprominencetoone
humancausethananother,Iamsurethiswouldbearoffthepalm.
Yes,itistoyou,mydearfriends,theAlumnioftheSchool,that
weowemoreforthereputationweenjoy,thantoanyotherhuman
agency.Byyourworkyouhavemadeusknownandgivenuscharacter
abroad.Throughyourinfluencewehavehadtheconfidenceand
respectofeducationalmenandinstitutionsinallpartsofthe
country;andyouhavekeptuswellrecruited,notonlywithgoodly
numbers,butwithgoodmaterial.Itisnowonderthat,withsuch
anAlumni,theOswegoSchoolhasbecomefamous.Suchaninfluence
wouldbuildupandgivereputationtoanyschool.AlltheseIhave
emphasizedashumaninstrumentalities;butrisingfarabovethem
all,andinandthroughthemall,therehasbeenInfiniteWisdomto
guide,direct,andcontrolalleffortsandallevents,andgive
themsuccess.TheProvidenceofGodhasbeenver^'markedinthe
wholehistoryofthisSchool.Wecanbutregarditasaninstitution
ofHisownplantingandprotecting,andtoHimbeallthepraise
ofwhatweareandwhatwehopetobe.Thusfarwehaveendeavored
totracethecausesofsuccessasrelatedtoourSchool.Whatthis
successhasbeenyouallknow.Itisamatterofhistory.Thatwe
havegrownexternallyisevidenttoyoursenses.Theevidencesof
internalgrowthrequiremoretimeforobservationandexamination
thanmostofyouhavebeenabletogive.Shouldyoutakethetime
tosearchcarefullyforsuchevidences,youwouldnotfailto
discoverthem.Youwouldfindlessoftheformandmoreofthe
spiritinourwork.Thisyouwouldnotfailtoobserveinall
departments,fromtheKindergartentothei30Classical
workintheNormalSchool.Thegapthatonceexistedbetweenthe
SchoolofPracticeandtheNormalSchool,hasbeenfilledupbythe
additionofaSeniordepartmentandtheproperconnectionhasbeen
madebetweentheKindergartenandtheSchoolofPractice,sothatwe
haveonecontinuouscoursefromtheentranceofthebabiesthree
yearsoldintheKindergarten,tothecompletelyequippedgraduate
fromthehighestdepartmentoftheNormalSchool.Well,yousay,
thisisallgood;wearegladtoseethatsomuchimprovementhas
beenmade,butw^hatofthefuture?Hastheacmeofyourambition
beenrealized?Haveyounothingfarthertoreachforwardtoand
attain?Thesearefairquestionstoaskanddeserveacandid
answer.Noinstitutioncanmanifestasurersignofdecayand
death,thantorestcontentedlyonthelaurelsalreadywon.Weare
happytosaytoyouthatyourAlmaMatercherishesnofeelingof
selfsatisfaction.Wehave,indeed,granderhopesforgrowthinthe
future,thananywehaveyetrealized.Wehaveworkbeforeusquite
asdifficulttoachieveandasworthyofourhighesteffortasany

thingthatwehaveasyetacquired.Theideathattheworkofthe
NormalSchoolshouldbestrictlyprofessional,andthatall
necessaryworkpreparatorytothisshouldbedoneelsewhere,is,
withoutdoubt,acorrectone,and,soonerorlater,wemustallcome
toit.Wehavealreadytakenonesteptowardsit,incuttingoffone
termoftheelementarypreparatoryworkinsomesubjects.Itisto
behopedthatthedayisnotverydistantwhenitwillallbe
removed,andweshallbelefttodosimpletrainingwork.This
willbeagreatpointgained,andweshallneverrestsatisfied
untilitisattained.Atpresent,ourworkisquiteelementaryin
itscharacter,andmustnecessarilybeso,onaccountofourlow
standardofadmission,andtheamountoftimethatmustbegivento
preparatorysubjects.Theonlythingthatwecandowellisto
trainprimaryteachers.Thepreparationsmade,willwarrantnothing
more.This,itistrue,isaveryimportantwork,andwhenitis
welldone,wehaveachievedgrandresults;butastillgreaterwork
liesbeforeus.Weshallnothavefullymetthedemandsofthe
publicschools,untilwecanprepareteachersfortrainingschools,
forhighschoolsandsuperintendents.Candidatesforsuchpositions
shouldcometousfromourCollegesandUniversities,toreceivethe
requisiteprofessionaltraining.Thisisonelineofworkthatlies
beforeus.Thelimitsofourworkinotherdirectionsmaynotbeso
welldefined,butthedirectionsinwhichweoughttobendour
effortsarenonethelessclear.31Theoretically,wesaythat
theworkofthepublicschoolsistotrainthechildrenwhocometo
them,physicallyandmorally,aswellasintellectually.Butsofar
asthisrelatestothemoralandphysicaltraining,itislittle
morethanemptyprofession.Especiallyisthistrueofthelatter.
Moreandmorethetendencyhasbeenandstillis,tocutoff
opportunitiesforthephysicaldevelopmentofthechild.Thelast,
andasitseemstous,themostfatalstepurgedistheabolitionof
allrecessesandopenairsportsinconnectionwiththeschool.The
tendencytomultiplysubjectsofstudy,andconsequentlytoincrease
thedemandsmadeuponthepupilstostudyathome,andthuscutdown
thehoursofphysicalwork,playandrecreationtheonlypossible
opportunitiesgivenforphysicaldevelopmenthashadarapid
growthinthelasthalfcentury.Itistrue,thatwe,nowand
then,seestoutprotestsmadeinsomeofourpublicjournalsagainst
thispernicioustendency.Wetakeourstandsquarelyagainsttheno
recessmovement.Onthecontrary,weadvocatelongerandmore
frequentrecesses,withmoreampleandbetterappointedprovisions
forplayandphysicalexercise.Everyschoolshouldhaveample
grounds,inwhichabundantroomisprovidedforagreatvarietyof
games.Tofacilitatethese,thenecessaryapparatusshouldbe
provided,andtheteachershouldbealwayspresenttogiveimpetus
anddirectiontothesegames.Toprovideagainstinclementweather,
ampleandwellconstructedshedsshouldbeprovided.Inadditionto
thisthereshouldbeawellequippedgymnasium,withsufficientroom
andapparatusforsuchbodilyevolutionsasmayberequiredina
wellarrangedcourseofphysicaltraining.Forthispartofhis^
worktheteachermustbeaswellqualifiedasforanyother.The
carriageofthebodyinwalking,insitting,grace,easeand
naturalnessinallthemovementsofthebody;agility,strengthand
toughnessofmuscle,thelawsofhealthasrelatedtosleep,diet,
exercise,workandplay;thekindsandpreparationsoffoodand
clothingareamongthesubjectsthatbelongtothissideofchild
culture,andtheearlieritisbegunthebetter.Inthisdirectiona
widefieldliesbeforeus.Wearehappytosaythatinthisworkwe

areabletoshowyoutodaythatwehavemadeabeginning.Wepoint
withpridetoournewgj^'mnasium,withitsampleequipmentsfor
theworkinhand.Provisionismadeforpupilsofallagesfromthe
babiesintheKindergartentothegraduatingclassintheNormal
School.Wehavebeguninearnestthisworkofphysicaltrainingand,
undertheguidinghandofDr.Lee,whoserarequalificationsinthis
directioneminentlyfitherforthiswork,wehope,intime,toshow
resultssuchashaveneveryetbeen32realizedinourpublic
schools.Unfortunatelyfortherealizationofallourideasinthis
direction,wearebadlycrampedforoutsideroom.Wemustconfess
thatwearenotentirelyguiltlessofthesinofAhabincoveting
thevineyardofNaboth,aswelookoutuponthemoreamplegrounds
ofouradjoiningneighbor.Asourcovetouseyessurveytheadjacent
grounds,wesometimeswonderwhetherouroutdoorplayaccommodations
maynot,atsomefuturetime,beenlargedbysomethingofthesame
processthathasgivengrowthtoourbuildings.Wearecareful,
however,atpresent,tocherishthisthoughtunderourbreath.At
thesemicentennialanniversary,Ihopesomeofyoumayseeoutdoor
arrangementsaswellappointedforphysicalculture,asthenew
gymnasiumaffordsforindoortraining.Itistrue,thattwentyfive
yearshencesomeofuswillnotbehere,butotherswillbefoundto
takeourplaces,andtheworkwillgoon.Inthisoutline,youhave
ahintoftheworkwehaveassignedtoourselvesinthedirectionof
physicalculture,andinthetrainingofteacherswhoshallcarry
itoutinthepublicschools.Wehope,atnodistantday,toshow
illustrationsofthegoodresultsofthiskindoftraining,that
willconvincethemostincredulousofitsutility.Inthedirection
ofmoraltraining,also,wehaveaninvitingfieldforstudyand
growth.Thisisasubjectthathas,asyet,bynomeansbeen
exhausted.ThataknowledgeofthecommonEnglishbranchesisnot
sufficientofitself,toconverttheboysandgirlsofourcommon
schoolsintogoodcitizens,noonedenies;buthowtocarry
forward,sidebysidewiththiselementaryEnglisheducation,sucha
cultivationofthemoralvirtues,asshallinsuretothestate,
moralaswellasintellectualstrength,hasyettobeshown.Inthis
directionnolittleapprehensionisbeingfeltonthepartofthose
whoarethemostthoughtfulandobservantinregardtothepresent
productsofourpublicschoolsystem.Thatthispartofourworkhas
nothithertoreceivedtheattentionthatitdeserves,willnotbe
questioned.Howtomeetthedeficiencyisaproblemthatisyet
beforeus.Thisisoneofthequestions,thesolutionofwhichwe
haveassignedtoourselvesinthefuturedevelopmentofourwork.Of
somethingswearealreadysatisfied.Moralmaxims,morallessons,
andmoralinstructionintheordinaryacceptationoftheseterms,
areinadequatetoproducetheresultsdesired.Thisisaworkthat
canneverbeaccomplishedbylecturingorlessongiving.Theremust
besilent,quiet,inobtrusiveinfiuences,which,liketheall
pervadingsunlight,shallvivifyandinvigoratethegrowthofthose
finerelementsofthehumansoul,thatcanonlybenourishedinto
lifeandquickenedintoactivity''byinfluencesthatareintangible
andimperceptibleto33thehumansenses.Thesemustemanate
fromtheteacher.Bythewarmandgenialinfluenceofherown
virtuesmustthegrowthoflikequalitiesbeinducedinherpupils.
Neatnessinpersonandattire,neatnessinthearrangementand
keepingofhertable,theblackboard,thefurniture,infactevery
nookandcomerofherschoolroom;(coupledwiththerequii*ement
oflikehabitsonthepartofthechildren;)punctilious
promptnessinexecutingalltheappointmentsoftheschool,the

openingandclosingofeveryexercise,themeetingofevery
engagementbothinandoutoftheschool;ascrupulousholdingto
exacttruthfulnessineverywordandact,inallherdealingswith
herpupils;aclearmanifestationofingenuousfranknessonall
occasions;agenerositythatdefiesthepossibleaccusationof
selfishness;animpartialityintheadministrationofherduties
thatisabovereproach;afaithfulnessintheperformanceofevery
dutythatisunquestioned;alovethatknowsnobounds,but
embracesinitsfoldeverychildofwhatevercondition,temper,or
intellectualability;withpatiencethatknowsnoexhaustion,but
isequaltoeverypossibleemergency;agenuinepoliteness,
emanatingfromtheheartandcarryingwithitevidencesof
genuinenessthatliftsitentirelyoutoftheatmosphereofmere
formalism;withacheerfulnessthathelpstolightupevery
countenancethatcomeswithinitshorizon,bytheunabatedand
uniformmanifestationoftheseandkindredvirtuesonthepartof
theteacher,coupledwiththeencouragementandrequirementoflike
exercisesandhabitsonthepartofthechildren,untilrepetition
ripensintohabit,andhabitintocharacter,maywehopetodomuch
towardthesolutionofthisvexedproblem.Wedonotclaimfor
ourselvestohaveaccomplishedallthis;wecanonlysaythatwe
haveaspirationsinthisdirection,andhavemadeafeeble
beginning.OurSchoolofPracticeislocatedinthemidstofthe
poorerclasses^thedaylaborers.Withfewexceptionsthechildren
havelittlehomeculture,andyet,Imustsayforthemthattheboys
ofthisneighborhoodaretheonlyboysImeetwhodoffthehatto
thegentlementheymeetonthestreet,whopromptlyofferseatsto
allchancevisitorsattheschool,whoarecarefultopassaround
ratherthaninfrontoftheirsuperiorsinage,whoneverfailto
politelybowand^'excuseme^'toallseemingviolationsofthe
morecommoncivilitiesofeverydaylife.Agreatdealremainstobe
accomplished,itistrue,but,asstrawsindicatewhichwaythewind
blows,sothelittleamenitiesindicatesomethingofthedirection
inwhichwearestrivingtomove.Withproperconveniencesfor
outdoorrecessesmuchmightbeaccomplished,thatistous,now,
impracticable.Therecessesofferthebestopportunitiesthatever
cometotheteacherforthemoralC34training"ofthe
children.Itisintheirplaysthatthechildrenletthemselvesout,
astheydonotatanyothertime.Theoldadageisthatyounever
knowamanuntilyoucometotransactbusinesswithhim.Itisthen
thattheselfishnaturecomesout.Soitiswithchildren.They
nevermanifesttheirrealcharacteruntilbroughtincontactwith
otherchildrenintheirplays.Theplayground,then,istheplace,
aboveallothers,tostudythechildrenandgathermaterialfor
moralinstructionandtraining.Anotherdirectioninwhichwecan
saythatwehaveonlyplannedabeginning",istowardaproper
developmentoftheaestheticcultureofchildren.Inthistoo,asin
moralculture,verymuchistobedonebythesilentinfluences
whichenvironthem.Inthedressoftheteacher,itsmaterial,its
arrangementandcombinationofcolors,intheschoolroomwithits
furnitureanddecorations,asalsointhearrangementand
beautifying*oftheschoolgrounds,theopportunitiescometousfor
cultivating*thetasteofthechildrenforthatwhichisharmonious
informandcolor,andbeautifulincombination.Indrawing*and
moldinginclaytheyareledtoimitatesuchbeautifulformsas
arepresentedtothemforstudy.Thislineofculture,whichhas
receivedverylittleattentioninourpublicschools,hasavery
importantbearingonthelives,thehomesandcharacterofthe

Americanpeople.Toencourageandhelponthiskindofcultureby
directmethodsofwork,isaresolutionwehaveformed;andour
plansarematuredforthecommencementofearnestworkinthis
direction.Smallbeginningshavealreadybeenmade,asperhapssome
ofyoumayhaveobserved,butwehavearrangedtoentermore
earnestlyuponthisworkontheopeningofthenextterm.Youwill
doubtlessinquire,whatisyourpositioninregardtoindustrial
education,ofwhichwehearsomuchnowadays.Inthisdirectionwe
confessthatwehavebeenslowtoact.Somuchhasbeensaidonthis
subjectandsomanyconflictingopinionsadvanced,thatwehavebeen
inclinedtowaitalittle,untilthedustandsmokeofthefirst
onsetshouldhavepassedaway,anduntil,bycarefulobservationand
refiection,wemightlayapermanentbasisuponwhichtobuild.We
arehappytobeabletosaytojou,thatatlastourdecisionis
made,andourplansforfutureworkinthisdirectionarealready
completed,andwearetomakeabeginning.Attheopeningofthe
falltermashopistobefittedupandfurnishedandthechildren
oftheSchoolofPracticewilloccupyitjusttotheextentthatit
canbemadetopromotethelegitimateeducationalworkofthe
school.Wehavenothoughtoftrainingboysandgirlsforany
specifictradesoroccupations.Ourconstantef35fortwill
betomakethebestpossibleuseofthelimitedtimeallottedthese
childreninwhichtopreparefortheseriousworkoflife;tomake
themasefficientaspossibleinanyoccupationtowhichtheymaybe
called.Toteachthemtoreadintelligently,towritealegible
hand,andtoperformwithcelerityandcorrectnessthesimple
combinationsofnumbers,toobserveaccuratelyandtoexpress
clearlyandconciselywhattheysee,tomakejustinferences,to
reasonwisely,bythehandtoconstructwithexpertnessanddex
teritywhattheeyeandtheimaginationperceive,tolaybyinstore
alargestockofconceptsreadyforusewhendemanded,withthe
powertocallthemupatwillandcombineandrearrangethemin
everypossible,usefulway,toimpressuponthemwelldefinedideas
offormandcolor,withtheabilitytocombinetheseintoharmoni
ousgroups,andgracefulandbeautifulrelations,tomakethem
familiarwithsomeofthemorecommonobjectsandforcesofnature
aboutthem,asrepresentedintheplants,theflowers,thestones,
theanimals,thebirds,theinsectsandthesimplephenomenonthat
dailyforcesitselfupontheattentionofeverychild,areamongthe
thingsthatwillmostearnestlyoccupythethoughtandeffortofthe
primaryteacher.Thisindustrialtraininghastwolinesofwork,
botheducationalintheircharacter,butwithdifferentendsin
view.Oneaimstowardthecultivationoftheaestheticnature,and
theothertowardthecultivationoftheconstructivepowersas
relatedtotheusefularts.Theformeriscarriedonbymeansof
drawing,inwhichperspectiveandshadingarelargelyemployed,and
moldinginclay;andthelatterbygeometricaldrawinginwhich
flatsurfacesaremostlyrepresented,andintheuseoftools.Both
oftheselinesareessentialineverywellarrangedschool
curriculum.Theboysandgirlsalikeshouldreceivecarefulculture
inbothofthesedirections.Inthepracticalexecutionofthese
ideas,somedivergenceisperhapsexpedientasbetweenthesexes.
Theboyswillperhaps),bemoreoccupiedintheshop,andthegirls
withtheshears,thethimbleandneedle.Thegirlsareprovidedwith
dollswhichtheylearntodressingoodtaste,bothasrelatesto
formandarrangement,andthecombinationofcolors.Inthisthey
areacquiringsomethingofthesamepowerthattheboysgetwiththe
useoftoolsintheshop,butinadirectionbetteradaptedtotheir

tastesandfuturenecessities.InthisbriefoutlineIhopeIhave
mademyselfunderstoodastoourideasandplansinthedepartment
ofindustrialeducation.Howwellwemaybeabletoexecutethem
remainstobeseen.Wehavenowrenderedtoyousomeaccountofthe
workinwhichwehavebeenengagedforthepastfewyears,andwhat
weproposeto36ourselvestoaccomplishinthenearfuture.We
havefeltthatitwashutjusttoyouthatweshoulddothis.We
haveaskedthisofyou,andwithafewrareexceptionsyouhave
cheerfullycompliedwithourrequest.Beforethecloseofour
sessionswehopetohearfurtherfromsomeofyou.Itrustwemay
alwaysholdourselvesinreadinesstogiveanaccountofour
stewardship;andmaywealwaysbeabletorendersuchanaccountas

will win for us the welcome plaudit, "Well done, good and faithful
servant."
Remote Causes Avhieh led to the Organization of the
Normal School.
A PAPER READ BY HON. O. J. HARMON.
The
gresitest men of this world are not its monarchs not its warriors
^not its millionaires they are its Teachers. It is great to govern
men ^it is greater to teach them self- government. It is great to
command the destructive forces of war ^it is GREATER to teach
man to love his brother man. It is, in a sense, great to accumulate
wealth it is greater to teach the subordinate place of wealth, and
how to gather and distribute wisely. Teaching, is the baptismal
idea of this Institution. Its re- motest cause rests in the original
grant of power, to subdue the earth this was man's appointed life
work. He stood at the head of creation in the midst of, and
above the forces which the creative hand had impressed on nature,
around, within, and for him, and his appointed work was to know
these forces ^to gain the mastery over, and reduce them to his
service. The intuitive activities of childhood the toils of graver
man- hood, in field and shop and laboratory the glad "Eureka" at
dis- covery of the hitherto unseen, all indicate this as the appointed
channel of human thought and progress. Here are the materials for
the achievment of his highest possibilities. The forces emanating
from* the creative energy light, elec- tricity, gravity, the storm
cloud, the planetary world all beckon him to acquaintanceship
and offer him their friendly ministries but in his ignorance he has
believed them Deities, or Devils, and has worshiped or propitiated
them. Sad evidence of the fall, that man's God-given powers have
been so distorted that, for more than 4000 years, war has dominated his energies and diverted him from his appointed work. In
the Tower of London, covering some 12 acres of ground, there is
one corridor extending nearly the length of the building, devoted to
the historic evidence of the progress of the race. On either side of
the central aisle are arranged, in chronological order.
38 the
instruments which evidence and measure his employment and
development. One passes sadly down this line of history, seeing at
first only the most savage agencies for destroying human life, and
for more than three-fourths of its entire length. Every thing tells of
battle fields, and only late begin to appear articles of peaceful
industry and

encies for prolonging life. Three thousand years ago, when war was
the business of na- tions, it was prophesied the time would come
when instruments of war should be converted into those of
husbandry and men should not learn war any more. Whoever was
the Prophet^ the Proph- esy is true and the time is at hand
arbitration now replaces war in the settlement of differences. It is
sublime to contemplate the building in which we meet to- day,
erected over the ruins of the old fortification which hides the
records of a hundred years of fighting. The school house rising on
the battle-fields of earth ! Surely, "Out of the darkness of the night,
The world is rolling into light, Daybreak is everywhere." It is not
pertinent to the object of this paper, to trace the forces which have
transformed the life of the nations suflBlce it to say, this is but
the beginning of the end which shall restore to earth the lost
harmonies of Eden. In the light of these truths, the people of
Oswego, some forty years ago regarded with much uneasiness the
condition of our public schools. Divided into small districts by lines
which did not divide, hostilities were incessant. Teachers were
employed whose chief merit was their cheap- ness. Consolidation
was bitterly opposed because it would deprive those in power, of a
little brief authority. The education of the child was held to be in
the interest of the parent, not the state, and the small sums to be
paid by the father kept hundreds of children out of school. In the
fight for bread, the child had only a money value, and was worth
what he could EARN : what he was worth to the state to himself,
had little con- sideration. In 1848, E. A. Sheldon, then a young
man now, and for twenty-five years the honored Principal of this
institution, found himself in Oswego, in one of those strange pauses
in life which, to the outer eye, seem accidental, but are in reality
the source and spring of life's greatest work. He was induced to
canvass the city, especially among the
39 neglected poor, and
found some 2500 young people and adults who could not read.
These disclosures greatly stirred the hearts of the christian and
patriot, and the question, what can be done, for a time ruled out all
others and found answer in the organization of the "Orphan and
Free School Association." Donations of money, food, clothing and
bedding came in freely. The basement of the old Tabernacle, then
standing on West Second St., near the Vulcan Iron Works, was
rented, and Mr. Sheldon to his surprise found himself in the midst of
120 wild boys and girls, most of whom had never been in a school
room. To bring order out of confusion was attended with some remarkable incidents and some perils. Two brother boys, especially
eminent for disorder, had the devil cast out of them by the
omnipotence of patient gentleness, and never again lapsed into
bad conduct. A few days sincQ one of them, now grown to
respectable man- hood, took the hand of his old teacher, who did
not recognize him, and blessed him for the redeeming work done
for him in that old basement. The school prospered a Sunday
School was added in the be- lief that the entire man must be

educated to assure good citizen- ship. A year passed and the


sentiment in favor of consolidation and free schools had grown. A
public meeting was held in the old city hall which develop- ed
opposition there were those who desired to retain control over
the people, and free schools and free thought were not in the interest of their plans. Appeal was made to the legislature, but failed.
It was renew- ed, and, thanks to the fidelity of James Piatt, in the
senate, and D. C. littlejohn in the assembly ^names which
Oswego honors, consolidation and free schools were established
by law. The following year an effort was made for repeal, and a
peti- tion with 800 names went to the legislature for that purpose.
It failed, and the law went into effect in May, 1853, with Leander
Babcock, A. C. Mattoon, D. C. Goldey, Wm. H. Goit, Wm. F. Mason,
A. B. Coe, John C. Churchill, and the writer of this paper for the first
Board of Education. The work of reorganizing not only the public
schools, but public sentiment as well, began in earnest. Mr.
Sheldon, who had gone to Syracuse, was induced to re- turn and
take charge of the work, and from that time to this, has
40 been
the embodiment of the educational idea and the exponent and
expression of its progress. Better schools inspired better teachers.
Plans for training teachers were formed. Old methods were
criticised and abandon- ed. The laws of child-development as a
study, came to the front. It has been said, "in a very deep sense all
human science is but the increment of the power of the eye ; and
all human art is the increment of the power of the hand.^' Seeing
nature and copy- ing it ^these, in their countless and indirect
and transfigured forms, are the two co-operating factors in all
intellectual progress. The mistake in the past has been the divorce
of these two factors words, instead of things, the abstract,
instead of the concrete, the complex, instead of the simple, have
been forced as intellectual aliment upon the child mind to repletion.
It is hard for the adult braintograspthesubjectiveunlessaidedby
theobjective.Forthechilditisimpossible;ideasgrowoutof
facts,andthedevelopmentandtraining"ofthesensesare
essentialtotheacquisitionoffacts.ThisisNature'sorder,and
itworkseasily."Thewhiningschoolhoycreepinglikesnail,
unwillinglytoschool,"disappears,andhegreetshisschoolwork
ashedoeshisgames.Teachingbyobjectscamelikethesunrise,and
thencameitslogicalcomplement,theKindergarten.Thereisyet
tocomethefurthersequence,thetoolhouse.Tosecurethemost
advancedthoughtinthetrainingclass,MissJones,whoformany
yearsconductedthetrainingofteachersintheHomeandColonial
TrainingInstitutionofLondon,wasobtained,andforoneandone
halfyearsgaveherlifetothiswork.Manypresentwillrecall
theirexperiencesinthoseafternoonsessionsintheoldbrown
schoolhouseonFourthstreetandatMead'shall.Eastside.We
hopedforherpresencetohavegracedthisoccasion,butour
thoughtsandbenedictionsfollowhersadly,asshereturnstoher
homeinEngland.TheTrainingClassprospered,andgrewinripeness
andpower^yetnotwithoutopposition.Ithaseverbeenthusa
fewmindshaveledthethoughtoftheworld,andoftenpaid,with
theirlives,thepenaltyforknowingmorethantheirfellows.In

February,1862,attheinvitationoftheBoardofEducation,alarge
meetingoftheprincipaleducatorsofthecountry,especiallyfrom
NewEnglandandtheMiddleStates,washeldatthecityhallto
considerthenewmethods.Threedayswerespentexaminingthenew
system,atthecloseofwhichtheysaid,"jPAeprinciplesofthe
systemarephilosophicalandsound,andinharmonywiththenature
ofman*yy41ByanactoftheLegislatureof1863,the
StateassumedtheTrainingClassandplaceditunderthecontrolof
theStateSuperintendent,providedforitssupportandmadeit
free.Thetransitionwaseasyfromthispointtothefinalactof
incorporationwhichtookplacein1865,andsobecametheOswego
StateNormalandTrainingschool.ThustheTrainingClass,bornof
childneedandcradledintheoldTabernaclebasement,grewinthe
oldbrownschoolhouse,attainedyoungmanhoodinMead'sHalland
the4thWardschoolhouse,atmaturitywasadoptedbytheStateof
NewYork,andreceivedforitspatrimonythisbeautifulbuildingfor
itshomelaboratoryinwhichtoworkoutitshighdestiny.i
HISTORYOFTHENORMALSCHOOLAPAPERREADBYHERMANKRUSI.
Thehistorianonwhomdevolvesthetaskofdescribingtherise,
progressandpresentconditionoftheOswegoNormalSchool,hasto
steerclearoftwocliffs:1st,heisnottoshowtoomuch
partialityforeventsorpersonswhichareyettoonearhisvision
toenablehimtoseetheminalltheirbearings,andtheless,ashe
maysaywiththeTrojanhero,quorumparsmagnifui.Hemust
secondly,nottracethecauseoftheeducationalreformtoabright
passingthought,proclaimedforthesakeofnoveltyorglory,but
referittoalivingprinciple,which,likethesourceofariver,
doesnothaveitsrealbeginningwhereitseemstobabbleoutfrom
theground,butpointstoastillhigheroriginatthefootofthe
everlastingmountains,whosesummitsseemtotouchthesky.The
firstconsiderationissomewhatrelievedbythethoughtthatthe
AlmaMaterofthousandsofitssonsanddaughtersscatteredover
thiscontinent,oughtinjusticetobereviewedbyone,whohasstood
nearit,whorejoicedinitsgrowthandprogressduringaquarterof
acentury.Thesecondconsiderationisansweredbythehistoryof
theschoolitself,moreespeciallybythecircumstancesattending
thefirstintroductionofimprovedmethodsofteachingintotheCity
schoolsofOswego.Theleadingspiritofthismovement,asweall
know,isMr.E.A.Sheldon,themanwhohasbuilthimselfalasting
monumentbythefoundationofthisnoblebuilding,butstillmoreso
bytheopportunityhehasgiventothousandsofpupilsfortheir
education,inspiringthemfortheirtask,and,lastly,bythe
undividedloveandrespecthehasearnedbyhisunweariedzealand
mildfatherlyinfluence.WhileSuperintendentoftheCity
schoolsofOswegohebecamemoreandmoredissatisfiedwiththe
resultsofthemethodsgenerallypursuedintheschools.Ona
visittotheNormalschoolatTorontohebecameacquaintedwiththe
publicationsoftheHomeandColonialSocietyofLondon.Inthese,
especiallyintheworksofMissMayo,hefound,systematically
presented,manyideasconnectedwithobjectiveteaching,whichhe
hadcherishedinhisheart43withouthavinghadadequatemeans
fortheirrealization.HeatonceprocuredthebooksuponObject
lessons^andinfrequentsessionswithhisteachersbeganto
discussthevariousexercisesandmethodscontainedtherein.But,in
spiteofhisearnestendeavors,hewasawarethattheyrequireda
livinginterpretertopresenttheminsymmetricalorder,anda
thoughtfulmind,whosepracticalexperiencewouldsuggestmany
valuableapplications.Thefollowingdocument,datedNov.1st,

1860,explainsitself:Inspiteofitslength,itdeservestobe
giveninfull,asitformsagreatcontrasttotheusualdrymatter
offactresolutionsproceedingfromBoardsofEducation,and
becauseitispregnantofhighandimportantresultsandexpresses
distinctlytheoriginalintentionofitsauthor:Nov.1,1860.
**TheundersignedCommitteeofTeachersdesiretocalltheat
tentionoftheBoardofEducationtoasubject,whichtheydeemof
vitalimportancetotheinterestandprogressofourpublicschools.
Itisknown,atleasttosomemembersofthisBoard,thatithas
beenpartoftheplan,inconnectionwiththeHighschool,tohavea
teachers'classformedfrommembersofthegraduatingclass,
composedofthosewhodesigntoteach,whoshouldspendaportion
oftheirtimeduringthelastyearoftheircourseinsomemodel
classexercisesfortheprimaryandjuniordepartment,inaddition
toespecialinstructioninthetheoryandpracticeofteaching.This
planyourCommitteeregardasanexcellentone;butforseveral
reasons,withthepresentarrangement,theydeemitimpracticable,
andexperiencehasthusfarprovedittobeso.Inthefirstplace
thecourseofstudy,asprescribed,leavesnotimeforadditional
studiesorduties.Itisasmuchastheclasscandotoaccom
^plishallthatisrequiredinthisdirection;anditseemstous
thatthereisnostudythererequiredthatcanbeomitted;but,on
theotherhand,therearesomesubjectsnotherepursued,thatwould
beofgreatutilitytoeverypersonandespeciallytoteachers.In
order,however,tomaketheseModelClassexercisesofgreat
utility,theteacherwhohasthechargeofthemshouldbeaperson
oflargeexperience,eminentlysuccessfulandineverywayamodel
ofexcellenceinhisprofession,apersonofgoodjudgmentand
greatdiscrimination,onewhocancriticiseclosely,pointout
defectsandshowtheremedy.AsitiswellknowntotheBoard,we
havebeenintroducingintoourPrimaryschoolsasystemof
instructioninmanyrespectsquitenewtoourteachers;andwhile
theyareforthemostpartworkingintoitverywell,muchbetter
eventhanwecouldhaveanticipated,yettheyfeelagreaterorless
degreeofawkwardness44anddiffidenceinconductingthenew
exercises,andarenotpreparedtointerestothers.Thepupils
comingfromourHighschoolandapplyingforsituationsasteachers
aremostlyquiteyoungandwithoutanyexperience,andifweshould
putthosepupilswiththeiryouthandinexperienceintoourPrimary
schools,theveryplacewhereevenundertheoldsystemthegreatest
degreeofjudgment,discretion,patience,ingenuity,experienceand
skillaredemanded,withallournewmethods,asnowadoptedin
theseschools,wecouldexpectbutfailureastheresult.Thesenew
methodsalsorequireathoroughknowledgeofNaturalHistory,inits
variousdepartments,togetherwithaquickandreadyhandinlinear
drawing,subjects,withwhich,inthepresentcourseofstudy,they
havecomparativelylittleacquaintance. To obviate all these

objections and carry out the original plan of a model school


department, your Committee would offer the following resolutions
and move their adoption : 1. Resolved, That in connection with the
High School there be organized a de- partment composed of
graduates of this school and persons from abroad who may apply
for admission, to be styled the Model Primary Teachers' Department,
the object of which shall be, to prepare teachers for the important
work of primary instruction. 2. Resolved, That no person shall be
admitted to this Department who does not hold a certificate of

graduation from the Oswego High School, or from some other institution whose courses of study and mental discipline are equally
thorough, or who shall, on examination, give evidence that he has
thoroughly matured the English branches generally taught in our
academies and high schools, and that he sustains a good moral
character. 3. Resolved, That this course shall be one year and shall
embrace the following subjects of study : 1st Term. Botany, Mental
Philosophy, and Linear Drawing in its practical ap- plication in
delineating objects from Nature on the blackboard. 2d Term.
Mineralogy, Review of Botany, Moral Philosophy, Linear Drawing
continued. 3d Term. Moral Philosophy and Mineralogy continued ;
also Drawing. Resolved, That a diploma or certificate of graduation
be awarded to all those who pass through the required course of
this department, and show by their practice in the school room an
aptness and ability to teach, and that the necessary steps be taken,
to entitle the holder of such certificate tp equal rank and privilege
with those holding State certificates. Resolved f That the Secretary
of this Board be directed, to correspond immedi- ately with the
Principal of the Training school for the preparation of teachers for
primary instruction under the patronage of the Home and Colonial
School society, in the city of London, with a view of obtaining a
teacher of high order, one familiar with the system of primary
teaching as now adopted in our schools and capable of taking
charge and instructing a teachers' class, such as the foregoing
resolutions contemplate ; and that he make all the necessary
arrangements for entering upon the proposed plan at the opening
of the spring term. Ayes Talcott, Oliphant, Doolittle, Mattoon,
Allen. No Richardson."
45 As the result of this action, Miss M.
E. M. Jones, a teacher in the Home and Colonial School, London,
England, was invited to Oswego and commenced her work on the
1st of May, 1861. Her teaching was essentially based on principles,
which owe their chief advocacy and practical application to the
work of the Swiss school reformer Pestalozzi. The more exclusive
attention to Object lessons as a separate branch of study, was of
English origin, and has since been greatly modified. Yet it was this
new feature in particular, which struck casual observers as worthy
of attention and imita- tion, and a practical way to change the usual
word or book method for one, in which real objects could be
studied, and thus establish a connection between the science
taught in school and the exigencies of life. More accurate
observers, however, found that objective teaching in its broadest
sense was the germ, from which better methods of teaching
number, language, geography, etc., could be derived. It did not
matter, whether every thing said or done in this direction was
altogether new. The teachers and the public had ere this been
regaled with beautiful theories of teaching and good advice in
regard to their execution. But the one thing wanting and
decidedly the most essential ^was given to the teachers of Miss
Jones' class. They were supplied with easy, naturally graded

exercises for each branch, the facts of which were capable of being developed by them. They also received instruction in
philosophy of education and methods, which, when tested by their
own work, were accompanied by suggestive criticism and useful
advice. The Oswego Training School, under Miss Jones' direction, or
even a few years afterwards, could not boast of great numbers. It
was composed of volunteers from teachers of the City schools, who
were willing to spend two hours of the afternoon for the acquisition of better methods of teaching. This and subsequent classes
were reinforced by pupils from this and other States, some of whom
were graduates of Normal Schools, and generally came well
grounded in the preparatory branches, and were eager to learn
better methods of teaching them. In spite of a great deal of indijfference manifested in the neighborhood, and ill concealed
hostility of the advocates of the old system, Mr. Sheldon's work
soon at- tracted attention from a more liberal and progressive class
of edu- cational men in this and other States of the Union. One
evidence of the increasing approval of his work lay in the fact, that
his most promising graduates were much in demand, and would
have been lost to the Oswego schools, but for the unstinted
liberality of the then Board of Education, who were not at that time
troubled
46 by the imperative demand, that only "citizens"
should apply for situations. From the effect produced by the new
method on pupils and teachers, Mr. Sheldon came to the conclusion
that its adoption into the schools of this country was a matter of
vast importance. To promote this end he issued, in .December,
1861, an invita- tion to some leading educators of different States,
to come to Oswego, in order to observe the practical working of the
method. This invitation was cordially responded to, by W. F. Phelps,
D. H. Cochran, David N. Camp, Thomas F. Harrison, H. B. Wilbur, W.
NicoU and Geo. L. Farnham. * There is something almost touching
in the introductory words of Mr. Sheldon's address. Far from
boasting of great results al- ready obtained, or giving vent to an
excited imagination in regard to hoped for results or laurels, he
seems rather to be thrilled by the greatness of the task, and long
for the sympathy and co- operation of kindred souls ; we give it in
full : " For more than eight years we have been striving to improve
our schools, and when we compare them with what they were at the
time of their organization, we feel that a decided progress has been
made ; but never have their deficiencies been so apparent as at the
present moment. Whatever the improvement, it certainly has not
kept pace with our ideas of what it ought to be. } We have asked
you here to examine a system of instruoftion we have been
endeavoring to incorporate into our schools, for the origin of which
we claim no credit ; neither do we claim that the principles of this
system are new in this country. For years they have been quietly
and almost imperceptibly creeping into our educa- tional theories ;
and have, although in an isolated and disjointed manner, made
their way into our best schools. Good teachers everywhere are

working more or less in accordance with these principles


modified perhaps in some degree and are there pre- paring the
way for a system of primary education, of which they constitute the
very web and woof. It is this feature which we claim as new in this
country. We have never had any system of primary education based
on sound philosophical principles, and practically carried out in a
definite and well arranged curriculum. Whether such is the system
to which we now call your attention, we leave you to judge ; it is for
this purpose we have presumed to invite you here today. Should
your judgment, after a careful in- vestigation, accord with our own,
it can but lead to a complete revolution in our methods of
teaching ; it will make teaching a profession, a title it has yet to
earn.
>?47Itwouldleadtoofartoenterintoaminute
reportofthelessonsobservedbythecommittee,accompanied,as
theywere,byvaluableremarksandsuggestions.Wesimplyappend
thetwoclosingresolutionsofthecommittee:*'Resolved,That
intheopinionofyourCommitteethesystemofObjectteachingis
admirablyadaptedtocultivatetheperceptivefacultyofthechild,
tofurnishhimwithclearconceptionsandthepowerofexpression,
andthustopreparehimfortheprosecutionofthesciencesorthe
pursuitsofactivelife;andthattheCommitteedorecommendthe
adoptionofthesysteminwholeorinpart,whereversuchintroduc
tionispracticable.^^Resolved,Thatthissystemofprimary
instruction,whichinagreatmeasuresubstitutestheteacherfor
thebook,demandsoftheteachersvariedknowledgeandthorough
culture;andthatattemptstointroduceitbythosewhodonot
clearlycomprehenditsprinciples,andwhoarenottrainedinits
methods,canresultonlyinfailure."MissJones'laborsendedin
thesummerof1862,andwillalwaysbegratefullyremembered.Her
workwascontinuedbyteachers,whohadbeenherpupils,andby
myself,whohadassistedintheobjectiveworkattheHomeand
Colonial,fromwhichMissJoneshaddrawnherinspiration.The
survivinginstructorsduringthefirsttwoyearsoftheOswegoCity
Normalschoolwilllookbackuponthatperiodofitsexistencewith
afeelingakintothatwhichcausessomemen,afteranhonestand
successfulstruggleoflife,tolookbackuponthesmallbeginnings
oftheirwork,thelittleworkshop,thesmallhousequarters
embellishedbyaffectionandhope,thefirstearnings,whichsmall
astheywere,gavethemevenmorejoy,thanthelateronesof
apparentlygreatervalue.Agedageswilllookbackwithdeepfeeling
towardacozyroominthesecondstoryoftheFourthWardschool
building,whereassembledeachdaytheteachersandpupilsofa
schoolwhichwasdestinedtostepoutofitscomparativeobscurity,
tobecomeafavoritefosterchildofthisgreatStateandamodel
schoolforsimilarinstitutionsalloverthiscommonwealth.We
havedweltatgreaterlengthonthebeginningsofthisNormalSchool
thanweshalldevotetotheremainderofitsworkandexistence.We
consideritsbeginningsanalogoustothetenderplant,whichhas
atfirsttobecarefully'nursed,sothatitmaydevelopevigorous
root,takeafirmholdintheyieldingsoilandsendforthatrunk,
fromwhichbranches,leaves,fiowersandfruitissueinduetimeand
order,eachformingthenecessaryconditionsforthegrowthofthe
next.Butacultivatedplant,whoseprogressisnottostopeven
duringtherigorsofWinter,needsanenlargedvaseorreceptacle
proportionatetoitsvigorandpromise.Itwasthuswiththis

school.Asitsmanagersneverstoopedto48indulgeinpompous
advertisements,butpreferredtoletthefactsspeakforthemselves,
theynaturallyfelttheneedofsympathyandencouragementfromthe
DepartmentoftheState,whosefunctionistowatchandprotect
theeducationalinterestsoftheState.Thisencouragementthey
foundinthepersonofthethenSuperintendentofPublic
Instruction,Hon.VictorM.Rice,*whoobtainedin1863agrantof
$3,000foritssupport.OftheActsubmittedtotheLegislature,we
shallonlyquoteSect.1,besidessomeoftheaccompanyingremarks
oftheSuperintendentrelatingtotheobjectsoftheschool,
cojirseofinstruction,etc."TheTreasurershall^sljannually,
fortwoyears,thesumofthreethousanddollarsforthesupportof
aTrainingSchoolintheCityofOswego,forthepreparationof
primaryteachersforthecommonschools,providedthatthecitizens
ortheBoardofEducationinsaidcityshall,withinoneyearfrom
thepassageofthisact,providethenecessarybuildings,grounds
andotheraccomodationsandappliancesforsuchschool,as
directedbytheSuperintendentofPublicInstruction;andprovided
further,thatthereshallbeinstructedinsaidschoolforaperiod
ofatleastfortyweeksinayear,notlessthanfiftyteachers
designingtoteachinthecommonschoolsofthisState;and
providedfurther,thateachoftheSenatorialdistrictsoftheState
shallrespectivelybeentitledtosendannuallytosaidTraining
Schooltwofirstclassteachers,eachtobeappointedbytheState
SuperintendentofPublicInstruction,aftertheyhavebeenduly
recommendedbytwoCountySchoolCommissionersorbyaCity
Superintendentofschoolsresidinginthedistrictforwhichthe
appointmentistobemade,andalltheteachersthusappointedto
saidTrainingSchoolmayreceiveinstructionandtrainingin
everythingtaughtinsaidschool,freeofchargefortuition."
TheobjectofthisSchool,whichyoushouldkeepinviewinre
commendingcandidatesforappointment,istoimparteachyeartoa
numberofeducated,giftedandzealouspersons,amorethorough
knowledgeofthemostapprovedandphilosophicalmethodsof
teaching;andoftheseanequalnumberistobeselectedfromeach
Senatorialdistrict,thatallpartsoftheStatemayhaverepresen
tativesinit,whowillimpartthesuperiorknowledgewhichthey
shallacquiretherein,totheschoolswhichtheyshallinstruct,and
totheteacherswhomtheywillmeetinTeachers'Institutesandin
thevoluntaryeducationalassociationsoftheirrespectivecounties.
Thattheinfluenceofsuchaschoolmaybethuswidelyspreadasto
affectbeneficiallytheschoolsinallthecountiesoftheState,
needonlybesuggestedtobeunderstood."49COURSEOP
INSTRUCTION."Philosophicalinstructionofchildrenandyouth
requiresthattheteachershallpossessaclearcomprehensionof
theirphysical,intellectualandmoralcondition,andofthebest
meansbywhichthiscanbeimprovedandexalted,andtocontribute
freelyandgenerouslytothepowerandhappinessofthepupils.
Particularattentionthereforebepaidtothestudyofthelawsof
hygiene,andtheneces.sityofobeyingthemwillbeearnestly
inculcatedtointellectualandmoralscienceandtosuchbranches
ofnaturalscienceandnaturalhistory,includingchemistry,botany,
zoology,mineralogyandgeology,asaremadetoyieldliberal
contributionstothemeansofteachingemployed,andtotheuseful
knowledgeofthosetaught.Carefulanddefiniteinstructionwillbe
giveninvocalmusicandinmethodsofteachingandillustrating
variousothersubjectsbymodellessons.Amongthesewillbe
includedform,size,weight,color,number,language,reading,

spelling,drawingandgeography.Thepropermethodsofclassifying
andgoverningschoolswillreceivespecialattention.Therewill,
therefore,beconnectedwiththeschoolasufficientnumberofmodel
andpractisingschools,toaffordtoeverypupilanopportunityof
observingandpractisingthemethodspursuedtherein.Oneofthe
modelschoolswillbebutpartiallygraded,and,initsgeneral
character,asnearlyasmaybeliketheschoolsintherural
districts,sothatthebestmethodsoforganizingandmanagingsuch
schoolsmaybelearned.Theschoolhoursofthepupilswillbe
dividedbetweenclassrecitationandinstruction,observationinthe
modelschoolsandteachinginthepractisingschools,underthe
immediatesupervisionofthemostcompetentcritics,whosedutywill
betopointoutdefectsandexhibitthepropermethods.Tothe
observationandpracticeandinstructionintheseschools,the
highestimportancewillbeattached."Evidencesofincreasing
solicitudefortheproperinstructionoftheyoung,andofagrowing
andmoreenlightenedpublicsentimentinregardtotherequisite
qualificationsofteachers,aredailyaccumulating.Evenwhilst
makinggreatandpainfulsacrificesandherculeaneffortstosave
thelifeoftheRepublic,ourpeople,faithfultothemselvesandto
theirposterity,havenotremittedonejotortittleoftheir
interestintheschools.,.Onthecontrary,theyseemtoappreciate
fully,thatthoughthelastrebelshallbesubduedandthecause
oftherebelliondestroyed,theycannot,eventhen,hopethatthe
Republicwillmarchonwithitspristinevigorandbecome^ancient
ofyears,*unlesstheyinculcateonchildrenandyouth,knowledge,
virtueandanundyingloveofliberty.InD50.viewofthis
statement,wemaycheerfullyandhopefullyanticipatethatthe
teacheristobemorehighlyhonoredandrewardedforhisservices,
andthatthose,whohaveanaptitudeforteachingwillavail
themselvesofthefacilitiesforpreparation,offeredbytheNormal
andTrainingschools."TheprecedingActshowstheoriginal
intentionsofthepromotersandleadersoftheschool,towhichit
hasinthemainremainedfaithful,makingallowancefor
modificationsrenderednecessarybyalteredcircumstances.The
factofitsadoptionasaStateschoolduringadarkperiodofthe
lastwar,isanhonorabletributetothefirmdeterminationofone
partofthenationwhilstcompelledtobringheavysacrificesin
menandmoneyforthedefenceoftheirbelovedcountrytobe
equallyanxiousforitsintellectualandmoralwelfare.In1865the
OswegoBoardofEducationpurchasedtheUnitedStateshotel
property,NorthsideofSeneca,betweensixthandseventhstreets,
atthecostof$11,500.Theyenlargedandfittedupthebuildingat
anadditionalcostof$14,500,inall$26,000.Ontheseventhof
April,1866,ageneralNormalSchoolactwaspassed,providingfor
sixNormalSchoolsinvariouspartsoftheState,tobegovernedby
LocalBoardsappointedbytheStateSuperintendentandremovable
atwillbyhim.Theannualgrantmadeforthemwas$12,000,
afterwardsraisedto$16,000.OnMarchthe27th,1867,thebuilding,
groundsandappurtenancesoftheOswegoschoolwereacceptedbythe
State.TheStateSuperintendentappointedaLocalBoardof
thirteen,andthisendeditsconnectionwiththeCityschools,
exceptthatwhichnecessarilyarosefromtheexistenceofthe
Practiceschool,theteachersofwhichwereandarestillchosenby
theCityBoardofEducation.Uptothistimetheentranceof
pupilsdependedonexaminationsforadmission,butitwassoon
found,thatwhilstmanycouldpass1}hemostnecessarybranches,
theywereignorantofothers,fromwhichgeneralcultureisequally

derived.Henceitwasnecessarytocreateanewdepartment;an
AdvancedEnglishCourse.Besidesthesetwocourses,theElementary
EnglishandAdvancedEnglish,anotherwasafterwardsadded,called
theClassicalCourse,inwhichLanguages,AncientandModern,
receivedparticularattention.Atfirstthepupilsofthelatter
werenotrequiredtoteachinthePracticeSchool,butwereallowed
tograduatewithoutthisordeal.Althoughthismighthavegivena
greatimpulsetothenumericalrepresentationofClassicalscholars,
itwasafterwardsrescinded,sothatnoscholarcannowgraduate,
withoutstudyingthemethodsandtheirapplicationinthePractice
school.51underthesupervisionofcompetentandexperienced
teachersorcritics.Inintimateconnectionwiththegrowthofthe
schoolandnecessaryaccomodationofvariousdepartmentsof
teaching,isthegrowthoftheNormalSchoolbuilding.Itis
possible,thatsomeamongthisaudience,whohavereceivedtheir
instructionintheoldwoodenstructurearrangedforthe
conveniencesofahotel,willmisstheshadypiazzasandpillarson
theSouthandEastsideofthebuilding,whichseemedconvenientfor
privatestudyorotherprivatemattersnotmentionedintheprogram.
Theywillalsomisstheivies,theseevergreenremindersoftheir
respectiveclassesandclassreunions.Ontheotherhandtheymust
concede,thattheroomsnowadmitmorelightandsunshine,thatthey
presentconveniencesandaccomodationsnotdreamedofbefore.They
willhailthestudyroomwithallitsrulesofsilenceandorder,
rememberingwellhowthedearoldHall(nowamongstthethingsof
thepast)wasaverypoorplaceforstudy,withitsfrequent
interruptions,marchingsinandout,andtheillconcealed
whisperingsgoingonatthebackoftheroomandincorners.The
newbrickbuilding,asitnowstands,(withtheexceptionofone
wingthatwascompletedlastyear)wasraisedintheFallof1879,
atanexpenseof$56,000.Wehavenoroomforthedescriptionof
itsparticularrooms,hallsandmanifoldconveniences.Afewwords
mustbesaidinregardtothemagnificentfittingupofthethird
storyforthepurposesoftheScientificDepartment,sinceit
indicatesagreatprogressinitsscopeandefficiency.Inspiredby
thespiritandexampleofthegreatAgassiz,whowishedhispupils
tocommencewithNaturedirectly,notthroughbooks,ourteachersof
sciencefeltthenecessityofseparateworkingroomsforchemistry,
naturalphilosophy,botany,zoology,etc.,alsoillustrative
objectsforobservationandstudy.Ourvisitorswillfindthat
chieflythroughtheenthusiasticexertionsofProf.Straightthese
thingshavebeenliberallygranted,andthatthisdepartmentwill
comparefavorablywiththoseofsimilarinstitutions.Thesamemay
besaidoftheGymnasiumbutrecentlyfittedupunderthedirection
ofDr.Leewitheverykindofapparatusforhealthfulexercise,in
ordertogivetotheyouthfulbodythestaminanecessarytobattle
withlifeandtostemtheencroachmentofprematureweaknessand
disease.Fromthebuildingconstructedyfbricksandstonesletus
turnourattentiontotheworkbuiltupfromlivingsouls,byits
pupilsandteachers.Althoughthelifeworkofeachpupil,inone
sense,isofasmuchimportancetohimselfandtoacircleof
intimatefriends,asthatof52teachers,thelattermust
necessarilyhavesomeprominenceinthehistoryofaschool,from
theinfluencetheyexerciseduponallthemembers.Whenthe
principalactorsintheworkoftheschoolwillhavegonetoother
vocations,ortotheirrest,itmaybeasuitabletaskforthe
futurehistorian,tocommemoratesomeoftheefforts,whichhave
leftapermanentmarkorimpression.Itistruethatsomehavedone

long'erservicethanothers.Ofthisinstitutionitmayevenbe
said,thatsomeofthefirstteachers(including"ourhonored
leader)arestillattheirpostaftertwentyfiveyearsoffaithful
service.Itliesinthenatureofthings,thataspioneersinthe
methodemployedfortheirrespectivebranches,theyhavecontributed
materialsforthebenefitofsucceedingteachers,whichwillcause
theirworktocontinue,whentheirvoicesarenomoreheardinthese
halls.Buttherehavebeenandstillareothers,whoseyearsof
servicehavebeenless,butwhohavesecuredasafeplaceinthe
shrineoftheaffectionsoftheirpupils.Independentoftheir
individualmerits,theschoolmaybecongratulatedfortwofeatures
affectingitssuccess:First,thepermanencyofteachersinsomeof
themostimportantdepartments,savingtheschoolfromtheeffects
incidenttofrequentchanges,whichcauseconfusioninthemindsof
thepupilsastothevalueofcontradictorymethodsofteaching:
Secondly,thecooperationandsympathyproducedbythefact,that
nearlyalltheteacherswerealumni,animatedbyfeelingsof
reverenceandaffectiontowardstheschoolanditsnoblepurpose.
Itisafoolisherror,(althoughsometimescommittedbyhalf
trainedpupils)tocallthatamethod,whichforcesthepupilsto
followmerelygivendirections,toanticipatetheteacherandthusto
gomerelyinbeatenpathsandeverdeepeningruts.Anaturalmethod
neverdoesthis,butratherrequiresanincessanteffort,tobring
thebranchesofstudyincloserelationwiththeexigenciesofa
progressiveage.Acloseexaminationofthepresentorganizationof
thenormaldepartmentandthepracticingschoolwillshow,that
theseexigencieshavebeenrespectedbytheintroductionofnew
subjectsoranimprovedmethodofillustratingthesame.Insome
branches,asforinstanceintheteachingofLanguages,themethod
hasbeensomodified,astogivethepupilsmorechancefor
expression,accordingtotheexamplegivenbyDr.Sauveur,whowe
arehappytosayistocomeincloserconnectionwiththisschool.
Thereisyetroomfortheintroductionofexercises,whichwill
enablethepupilstogiveexpressiontotheirpracticaltendencies,
bywhichIngenuityandtastearedevelopedatthehandofindustrial
exercises,ofwhicharealreadyfosteredintheKindergarten.As
longasthemanagersofthisschooland53theirteachersare
animatedbysentimentslikethese,thereisnofearthatitwill
loseitshighpositionintheranksofprogressiveinstitutions.
TheintroductionofaKindergartenisanotherinstanceofthis
progressivemovement.Startedin1881,inabeautifullydecorated
room,undertheableandgenialsuperintendenceofMrs.C.A.Burr,
ithasdoneexcellentworkasaprivateschool.Buttherealpurpose
ofitsfoundershasonlylatterlyfounditsrealization.Wemean
thatitisnowfreetothechildren,whointendtoentertheprimary
department,whilstanumberofexerciseshavebeenintroducedinto
thelatter,whicharecalculatedtodevelopemanualskill,andgive
totheirinventivetalentandtasteapleasingoccupation.About
twentysevenladieshaveavaDedthemselvesoftheopportunity
affordedthemtobetrainedasKindergartners,ofwhomeighteenhave
graduated.SomeoftheworkoftheKindergarten,suchasmoulding
clay,buildingwithblocks,knitting,etc.,iscontinuedunderthe
superintendenceoftheregularpracticingteachers,withthe
childrenofthelowestprimaryclass.Theexperimenthithertohas
beenverysuccessful,andwillbesoonextendedtochildren
belongingtohighergrades.Wearenowcomingtoapartofour
subjectwherethereisroomforinterestingstatisticswemeanthe
pupilsoftheschool.Itis,however,notsomuchthenumberof

pupils,whichformsasubjectofgratification,astheirquality,
character,thereasonsfortheircoming,thespiritofattentionand
intelligencetheyhaveshownhere,andthemissionaryworktheyhave
performedafterwardsindistantregionsandotherinstitutions.
Thequestion,^^whydidsomanypupilscomefromdistantparts?"
neednotbeansweredwiththefearofappealingtovanityandself
love.Inmanycasesthequestionofthosewhoentersuchaschool,
isnot:"wheredotheydisplaythemostlearning,orgivethe
highestpromisesforitsattainment?"butrather:"Wheredowe
findmethodsandpracticesocombined,thatthej^willshowusthe
way,bywhichwecanenterconsciouslyandintelligentlyuponthe
pathofdevelopmentandprogress,andwherewearepreservedfrom
makingabortiveexperimentsandblunders."NowtheOswegoNormal
Schoolhasventuredtodothat,whichtheolderschoolsintheUnion
didnotdaretoattempt,viz:Toentrustitsmoreadvancedpupils
withtheinstructioninthediversclassesofthePracticeSchool,
makingthem,tosomeextent,responsiblefortheconductand
progressoftheirclassesnotmerelyobserversorimitatorsof
teachersinsocalledModelSchools.54Shallwewonder,that
graduates,whohadpassedthroughthisordealandwhocouldsafely
bereconunendedtothedirectionofaschool,shouldhavegivenso
muchsatisfactiontotheirpupilsandemployers,astoencourage
manyothers,tofollowtheirexample?Naymore,shallwewonder,
thatnewlyfoundedNormalSchoolsinthisaswellasinotherStates
oftheUnionshouldhave"pickedout"ourbestpupils,inorderto
helpthemtointroducemethodsinPracticeschoolswhicheverywhere
werebeingorganized?Ontheotherhandthemanagersofsome
schoolssentustheirbestpupilsthattheymightreceivethesame
kindofinstructionbywhichtheyhadbeenbenefited,andtowhich
theyacknowledgedgratefullytheirsuccess.Werememberonceto
haveheardalecturersay"Thatpupilseithercometoschoolorare
sentthere."Theformerassumesavoluntarydeterminationtogain
knowledgeandaproperselectionofsubjectswiselyarrangedfor
thatpurpose.Italsopresumesanage,inwhichtheplaysand
allurementsofchildhoodarewillinglyabandonedandthemindis
devotedtomoreseriousreflections.TheOswegoSchoolhasbeen
fortunateinreceivingagreatnumberofintelligentvolunteers,
whilsttheaverageageofthepupilshasalwaysbeenbetweentwenty
oneandtwent^^two,whichwebelieveexceedsthatofanyother
NormalSchoolintheState,andperhapsinthisUnion.Favoredby
allthesecircumstances,thecareeroftheschoolhasbeenan
honoredoneandtherespectinwhichitwas,andisstillheldby
educationalmen,andtheinfluenceithashadontheeducational
workinourownState,maybegatheredfromthefollowing
particulars,whicharefarfrombeingcomplete:TheFredonia(N.
Y.)StateNormalandTrainingSchool,atonetimetooknearlyits
entirecorpsofteachersfromOswego,Dr.Armstrongtheprincipal,
havingbeenteacherhere.The(N.Y.)StateNormalandTraining
SchoolsofBrockport,Potsdam,Geneseo,Buffalo,CortlandandNew
Paltzhavebeenorganizedonthesameplan,andeachhasemployed
oneormoregraduatesoftheOswegoschoolasteachersofmethods
andforgeneraltrainingwork.TheOswegoschoolmayjustly
claimthecredit,whichischeerfullyaccordedtoheronevery
hand,ofhavinglaidthefoundationandpavedthewayforthe
establishmentofallthenewerNormalandTrainingschoolsinthis
State.ThegreatWest,atacomparativelyearlyperiod,senturgent
callsforteacherscapableofintroducingthesemethodsintotheir
trainingschools.55GraduateshavegonetotheStateNormal

SchoolofSanFranciscoandSanJose,Cal.;Mankato,WinonaandSt.
Cloud,Minn.;Leavenworth,Kansas;KirksvilleandWarrensburg,Mo.
;TerreHauteandIndianapolis,Ind.;IowaCity,Iowa;Peru,
Neb.;Trenton,N.J.;NewBritain,Conn.;Worcester,Mass.;also
totheTrainingSchoolsofBoston,Mass.;Cincinnati,O.;Cook
CountyNormalSchool,Englewood,111.;NewYorkCity;Davenport,
Iowa;PortlandandLewiston,Maine;ToledoOhio,andDetroit,Mich
;NewHaven,Conn.;Philadelphia,Penn.;Milwaukee,Wis.;Grand
Rapids,Mich.WealsosentteacherstotheSouthinbehalfofthe
educationofFreedmen^toFiskUniversity,Nashville,Tenn.;
AtlantaUniv.,Georgia;Tougaloo,Miss.;AveryNormalInst.,
Charleston,S.C;andstillfurtherSouthtosomeoftheRepublics
ofSouthAmerica,Mexico,theArgentineRepublicandothers.The
influenceoftheOswegoSchoolintheWesthasnotevenstoppedthis
sideoftheGoldenGate,buthasextendedtotheSandwichIslands
andtoJapan,whereoneofourgraduates,HideoTakamine,presides
overthetwoNormalSchoolsinTokio,theoneformenandtheother
forwomen.ThecombinednumberofthepupilsintheseNormalSchools
andthepracticingschoolsconnectedwiththem,amountstoseveral
thousands.Thenormalcourseextendsthroughfouryears,afact
thatwouldseemtoindicatethattheJapanesehavemorecorrect
ideasoftheimportanceofthoroughnessinthepreparationof
teachersthanwehaveinthiscountry.Butwhilsttheprincipal
influenceoftheOswegoschoolhasbeeninthedirectionofpublic
instruction,itwouldbewrong,nottomentiontheworkofsome
privateschools,themanagersofwhichhaveshowntheiraffection
andrespectfortheAlmaMater,bychosingsome,ifnotalltheir
principalteachers,fromgraduatesofthisschool.Thisweseefor
instanceinMissesMaster'sLadiesSchoolatDobb'sFerry;inMiss
Armstrong'sschoolinCincinnati,andtheAlbanyAcademy;the
HasbrouckInstituteatJerseyCity;theGermanAcademyatHoboken,
etc.Theirworkdeservesthemoremention,asthereis,inthe
higherclassesofsocietytowhichtheirpupilsbelong,astill
greaterneedtocounteractsuperficiality,frivolityandshow,than
evenamongthemiddleandlowerclasseswhichchieflypatronizethe
publicschools.Itwouldbegoingtoofar,tomentionthemanyand
oftendistinguishedvisitors,whichtheschoolhasreceivedat
varioustimes,moreespeciallyatthecloseofeachterm.Eventhe
CanadaBoardofEducationhassentdelegatestoobserveourmethods,
ofwhichtheyhavemadehonorablementionintheirprintedrecord.
Andnow,whatshallwesayinconclusion?56Manythingssaid
hererefertothepast.Tothosewhohavebeenhereforaq^uarter
ofacentury,visionsofaboutfourthousandsofpupilsare
hoveringbeforetheeyeswithmoreorlessdistinctness.Many,who
haveeftibai*kedonthedeep,broadoceanofknowledgeinorderto
reachlanduponwhichtosowtheseedforeducationalharvests,
have'changedtheircourseandreturnedtootherpursuitsoflife.
Othfers,however,havebeenwaftedbythosehalfyearlyreturning
tidesoffinalexaminationstothegoalofgraduation.Theirnumber
uptothistimeamountsto1281anhonorablerecord,whichcould
neverhavebeenreachedifthe'institutionhadnoiStrainedevery
nervealidmuscletoprovidethe'Statewithteachersconsciousof
theirhighvocation,orifthepupils;hadshownlessintelligence
andperseverance.Statisticsofpupils,inreferencetothe
localitiesfromwhichtheycame,showthat,withoneexception,all
thecountiesofthisgreatStatehavebeenrepresented.Ifweexcept
OswegoCounty,whichnaturallysuppliedanoverwhelmingnumberof
pupils,we'mustnameJeffersonandSuffolkasthebannercounties,

theformersupplying147andthelatterabout90pupils.Itwillbe
observedthatthelatterhadtotraverseaconsiderabledistanceto
cometoOswego;butthisdistancewasexceededbythepupilsfrom
otherStates,whowereinducedtovisittheschool,attractedbythe
reputationofitsmethodsandteachers.Theadvantagesreapedby
theseoutsidersfromexertionsandsacrificesmadebytheStateof
NewYork,arecounterbalancedbythefact,thatagreatnumberof
themremainedinthisState,anddevotedtheirenergiestothe
advancementofitsinterests.Ifwelookaboutuswefailtosee
someofourbelovedcolleagueswhomdeathhaspromotedtoahigher
schoolofdevelopment.Thesewillbementionedafterwards,together
withthevastnumberofpupils,whointheprimeoflifehavepassed
awayfromlovingparents,relativesandfriends.Letusagainturn
totheliving.Themanypupilsthatpeopledthesehallsduringthe
lastterm,havemostlyreturnedtotheirrespectivehomesor
placesofdestination.Butonthisdaytheirplacesseemtobe
filledagain.Frommanycountiesandmanystatesweseetheformer
pupilsoftheAlmaMater,riperinageandexperience,assemble
oncemoreonthesamespot,althoughinasomewhatalteredroom,
tosurveyagainthesceneoftheirformerlaborsandrecreations,
troublesandhopes.Theybeholdthefirmandmassivebuilding,which
standsasanoblemonumentoftheindomitableperseveranceand
selfsacrificeofonemanandhisactivesupporters.57The
viewfromthewindowsinthenorthsidestillextendsovertheblue
surfaceofthelake,boundbythedistantlineofyonhorizon.
Beyondthiswearenotpermittedtolook,littleaswecanscanthe
boimdary,whichseparatesusfromthefuture.Onethingissure:
Noneoftheaged,fewofthoseinmiddlelife,andafewmoreofthe
youngwillbeabletocelebrateournextquartercentennial;but
thisthoughtneednottroubleus.Suflftce,thatonthesideon
whichwestand,thereisstilllifeandnoblepurpose.Thatpurpose
iseternal.Itwillbetakenupbyothers,whenourbodieswillbe
moulderinginthegrave,andwhenthehistoryofourlives,likethe
presentunfinishedrecord,willbeclosed.PAPERREADBYAMOSW.
FARNHAMClassof'75.(ournormalschoolasrelatedtothe
workamongfreedmen.)WearetoldthatwhenLuthermadehisfamous
journeytoRome,atsightoftheEternalCityheprostratedhimself
andexclaimed:^^HolyRome,Isalutethee!"ApproachingOld
NormalIfeeladispositiontomanifestalikedeference.Shehas
dealtkindlywithhundredsofus,andhonoreduswithhername.Her
influenceisfeltthroughoutourland,andacrosstheseas.TodayI
havethehonorofbearingtestimonytoherinfluenceintheNew
South.Aboutthetimeofmygraduationinthesunmierof1875,1
appliedforworkincoloredschoolsSouth,underthecareofthe
AmericanMissionaryAssociation,andwasaccepted.Myonlytes
timonialwasfromMr.Sheldon,whichsaidinsubstancethatIwas
justcompletingtheadvancedEnglishCourseoftheOswegoState
NormalandTrainingSchool;andduringmyfivetermsofstudyunder
hissuperintendenceIhadbehavedmyself.SofarasIamawareIwas
thefirstonetoenterSouthernworkfromourschooLMr.Sheldon's
wordstomeintheofficewhenhefoundthatIhadchosenmycorner
ofworkamongthefreedmen,wereaninspirationandabenediction.
Hetoldmehewasgladthatourworkwastobeextendedtoanother
sectionofourland,andtoanotherrace.TheAssociationthat
employedmegavemepermissiontoengagethreeteachersforAvery
NormalInstitute,Charleston,S.C,theschooltowhichithad
appointedmePrincipal.IthereforeengagedHarveyJ.Calvert,
classofJuly,'73,ElizabethF.Sheldonofmyownclass,andmy

brother,whohavingbeentaughtintheschoolsofthiscitywas
imbuedwiththenormalspirit,ifignorantoftheletter.Inthe
earlyautumnof1875weleftforthelandofmagnolias,mocking
birdsandmosquitoes,andOctoberfirst,withsixotherswhowere
formerteachersintheschool,weorganizedourwork.Ourteaching
forcethenconsistedofthreecoloredladygraduatesofthatschool,
aSouthernwhiteladyofanoldandhighlyrespectedfamily,two
MassachusettsladieseducatedinNewEnglandacademies,onepupilof
theOswegocityschools,and59threeOswegoNormalgraduates.
Beginningworkwiththreehundredcoloredchildrenandyouthinthe
"CradleofSecession/'andassistedbyteacherswhorepresentedtwo
racesandthreesectionsoftheUnion,werealizedthatwehad
proceeded"fromtheknowntotheunknown."Obstaclesconfrontedus
oneveryside.Manythingsweretobedoneonwhichwehadnever
writtena"sketch."Wewonderedthatsomanyquestionsarosewhich
hadneverbeenasked.in"SchoolEconomy;"andthatsomuchcame
upforwhichDr.Truehadnevergivenusa"Law."Atlastthewhole
casewascoveredwhenwerecalledtheprinciple,"Nevertellachild
whathecanfindoutforhimself."Towhichprinciplewediscovered
thatourinstructorshadrigidlyadhered.Theofficersofthe
AssociationsaidtheyunderstoodthatOswegoteacherswereradical
intheirideas.Theyfarthersaidthatintheirmindsitwouldbe
bettertomakechangesgradually;tointroduceourmethodsslowly.
Perhapsinthemindsofsomepeopleitwouldbebetterforaboyto
leaveoffhiswrongdoingsbydegrees;toturnthecowsoutofthe
comgradually;topulltheweedsoutofagardenslowly.Wehonored
theirconvictions,butfollowedourown.Ithadbeensuggestedin
Methodclassthatwhenwehadanychangetomake,oranynewthing
tointroduceintoschool,weshouldnotproclaimitinthestreets
butdoitquietly.Oneoftheearlyintroductionswasgymnastics,
DioLewis'system.Thesephysicalexercisesresultedineaseof
movement,graceinposture,andrestformindandbody.Theyproved
ameansofmentaldiscipline.Manypupilsworkedhardandlong
beforemattercouldactinunisonwithmind.Andwhenthemove
mentswerelearnedsothattheycouldbegonethroughinarhyth
micalmanner,formanyofthemitwasthefirsttimethatmindhad
evergainedavictoryovermatter.Gymnasticsbecameafactorin
selfcontrol.Whisperingwasmoreeasilyovercome.Classeswere
passedinlesstimewithlessnoise.Simultaneousobedienceto
signalswassecured.Politenesswascultivated.And,aswehaveall
eitherexperiencedorobserved,thebodyandmindwereinvigorated
bythesesystematicandpleasurableexercises.Theworkhasnot
endedinourpupils.Thegreaternumberofthemteachaftertheir
graduation,andintroducetheseexercisesintotheirschools.They
findthemanexcellentmeanstobringparentstovisitschool.And
notinfrequentlygymnasticshavefurnishedpaidentertainmentsthe
proceedsofwhichhavebroughtsomeusefulapparatustoaidtheir
teaching.FouryearslaterIintroducedthissystemofphysical
exercisesintoAtlantaUniversity;andfromthatcenterhundreds
ofteachershavecarriedittoeverycountyofGeorgia.60
FromthispageofmypaperIwillspeakofourworkwithreference
toAtlantaaswellasCharleston;forthespiritoftheworkwasthe
sameinbothschools.Forthoseyoungmenwhohadbeenwithus
severalyears,andhadbecomefamiliarwiththemarchesand
exerciseswithdumbbellsandotherlightapparatus,andneeded
somethingnewtomaintainaninterestinthisdepartmentof
education,weintroducedmilitarydrill,forwhichIhadthe
servicesofexcadetWhitakerofWestPoint.Assoonaspracticable

wemadeprovisionfor,andafterwarddevotedoneperiodofeach
WednesdaytoIndustrialEducation,whichembracedscrollsawing;
claymodelings;designsfordadoes,borders,oilcloths,etc.;
outlinedandfilledinembroidery;patchworkquilts;floormats
andrugs;printing;drawing;gardeningandcookery.Theworkwas
supervisedbytheteacherswhowereregularlyemployedinthe
schools.Boysaswellasgirlsweretaughttosew;andsomeofthe
bestsewingwasdonebyboys.OnCommencementdayswehadindustrial
displays,whichinextentandexecution,surprisedteachersaswell
asvisitors.InAtlantaIfoundindustrialeducationfurnisheda
meansofschooldiscipline.Itwasnotanuncommonthingforaboy
totaketothefarmsuperintendentanotewhichread,"Pleaselet
thisboysawonehalfcordofwood,andoblige.'^Sometimesthenote
askedpermissionforthebearertoworkaspecifiedtimeinthe
garden.Onedaythefarmsuperintendentsaidtome,"Ifyouhavea
smallboywhohasbeenverytroublesome,youmaysendhimtometo
ridehorsetoplowoutcom."Heassuredmethathegotthebest
workfromboyswhomIsenthimfordiscipline.Throughoutour
SouthernworkwedevotedoneperiodaweektoBiblestudy.Thisplan
formoraltrainingwasadoptedbyourpupils,whoverygenerally
organizedandsuperintendedSundayschoolsintheirschool
houses..ItwasourcustomtohaveaTeacher'smeetingonceaweek
forcriticismsandconference.Thesemeetingswerecheerfullyat
tendedandthecriticismsandsuggestionskindlyaccepted.Neverbut
oncewasanyillfeelingmanifestedandthenitwasbythelan
guageteacherbecausethePrincipal'sinterpretationofarulein
grammardidnotcoincidewiththatofthetextbook.Thenextdayon
enteringherroomIsawtheruleillustratedontheblackboard
accordingtoitsinterpretationinTeacher'smeeting.Glancing
towardtheboardshesaidtome,"Doyouremembertheyoungmanof
theScriptures,whowhenhisfathersaid,^goworktodayinmy
vineyard,'answered,*Iwillnot,'butafterwardherepented,and
went?"Thesameteacherfouryearsafterwardsaidtomeina
letter,"Scarcelyadaygoesbybutsomethingyousaidinour61
Teacher^smeetingshelpsmetodomyworkbetterandmoreeasily."
Iclaimnocreditformyself,onlythatIhavetriedtobefaithful
totheteachingsreceivedinmyeducationalhome.TotheOswego
Normalschoolbelongsallthehonor.Ourteachersfollowedeach
otheringivingagenerallessononceaweek.Allteachersandthe
seniorclasswerepresentwhenthislessonwastaught.Attheclose
ofschooltheteachers,withouttheseniorclass,mettocriticise
thelesson.Theseniorclassatcertainhoursvisitedteachers'
roomsforobservation.Thisclasswasalsoallowedsomepractice,
andeachlessonwasfollowedbycriticisms.Alessonwithcriticisms
becameoneofCommencementexercises,andinvariablywasthe
exerciseoftheday.Theabilitytocriticiseintelligently,brought
ourgraduatesintofavorwithourStateBoardofVisitorsatAtlanta
University.Theirabilitywasdevelopedinmethodclasses,where
pupilswererequiredtowrite"sketches."Ihavefoundnothingso
beneficialinmyNormalclassesassketchwritingformakingpupils
exactintheirwork.ThefoundationofwhatsuccessIhavehadinmy
ownworkwaslaidinsketchwriting.Ilookbackuponthatworkwith
greaterpleasure,however,thanIexperiencedatthetime.Forit
wasbynomeansapleasuregivingthingtogetbackasketchwith
muchmorewritingthanithadwhenitwashandedin.Andwhichread,
"Nottothepoint.""Illogical.""Nodevelopment.""Seeme."Leaving
theclass,asIdid,woundedbytheteacher'spenwhosetreatment
wasalwaysheroicandwithoutanaesthetics,Ibecameconvincedthat

"thepenismightierthanthesword."InSouthCarolinaandGeorgia
aprominentfeatureofourprimaryandjuniorworkwasthestudyof
Nature.Thegreaterpartofthismindformingaswellasmind
developingstudywasconfinedtominerals,plants,insects,andthe
humanbody.InAtlantawefoundtextbooksonEnglishgranmiarin
fivegradeseachgraderepresentedaschoolyear.Thesepupils
wereattemptingtolearnthescienceoftheEnglishlanguage
beforetheyhadlearnedtheartofit.Manyofthemhadnolanguage
whatever.Somehadnoneedofalanguagebecausetheyhadnoideas
toexpress.WeletNaturestudysupplantEnglishgrammarinthe
firstthreegrades,andtakehalfofthetimeallottedtogrammarin
thefourthgrade.Thetransforminginfluenceofthischangewas
enoughtoconvinceskepticsofitsimportance.Forwehaveskeptics,
andtheywereconvinced.Thesensesofthepupilsbecomeacute
throughuse.Thedevelopmentoftheirfacultiesbroughtthemuptoa
highercivilization.Mindfibrewasbuiltin.Languagewas
cultivated.Aloveofbeautywascreated.Buttercupsandgrasses
becamesomethingmoretothemthansomuch62fodder!The
moralnaturewastrained.Mannersweresoftenedandrefined.An
interestincommonthingswasawakened.Androcksandplantsandthe
dwellersoftheairspoketotheminalanguagewhichthey
understood.Superstitionlostitsgrasp,andoneveryhandwas
revealedtothemGod'swisdomandlove.Attheendofthefirst
yearinCharleston,Mr.Calvert'sboyspresentedhimwitha
collectionofinsectsfoundthere.Thisgift,simpleinitself,
showedthataninteresthadbeenawakenedinanewfieldofwork,as
wellastheirloveforafaithfulteacherwhohadopenedtothemthe
bookofnature.Duringasubsequentyearinthat"citybythesea"
C.P.Vanlnwegen,classofJune,'76,taughtentomologywithmarked
success.Insectswerecollectedandkeptforthepupilstoobserve
themetamorphosesthroughwhichtheypassed.Themicroscopewas
broughtintoconstantuse,andeveryotherpracticalmeansemployed
thatcouldmaketheworkmoreeffectual.StilllaterMissHattie
Dowd,classofFebruary,'80,wassuccessfulinintroducing
chemistry.Eachmemberofherclasswasfurnishedapparatus,and
taughttoperformhisownexperimentsandtoobserveandrecord
alltheresultingphenomena.InalikemannerWm.M.Aber,class
ofJuly,'72,taughtchemistryinAtlantaUniversity.Perhapsallof
youarefamiliarwithDeGraffandSmith'sDevelopmentLessons,which
havebeenadoptedbytheChautauquaTeachers'ReadingUnion.The
lessonsonInsectswhichthatbookcontainsareatranscriptofwork
doneinAtlantaUniversitybyMargaretK.Smith,classofJanuary,
'83.ShealsogaveinthatInstitutiontheDevelopmentLessonson
FormandPlants,andtheplantillustrationswhichthebookcontains
wereengravedfromdrawingsmadebyMissSmith'spupils.Itwasher
plantohaveherpupilsmakedrawingsofallnaturalhistory
specimenswhichtheystudied.AndatCommencementthesedrawings,
withthepupil'scollections,wereadmiredbyscoresofintelligent
visitors,includingtheGovernorofGeorgia.InCharleston,but
moreespeciallyinAtlanta,ourNormalDepartmentswerevisitedby
alltheprominentteachersofthewhiteschools,andalsobysome
membersoftheirSchoolBoard.Itisplaintobeseeninlocalities
wheregoodworkisdoneforcoloredyouththatthewhitesofthose
localitiesincreasedtheireffortsfortheeducationofwhiteyouth.
Andthemoreprogressivepatronsofwhiteschoolsareonthequi
vivethattheirchildren'sschoolprivilegesshallnotbeinferior
tothoseofcoloredchildrenintheirmidst.Thepastorofa
prominentwhitechurchonceaskedtoseemycourseofstudyforone

ofmycoloredschools.Afterhehadexaminedithesaidthatitmade
greaterprovisionfortheeducationofcoloredgirlsthanthe
Ladies'Seminaryofthatcity63<50uld offer to his daughter.

He added, "I ought not to complain, for, as I am a clergyman. Miss


K. takes my daughter at reduced rates. Notwithstanding the favor I
shall be obliged to send my child away that she may have better
advantages." Different School Commissioners of South Carolina said
that the graduates of Avery Normal Institute were their best colored
teachers. Miss Eliza A. Bo wen, of Georgia, the author of
"Astronomy by Observation," which is just being published by the
Appletons, after having visited a number of colored schools told me
that she was able to tell the graduates of the Normal Department of
Atlanta University simply by their work. They do not bow down to
Webster's Blue-Back Spelling-Book, which is the most prominent
text-book in many of the public schools of Georgia. They do not
seem over-glad when parents tell with delight how "Johnny, who is a
right smart boy, has done learnt all the words clean to Baker y and
Mary, who knows aheap, hdis got to incoinprehensibility.^^ Our
graduates manage to put the Blue-Back into the back ground if they
do not suppress it altogether. In a recent letter from Miss Bowen
she said to me, " I think the Normal Schools for the colored race
have had a beneficial effect on the whites, of whom the lower class
are much opposed to changes." She also said, "It forces the results of progress before them. " In referring to the Blair bill she
remarked : " When people here object to the Blair bill on account of
the Federal supervision, I sometimes think a little wholesome
supervision would be a good thing." And then, true to her convictions, for which I admire her, she added, " I do not of course
mean that I would be willing to teach United States^ History supervised. " On that she vo
d the sentiment of the South. While the South is willing that we
should interpret Nature in Colored schools, it is not willing that we
should interpret "state right" and define the causes and spirit of the
Rebellion. I would not be willing to teach United States History
supervised by the South. When the South and the North come
together, they face in opposite ways ; because of their geographical
position it is impossible for them to see things in the same
direction. And to these geograph- ical positions are due the
differences in our social economy. We must be silent on political
questions in working for the freedmen. If we are outspoken
politically, we incur the displeasure, if not the persecution, of the
whites. Either one of these manifestations of their mental attitude
toward us weakens our influence upon the colored people, who are
at all times anxious that we should have the approval of their white
employers and friends.
64 In closing I will say that I have made
no attempt to write up the " much written up " colored people. My
subject did not call for it. Beside, the colored people have too great
magnitude to be inclosed^within the boundaries of a paper ^^to
be confined to fifteen minutes as the utmost limit. " I have only
drawn the curtain aside suflciently to give you a glimpse of what I

have seen of our Normal School as related to the work among the
Freedmen.
MAL SCHOOL BOARDINQ HALL AND COTTAGE.
The
Influence of the Os^vego State Nornnal School in the West.
BY
MRS. DELIA LATHROP WILLIAMS.
To the young" whose life is yet
an unexplored mystery, there is a consuming desire to peer into the
future, and by some art of divination to anticipate its events. But
when one has advanced so far that he has also a past, the season
of reflection and reminis- cence begins. The middle-aged live over
again, in recollection, the sports of youth and the joys of early
manhood with such acute delight that they are multiplied a
thousand fold, and early ex- periences, be they never so
satisfactory, are but the sources of life- long streams of pleasure.
Late in years the future loses all its charms, for at the best it
promises only growing infirmities and failing powers. A beneficent
Providence has tenderly ordered that time shall heal the wounds
made by bitter experiences, and when his soft hand has taken the
edge from all that was painful, are not "the former days better than
these" which are filled with weak- ness and weariness ? Our dear
Alma Mater, whose birth-day we celebrate on this occasion, has in
no sense, come to these years of weakness, but she has lived long
enough to make it possible for her to begin to indulge in
retrospections, and to find real enjoyment in recalling the events of
her younger days. like all fond mothers, no phase of this
reminiscence gives her more unalloyed pleasure than the living
over again the lives of her children, noting their growth, and rejoicing in their successes and honors. The children are all very
grateful that she has invited them home again to assist her in
recalling many incidents which may have passed from her memory
and to bring to her knowledge much, that with her numerous family
cares, may have been altogether unknown to her. like all wise
mothers, our mother has taught her children to be self-helpful. She
has pushed them off her lap, then away from her knee, and finally
from the maternal roof altogether, across the rivers, beyond the
lakes, over the mountains, east and west, any- where, everywhere
that they can find working room ; for they have inherited from her
the spirit and love of work. If she will let me I will whisper in her ear
what I hear of some of her boys and girls E
\
66 who have
crossed the mountain line and sit facing the Father of Waters, the
great middle highway of the land. Through the agency of ardent
and progressive men in charge of the public school interests of the
Mississippi valley, the " Oswego Movement, " as it was called
twenty years ago, early made itself felt in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Wisconsin and Minnesota. As soon as it was reported that a star had
risen in the east, these men, Edwards, Hancock, Harris, Phelps,
Pickard, Rickoff, Shortridge, Smart, White (E. E. ) White (S. H. ) and
others, growing school men of their respective states, made a
pilgrimage to see the light of her rising ; and theysawandbelieved.
Asaresult,agreatimpulsewasgiventoelementaryinstruction
inthissection,andasanecessarysteptowardstheintroduction
ofbetterandmorephilosophicalmethodsintotheschools,thework

ofeducatingteacherswasmostardentlyadvocated,andmost
hopefullyenteredupon.Thedecadefrom1860to1870wasoneof
intenseeducationalinterestasregardselementaryinstruction.
Priorto1860therewere,accordingtotheReportofthe
CommissionerofEducationfor18834,buttwoStateNormalSchools
westoftheAlleghanies,oneinYpsilanti,Michigan,foundedin
1852,andoneinNormal,Illinois,foundedin1857.Besidesthese
stateschoolstherewasacityNormalSchoolinSt.Louis,founded
in1857.Duringthedecadefrom1860to1870inclusive,therewere
openedwestoftheAlleghanieselevenstatenormalschools,ofwhich
CaliforniahadoneyIndianaone^Kansastwo,Minnesotathree,
Missourione,NebraskaoneandWisconsintwo.OfpubliccityNormal
andTrainingschoolsthereweresevenopened,includingthoseof
CookandPeoriaCountiesinIllinois.ThesewereintheCitiesof
Davenport,Iowa;IndianapolisandFortWayne,Indiana;Cincinnati
andDayton,Ohio,eachwithanOswegograduateatitsheadandover
whichOswegostillholdsamother's,or,atfarthest,a
grandmother'ssway.Winona,Mankato,St.Cloud,Whitewaterand
otherstateschoolswereorganizedwithtrainingdepartments,at
whoseheadwasplacedatrainedteacherfromOswego.Besidesthe
graduatesofthisschoolinconspicuouslyresponsiblepositions,a
largenumberwentintoimmediateworkofteachingchildrenandmade
theirinfluencefeltdirectlyupontheschoolroom.Todayitis
safetosay,thereisnotacityorlargevillageeven,inallthis
tractofnorthmiddlestates,whichhasnotamongitsteachersa
descendantoftheOswegoNormalSchool,ofthefirstorsecond
generation,whileinmanyofthemtheteachingforceislargelymade
upofthesetrainedteachers.CincinnatiCityNormalSchoolalone
hasgraduated,sinceitsorganizationin1868,67820young"
womenallofwhom,savesomeofthemostrecentgraduateswhohave
notyetbeenappointedtopositions,havebeenactuallyemployedin
teaching,andalargeproportionofwhomarestillintheschool
room.TheDaytonNormalSchoolhasgraduated,sinceits
organizationin1869,199youngwomenexclusiveofthisyear's
class,allofwhomgothroughtheschoolfortheexpresspurpose
ofbecomingfittedtoteach.Clevelandhasalargeandinfluential
TrainingSchoolestablishedin1874,whichhasgraduatedfive
hundredteachers.Sanduskyhadoneforseveralyearswhichisnow
discontinued,andColumbushasorganizedonequiterecently,with
oneoftheablestofOswegograduatesatitshead.Ispeak
particularlyoftheTrainingSchoolsofOhio,notbecausetheir
recordisexceptionallygood,butbecauseIambetterinformedin
regardtothem.Thereisnoproblemsodifl&cult as that of

estimating, in the great march of affairs, the influence of any one


person or move- ment. The problem becomes doubly diflBlcult
when the one who attempts the solution is himself part and parcel
of the movement. But it cannot be an exaggeration to say that our
dear mother, whom we to-day so affectionately congratulate, by
her graduates in State Normal Schools, City Training Schools, in
Normal depart- ments of high schools and colleges, in city and
county institute work, in educational gatherings, by text-books on
educational methods, and discussions in educational Journals, has
molded the educational sentiment and practice of our own land not
only, but to some marked extent of lands beyond our own. That I
might not speak from the narrow circle of my own observation, I

have asked some of the gentlemen to whom I have already referred


as being familiar with the "Oswego movement," to give their
opinions concerning it, after having observed and tested its work
and its graduates for twenty years. I first quote from a letter
written by a gentlemen who has been for many years familiar with
all the educational movements of the country, and himself has
constituted a part of them all, William F. Phelps, of Mmnesota. He
says : '^ As to the influence of the Oswego formal school upon
Education in the West, I And it is a theme too fruitful to be passed
over as hastily as I shall be compelled to do owing to pressure of
duties. From the time when I served on a committee to in- vestigate
and report upon the plan of instruction introduced in that school by
Miss Jones, of the Home and Colonial Training Institution, I have
been profoundly im- pressed with the value of its methods ; and
when, in 1864, I was called to Minnesota to organize the first
Training school established west of the Mississippi river, I chose the
Oswego school as the model, in respect to its methods of teaching
and the spirit of its work upon which to build up a system of
professional training for the teachers
68 of the Iforth star state.
The first teachers employed there were from Oswego, or else had
been trained by the representatives of that institution at Davenport,
Iowa. Miss Mary Y. Lee, now connected with the Oswego school was
one of the first who was called to duty there, and all who know her
matchless skill, her earnest spirit, and her strong character, can
well realize what a povrerful influence she exerted over her pupils
and upon the destinies of the institution. Thoroughly versed in the
prin- ciples of her divine art, apt and skillful in their application, and
enthusiastic in her devotion to duty, her work when performed left
nothing to be desired. * ' And such in a high degree was the
character of her associates. "Whatever they touched, they touched
with a master hand. As teachers they were true artists. Precept and
example, theory and practice, were perfectly joined, and the result
was that their pupils were inspired and built up in their professional
preparation to a de- gree that I had never witnessed before. This
school at once took hold upon the com- munity and upon the entire
state, and became the foundation of two other state schools of like
character. From the begining the graduates of Oswego have been
largely employed in the three normal schools of Minnesota, and I
attribute their phenomenal success largely to the wonderful
influence of this school. ' The influence of Minnesota's example
upon other states of the west and north- west is, in my judgement,
due in no small degree to the inspiration imparted to the disciples
of the Oswego school. Wisconsin, Iowa, Indiana, Missouri and even
Dak- ota, yet in its infancy, all are profiting by the new dispensation
inaugurated by Dr. Sheldon and his able coadjutors." Prof. Edward
Searing, President of the Mankato Normal School, sends the list of
names of Oswego graduates, eight in all, who have taught in that
school, and adds : '^ It is honorable for Oswego. All have been
good teachers, most of them excel- lent. AM except the first have

taught since I came here. This is good evidence of my own high


esteem for Oswego. " Dr. John Hancock, a man thoroughly
conversant with the history of every public school movement in the
Mississippi Valley says: "I think possibly the word reminiscence will
as well as any, explain the change in schools within my knowledge,
brought about by Oswego Methods. I am sure the Institute of 1867,
in Cincinnati, in which those eminent teachers and Oswegoans, Dr.
Armstrong, Prof. Krusi, Miss Seaver, Miss Cooper, and Mrs. Mary
Howe Smith took part, marked an era in the schools of that city.
They presented the business of teaching in a light in which it had
not been seen before by the large body of teachers there
assembled. The spirit infused into this body by this new education
was the main cause of the establishment of the City Normal School
with Miss Sara Duganne, an Oswego graduate, at its head. She was
followed by Miss Delia A. Lathrop, another Oswego graduate, who,
with the assistance of four other graduates of Oswego, carried
forward the work for seven years. Here was begun the great fight
between dynamic and mechanic instruction, a fight that has been
going on ever since with somewhat varying success, but on the
whole with a sure gain ot territory by the first of these belligerent
parties. Dayton renewed the force and influence of her N"ormal
School by placing at its head Miss Blackwood, a child of the
Cincinnati Normal School and of Oswego training, with her was
associated Miss Rice another Oswego graduate, and after six years
service she was succeeded by Miss Mary F. Hall, whom I regard as
one of the best teachers I have known."
69 Hon. James H.
Smart, President of Purdue University, and who has been for many
years intimately connected with all the educational movements of
the West writes : '* I am very glad to give you my opinion
concerning the influence of the Oswego Normal School upon the
educational interests of Indiana. I have had several Oswego
graduates working under my immediate supervision for a number of
years, and dur- ing my term of office as state superintendentof
Indiana,Iobservedtheworkofmanyothers.Oswegograduateshave
beenemployedinsomeofourlargecitiesassuperintendentsof
trainingschools,andasteachersinotherdepartments,andasin
structorsinourStateNormalschool,Iamfreetosaythattothe
influenceofnoclassofteachers,arewesomuchindebtedasto
thosewhohavecometousfromOswego.Thosewhoareacquaintedwith
theworkandinfluenceofthecityTrainingschoolof
Indianapolis,ofthecityTrainingschoolofFortWayne,andofthe
workoftheTrainingteachersintheStateNormalschoolwill,Iam
sure,endorsethisstatement.PresidentSmartaddssotovocethat
oneofthebestthingstheOswegoNormalhaseverdonewastosend
MissMaryH.SwantoIndianatobecomethewifeofthePresidentof
Purdue,butheaddsthatIamnottoreportthis,sooutofrespect
forhisfeelingsIshallomitthementionofitfromthisreport.
J.L.Pickard,formanyyearssuperintendentoftheChicagoschools,
butnowPresidentoftheStateUniversityofIowa,writes:'*My
distinctimpressionsarethatOswegograduateshavetakenprominent
partintheadvancedmethodsofinstructionoftheselateryears.
WhileinsomeinstancesIhaveconsideredthemtoomuchtiedtoa

method,ithasalwaysbeenonthepartoffreshgraduates,andI
havebeenpleasedtoseethatexperiencehasledthemtoadoptthe
spiritratherthantheletteroftheirprofessor'sinstruction.That
theydoreadilytakethishigherstandisevidenceoftheir
excellenttraining."Dr.W.T.Harris,whomallrecognizeasoneof
thecountry'sforemostmenineducation,writes:*'Onlyafew
graduatesofOswegoreachedSt.Louis.Thatfewdidexcellentwork.
IoftenheardoftheminIllinoisandotherplaces.Theywerea'
live'setofteachers.Iwentonapilgrimagetotheshrineat
Oswego,andsawsomeofthebestworkdonfetherebyMr.Sheldonand
MissCooperthatIeverhadseen.Fromthefactthatthegraduates
laidsomuchstressontheoralsideofinstructionIhadfeared
thatthethoroughworkofmasteringthebookhadbeenslighted,but
tomyintensegratification,IsawinOswegoModelworkoftextbook
instruction."ExtractfromaletterofA.J.Rickoff,late
superintendentofSchoolsatCleveland,O.:''Inresponseto
yourrequestthatIstatewhatIknowoftheinfluenceoftheOs
wegoNormalschool,Ihavetosaythattoitweowetheimmediate
impulseandthedirectionofthereformmethodsofinstructionwhich
isnowinprogressintheschoolsoftheUnitedStates.This
judgmentisbasedonmyknowledgeofthefact,thatassoonasthe
natureofthework,beguntwentyfiveyearsagoinOswego,became
known,itsgraduateswereeagerlysoughtforintheleadingcities
andintheITormalschoolsEastandWest,andthattheseinturn
becamecentersofinfluencewhencethelightwasdiffusedwith
greaterorlessintensity,ineverydirection.AllhonortoDr.
Sheldon,whomadetheOswegoNormalSchoolwhatitwasandis."
70Dr.E.E.White,whoisascriticalandascompetentajudgeas
wehaveinthecountry,saysofOswego:**Itakepleasnrein
bearingtestimonytofactthatthisschoolexertedinitsearly
history,markedinfluenceonprimaryinstractioninOhioandIndiana
amoreeffectiveinfluencethanalltheothernormalschoolsin
thecountry.Thisinfluencewasexertedinteacher'sinstitutesand
normalschoolsinwhichOswegograduatesanddiscipleswereemployed
asinstructors,andineducationaljournals.Itisnottoomuchto
saythattheOswegoteachersreconstructedprimarymethodsinmany
schools.Inthepresenceofsuchwitnessesasthese,therecanbe
noquestionastotherespectandreverenceinwhichtheOswegoNor
malSchoolisheldintheNorthMississippiValleyStates.Nextyear
thesestates,theoldNorthWestTerritory,begintheirhis
toricalAnniversaries.Theirhistory,ahundredyearsold,willbe
readbyeveryteacherandstudiedbyeverychild,andinthathis
torynoinfluencewillberecognizedassopotentinmoldingits
presenteducationalmethods,andininformingtheirspirit,asthe
schoolwhosequartercentennialweareheretocelebrate,the*^
OswegoNormalandTrainingSchool."THENORMALSCHOOLIN
AMERICA.BYA.D.MAYO.Oneofthemostaccomplishedofthe
manygoodwomenwhomOswegohassentforth,asladyprincipalsof
importantTrainingschools,usedtosay:"Thefirstclassofevery
newCityNormalshouldbecomposedoftheschoolboard,themasters
oftheleadingschools,thecitygovernmentandthedistinguished
citizens,"TheonlyclaimIhaveuponyourattention,today,isthe
factthatitwasmyprivilegetobeinitiatedinthebeautifulways
oftheNewEducationbysitting,inmanlystyle,atthefeetofa
groupofOswegograduates,whileservingfortenyearsastheir
nominalsupervisor,ontheschoolboardofaMetropolitanWestern
CityItispossiblethatthisfactmayaccountforthechoiceofa
speaker,onthisifotableday,whoisneitherateachernor,in

commonparlance,an"Educator."ThePresidentoftheOswego
NormalSchooliseverywhereknownasamanalwaysseekingnewthings
andsearchingthehorizonfortheappearanceofanypersonor
tendencythatmayhelpinhisgreatworkoftrainingteachersfor
theAmericancommonschool.Hemayhavereasonedthat,whereasthere
aresomefourhundredthousandpeopleintheUnitedStatesnow
"keepingschool,"theremustbefiftyfourmQlionssixhundred
thousandpeoplewhoarenotkeepingschool.Whilethisnumerous
bodyis,inonesense,theconstituencyoftheteachers,invarious
otherwaysitstandsinthemostintimaterelationstotheschool
man.Inthisvastmultitudeareincludedthefifteenmillions
childrenandyouthwhoarethesubjectsofthefourhundredthous
andteachers;also,theparentsandnearestfriendsofthese
children,whomustcertainlybesupposedtobeasdeeplyinterested
intheirwelfareand,onthewhole,asintelligentastheirteachers,
and,besidetheforemostpeopleofeveryclassandcalling,thereis
includedinthismajoritythatpeculiaroflBlcialclassknownas
"theSchoolAuthorities,"themenandwomen,electedbythe
people,todisbursethe$150,000,000oftheirannualcontributionto
publiceducation,select,examineandoverlooktheworkofthe
teachers,andsupervisethewholematerialsideoftheAmerican
commonschool.OurgoodPrincipalSheldon,withinthepast72
twentyfiveyears,hashadabundantopportunitytoappreciatethe
importanceofthis,thepeoples'sideofoureducationallife.Pos
siblyhehasthoughtitnotinappropriatetoaskarepresentativeof
thisvastconstituency,afteranexperienceoflaborandobser
vationcoveringthesameperiodasthelifeofOswego,togivehis
impressionsconcerningtheworkoftheNormalschool;especially
thetypeofschoolrepresentedbyyourinstitution.Iobservethat
now,asever,aconsiderablebodyoftherepresentativesofwhat
iscalled**ThehigherEducation,"literary,scientificand
pedagogic,arenotbackwardinreportingthedefectsofthewhole
departmentofNormalschoolinstruction;sometimesdeclaringthat
thenetresultofitspasthalfcentury'sworkhasbeen"a
disappointment,"andthatitsmostcharacteristicwork,the
elaborationofmethodsincommonschoolinstructionandthetraining
ofyoungteachersinthepracticedepartment,hasbeenthemost
conspicuousfailureofall.Whatevermayhavebeentheintention"of
yourfaculty^incallingmetothisplatform,letitbedistinctly
understoodinallIsaythatIspeaknotfromthechairofthe
professorofpedagogy,andhavenocontroversywiththenumerous
elaboratetheoriesproceedingfromthehighplacesofeducational
thought,athomeorabroad;Ionlyexercisethecommonrightof
everyAmericancitizenwhoiscalledtosupportand,possibly,to
superintendtheorganization,ofthecommonschool;^tolookat
thingsthroughtheeyesofalaymanandreportmybestunderstanding
oftheestimateofyourworkmadetoday,bythethoughtfulportion
ofthepeopleinallpartsofourcountry.And,perhaps,itwillbe
nodisqualificationthatyourspeakerrepresentsinhisown
experience,theaverageNewEnglandbo^'^ofagenerationago,who
madeuphismind,atsixteen,to"getaneducation"andwentabout
itwithallhismight,relyinglargelyonhisowneffortand
resourcesforthecost.Uptothatagem^'^trainingwasinthe
countrydistrictschoolofthatfaroffday;assistedbythe
villagedoctorandparson;onetermatacountryacademyand
anotheratthe"fallschool,"thentheonlyattemptatthe
secondaryeducationintheordinaryNewEnglandvillage.Atsixteen
Ibecameateacher,attwelvedollarspermonth>"boardinground"

thefirstwinter,fightingmywaytosuccess.Theremainingfive
yearsweredistributedbetweenwinterteaching,summerattendance
onaneighboringacademy,closeattentiontothedebatingclub,
insatiablereadingandsuchhomestudyascouldbegainedinthe
intervalsoftendingavillagestore.Attwent^^,Ienteredoneof
thelittleruralcollegesofMassachusettsnowoneoftheforemost
inNewEnglandaspoorlyqualifiedforcollegestudyascouldbe
;thoughblazingwithenthusiasmforevery73thing'loftyin
scholarship,[characterandprofessionallife.Halfmyclassof
thirtywenttophysicalwreckbeforetheypassedtheRubiconof
SophomoreyearIgraduating,amongtheminority,withthefull
honorsofthecollegedyspepsiaofthatday,nevertoenterthedoor
ofanyschoolagain.Icanappreciatethestrengthandweaknessof
thatoldsystemofdisciplinetothevastmajorityofNewEngland
boysaspiringtoaneducation.Ithasthesolidmeritsofthe
powerfulpeoplefromwhomitcamethemostintelligent,
progressive,practicalandmoralpeoplethereareonthefaceofthe
earth.Itdidawakenthathungerandthirstafterknowledgewhich
ragedinthesoulofeverysuperiorandclaimedthereverenceof
everyinferiormemberofthatportionofAmericansociety.Itwasa
tremendouseducationalstimulantforthemomentaNewEngland
boyembarkedonjthatenterprizehebecame"theobservedofall
observers,'^andallgoodmenandwomenrejoicedinhissuccess.It
didholdupaloftyidealofpersonalcharacter,forthesepeople
demandedanoblemanhoodintheupperregionsoflife.Itputevery
boy,savethesmallclassofthewealthy,onhisownfeet.Itis
truethat,whilethisgospelofselfhelpdidwondersforthosewho
survived,italsofilledtheNewEnglandofagenerationagowith
brokendownscholars,sickclergymenandfeebleteachersandpeopled
thedismaloldgraveyardswiththousandsofthenoblestyouththat
everlived.Stilltheseweresurelygreatmerits,fortheybelongto
theveryfoundationsofeducationallife.Toloveknowledge;to
glowwithsplendidambition;tobeliev^einacharacterfoundedon
theeverlastingsanctities;togiveyourselfaltogethertothe
makingofyourself;thesearequalitiessoindispensablethatno
educationisgoodthatweakenstheirforce.Nowonderthatthestern
lifeofthatdaysentforthoneofthemostpowerfulbodiesofmen
andwomenthisworldeversaw,whobuiltupthelearnedprofessions,
includingtheteachingclass;colonizedthegreatwest;foughtthe
decisivebattleoffreedomthroughargumentandarmsand,asthe
crownoftheircareer,haveleftthismightyRepublicunited,well
overontheothersideofJordan,allreadytobeginasecondcen
turyofthenation'slife.Whateverdefectmaybefoundinthat
originalmethodoftrainingthepeople,thismustbesaidthatno
bodyofschoolmen,howeverillustrious,everinauguratedan
educationaldisciplinethathasdonehalfasmuchtopushforward
thegreatgoodcauseofthepeople'supwardmarchtowardthe
civilizationofthesermonontheMountandthegoldenrule.But
nobodysoclearlyasoneofthesurvivorsofthatholywarcansee
theprodigiousdeficienciesofthatAmericanschoollifeofhalfa
centuryago.likeeverywar,itwaswasteful,contemptuous74
ofphysicallifetobetoleratednolongerthandemandedbythe
necessitiesofanewcountry.Itwasfearfullynarrowand,too
often,builtuppowerattheexpenseofbreadthandanimplacable
morality,thenextkintofanaticismandbigotry.Itlargelyig
noredthewholeestheticsideofmanandevenfailedtoconceivethe
"beautyofholiness.'^Ofcourse,triedbyallhighscholasticand
literarystandards,itwascrude,superficial,tendingtoconceit;

althoughitsgreatpropellingforcedidthrowupanillustriousbody
ofpeopleinthehigherrealmsofliterature,learning,professional
andpubliclife,whosemeritswillbeacknowledgedinhistory.But
itsmostfataldefectwasitsstrangeneglectofchildhood.Itbegan
atthe^topandshapedeverythingonthenarrowcurriculumofthe
Americancollegeofthatday.TheAcademywasalittleCollege;the
districtschoolalittleAcademy;andprimaryeducationwasleft
totakecareofitself.Itstemperwasessentiallyaristocratic;
for,thoughallmenwereinvited,yetonlythefewcouldsucceedin
suchadesperateconflict.Thelittlechildrendoubtlessgotagood
dealoutoftheschools,throughthekindlinessoftheschool
mistressandthepettingofthebigboysandgirls;butfor
purposesofinstruction,uptotheageoften,theymightaswell
havebeenathome.Youcaninspecttheirwretchedapologyfor
teachingthethreeR'sinthousandsofmiserablecountryschoolsin
allpartsofourcountrytoday.Naturewasgiventhegobyallthe
wayup.Fromtheageofsixtotwentyone,withtheexceptionofa
few"experiments,"noteachereverdirectedmyattentiontothe
observationoftheoutwardworld.Ineverheardthephrase"Physical
Geography,"tillIstumbledonGoyot's"EarthandMan,"after
leavingcollege.Worstofall,thecollegeandacademylifewas
largelyoutofsympathywiththepeople'sschool.Ineverheardthe
nameofHoraceMannmentionedinmyacademyandcollege,thoughhe
wasthenattheheightofhisearlyfameinMassachusetts.Ididnot
knowtherewasapublicschoolintheacademicalandcollegiatetown
whenIwaseducated,fromsixteentotwentyone.Ofcourse,there
werenaturalteachersforthelittleonesinalltheschools.The
generalintelligenceofthepeoplewasagreathelperforinfancy,
andourwonderfulhumannatureneversodecidedlyresentsthenotion
ofbeingsuppressedasinchildhoodandyouth.Butwhenall
allowancesaremade,whatevermaybetheopinionsofcertaingreat
scholars,theintelligentpeopleofthiscountryhavelongsince
decidedthattheoldtimeschooling,fromsixtotwelve,wasan
experimentnottoberepeatedandwhereevernowexistingistobe
changedasspeedilyasmaybetosomebetterway.Andagreatdeal
oftheindifference,hostility,evendisgustwiththewholematter
ofeducationamongex75cellentandablepeople,inallparts
ofourcountryisthereactionofoutragedhumanityagainstthe
pedantry,stupidityandviolenceinflictedonthemselves,aslittle
children,intheschoolsfiftyyearsago.Itwasoutofthis
conditionofaffairsthatHoraceMannsteppedforthandledthe
wayfortheorganizationofthepresentformoftheAmericancommon
school.HoraceMannwasalwaysmoreofastatemanthanan
Educator;indeed,withJefferson,healmostmonopolizesthis
doublehonoroftheeducationalstatesmaninourcountry.Withthe
sharp,broad,practical,passionateinstinctoftheintelligent,
progressivemassesoftheoldernorth,hesaw,withindignation,how
themightyenterpriseofschoolingthemasseswasbeingsacrificed,
asitalwaysiswhenanyexclusivecultivatedclassassumesthe
righttoschoolthewholepeople.Hewastheauthorofthegraded
schoolsystem,asdistinguishedfromthecountrydistrictconmaon
schooloftheoldtime,asJeffersonwastheauthoroftheState
University,whichcrownsournationaltempleofpopularinstruction.
Hiswritingsarestillthepeople'shandbookintheorganizationof
educationineverypartoftheland.HislaterworkatAntioch
College,Ohio,supplementedhisserviceinNewEnglandandstamped
hisnameasthenation'sgreatestleaderinthetrainingofthe
young.Itwasnotstrangethathisattentionwaschiefiygivento

thegeneralorganizationandmanagementofpublicschoolaffairs.
Thetimehadnotcomeforthethoroughdiscussionoruseofthe
natui*almethodsinprimaryandgrammarschoolwork,althoughhere
andthere,infavoredquarters,somethingwasdone.Mr.Mann,as
heusedtosay,"wasalwayshuntingforanalmanacwithmoredays
initthanthecalendaryear;"andlongedforthetimewhenhe
couldgivehismindtoageneraloverhaulingoftheviciousmethods
ofinstructionthateverywhereprevailed.Butthatdaynevercame
andhedied,ashelived,thestatesmanoftheneweducationallife
ofhiscountry.Buthisestablishmentofthenormalschoolsystem
ofNewEngland,includingtheworkofPageatAlbany,NewYork,was
amightystepforwardincommonschoolaffairs.SetuponLexing
tonGreen,Massachusetts,onthe4thJuly,1839,thefoundingofthat
firstnormaldeservestorankwiththatothergreatevent,halfa
centurybefoT'e,whenthe"embattledfarmers""firedtheshot
heardroundtheworld."Thislittlegroupofnormalsfirstinsisted
thatsomethingmoreisneededfortheteacherthanacademicalor
universityculture.TheregulationCollegeandAcademyhasnever
yetheartilyconfessedthatitsgraduateneedsanyspecialprepara
tiontosteptothefrontastheteacherinanyschool.Highschol
arshipandenthusiasmforgoodculture,withfaithfulimitationof
76theprofessorintheAlmaMater,addedtothelessonsof
experience,aresupposedtocarryhimthrough.Ofcourse,themanor
womanwithspecialgeniusforinstructionwill,soonerorlater,hew
apathtosuccess.Buttheaveragegraduatemovestohistriumph,
liketheoldtimewarrior,cuttinghiswaywithhisbroadsword,or
beatingdownoppositionwithhiswarclub.Adistinguishedladywas
tellingus,inthepresenceofhergrowndaughters,ofthefearful
trialswhichsheandherinvalidhusband,bothpeopleofrare
culture,enduredintheirattempt,foroneyear,toteachtheir
children,athome."Ah,''saidtheoldestgirl,"wepitiedyou
andpoorfathersomuchthatwenevertoldyouwhatafearfultime
wehadofit."It'sallveryweightyandclassicfortheUniversity
professorofpedagogiestoremindusthatthegraduateofthe
Americancollege,withoutspecialtraining,hasabetterchance
forsuccessintheschoolroomthanthegraduateofthesecondary
schoolwithnormaltraining.Beforeweacceptthatastrueincommon
schoolinstruction,wewouldliketohearwhatthechildrenhaveto
sayaboutit.Themelancholyfactisthatagreatdealofthe
poorestteachinginthiscountry,eventoday,isfoundinthe
hundredsofInstitutionswhosetitleto"college"and"university"
isthemostpitifulfeatureofoureducationallife.Scoresofyoung
menandwomenareyearlysentforthfromtheseschools,often
withoutaday'sexperienceorobservation,totakethemost
responsiblepostsinpublicschoolwork.Oftentheseyoungmenare
placedasmastersorsuperintendentsoverwomenwhohaveenjoyed
theopportunityofnormaltraining,reinforcedbysuccessfulwork
withdifferentgradesofchildren.Theinevitablefrictionbetween
scholasticmasculineconfidenceandfeminineexperiences,tactand
practicalskill,isoneofthemostdisturbingelementsinour
presentcommonschool.HoraceMann,withthequickeyeofthemanof
theworld,sawthisdifficultyandstrucktheke^moteofprogress
whenheplaced"FatherPierce,"andSamuelJ.MayandTillinghast
attheheadofhisownnormalschools.Fromthatday,thestate
normalsofNewEnglandhavebeenunderthecontrolofabodyofmen
andwomenwhoselaborsformoneofthemostinstructivechapters
inthehistoryofAmericanEducation.TheseearlyNormalswere,
also,thefirstpublicschoolsinNewEnglandalmostthefirst

Americanschoolsthatofferedtosuperioryoungwomenan
opportunitycorrespondingtothecollegeeducationofyoungmen.
Theirearliestgraduatesincludetheablestgroupofyoungwomen
teachersthatNewEnglandhadproduced.Eventoday,inthefaceof
thenewdevelopmentofthehighereducationforwomen,Ibelieve
thereisnoplaceinNew77Englandwhereagraduatefroma
goodhighschoolcanacquireamorevaluableeducationthaninthe
fouryearscourseofitsleadingStateNormals.Thereis,
certainly,noinstructioninNewEnglandmorephilosophical,
searching,stimulatingandexpansivethanmaybegainedthere,
providedthestudentdoesnotattempttousetheNormalasan
elementaryoracademicinstitution.Nobodywhoseopinionisworth
regardingwillassertthattheNewEnglandpeoplehavebeen
disappointedintheirNormalschoolsofthepastfiftyyears.The
graduatesofadozenoftheseseminarieshavereconstructedthe
wholepublicschoollifeoftheseStates;destroyedthesecondrate
academy;officered,largely,thehighschooland,indirectly,
modifiedthemostcelebratedacademiesandcolleges;besidesthe
greatworkofbringingwomentothefrontinalldepartmentsof
instruction.Buttherewasyetagreatstepforwardtobetaken.
ThespiritoftheCollegeandAcademystillbroodedovertheNew
Normalschool.ItsleadingteacherswereCollegegraduates,and
stillbelievedwithamightyfaithintheefficacyofexclusivelec
turingandclassroominstruction.Theirpupilsweregenerallyvery
youngpeople,withonlythecrudeknowledgegainedincountry
schools;andtwoyearsseemedquitetooshortatimetostackthem
withusefulknowledgeandgivethemanoutfitinmethodsandrules,
fortheircomingwork.Hence,withfewexceptions,thepractice
schoolwasignoredand,atbest,asystemofclassrecitation,with
occasionalobservationofschoolworkandlessongiving,usedin
itsplace.Thesenselessobjectionofignorantparentsandthe
stubbornoppositionofjealousschoolmastersoftenpreventedthe
attempttosecureagreatpublicschoolforobservationand
practiceunderexperts.Thishasturnedouttheoneseriousdefect
oftheNewEnglandStateNormal.Eventoday,withfewexceptions,
theirpupilsgraduatewithnoreliabletestoftheirteaching
ability.NowtheveryqualityofthestudentmaterialintheState
Normal,everywhere,makesthepracticeschoolindispensable.The
vastmajorityofthesestudentshaveneitherthematurity,nor
accuracyofmind,eventocomprehendtheelaboratephilosophical
schemeofinstructiondispensedfromtheprofessor'schair.At
best,itaffectsamechanicallodgementandisnotassimilated.If
thisgraduatefallsintoaschoolwhereacompetentprincipal
carriesthenewtheoryintopractice,allwell.Otherwise,theyoung
teachersuccumbs,afterabriefstruggle,and,atbest,becomes
oneofthenumerous"brokenlights"oftheneweducation.The
chief"disappointment"fromtheseschoolshascomefromthis
strangereluctancewehavedescribed,tocarryforwardpreceptand
practice78intheonlywaythatcanmakethenaturalmethods
ofinstructionvitaltothemassofNormalSchoolgraduates.And
thisisowingtothestrengthoftheexclusiveacademicspiritthat
solongobstructedthegreatupwardmovementofprimaryin
structionbynaturalmethodsintheNewEnglandStates.Forthis
reason,afewyearsofgoodprimaryschoolkeepinginQuincy,Mass.,
b3^thateminentgeniusforprimaryinstruction,Col.Parker,ten
yearsago,soamazedcertaineminentscholarsandpublicistsofthat
locality,thattheworkwaswidelyheraldedasadiscovery,andthe
"Quincysystem"waselaboratelywrittenupthroughtheland.But,

althoughnonormal"system,"thesefewyearsofbeautifulelementary
schoolkeepinginQuincydidgiveagreatimpetustoprimary
instruction,notonlyintheEast,buteveninthehomeofexcellent
workofthissort,thegreatcitiesofthenewWest.Butitwas
notreservedforNewEnglandtocarryoffallthehonorsofthe
novelmovementineducation.HereminenceissuflBlcientlyassured
whencompelledtowalkabreastofotherStatesinthelatest
movementofthenationalcommonschool.AhundredyearsagoThomas
JeffersondrewacirclearoundtheNewEnglanddenominational
college,andbecamethefatherofthefreeStateUniversity,
unsectarianandelective,whichcrownseveryStatewestofthe
Hudson,andhaslargelymodifiedeveryeasternuniversity.Itwas
reservedforNewYork,alwaj'^sthebroadestandmostCatholicof
theolderStates,totakeuptheworksowellbegunandestablish
thefinaltypeoftheAmericanStateNormalandCityTraining
School.NowherehastheNewEnglandcharactersodevelopedits
bestqualitiesasthroughthevastregionfromtheHudsontothe
MississippiandthePacific,largelycolonizedbyitsprogressive
youth.WhenIwasaboy,mygreatgrandfather,atninetysix,sold
hisfarminthevalleyoftheConnecticut,movedtothewest,then
St.LawrenceCounty,NewYork,votedfor"oldTippecanoe,"atthe
ageofonehundred,andthenwenttohisreward.MayandHosmerwere
transportedtowesternNewYork,andnumbersofthebrightestyouths
ofNewEnglandswarmedthenewvillageofthatbroaderNewEngland
beyondtheHudson,which,blendedwiththeprogressiveelementsfrom
everysection,dominatestheRepublictoday.Before1860the
conmaonschoolhadbeenfounded,largelybyNationalAid,inevery
westernState,chieflyon[theancientNewEnglandpattern,often
workedbyteachersfromtheEast.Thegreatwarbroughtthenew
Northwesttothefront,withitsprodigiousdevelopmentof
executivepower,andremovedthecentreofpoliticalinfluence
forevertothevalleyoftheMissisippi.Itwasthemostnatural
thingthata79peoplesoawakenedshoulddemand*athorough
reorganizationofthecommonschool,anditsadaptationtothewants
ofitsrapidlyincreasing'schoolpopulation,Anewinstitutionwas
neededtofashionthefitteachersforthisnewpublicschool.
ThatloudcallwasheardbythefaithfulearofyourPresident,here
inthelittlebordercityofOswegotwentyfiveyearsago,long
beforeJosephCabell,ofVirginia,hadcomehomefromtheobser
vationoftheschoolsofPestalozzi,andtoldthewondrousstoryto
theunwillingearsofhisneighbors.MannandStowandBarnard,and
theraregroupoftheearlyeducatorsgatheredaboutthem,had
reportedthesuperiormethodsinaliteraturethatstillremains
unrivalled.Afewprogressiveschoolmasterswereworkingoutthe
naturaleverywhere.ButyourschoolkeepingPrincipaldetermined
totesttheworkforhimself.Hecalledtohisaidtheaccom
plishedladyfromEngland,whosepresenceyouhadhopedthisweekto
witness,togivetheresultoftheBritishadaptationofthe
Pestalozzimethods.Hebegantheworkasatrainingschoolfor
primaryteachers.OutofthathasgrownthefamousOswegoState
NormalSchooloftoday;theCityTrainingSchool,insomerespects
thehighestembodimentofthisidea;andthemovementtoestablish
aclassinPedagogyinthegreatcollegesofseveralofournew
commonwealth.ThecharacteristicpointsinthemovementatOswego
were,inthetruespiritofPestalozzi,first^thebeginningwith
thechild.Theonepermanentdistinctionbetweentheoldandthenew
timeeducationis,thattheformerbeganwithauniversity,
constructedbyabachelorpriesthood,ontheprinciplethathuman

natureinyouthisclaytobemouldedintoapreordainedshape
accordingtoacreedorphilosophypossessedbyaninfallibleclass.
TheNewEducationbeginsattheotherendoflife,byjoininghands
withthegoodmother,stiidyingthechildandworkinginfaith,
humilityandhopeforitsdevelopment,accordingtotheDivineplan
aslearnedinthis,God'sinfantschool.YourNewOswegoTraining
schoolbeganbysittingatthefeetofthelittlechildrenandtrying
tolearnhowGodisworkingtoliftthemupthrougheverysphereof
broadeningandascendinglife.Second^likePestalozzi,it
believedthatwomanstandsnearerthechildandnearertheInfinite
Lovethanman.So,agroupofgenerous,lovingandbroadsouled
womenweresettowork;ontheonehandtoreceivethestoryof
theirEnglishsister;ontheother,bycarefulstudyand
experiment,tomapoutthefirstdraftofaneffectivemethodfor
teachingthecommonbranchesincommonschools.80Third
^inthisandotherwaysitaimedtodoanessentialservice,by
readjustingthefundamentalprinciplesofelementaryeducationto
Americanneedsandrecastingtheminmethodsoforganization,
disciplineandinstructionadaptedtoournewAmericanlife.Afatal
blunderofmanyofoureminentscholarsandpedagoguesisthe
attempttotransplantEuropeancontinentalorevenBritishmethods,
unaltered,toourAmericanfieldofEducationalactivity.The
Americancommonschoolsystemisasoriginalandpeculiarasour
systemofgovernment.Itsfundamentalintentionisnot,hkethe
continentalsystem,totrainapeople,inclasses,fortheclass
lifeofacentralimperialcivilization;nor,liketheBritish,to
imparttheelementsofinstructiontothehumblerclassesbysubsidy
fromtheState.Itisthepeople'sUniversity,reachingfromthe
kindergartentothestatecollegeincludingeverydepartment;
culminating,withthefreelibrary,thepressandpublicspeech,in
themostcompleteschemefortrainingapeopletoselfgovernment
yetdevisedbyman.Itisnoman'ssystem;but,likethegovernment,
theworkofthewholepeople.Themanwhodeniestherightofthe
peoplethustoeducatethemselvesmustgofartherandknockthe
bottomoutoftheRepublicitselfforherethepeopleissovereign
^isthegovernmentandpossessesthe"divineright"tointerpret
allwrittenconstitutionsupward,towardaChristiancivilization,
insteadofdownhill,towardsthatomnipotentindividualism
whereinmaterialisticphilosophyandpaganreligiongotoseed.
OswegoatoncegraspedtheideathatthebestthoughtofEuropemust
beincarnateinAmericanmethodsifthisidealofnational
instructionshouldberealized.And,finally,itleftalldoorsand
windowswideopen;invitedeverybodytocomein,makehiscriticism
andsuggestimprovement.Itrealizedthegreattruth,thatthemost
vitalpartoftheNewEducationisitsreverenceforfreedomof
thought.Itisbuiltup,likealltruescience,byconstant
observation,application,testingofmethodsandjoyfulacceptance
ofdemonstratedfacts.Soitdoesnotfearrivalsordevouritsown
disciples;butexpectstoseeeverygenerationgrowwiserby
avoidingitsmistakes.Atthesametimeitunderstandsthatthe
childisthegreatconservative,thathabitisslowandthemost
difficultthingonearthistochangehereditarytendencyand
liberateandguidetheleastlittleoneintheupwardway.In
sayingthesethingsImakenopointagainstotherNormalschools;
have,certainly,nomotivetoflatter;butamonlytryingto
accounttomyselfforthewonderfuloutcomeofthelittleOswego
TrainingSchooloftwentyfiveyearsago.Icanaccountforitonly
inthisway^thatitsawthepresentneedofthenewWest;81

thecomingneedofthenewSouth;thepermanentnecessityofthe
oldEast;andbeganasallgreatthingsinthisworldbegin,by
layingfoundationsdeepinthenatureofchildhoodandtryingto
followthegloriouswaysofDivinewisdom,asdrawnthroughthe
wonderlandofGod'suniversity,ourhumanlife.Aninstitution
withsuchelementsofgrowthasyourscouldnotfailofsuccess.
Fromthelittlegroupofninepupils,in1861,youhaveexpanded
untilyounowsendforthan,annualclassof,perhaps,halfa
hundredgraduateswhomIh^^?iid.representedineveryoneofthe
thirtystatesvisitedbymo^>iepas^sixyears.Whenyoubecamea
Stateinstitution,itvsnecessarytobringyourtrainingclassin
linewiththeproperL^cdemicalworkalreadysowelldoneintheNew
Englandschools,li^usuccbbeenaccomplished,andthepresent
OswegoNormalScboolo;^erstotheadvancedstudentanexcellent
education,groundedonj^hilosophicalprincipals,conductedby
naturalmethods.>.Butoutsideyourownlimits,yourworkhasbeen
great^^ymagnifiedinNewYork.HalfadozennewStateschoolshavo
beenestablishedsincethedaywhenIusedtodropintothefirst
NormalinAlbany;andallthesehavebeenorganizedaccordingto
yourplanandlargelysetinmotionbyyourgraduates.IfIam
rightlyinformed,yourvigorousinstitutesystemisworkingonthe
samelines;whilethegreatcityNormalSchoolsofNewYorkand
Brookl^m,withnumerouslocaltrainingschoolsandthesummer
assembliesatChautauqua,andelsewhere,areallbutrepetitionsand
applicationsofthenewprimaryeducationinauguratedheretwenty
fiveyearsago.InsayingthisIwoulddofulljusticetothemany
celebratedteachersofNewYorkwhohaveneverbeenconnectedwith
theseinstitutions.Butwhatevermaybeclaimedconcerning
priorityofthought,wemustcertainlylooktoOswegoasthe
earliestandmostsuccessfulembodimentofthisgreatmovement,
which,inaquarterofacentury,hasrevolutionizedtheprimary
instructionofthecountry.Ishallnotsoonforgetmyfirstvisit
totheBostonTrainingSchooloffifteenyearsago,whereoneofthe
mostaccomplishedofyourgraduates,aftermanydays,hadcompelled
theattentionofthemostselfcontainedbodyofpublicschoolmen
inAmerica.Outofthatbeautifulschoolhasbeendevelopedagreat
dealmorethanweYankeesareaccustomedtopasstothecreditof
NewYork.Thereisnoportionofthecountrynowmorethoroughly
alivewithprimaryandcommonschoolreformthanthemore
progressivepartofNewEngland,andthebestthingthatcanbesaid
ofOswegoisthatsheisonlytoogladtogatherinalltheselater
fruits,withnooffensiveclaimstoherownserviceintheplanting
timeoftwenty82yearsago.WhenThurlowWeedbegantofill
thecolumnsoftheAlbanyEveningJournalwithhisinimitable
littlearticles,eachlikeahumming'birdorahornet,heobserved
thatlargenumbersofthecountrynewspaperswerecopyingthem,
withoutcomment.Hewiselyconcludedthatitwasjustaswellto
edittheRuralWhigPressoftheState,andputinhisworkathome
insilence,contenttobecome^^'^r^!^'"^'^WarwickoftheEmpire
State.Duringan.1.thatdatesfromtheopeningofyourschool
r'^hthewholeUnioneastoftheRockyMouniii!Imbled
againstBrotherSheldon,inaheat,.(<enforcingthefactthat
somebodysomewhere.^ri^tofOswego!1i(*itimyself
thattheOswegoNormalSchool:.suueii)c<vd^.o<iofseveral
influencesthathavebuiltuptheiVorlul']1..r'^<tvssivenew
systemofpublicinstructioninthe^'itN<^v,.ii\\r'fiates.
Ihavesaidthat,in1865,nocountry'..Vrsoveiljriedto
receivetheNewEducationasour.!V!!\o'A]).luJi'Jin

prosperity;swarmingwithchildrenofriK.V^>r\^uj^
parentage,ofallsectionsandeveryland;/:.ttvJV's.'!
UiUenthusiasmoveritsservicesinrestoringtheIii'^;:a"':;
:ipip*.vrithalltheardorandtheoccasionalarro^aiioooi
^ouUi,ioj.thehighplacesofnationaldistinction;itwasall
readytowelcometheonlysystemofeducationthatcouldmeetits
demandforthetrainingofcitizenship.Itwasaproofofits
penetrationthatitdidnotgotothesectarianpriesthoods,the
greatuniversityfaculties,orthepretentiousnewschoolof
materializingscientistsforitsschemeofpublicschooling.
Indeed,thewesterncommonschool,includingtheStateUniversity,
hascomeupinthefaceofthesharpcensure,contemptuous
indifferenceandsubterraneanintrigueofeachandallthese
powerfulagenciesofculture.IthasowedlittletotheWestern
metropolitanpress;whichhasoftenerbeenitsignorantenemyor
boastfuladvocate,thanitswiseandhelpfulfriend.Ithasowed
muchtoafewgreatpublicschoolmenandmanyskilfulanddevoted
womenfrom^*downeast."Afewoftheschoolofforeign"
professors"whohavealternatelyhectoredandpettedthegreat
west,havedoneinestimableservice.TheCanadianscjioolshave
contributedmanyexcellentteachers.ButIaminclinedtothinkno
oneinfluence,duringthepastgeneration,hasbeensopotentinthe
westerncommonschoolroomastheOswegoNormal.Whilewhole
sectionsoftheolderStates,havebeenoccupiedinnailingnormal
signboardsoncountryacademiesoftheoldtimesort,theWestern
States,withthesingleexceptionofOhio,haveestablishedoneof
themost83ett'ectivesystemsofStateNormalSchooland
Institutesinthecountry.Ohiohasperhapsledinthenumberand
importanceofhercityNormalSchools,which,withtheoneexception
oftheadmirableschoolatSt.Louis,haveledallAmericancities
inthetraining"ofteachers.EveryNormalSchool,asfarasIknow,
Stateorcity,betweenPittsburgandSanFrancisco,hasbeenor
ganizedontheOswegoplanandhundredsofhergraduateshavebeen
atworkinthem,since1865.Ofcourse,suchleadershipcanonlybe
temporary.Inacountrylikeours,itisourboastthatno
Wei\VTvo:ton,Beaconsfield,GladstoneorBismarckcanlongholdan
entiiv.^^l^inhisirongrip;butleadershipisconstantly
changing,ati.vvdem2aidofapeoplegivenlargelytothinkingfor
themselves.NoAi.^^evovofeducation;nopedagogicclique;no
greatschoolcanhopeto^omorethanacceptthecallofProvidence
forabriefdirectionoiAmericaneducation.ThegrowingWestand
Pacificrealmaboundinadmirableschools,agoodnumberofwhich,
inturn,willcometotheirowndayofcommand.Anditwillbewell
if,intheprideofhergreatsuccess,ourwesternschoolmendonot
forgettheoldrock"fromwhichtheywerehewn"andfallintothe
delusionthattheyhavemadeandnowlargelyconstitutethecountry
whosepromisingchildthenewWestcertainlyis.Ihavejustcome
fromanotherportionofthecountry,which,forthenexthalf
centuryistobethemostinterestingandresponsiveeducational
fieldinChristendom.Uptothedayofyournativity,thesixteen
greatStateswecalled"theSouth,"withaterritory'^almost
equaltocivilizedEurope,andtwelvemillionsofpeople,hadnot
gonebeyondtheeducationalmethodsofoldEnglandandourMiddle
Statesoffiftyyearsago.ThatoldSouthwasnotdeficientin
collegiateandacademicalschoolsoftherespectableclassofthat
timeandhadalreadyestablishedthecommonschool,forwhites,in
severalcities,besidesmakingperiodicalspasmodicattemptsto
placeonthegroundthepresentEnglishtypeofcommonschool,for

thelowerwhiteclass.But,withinthepastfifteenyears,anew
educationalSouthhassprungintovigorouslifeand,today,the
progressiveclassesofbothracesineverySouthernStatearemore
exercisedwiththeeducationalquestionthananyothersavethe
fundamentalproblemofgettingalivinganddevelopingtheir
country.Andthemosthopefulfeatureinthisisthatthenew
Southerncommonschool,initsmostinfluentialquarters,isbeing
organizedaccordingtotheprinciplesandmethodssofamiliarto
you.Indeed,thereisnowhereamorehopefulfieldfortheNewEdu
cationthanamongthefivemillionsofschoolchildrenandyouth
84whoarenow,throug'hallitsborders,likelittleOliverinthe
story,askingformore.Thewhitechildrenareverylargel^'^
descendedfromtheBritishstock,thathasneverfailedtorespond
togoodtraininginschool.Theyoungwomenteachersaredrawn
perhapsmorelargelyfromtheeducatedandsociallyprivilegedclass
thanintheNorth,andonlyneedgoodschoolingandprofessional
trainingtodistinguishthemselvesinthenearfuture.Afair
numberofsuperiorvmincymenareatwork,assuperintendents;some
of11\vlilttcablesuccess.ThefewStateNormalsarehope:i
1i.wilirsi;nilerInstitute,oftenassistedb}'themostdistin
;_;iii^^'?!schoolmcu,aregenerallyworkingonrightlines.I
>''I)i!tneedNorthernteacherssomuchasathorough];:ii
<rtiieideasandmethodsoftheNewEducation;and;I,L4':
I:1i;yreceivinginvariousways.hf',:fieriinegro,in
somerespects,hasbeenmorefortunaehi^.ii*'b]'ihren.At
Hampton,Va.,isestablishedoneof;Mttst[]:tii..ihools
intheSouth,whichhassentforthgreatof'.'V<;V.teachersfor
thecoloredchildren.The'*col':t!;>?'>;':>'n
I'M^^cisities,perhapsascoreinnumber,thathavebeen
establishedbynorthernmissionsmadethemistake,atfirst,^of
pitchingthekeytoohighandleavingoutofaccountthemighty
factorofheredityindealingwiththeirpupils.Ithasbeenlargely
owingtothegraduatesofourNorthernNormalSchools,whohavebeen
employedasteachers,thatthisclericalandcollegiatemistakehas
beengraduallyovercome.ThegiftofSlaterhasnowenablednearly
allofthemtoinaugurateindustrialtraining.Thusorganized,
these"universities"forthecoloredpeoplearereally,insome
respects,themostoriginalschoolsinourcountry,andaredestined
tobecomeamightypowerintheupliftoftheAmericancolored
citizen.WhenIfirstwentsouth,Ifoundplentyofnorthernmen
whoknewallaboutwhatthenegrocould,andasmanywisemenof
thesouthwhoweresurewhathecouldnotdo.Ihavebeentrying,
forsixyears,tofindoutwhathehasdonealready.Iseethathe
isnow,attheendofhisthreehundredyears'residencewithus,
fartheroutofthewoodsofbarbarismthananyotherpeopleever
wereinonethousandyearsbefore.Heknowshowtowork;hehasthe
languageandreligionoftheworld'sforemostpeople;heiseager
toschoolhischildren;heisslowlygrowingagenuineupperclass,
intelligent,moralandprosperous;andhehasgottentogether,in
hisfirsttwentyyearsoffreedom,thesnuglittlesuraofone
hundredmillionsofdollars.Whilethesouthernwhitepeopleare
largelygiventotheoriziagon"theracequestion,"everysouthern
statehasestablishedthecommonschoolforthe85negroandis
doingaboutasmuchforhiseducationasweshouldprobablydounder
similarcircumstances.Asthingsnowaregoingondownsouth,the
mostinteresting**racequestionofthethefuture/*willbethe
**race"foreducationalsuperioritybetweenthenegroandthe
greatmultitudeofignorantwhitefolksinthesoutherncountry.And

noclassofchildrenrespondsobeautifullytothenaturalmethods
astheselittlecoloredchildrenofNature,whorepresentthelast
groupofthehumanfamilythathascomeinfromtheschoolingof'*
alloutdoors"tomeettheteacherwhowouldleadthemfromnature
up,throughletters,industryandscience,toNature'sGod.The
crownoftheOswegoworkhasbeentheemphasisithaslaidonthe
citytrainingschool.Heretheacademicalquestionissolvedbythe
selectionofsuperiormaterial.Thewholepowerofacitygraded
system,withitsskilledteachers,isconcentratedonayearormore
ofprofessionaltraining.Thegraduatesarereasonablysureof
positionsand,astimegoeson,theirenvironmentiffavorableto
success.Thepracticedepartmentisampleandinvaluableandthe
disparagingremarkrecentlymadeconcerningitbyadistinguished
universitycritic,isnotborneoutbym^^observation.Onthe
contrary,thecitypracticeschooleasilybecomesthemodelschool
ofthetownandthosecitiesthathaveworkedthetrainingschool
mostthoroughlyleadallothersintheireducationalaffairs.I
seenootherwaythanthisofovercomingthatfatalhabitoftime
servingschoolboardsmakingthepublicschoolsanasylumfor
incompetentmenandtheirownimpecunious"sisters,cousinsand
aunts.''Onceahardnecessity,thispracticehasnowbecomean
intolerablepublicscandalwhichshouldbedenounced,without
qualification,ineverycityandtowninAmerica.Thefinaloutcome
oftheNormalandTrainingSchoolofthepresent,Ibelieve,isto
cause,insomethoroughsystemoftraining,competentteachersfor
thecommonschool.Thepeopleofthiscountryareveryfastcoming
tothepointofdemandingskilledlaborintheschoolroom,asthey
demanditeverywhereelse.Ifindeverywhereagrowing
determinationtomakeeverypoorschoolagoodschool,atall
hazards,andtheexpertisthesoulofagoodschool.Thisgreat
workcannotsomuchbeaccomplishedbymultiplyingStateNormals
asbyendowingthosewehave;liftinguptheirconditionsof
admission,andmakingthemtrueuniversitiesofinstruction.From
themwillgoforththeteacherstodirectthecitytrainingschools,
ofwhicheveryconsiderabletownshouldhaveone,and
superintendentsofthenewgradedschools;eachofwhichshould
haveateacher'sclass,whichcoulddoagreatdealtowards
supplyingthedemandfortheopencountry.Every^oo^^Q.?>A<ev:>S
86shouldhaveadepartmentofinstructionunderanexpert.Asfast
asourcollegescanoutgrowthedelusionthattheyaremakinged
ucationbelowinsteadofbeing,themselves,verylargelythepro
ductofthepeoples'schools,theymaywiselyestablishachairof
pedagogicsandfillthechairwithamanwhobelievesinandknows
somethingofthenormalidea.Itwouldbeaprodigiousgainifevery
collegegraduate,ofeithersex,werecompelledtoreadagood
historyofeducationandafewvaluablebooksonmethods,ifnothing
m^?.Or'VV^canweutilizethegreatelementofwomanhoodin
t^schoolaright.Agreengirl,workingforasalary,>.i!iiof
childhoodandofletters,recklessand"bumptious,''notrepresent
thewomanelementineducation.DownEast,^neaverage"school
ma'am"stepsoutattheendoffive;inthenewNorthwest,atthe
endofthreeyearsservice;goingtoparadiseorotherwise
sometimestoChicago.Thiswecannothelp.Butwe,thepeople,will
insistthatthesegirlsshallcometouswithsomethingof
preparationandstrikeashighafigurethefirstdayasmaybe.In
returnthereisnopreparationfortheordinarylifeofan
Americanwomanmorevaluablethanthetrainingofanexcellent
publicschool,withNormalworkandafewyearsintheschoolroom

asteacher.Intheseseveralways,inconnectionwiththeimproved
instituteandschooljournalism;theteacher'sreadingcircle,
alwaysthebestwhereanintelligentreaderisletlooseintoagood
library;thevigorousinspirationoftheChautauquaandother

summer assemblies ; we [may hope, in time, to reconstruct the


teaching element through the open country, where whole districts,
almost States, are now abiding in the shadow of a middle age
dispensation of ineffectual instruction. And only as the broad ideal
of organi- zation, discipline and instruction set forth in this and
kindred schools is realized, will the American common school
become the great central power in American life; blending the
training of head, heart and hand in that worthy citizenship whose
corner stone is the good woman, the upright man. Will you bear
with me a little longer, while I set forth a few of the draw-backs to
the success of the Normal school and some of the more evident
perils of the improved methods of instruction. I do not base these
remarks on any abstract philosophy of educa- tion ; but simply tell
you what a great many intelligent people and close obser.vers, on
school boards, are compelled to see in the prac- tical working of the
schools. A few weeks ago I came up the Mississippi river, on one of
the largest steam-craft an enormous floating storehouse, with an
87 upper-story hotel at high water. The river was everywhere
all channels were drowned ; and the problem was, how to navigate
this wide, weltering, muddy ocean without bringing up in a cotton
field or running down a submerged village. At almost every hour
one would hear the call of the man heaving the lead "six feet ;
seven feet; twelve feet; no bottom;" passed upward to the col- ored
Hercules on the hurricane deck, who bawled it into the ears of the
pilot away ott* in the wheel-house. It was a comfort to learn that
the mighty machine would get on in five feet of water ; but none
the less important to keep her off the sand-bars and out of the "old
fields. " Just now, what we call "the boom of the New Education"
may, perhaps be best described as high water everywhere, that has
obliterated ancient land-marks and drowned old channels, leav- ing
the young t/eacher in the condition of a strange pilot trying to run a
first-class steamer from New Orleans to St. Louis in an over- . flow.
Like him you may fancy yourself cutting an original path- way when
you are only sailing in an old rut, known to the pilots, since the first
steamboat was launched, or you may bravely "sail off into the
west" and bring up in shallow water in somebody's garden or
astride the roof of a parish church. A few of these nor- mal sandbars I have had occasion to jot down on my extemporized chart
while watching the vo^^ages of Normal graduates, now these
twenty-five years, and you will require no apology for their exhibition. The first danger to the Normal student is superficial culture.
Our college friends say some things about you to which we demur,
but we stand by them in everything they urge concerning thoroughness, breadth and ceaseless aspiration in the acquirement of knowledge. You can never teach what you not do know ; and you can
teach only poorly what you know imperfectly. There is an ad-

vantage with you in methods of acquiring knowledge and some


things called knowledge are of little worth to anybody. But no
excellence of method can overcome the disadvantage of ignorance
and superficiality ; while the conceit that often goes with these defects is, itself, the worst deficiency of a teacher. The second danger
is the notion, into which even Pestalozzi is said to have fallen : that
any method can teach school, of itself , Only a man or woman can
teach school
nd a great man or woman can often do more with an imperfect
method than a little man in a complete pedagogic armor ; just as a
genius with a jack knife, will do more than a numbskull with a chest
of tools. The best method degenerates to mechanisn whenever the
man or woman be- hind it is too small to assimilate and work it as
his own. And no
88 mechanism is more destructive in the school
room, than a great deal of the fumbling with superior methods by
inferior teachers. If you have ever fancied that you can neglect
yourself, in the en- deavor to become an expert, it will be well to "
clear your mind of that cant." The most worthless people in the
educational field are this class of '* skilled operators ; " narrow,
selfish, heartless ; oblivious of the common qualities of a Christian
gentleman or lady ; while pushing some little patent machine of
expertism through the most sacred realms of life, with no concern
for the humanities they outrage or the noble calling they disparage.
The chief toil of the teacher should always be with himself, to make
himself a larger and better man, a sweeter and stronger woman.
Then, good methods will become second-nature and the expert will
be forgot- ten in the gracious teacher, doing all things in the finest
way. A third danger is appearing in the zeal for teaching, what is . ;
i i psychologj^, or the science of mind, as applied to the teachers'
work. Under cover of this very desirable branch of study, I find, too
often, a little, shallow materialistic philosopher pushing in his
theory of man, minus soul, and a universe without a God, as the
basis of the entire s^'-stem of instruction for American youth. A
good many of our new books of method and some of our schoolbooks, are constructed on a theory that a child is only a superior
sort of animal ; and they would really be as appropriate for the
learned pig or the trained elephant as for the class-room. The mass
of our Normal School students come to these studies without
previous culture and are easily overawed by the monumental
bigotry and pretension of this school of "philosophers." Our secular
press is often switched off from the track by the habit of putting a
college graduate, who never taught, in charge of its educational
department ; and I have found great journals in the most eminent
school States, dealing forth the heresies of Spencer against the
right of the State to educate, or denouncing national aid to
extirpate the barbarism of illiteracy, on grounds that would reduce
the masses, everywhere, to a common herd of barbarians. The
thoughtful lait^'' of our country are watching your schools and have
not the slightest idea of supporting a type of education that begins

by resolving the soul of man into an annex of his body, or the


harmony of a mortal organization. General Grant voiced the
overwhelming sentiment of the country when he said, " The common school must neither he a teacher of sectarian religion nor of
Atheism,^^ Indeed, it is questionable if the teaching of a " cut and
dried " system of mentalphilosophyisanadvantageintheNormal
School.Itonlyrepeatstheoldmischiefoftheschoolmen,who
hewedand89sciuaredhumannaturebythephilosophyof
Aristotle.Thepsychologyofmostworthtotheyoungteacheris
thetrainedhabitofstudyingchildnature,bydirectobservation,
aidedbyconsultingwisemothersandteachersandreadingthe
literaturethatchildrenbestlove.Itwillbeagreatwhilebefore
evenProf.StanleyHallgivesusaknowledgeofthe"contentsof
children'sminds"sufficientforabasisofapropereducational
psychology.Buteveryyoungteachercandoagoodworkforhimself
intheexperimentalway.Meanwhile,asweintroducethechildren,
firsttotheglobe,andthentalkaboutcontinentsandsections,in
theirrelations,thebestintroductiontothisstudyseemstomethe
reading,underabroadandhumaneteacher,ofsomegoodcompendof
theHistoryofPhilosophy.This,atleast,willsavethepupilfrom
receiving,asthefinaldiscoveryofthehumanintellect,some
littlepieceofphilosophicalrubbish,kickeddownthebackstairs
byPlatotwothousandyearsago,nowrehabilitatedandpresentedat
thefrontdoorofAmericancultureasthelastreconcilingwordon
things,humanandDivine.Anothermostdangerousperilis^the
exaggerationandabuseofthecentralmoralmaximoftheNew
Education;thattheschoolgovernsandteachesforthediciplineof
thechildintogrowingindependenceandselfcontrol.Asheldby
Froebelandthegreateducationalprophets,imbeddedinhuman
experienceandworkedintheatmosphereofreverentfaith,itisthe
greatgospelofdisciplineforthenewtime.Aspracticallyhandled
inthousandsofAmericanschools,itissimplythedisorganization
offamilyandschoollifeintothatblendedanarchyanddespotism
whichmakesacrowdofspoiledAmericanchildrenanarrangementfor
whosenamewemustcertainlyretainthegoodoldmonosyllable.Hell.
The"goasyouplease"systemofchildlife,whetherinstudyor
behavior,w\}lcometoaspeedyend,howeverdignifiedbyhandsome
names.Thefirstconditionofthegovernmentofaschoolisself
controlintheteacher;andthesecondis,afistimbeddedinthe
soul;thatthroughallthewindingsofchildlifenowrestrains,
nowguidesand,likeagoodProvidence,savesthelittleonefrom
makingawreckofhimselfandalltowhomheisboundinlife,while
learningtosteerhisowncraftsafelyintothehavenofmanhood.
Awholegroupofweaknesses,conceitsandsuperficialitiesis
?constantly jumping up before the eyes of the lay observer, even if

no more than an average man of good sense. There is the selfconscious teacher ; so transported with her own charming ways
that she soon forgets the little ones who, in turn, are changed, from
pupils to be taught, into delighted spec- tators of a school-room
show.
A .1
90 Here, Camilla in the school-room skims the
field of tender grain, so swiftly that not one little head retains the
impress of her fairy footstep. The most seductive fault of the
brilliant Normal graduate is the explosive rapidity or humming-bird
vivacity which excites the children to a sort of mental Saint Vitus'
dance, but leaves no solid result behind. Remember how slow is

habit, how conservative is the child, and how difllcult it is to change


the hereditary and per- sonal type of character he brings to you by
the most patient, care- ful and persistent tuition. Your pupil retains
nothing which he does not make his own, and you must learn and
respect his power of assimilation, and often abate your highstepping enthusiasms,, becoming yourself, ofttimes, like a little
child, if you would do him good. The last of these dangers I shall
mention is the radical mistake of our normal institutes falling into
the hands of the ultra-secular theory of education, so positively
commended as the true Ameri- can ideal of the common school.
The American people, who fur- nish the children, pay the bills and
must abide the consequences of the national school-keeping, have
no such idea of the secular school as this. When they sweep the
school-house clean of sectarian bigotry and ecclesiastical control, it
is not that it may be filled with the damp drift of Godlessness ; but
that the "pure and unde- filed religion" of the Lord's prayer, the Ten
Commandments, the sermon on the Mount and the golden rule may
come in, like the sunlight and the breeze the very atmosphere in
which the school is worked ; the only atmosphere in which
Republican institutions in this country can long exist. Where they
insist on high charac- ter in the teacher, they mean a manhood and
womanhood vitalized, inspired, wholly informed by that central
power of love, without which the broadest culture and the finest
method are but "sound- ing brass." They do not mean by "character
training" that the teacher shall build up a little personal theory of
"scientific ethics" out of his own narrow experience of life ; but that
he shall teach that system of morals under which the world of two
thousand years ago has grown to the best civilization of
Christendom, and which ennobles every man and exalts every state
in proportion as it becomes the forming power in private life and
public policy. Our teachers are hardly aware with what earnestness
the wisest and best people everywhere, are now discussing the
possi- bility of reinforcing the character-end of the peoples' school.
Young America, just now, is in no state to tolerate neglect or false
training, however defended by specious t' ories. Our teachers have
often failed in permitting themselv^o cv/ be brow-beaten by
91
clerical bigots or infallible " come-outers/' and out of respect to the
crotchety conscience of the class that never can be pleased, to do
great injustice to the mass of the children, whose parents ex- pect
that the school will be more than half a school of " good morals and
gentle manners/' Every first-class educator, whose work has stood,
has built his temple on the everlasting foundations of the
recognition of man's spiritual and immortal being, and the primal
obligations of love and obediance to God, reverence for conscience
and love and service to man. No permanent structure of popular
education in our country can rest on any basis less broad and
substantial than this. The triumph of ultra-secularism will only be a
halting place on the road that will land the State, once more, in the
slough of the old-time sectarian parochial school. And this question,

really surpassing all others of right methods of character-training in


schools, depends far more on the teachers than on public discourse
for its solution. Industrial training in common schools, however
useful in its way, will be found in the end, to be far more valuable
for its moral than mechanical uses. No doubt, the American
workman needs a better skill, and all trades and professions can be
improved by the applications of an industry based upon science
and labor-saving machinery. But the radical difficulty that underlies
all these agi- tations of labor, currency, tariff and civil service, was
touched by old John Jacob Astor, when he said : ^^ These New York
mer- chants cheat each other and call that business." Train your
child into the central reverence for a truth that abides for evermore. Teach him that shirking work will never make him a scholar
and only truth is science and knowledge. Teach him that business is
business and no kind of public or private cheating, from a swindle in
trading jack-knives up to repudiation of public debts and tinker- ing
with the National currency, can ever deserve that name. Teach him
early to love his God, love his fellow man, love his country and work
and live on the highest table-land of motive at which he can sustain
himself. So will this beautiful New Education, which has gone forth
from your halls to charm the most generous minds and transform
the school-life of American childhood, be found to be none other
than the gracious dicipline of the Great Teacher the gospel
proclaimed by Him who '^spake as never man spake," and who
still, by Divine appointment, is president of God's great university
we call our human life.
Report by Sarah J. Walter, Supt. of the
School of Practice.
Class of '76.
THE SCHOOL OF PRACTICE. To
correctly understand the present, the present must be traced back
to causes in the past. The school of to-day is the pro- duct of
twenty-five years growth ; through this time it has held steadily on
through storm and calm; the element of life being strong, storms
have only strengthened and deepened the roots. The causes
leading to the establishment of the School of Prac- tice have been
enunciated too often to be repeated here. In fixing upon the
foundation principles, the advice of Rosseau was followed, "Take the
road directly opposite to the one in use and you will almost always
be right. " This road was taken May, '61. The following, from a
report of that year, explains itself* ^^ Resolved that Primary School
No. 2, located in the High School Building, be regardedasaModelor
ExperimentalSchool,tobetaughtbythemembersoftheModel
Teacher'sClass,underthesuperintendenceofsuchateacherasthe
Boardshallprovide."In'65theJuniorDepartmentwasadded.For
fifteenyearstheaboveplanwascontinued.Theneedofgiving
teachers[practiceinthehigherintermediategradeswasfeltandin
February,'80,theSeniorDepartmentwasorganized.Theaddition
ofthisdepartmenthasgreatlyincreasedtheefficiencyofthe
trainingwork.TheconnectionfromPrimarytoHighSchoolisnow
complete.InOctober,'85,theKindergarten,whichforseveral
yearshadbeenaprivateKindergarten,wasmadefreeandjoinedto
theSchoolofPractice.Thewayisnowopenedforanunbrokenline
ofworkfromthehometotheHighSchool,andanopportunitygiven

toconnectKindergartenandPrimar^^Schoolwork.ThePractice
Schoolnowincludesaboutfourhundredfiftychildren.Thereare
pleasantandcommodiousassemblyroomsforthevariousdepartments,
nineteenwellarrangedandwellfurnishedrecitationrooms.The
trainingteacheroftodayknowsnothingofsmall,dark,deskless
rooms.Nearlyeveryrecitationroomhasacabinetcontaining
specimensandproductsforillustratingthe83ett'ective
systemsofStateNormalSchoolandInstitutesinthecountry.Ohio
hasperhapsledinthenumberandimportanceofhercityNormal
Schools,which,withtheoneexceptionoftheadmirableschoolat
St.Louis,haveledallAmericancitiesinthetrainingofteachers.
EveryNormalSchool,asfarasIknow,Stateorcity,between
PittsburgandSanFrancisco,hasbeenorganizedontheOswegoplan
andhundredsofhergraduateshavebeenatworkinthem,since1865.
Ofcourse,suchleadershipcanonlybetemporary.Inacountrylike
ours,itisourboastthatnoWex\TTjo:ton,Beaconsfield,
GladstoneorBismarckcanlongholdanentii'o^jleinhisiron
grip;butleadershipisconstantlychanging,atl;.^^dem2aldofa
peoplegivenlargelytothinkingforthemselves.NoA,\'erorof
education;nopedagogicclique;nogreatschoolcanhopeto^o
morethanacceptthecallofProvidenceforabriefdirectionoi
Americaneducation.ThegrowingWestandPacificrealmaboundin
admirableschools,agoodnumberofwhich,inturn,willcometo
theirowndayofcommand.Anditwillbewellif,intheprideof
hergreatsuccess,ourwesternschoolmendonotforgettheoldrock
"fromwhichtheywerehewn"andfallintothedelusionthatthey
havemadeandnowlargelyconstitutethecountrywhosepromising
childthenewWestcertainlyis.Ihavejustcomefromanother
portionofthecountry,which,forthenexthalfcenturyistobe
themostinterestingandresponsiveeducationalfieldin
Christendom.Uptothedayofyournativity,thesixteengreat
Stateswecalled"theSouth,"withaterritoryalmostequalto
civilizedEurope,andtwelvemillionsofpeople,hadnotgonebeyond
theeducationalmethodsofoldEnglandandourMiddleStatesof
fiftyyearsago.ThatoldSouthwasnotdeficientincollegiateand
academicalschoolsoftherespectableclassofthattimeandhad
alreadyestablishedthecommonschool,forwhites,inseveral
cities,besidesmakingperiodicalspasmodicattemptstoplaceonthe
groundthepresentEnglishtypeofcommonschool,forthelower
whiteclass.But,withinthepastfifteenyears,aneweducational
Southhassprungintovigorouslifeand,today,theprogressive
classesofbothracesineverySouthernStatearemoreexercised
withtheeducationalquestionthananyothersavethefundamental
problemofgettingalivinganddevelopingtheircountry.Andthe
mosthopefulfeatureinthisisthatthenewSoutherncommon
school,initsmostinfiuentialquarters,isbeingorganized
accordingtotheprinciplesandmethodssofamiliarto3'^ou.
Indeed,thereisnowhereamorehopefulfieldfortheNewEdu
cationthanamongthefivemillionsofschoolchildrenandyouth
84whoarenow,throughallitsborders,likelittleOliverinthe
story,askingformore.Thewhitechildrenareverylargel^'^
descendedfromtheBritishstock,thathasneverfailedtorespond
togoodtraininginschool.Theyoungwomenteachersaredrawn
perhapsmorelargelyfromtheeducatedandsociallyprivilegedclass
thanintheNorth,andonlyneedgoodschoolingandprofessional
trainingtodistinguishthemselvesinthenearfuture.Afair
numberofsuperiorvoiincrmenareatwork,assuperintendents;some
of.jiviil,tcablesuccess.ThefewStateNormalsarehope:,!

;i;.'iv!i<si.vntlerInstitute,oftenassistedb^'themostdistin
L;iiis>^j'lischoolmen,aregenerallyworkingonrightlines.I
^'V.[\CK:!^tneedNorthernteacherssomuchasathorough
1;:.1IllieideasandmethodsoftheNewEducation;andi^
i:uI!lilyreceivinginvariousways.iif',!!ie!nnegro,
insomerespects,hasbeenmorefortunae]i;<..iNb^'^ihren.At
Hampton,Va.,isestablishedoneof1iitfsiliI,ii.jihools
intheSouth,whichhassentforthgreat11'i>riso[M^r:vc
teachersforthecoloredchildren.The'^colt:>'.)1'
i]^'LlSities,"perhapsascoreinnumber,thathavebeenestablished
bynorthernmissionsmadethemistake,atfirst,^ofpitchingthe
keytoohighandleavingoutofaccountthemightyfactorof
heredityindealingwiththeirpupils.Ithasbeenlargelyowingto
thegraduatesofourNorthernNormalSchools,whohavebeenemployed
asteachers,thatthisclericalandcollegiatemistakehasbeen
graduallyovercome.ThegiftofSlaterhasnowenablednearlyallof
themtoinaugurateindustrialtraining.Thusorganized,these"
universities"forthecoloredpeoplearereally,insomerespects,
themostoriginalschoolsinourcountry,andaredestinedtobecome
amightypowerintheupliftoftheAmericancoloredcitizen.When
Ifirstwentsouth,Ifoundplentyofnorthernmenwhoknewall
aboutwhatthenegrocould,andasmanywisemenofthesouthwho
weresurewhathecouldnotdo.Ihavebeentrying,forsixyears,
tofindoutwhathehasdonealready.Iseethatheisnow,atthe
endofhisthreehundredyears'residencewithus,fartheroutof
thewoodsofbarbarismthananyotherpeopleeverwereinone
thousandyearsbefore.Heknowshowtowork;hehasthelanguage
andreligionoftheworld'sforemostpeople;heiseagertoschool
hischildren;heisslowlygrowingagenuineupperclass,
intelligent,moralandprosperous;andhehasgottentogether,in
hisfirsttwentyyearsoffreedom,thesnuglittlesumofone
hundredmillionsofdollars.Whilethesouthernwhitepeopleare
largelygiventotheorizingon"theracequestion,"everysouthern
statehasestablishedthecommonschoolforthe85negroandis
doingaboutasmuchforhiseducationasweshouldprobablydounder
similarcircumstances.Asthingsnowaregoingondownsouth,the
mostinteresting^*racequestionofthethefuture/'willbethe
"race"foreducationalsuperioritybetweenthenegroandthegreat
multitudeofignorantwhitefolksinthesoutherncountry.Andno
classofchildrenrespondsobeautifullytothenaturalmethodsas
theselittlecoloredchildrenofNature,whorepresentthelast
groupofthehumanfamilythathascomeinfromtheschoolingof
"alloutdoors"tomeettheteacherwhowouldleadthemfromnature
up,throughletters,industryandscience,toNature'sGod.The
crownoftheOswegoworkhasbeentheemphasisithaslaidonthe
citytrainingschool.Heretheacademicalquestionissolvedbythe
selectionofsuperiormaterial.Thewholepowerofacitygraded
system,withitsskilledteachers,isconcentratedonayearormore
ofprofessionaltraining.Thegraduatesarereasonablysureof
positionsand,astimegoeson,theirenvironmentiffavorableto
success.Thepracticedepartmentisampleandinvaluableandthe
disparagingremarkrecentlymadeconcerningitbyadistinguished
universitycritic,isnotborneoutbymyobservation.Onthe
contrary,thecitypracticeschooleasilybecomesthemodelschool
ofthetownandthosecitiesthathaveworkedthetrainingschool
mostthoroughlyleadallothersintheireducationalaffairs.I
seenootherwaythanthisofovercomingthatfatalhabitoftime
servingschoolboardsmakingthepublicschoolsanasylumfor

incompetentmenandtheirownimpecunious"sisters,cousinsand
aunts."Onceahardnecessity,thispracticehasnowbecomean
intolerablepublicscandalwhichshouldbedenounced,without
qualification,ineverycityandtowninAmerica.Thefinaloutcome
oftheNormalandTrainingSchoolofthepresent,Ibelieve,isto
cause,insomethoroughsystemoftraining,competentteachersfor
thecommonschool.Thepeopleofthiscountryareveryfastcoming
tothepointofdemandingskilledlaborintheschoolroom,asthey
demanditeverywhereelse.Ifindeverywhereagrowing
determinationtomakeeverypoorschoolagoodschool,atall
hazards,andtheexpertisthesoulofagoodschool.Thisgreat
workcannotsomuchbeaccomplishedbymultiplyingStateNormals
asbyendowingthosewehave;liftinguptheirconditionsof
admission,andmakingthemtrueuniversitiesofinstruction.From
themwillgoforththeteacherstodirectthecitytrainingschools,
ofwhicheveryconsiderabletownshouldhaveone,and
superintendentsofthenewgradedschools;eachofwhichshould
haveateacher'sclass,whichcoulddoagreatdealtowards
supplyingthedemandfortheopencountr3\Everygoodae^dfexs^
86shouldhaveadepartmentofinstructionunderanexpert.Asfast
asourcollegescanoutgrowthedelusionthattheyaremakinged
ucationbelowinsteadofbeing,themselves,verylargelythepro
ductofthepeoples'schools,theymaywiselyestablishachairof
pedagogicsandfillthechairwithamanwhobelievesinandknows
somethingofthenormalidea.Itwouldbeaprodigiousgainifevery
collegegraduate,ofeithersex,werecompelledtoreadagood
historyofeducationandafewvaluablebooksonmethods,ifnothing
m^^.Or'.^canweutilizethegreatelementofwomanhoodin
t^.ochoolaright.Agreengirl,workingforasalary,')Ml.of
childhoodandofletters,recklessand"bumptious,"iiotrepresent
thewomanelementineducation.DownEast,^ueaverage"school
ma'am"stepsoutattheendoffive;inthenewNorthwest,atthe
endofthreeyearsservice;goingtoparadiseorotherwise
sometimestoChicago.Thiswecannothelp.Butwe,thepeople,will
insistthatthesegirlsshallcometouswithsomethingof
preparationandstrikeashighafigurethefirstdayasmaybe.In
returnthereisnopreparationfortheordinarylifeofan
Americanwomanmorevaluablethanthetrainingofanexcellent
publicschool,withNormalworkandafewyearsintheschoolroom
asteacher.Intheseseveralways,inconnectionwiththeimproved
instituteandschooljournalism;theteacher'sreadingcircle,
alwaysthebestwhereanintelligentreaderisletlooseintoagood
library;thevigorousinspirationoftheChautauquaandother
summerassemblies;weimayhope,intime,toreconstructthe
teachingelementthroughtheopencountry,wherewholedistricts,
almostStates,arenowabidingintheshadowofamiddleage
dispensationofineffectualinstruction.Andonlyasthebroadideal
oforganization,disciplineandinstructionsetforthinthisand
kindredschoolsisrealized,willtheAmericancommonschoolbecome
thegreatcentralpowerinAmericanlife;blendingthetrainingof
head,heartandhandinthatworthycitizenshipwhosecornerstone
isthegoodwoman,theuprightman.Wni3^oubearwithmealittle
longer,whileIsetforthafewofthedrawbackstothesuccessof
theNormalschoolandsomeofthemoreevidentperilsofthe
improvedmethodsofinstruction.Idonotbasetheseremarksonany
abstractphilosophyofeducation;butsimplytellyouwhata
greatmanyintelligentpeopleandcloseobservers,onschoolboards,
arecompelledtoseeinthepracticalworkingoftheschools.A

fewweeksagoIcameuptheMississippiriver,ononeofthelargest
steamcraftanenormousfloatingstorehouse,withan87
upperstoryhotelathighwater.Theriverwaseverywhereall
channelsweredrowned;andtheproblemwas,howtonavigatethis
wide,weltering,muddyoceanwithoutbringingupinacottonfield
orrunningdownasubmergedvillage.Atalmosteveryhouronewould
hearthecallofthemanheavingthelead"sixfeet;sevenfeet;
twelvefeet;nobottom;"passedupwardtothecoloredHerculeson
thehurricanedeck,whobawleditintotheearsofthepilotaway
otfinthewheelhouse.Itwasacomforttolearnthatthemighty
machinewouldgetoninfivefeetofwater;butnonetheless
importanttokeepheroffthesandbarsandoutofthe"oldfields.
"Justnow,whatwecall"theboomoftheNewEducation"may,
perhapsbebestdescribedashighwatereverywhere,thathas
obliteratedancientlandmarksanddrownedoldchannels,leaving
theyoungt/eacherintheconditionofastrangepilottryingtorun
afirstclasssteamerfromNewOrleanstoSt.Louisinanover.
flow.Likehimyoumayfancyyourselfcuttinganoriginalpathway
whenyouareonlysailinginanoldrut,knowntothepilots,since
thefirststeamboatwaslaunched,oryoumaybravely"sailoffinto
thewest"andbringupinshallowwaterinsomebody'sgardenor
astridetheroofofaparishchurch.Afewofthesenormalsand
barsIhavehadoccasiontojotdownonmyextemporizedchartwhile
watchingthevoyagesofNormalgraduates,nowthesetwentyfive
years,andyouwillrequirenoapologyfortheirexhibition.The
firstdangertotheNormalstudentissuperficialculture.Our
collegefriendssaysomethingsaboutyoutowhichwedemur,butwe
standbythemineverythingtheyurgeconcerningthoroughness,
breadthandceaselessaspirationintheacquirementofknowledge.
Youcanneverteachwhatyounotdoknow;andyoucanteachonly
poorlywhatyouknowimperfectly.Thereisanadvantagewithyou
inmethodsofacquiringknowledgeandsomethingscalledknowledge
areoflittleworthtoanybody.Butnoexcellenceofmethodcan
overcomethedisadvantageofignoranceandsuperficiality;while
theconceitthatoftengoeswiththesedefectsis,itself,the
worstdeficiencyofateacher.Theseconddangeristhenotion,
intowhichevenPestalozziissaidtohavefallen:thatanymethod
canteachschool,ofitself.Onlyamanorwomancanteachschool,
andagreatmanorwomancanoftendomorewithanimperfectmethod
thanalittlemaninacompletepedagogicarmor;justasagenius
withajackknife,willdomorethananumbskullwithachestof
tools.Thebestmethoddegeneratestomechanisnwheneverthemanor
womanbehinditistoosmalltoassimilateandworkitashisown.
Andno98comparethem.Shethenheldsidebyside*afine
photographofMinervaandapictureofagroupofwomenarrayedin
thelateststyles,andagainaskedforcomparisons.)Ifstudentscan
bebroughttoadmiretheGreekfiguresandfeelcontemptforthose
whichornamentthepagesoffashionmagazinesandthewallsof
dressmakers'rooms,theyarenearingthedesiredhaven;butthis
is,perhaps,themostdifficulttaskthegynmasticteacherhasto
accomplish.Wavinggrain,incomingwaves,thesoaringhawkhowwe
watchthembecausetheyaresobeautiful!Canchildren,canadults
bemadetofeelthisbeauty?(Dr.Leenowgavewithgreatvigor
thefistthrustexercises,whichwerefollowedbyslow,rhythmical
movementsofthearmsandhands.)Canchildren,canadultsbeledto
likethelatterbetterthantheformer?Ifso,rightidealsof
movementsarebeingestablished.Walkingisthemostcomplexof
ourhabitualmovements.Goodwalkinginvolvesgoodposeanda

balancedmotionofallpartsofthebody.Agoodwalkisrhythmical,
acontinuousgoingon,notasuccessionofstops.Howmuchawalk
indicates!(Theaggressive,thehumble,therepressed,the
aspiring,themorallyindifferentandthephysicallyenergetic
walkswereillustratedbyDr.Leeandbrieflydiscussed.The
audiencedidnotfindtheenergeticwalkattractive.)Butisnot
energygood?Yes,whenbalancedbygenerosity,purity,moral
courageandmanyotherfinequalities.Didyoueverthinkof
Christ'shavinganenergeticwalk?asadwalk?aheroicwalk?a
hopefulwalk?Neitherofthese,yetallofthem;asallfullness
dweltinhisspirit,soallfullnessdweltinhisperfectbody.
Whatmajestichumility,whatpatientenergy,whatreposefulpower,
whatS3rmpatheticsinlessnesshemusthaveshowninface,figureand
carriage!WereChristtoenterthisroomandwalkbeforeusnow,I
believeconventionalitywouldbethrownasideandaccordingtoour
severalneedsandcharacters,weshouldcallout"MyLordandmy
God!""WhatmustIdotobesaved?""Whatwouldstthouhaveme
todo?"^*Nowlettestthouthyservantdepartinpeace."Isit
notpossibletogiveidealsandtotrainthebodytofree,
harmoniousmovements,tomakeitthereadyvehicleofthebeau
tiful,enoblingfeelingsthatmaybeharbored?Yes,butitisslow
work.Teachersthemselveshavenottrueideals;Imightsaythey
havenoideals.Irecentlyvisitedalargegymnasium,inthemain
splendidlyconducted,butamongthehundredsofpupils,Isawonly
onewhohadagoodwalk.Theteacherhadnoidealoffinewalking.
99Iheardateachergroaningthus"ForyearsI'vebeenwork
ingtoteachmypupilshowtowalkwellandtodayIsaidtomyprin
cipal*Don'tyouthinkwewalkbetteryearbyyear?'Whatdo
youthinkhesaid?'Inevernoticethewaypupilswalk/Yethehas
passedpupilsfromtheroomyearsandyeairs.Ithinkprincipals
oughttokeepabreastoftheirteachersinideals,knowwhatthe
teachersaredoingandeveryhalfdozenyearssay^Welldone,good
andfaithfulservant.'"Probablyeverysubordinateteacherechoes
thismoan.Wetrytomakeourpupilsappreciatethatthebodyis
theorganofmindthemediumofcommunicationbetweenminds^the
onlymeansbywhichthespiritofmancanshowitselftoother
spirits.Mindorspiritmayexpressitselfineverypartofthebody
;nervesarethemessengers,andmusclestheservantsofthe
indwellingsoul.Anotherideatobedevelopedisthefactthatmind
formsthebody.Carriagesbypassingoverastreet,changethe
street.Thechangesaregreatandeasilyseenifthestreetbesoft,
asinearlyspring;butchangesareproducedeventhoughitmaybe
solidrock.ThedeeprutsinthepavementsofPompeianstreetsare
butthesumofimpressionsmadebypassingcarts.Justascertainly
themindleavesitsimpressionsuponanypartitemploysasameans
ofexpression.Iftheminddonotuseamember,thatmemberis
dumb,inexpressive,uninterestingexceptasaspecimen.AnIndian
cantellbysignsknowntohimwhatanimalshavepassedalonga
path.Bysignsequallyclear,aquick,educatedobservercantell
whatemotionsandthoughtshavehabituallyexpressedthemselves
throughvoice,face,trunkandlimb.Aman'shistoryis
unconsciouslywrittenbyhimselfalloverhisbody.Aladywho
oftensawVictorEmmanuelridingthroughthestreetsofRome,told
methatcrowdsthrongedlovinglyabouthim."Whatwashelike?"
saidI."Wereyouhungry,introuble,inneedofafranc,therewas
thatinVictorEmmanuelwhichwouldleadyoutoturntohimfor
help.Striphimofkinglydress,therewouldremainsomethingto
showhimthekingofhelpers."ThegenerosityofVictorEmmanuel

pervadedhiswholebody;inotherwords,hissoulhadformedhis
body.Ifyouseethisexpression(elevatinginnerendsofbrows,
wrinklingtheforeheadanddepressingthecornersofthemouth,)
habituallyupontheface,doyounotknowmuchofthehabitual
spiritualstateoftheowneroftheface?Ifapersonhabitually
talktomewithasidelongglanceandlidspartlyclosed,Ican
judgeveryaccuratelyhishabitualmentalcondition.My
acquaintance,B.,always100gesticulateswiththeforefinger,
whichfrequentlyisbroughtintocontactwiththeextendedfore
fingerofthelefthand.Mr.C.ofteninvites(?)hiswifeand
childrentofollowhimortoenteraroombyagesturewiththe
upliftedthumb.IampersonallyacquaintedwithB.andC,butwere
Itoseethembutonce,thewavingforefingeroftheone,andthe
loftythumboftheother,wouldshowmemuchoftheircharacters.
Backofthehabitualfacialexpression,backofthehabitual
gesture,arethehabitualstates,thecharactersofthemen.Isn't
itagoodthingforstudentstobegroundedinthetruththatthey
revealthemselvesbythatwhichtheirthoughtsandfeelingswrite
allovertheirbodies?Again,whileitistruethatcarriages
impressrutthestreet,itisequallytruethatthestreetonce
ruttedimpressesthecarriages.Thatwhichwastheresultbecomes
thecause.Carriagesmaymakebadroads;badroadsmakebad
carriages.Thoughtsandfeelingsformthebody;thebodymoulds
feelings.Thisreverseistruerthanwethinkandmoreimportant
thanwedream.Takethisattitude,(headthrustforward,chestde
pressed,jawdropped,)howmeanyoufeel!Nowliftchest,erectthe
head,shutthemouth,givethelipslineahorizontaldirection;
doesnotthefeelingchangetonobleresolution?Maintainthechest
andheadattitudes,butdepressthecornersofthemouth;notethe
changeoffeeling.Turnupthecornersofthemouth;howquickly
thefeelingsrespond!Bringtheclenchedfistbeforeyourface,
tightlycloseyourmouth,inclineyourheadandtrunkforward,
slowlymovethefist;whatfeelingcomes?Ineachoftheabove
experimentsthefeelingwasinducedbythepositionofthebody.In
thebeginningofourexperience,feelingwasparentof
expression;butnow,asintheexperimentsjusttried,expression
becomestheparentoffeeling.Youallrecognizethisasonephase
ofthelawofassociation.SofarasIknow,noteachersof
gymnastics,belongingtootherthantheDelsarteschoolandbut
fewbelongingtothatschooltakecognizanceofthisfactthat
expressionvoluntarilyassumed,rousestheemotionwhichnaturally
producestheexpression.Ibelievefewhaveappreciatedthefact,
andIknowbuttwoorthreewhomakeanyattempttoutilizethe
principleintrainingtheirpupils.DioLewisignoresit,orseems
to,byintroducingexerciseswhichrouseundesirableemotions.The
Delsartemovementsaccomplishallthathissystemaccomplished,and
besides,reachafieldofwhoseexistencehedidnotdream.To
meitseemsthatthisideaofbodilyattitudesproducingmentalor
moralones,isalargeideacapableofunlimitedappli101
cationbyteacher,parentandindividual.MissWalter,oneofthe
principalsofourpracticedepartment,tellsmethattheintroduc
tionofDelsarteexerciseshasgreatlydevelopedthespiritof
courtesyamongherpupils.Agentleman,attheconclusionofa
courseofgjnnnasticswithme,toldmethatacertainexercisewe
hadrepeateddailywasalwaysaccompaniedbyaninrushofnoble
sentiment,andthatheknewthathismoralnaturehadbeen
strengthenedandpurifiedbythegymnastics.Theteacherwho
understandsthelawsofexpressioncanselectexerciseswhichwill

rousefeelingswhichneedtobecultivated;theteacherwhodoes
notknowthelawsofexpressionwillcertainlychooseexercises
whichdevelopeundesirablequalities.Delsartetendstomakethe
teacheraphysicianabletoprescribephysicalmedicinetocure
moralailment.IfIseemtodwelltoolongonthispoint,remember
thefieldisrich,buttotallyuncultivated.Ibelieveweare
startingtheworkhereontherightbasis.Icannotinabrief
talkexplaintheDelsartesystembutIcanstateafewfacts
regardingtheexercisesweemploy.First,themovementsareslowand
rhythmical.Rapidthrustsexcitethenervoussystemandare,
therefore,notrestful.Slow,rhythmicmovementssoothe,compose,
harmonize.Theyareinharmonywiththerhythmicheartthrob,the
rhythmicrespiration,therhythmicswayofelmtrees,therhythmic
swellofthesea,therhythmicmusicofthespheres,therhythmic
poetryofmanandofnature.Rapidmovements,particularlyifabrupt
andtakenwithapparatus,arebelievedtosnapthefibersof
muscle;theyarenotconducivetothebuildingupofmuscle.
Second.Whenapparatusisused,onlyverylightpiecesare
employed;thegrowingneedsofthegrowingmusclearemetby
increasingthenumberoftimesanexerciseistaken,ratherthanby
increasingtheweightswungorraised.Thisprecautionprevents
strain.Dr.Dowd,ofNewYork,theinventorof"TheHomeExerciser''
akindofchestweightweighsonehundredandfiftytwopounds
andcanliftfourteenhundredandfortytwopounds.Hebroughthis
muscleupbylightgymnastic,chiefiybychestweights.Third.The
freegymnasticexercisestakenfordevelopmentofthemusclesofany
part,areofacharactertopromotegrace;theyfitforlife.
Fourth.Particularattentionispaidtoremovingtheilleffectsof
hardmanuallaborandimproperposition.TothisendtheAa^
102ormusclesareoftenstretchedandthewholebody"decomposed/'
i.e.,thebodyisperfectlyrelaxed.Fifth.Thewholebodyis
exercisedevenly;noeffortismadetodevelope^eatpowerinone
part.Ibelievethesystemhereemployedhasthegoodfeaturesof
thebestmoderngymnasticsandaddstothemtheideaofmakingthe
bodyafree,efiQcient,gracefulorganofexpression.Reform
ThroughtheKindergarten.MRS.CLARAA.BURR,CLASSOF'73.
Thequestionhowtohandlewithadvantagethenumeroustopicsofthe
primaryschoolisoneofmoment.Teachersofhighergradeshaveto
contendwithsuperficialideasthatyearsofafterworkcannot
developeintoacorrecthabitofthought,andtheyholdteachersof
lowergradesresponsible.Theprimaryteachertakesrefugeindrill
work,andasthissubstituteswordsforideas,itcannotaddto
vigorofmind,anddoesnotremovethecauseofcomplaint.Toform
correctconclusionsastomethodsofteaching,thehighestideals
shouldbestudiedandcompared.Naturestandsrevealedaperfect
teacher,notbecausevarietyofexpressionandrepetitionofidea
markeachstepofherwork,butbecausesheappreciatesa
principleofrelationwhichcoordinatesparttopartandthewhole
toadivineorigin.Natureteachesobjectivelythroughtreeand
shrub,oneamodificationoftheotherandrelatedthrough
contrasts.Theshrubisarepetitionofthetree,thetreeanex
pansionoftheshrub,botharesustainedbytheearthandair,to
whichtheyreturnagainthroughchangingseasons.Thecloudand
springarecontrolledbytwoopposingbutrelatedforces,onedraws
downfromthecloudtoformthespring,theotherdrawsupfromthe
springtoformthecloud.Tree,shrub,cloudandspringareadjusted
tothechangingnecessitiesofman.Froebeldrewhisdeductionfrom
thestudyofGod'shighestconception,achild,andhisworkwas

resolvedintoastudyofrelatedconditionsessentialtothe
developmentofthetriunenature.Inordertorelateconditionsthe
teachershouldbetheexponentofthelawsheprofessedlyfollows,
forshecannotconceivethemethodofitsapplicationtothe
developmentofanother,untilsheexperiencestheeffectswithin
herself.Thenwillshebeintelligentandjustinherjudgmentof
workofthoseinthesamefieldasherself,andambitioustopromote
theinterestofgradesaboveandbelowherown.Froebel,inthekin
dergartensystem,hasbroughtNature'slaw,"RelationbyCon
trasts,"withinthegraspofprimaryteachersanditissusceptible
104ofabroaderapplicationintheprimaryschoolthaninthe
kindergarten.Withkindergurtnersandprimaryteacherslostto
loveofpowerandselfadvancement,theultimateaimwillbethe
elevationofallschoolsthroughastudyofrelations.Then
kindergartnerswillnotdiscourageprimaryteachersintheirefforts
torelatetheirworktothekindergartenbutwillmakeprimaryand
higherworkastudy,thatdifficultiesmayberemovedandtheschool
preparedfortheinfusionofkindergartenlife.Neither'willthe
primaryteacherusekindergartengamesas"rests,*'northe
occupationsfor"variety,"neitherwillthegiftsbedesecratedin
theiruseinnumberandformlessons,because"convenient
apparatus."Suchworkbuttendstothedestructionofonesystemand
theconfusionoftheother.Iftheprinciplethatmakesthe
Kindergartenadistinctsystemissosubtleastobelostinthe
drivinglifeoftheschoolroom,thentheconditionsshouldbe
changedandtheschoolpreparedforitsinception.Ifthiscannotbe
done,theKindergartenmustfailasaneducationalfactor.
Conclusionsbaseduponexperienceprovethatthebadeffectsthat
arisefrom"varietyanddrill'*intheprimaryschoolmaybe
overcomethroughtheapplicationofthelawofrelation.Thegen
eralprogramofworkshouldbeplannedforeachdayoftheweek,for
atleastamonth.Whilecloselyfollowed,itshouldbebeautifully
flexibleasthespecialwantsofthechildmayrequire.The
teacher'sworkistosupplyconditionswithoutconsciouseffort,
whilethechildrespondstotheinfluencehefeelsandcannotsee.
Tosupplyneededconditions,isnottogivenorwithold,andin
volvesthewholeartofteaching.Tohandlethevarioussubjectsof
theprimaryschooltothehighestadvantage,specialpointsineach
subjectshouldberelated,andthewholerelatedtoeveryother
subject.Thenahabitofreasoningfromcausetoeffectis
establishedandcontinuityofthoughtistheresult.Thefirst
exerciseofthedaythen,shouldrelatethechildtothespiritof
Nature,andmustbeaNaturalHistorylesson.Onlycharacteristic
pointsshouldbeemphasizedtolayabasisfortheday'slessonsand
futureworkinclassiflcation.Toconsiderspontaneouslyany
objectachildmaysuggest,callsforageneralknowledgeofscience
andspecialknowledgeoftypescommontothelocality.Ifthe
subjectofthoughtforthefirstdayoftheweekisabird,the
specialstudyofthestructureofthefeet,preparesthemindfor
thesimplestclassification.Thelanguagelessonmayfollowthefull
statementsexpressiveoftheideasdeveloped,fromwhichany105
partofspeechmaybestudied.Thereading*ofthesestatements,
withcorrectexpressionanddistinctenunciation,becomestheread
inglesson,andthemostsuggestivestatementofthislessonmaybe
madetoemphasizeanyformofletterasawritinglesson.Theform
lessoninclaymoulding,maybeacylinder,relatedinformtothe
bird'sfoot.Ifaclimber,theadjustmentoftwotoesinfrontand
twobehind,placesthebirdintheordertowhichitbelongs.

Thedrawinglessonshouldexpresstheideaoftheformmodelled,
whiletheworkinnumberiscloselyrelatedtoeachandall.
Physicalexercisesmayillustratecharacteristichabitsofthebird,
aseating,climbingandbuildingofnests,fromwhichagamemaybe
evolved,thewordsofthesongandgameascientificdescription
ofthebird,settomusic,subordinatetothoughtandaction.
Experienceprovestoo,thatsuchgamesaremoreenjoyableto
childrenthanmanyothersincommonuse,andtheyareinstrict
accordancewithFroebel'sidea.Hisowngamesweremoretohimand
hischildrenthantheycanbetohisfollowers,becauseofthe
experienceswhichmadethesegamestheirown.Theworkoftomorrow
shouldberelatedtotheworkoftoday,andgift,occupationand
gamemaybearanimportantrelationtotheordinaryworkofthe
primaryschool,buttheseshouldonlybeusedbysuchteachersas
canappreciatethelawofrelationandfollowitssubtlecoursefrom
beginningtoend.Tosuchteachersthestudyofrelationshas
peculiarfascinationandtheworkofthelastdayoftheweekwill
standasarevelationofthefirstthoughtofthefirstday.While
manylinesofthoughthavebeensuggested,theconnectionhasbeen
soclosethroughcoordinationofpartsandwholes,thattheweek's
studyhasbeenacontinuousthought.This,then,istobethe
missionofthekindergarten,topreparetheschoolforthe
applicationofPestalozzianprincipleandkindergartenspirit
uponwhichthesystemisbased.Maythelargestnumberenjoythe
greatestgoodfromthegrandestconceptions.PESTALOZZIANISMIN
ENGLAND,BYMRS.M.E.M.JONES.TheHomeandColonialSchool
Societywasinstitutedin1836,hyMr.Reynolds,MissMayo,andMr.
Bridges,asolicitorwho,aslegaladvisertotheSociety,andasa
memberofitscommittee,alwaysremainedinconnectionwithit.Miss
MayowasthesisterofDr.Mayo,sometimeprincipaloftheschoolat
NorthCheam,whichhehadrenderedcelebratedbytheintroductionof
themethodofPestalozzi.InEngland,itwasfirstexemplified
there.Thus,whenDr.MayoretiredfromCheam,therewasreasonfor
apprehensionlestapatternofthiseducationshouldbelosttothe
country.But,inthehourofdanger,agreatinspirationcametoMr.
ReynoldsandMissMayo,twopersonswhohabituallysoughttofind
andtodothebest.Theywouldpopularize,yes,andnationalize
Pestalozzianismathome,andintheColonies.Theywouldpresentit
withallitscharacteristicmerits,andnoneofitsincidental
defects;fortheyjudgedthatthesystemshoweddefects,not
inherentinit,butspringingfromthesuddennessofthereaction
it'hadinitiated.Accordingly,oneFennderssaid,"Letnotour
teachers,whilecultivatingthesenses,thejudgment,thereason,
sufferthememorytoliefallow.Letthemnot,becausetheytake
loveastherulinginfluence,failtosecuretheobediencethat
springsfromthesubjugationofselfwill.Letthemnotincreating
anatmosphereofsympathy,neglecttoenlightenandexercise
conscience,andtoformprinciples."Therewasyetanotherpresumed
defectofPestalozzianism,whichhowever,couldnot,justatthat
time,haveapplicationtous.Itwasalleged,thathavingtaken
painstoformthemind,wefailedtofurnishit,butasnochildren
overtheageofeightwereatfirstadmittedasscholars,itwas
obviousthatnogreatamountofmentalfurniturewashererequired.
Thebeginningsoftheworkweresmall.Theearlyexpensesweremet
byacapitalofthreehundredpounds,subscribedinequal
proportionsbythethreefoundersoftheInstitution.Tworoomsina
centralstreetofLondonweretaken,furnished,andonthefirst
107dayofJune,1836,openedtothreestudents.Betweenthatday

andthis,thecollegehassentoutabout5,500teacherstoallparts
oftheworld.Itwassoondiscoveredthatthesuitableillustration
ofPestalozzianmethodsinvolvedthepresenceandhelpofthe
children,whomthemethodwasmeanttoserve.Ineighteenmonths
fromtheformerdate,thecollegereopened,intheGray'sInnRoad,
tofiftyonestudentsandalargenumberofchildren.Fiveyears
afterwards,itwasthemosteminentofitsclassinEngland.Inits
earlyperiodanumberofstudents,manyofthemforeigners,were
trainedforforeignmissionwork;Syrians,Hindoos,Africansand
evenChinesewereseenfromtimetotimeintheclassrooms.Ithink
theylikedusIknowwelikedthem;butthatwasnotsurprising
sincetheywere^^picked"people.InthesedaysMr.Reynolds,our
HonorarySecretary,satdailyinhisoflBce,from10A.M.to4P.
M.,whileMissMayo,whodidagreatdealofpaperworkathome,
cametousregularlyononedayoftheweek.Onthisday,oneofthe
studentswaschosentogivealessonbeforethesetwoverycompetent
critics.Thelessonwascalledatriallesson,andthegivingof
itwasalwaysregardedasa"trial."OurheadmasterwasMr.
Dunning,thanwhomourauthoritiesfoundnoEnglishteachermore
imbuedwiththespiritofPestalozzianism.Mr.Dunning,
though*afterwardgivinglesstimetous,neverleftusaltogether,
tillheretiredfromwork;andtoday,hesendsattheageof
eighty,amessageofsympatheticgreetingtotheschoolsofOswego.
Thenandformanyyears,agoodcustomobtained.Theearliesthalf
houroftheworkingday,whichsawallthestudentsassembled,was
devotedbytheheadmastertotheelucidationofatextfrom
scripture,includingperhapsavariantreading,andsuchillustra
tionsaswerethenavailable.Butourteacher'sgreataimwassoto
putthecandleofthewordinthehandofeachofus,thateach
shouldturnthelightinward.Theconclusioneverboreonpractical
duty.Therewerenoplatitudesontheonepart;nowearinessonthe
other.Noonedidmoretokeepthelampofsacrificeburninginour
midsttourgeustoearnestnessofmindandsinglenessofheart,
thandidMr.Dunning.Inthesecondhalfofthehour,ourteacher
gaveuaabrightlittledissertationonsomeproverboraphorism,
called"themottofortheday,"as:"Sowanact,reapahabit;
Sowahabit,reapacharacter,Sowacharacter,reapadestiny.*'
108"Prayershouldbethekeyoftheday,andthelockofthe
ni^ht.'*^*Therearetwoclassesofbelievers,thosewhobelieve
thatGodowesthemalifeofhappiness,andthosewhobelievethat
theyoweHimalifeofduty."**Aman'smindiswonttotellhim
morethansevenmenthatkeepwatchonahightower.""OGod,we
areThine,evenwhenwesin;butwewillnotsinbecauseweare
Thine."Thesemottoesmaynothavebeenactuallygiven,butthey
arefairexamplesofthoseused.Thetwothatfollowweregiven,
withapplicationsthathavealwaysbeenrememberedbyatleastone
ofthehearers:**Principlesareasseedcorn,rulesareas
bread.""Wemustnotlookforfruitinthetimeofblossoms.Yet,
wherethereisnoblossom,therewillbenofruit."Atanordinary
lesson,say,ingrammar,ourteacher'sfirstwordswouldbe,"
Pleaselendmeagrammar;"and,asnobookonthesubjecthadas
yetbeenrecommendedbyourauthorities,therequestbroughtfortha
dozengrammars,byasmanywriters.Takingthenearest,Mr.Dunning
wouldbeginbyreadingaloudsomespecificrule;buthisquestions
soonbroughttheclasstoseewhetherornotauniversalrulelay
behindit.Thecomparisonofthegrammars,onthepointunder
(Consideration,tendedtoshowhowprofoundwastheunityof
grammar,howsuperficialthedifferencesofgrammarians.Orthe

classwouldbeledtoconsiderthedifferentaspectsoftheroot
ideaactionorobjectandthecorrespondingdevelopmentofthose
languagevariationswhichexpressthesedifferencesinaspect.To
someofus,suchlessonswereasgoodasaclaimina"gold
diggings;"butitmaybe,thatothersbelievedtoomuchtimeand
attentiontobedevotedtononphysicalsubjects,leavingtoolittle
fortheacquisitionofdirectinformation.Vainlyitwas,in
effect,saidtothesestudents,"Youdonotcomeheretolearn
geographyorhistory;thesesubjects,sofarasyouneedthem,you
shouldhaveacqmiredbefore,oryoumayacquireinthefuture;
butyourtimeoftrainingistooprecioustobespentonthem.You
areheretostudy,notgeography,butrightmethodsofintroducing
andpresentinggeographytotheyoung;nothistory,butthemothers
ofhistory(soontobe)thechildrenofourperiod;howtotrain
thesenses,thehand,andthevoice,howtoawakenthereason,and
influencethemoralnature,howtoestablishcharacter,how,in
fact,toturnoutfromyourschoolroomsaperfectlyequippedhuman
creature.Asmeanstothishighend,youwillstudyhowbestto
communicate109truth,andtoimpartknowledge,howto
apportionyourtimetablesandhowtoorganizeanddiscipline
numbers.'*MuchofthiswasbeyondcontroversyandalwaysMr.
Dunning'slessonsonthecharacteristicsofchildren,(henow
thinksofpublishingthose)excitedthestrongestinterest;yet,a
healthyappetiteforsecularinformationpossessedtheclasses.The
morebecausetheirlessonsongeneralsubjectsweregivenbythe
bestteachersthatcouldbeobtainedMr.Krusi,Mr.Reimer,Mr.
Tegetmierandothers.Ourstudentsaidineffect,"Giveusmore
informationandwewillbecontentwithlessphilosophy."Forthis
andotherreasons,nearuponthebeginningofthethirddecadeof
thiscentury,thecollegeenteredonanewphase,bybecominga
governmentinstitution.Havingtakenthiscourse,werapidly
gaineditsexpansion.Atonetimeourstaff,studentsandchildren
takentogether,amountedto2,000^but,inproportionlost
distinction.Webecameinameasureassimilatedtothecharacter
ofothertrainingcolleges.Wewere,wehoped,moreusefulaswe
ceasedtobeunique;yet,surelymuchoftheoldaromamustcling
tousstill.InanycasethePestalozzianslipplantedbythe
societyhasbecomeaBanyantree,havingrootsaswellasbranches
inalltheterritoriesoftheBritishEmpire,andbeyondthebounds
ofthatEmpire.ThisisthedistinctionoftheHomeandColonial
SchoolSociety,anditissufficientlyhonorable.LettersRead
attheQuarterCentennialMeeting.London,June,1886.Tothe
FriendsAasemhUdinOswego:Fromtheheight(ordepth)ofmy
eightyyears,whosestrengthhasbeenspentincollegiatework,I
lookinuponyourcelebrationaquartercentennialone.Butwhat
isaquartercentennialtoamanwhoseesafourthquartercentennial
alittleahead?Well,itisasmuchasspringistotheyear,
showingthattheseedhasnotmerelygerminated,butsprungup,and
thattheshoothasnotmerelysprungup,butblossomed,yea,
crowneditselfwithblossoms.Iwillnotsmothermyfewheartfelt
wordsofsympathybyadviceofanykind,norevenbyanyreference
ttyourresponsibilitiestotheyoungergeneration,totheEnglish
speakingworld,tothehumanworld,asifyoudidnotconstantly
considerthesethings,askingthegiverofwisdomandstrengthto
makeyousufficientforthem.Iwillsaybutthisthatthereisno
work,noteventheministerial^andI,whowrite,havebeena
ministerformanyyears,thereisnoworkmoreinterestinginthe
doing,moredelightfulinretrospect,moresafeofrewardinthis

world,thoughnotofworldlyreward,thantheworkofafaithful
teacher.Dearfriends,Inowlookonyou,thecolleaguesofmy
friendMr.Krtisi,asthespecialholdersofthePestalozziantorch.
Itiswelltowaveithighandwide,butitisbesttokeepit
brightandclear.IthinkyouknowaswellasIdotheonemethodof
doingthis.Bykeepingasingleeye,youshallbealtogetherfullof
light!ThegraceofourLordJesusChrist,theloveofGod,and
thefellowshipoftheHolyGhostbewithyouall.ROBERTDUNNING.
ShelburnbFalls,Mass.,July2,1886.DearMr.Sheldon:A
carriageaccidentthismorning,fortunatelywithoutserious
consequences,hasleftmewithafacesoscratchedandbruisedthat
itwillbedisfigm'edforsomedays.Itbecomes,therefore,
impossibleformetoperformthepartyoudidmethehonortoassign
meonyourprogramforJuly7th.Inotifyyouimmediately,feeling
assuredthatyouwillhavenodifficultyinsupplyingmyplaceby
someonewhowillmoreworthilyandablyrepresenttheAssociation
thanwouldhavebeenpossibleformetodo.Ihavehadpleasant
anticipationsofthemeetingeversinceIknewthatpreparations
weremakingforaspecialanniversary;anditisagreat
disappointmenttometogiveupthehopeofbeingpresent;thoughI
amconfidenttheAssociationwilllosenothingbyreasonofmy
absence.Praybesokindastoexcusemetomyoldassociatesand
friends,andacceptheartywishesforajoyfulreunion,andanen
thusiasticcelebrationofthebirthdayofAlmaMater.Yerytruly
yours,MARYH.S.PRATT,Classof'63.IllJenaonthe
Saalk,Thuringia,Germany,May24,'86.TothePrincipal,Teachers
andAlumnioftheStateNormalSchool,Oswego,NewYork.Dear
Friends:FrommynicheatthefeetoftheThuringianHillswhere,
fornearlyayear,Ihavebeenwatchingtheworldgoby,Igiveyou
greeting,andbegleavetoaddtoyoursmyfelicitationsuponthe
respectableagetowhichourschoolhasattained.Insteadofsending
thispoordumbletter,howmuchpleasanteritwouldbetograspyour
hands,lookintoyourfacesandlistentoyourvoices,andtojoin
withyouincelebratingthecloseofthefirstquartercenturyinthe
historyoftheOswegoNormal.Yetthoughverymanyofusmustbe
absentinthebody,itisgoodtobelievethatsomewhereatthis
timeweareallunitedinreviewingproudlythepastofourschool,
inrejoicingoveritspresentprosperityandinprayinghopefully
foritsfutureusefulness.GodblessourAlmaMater,andgranther
manyanotherquartercenturyanniversary.Andasshegrowsinyears
mayshegrowingraceandintheknowledgewhichopenstheeyesof
theunderstandingandfitsmenforrightlivinginthisworld,while
itpreparesthemfortheworldwhichistocome.Mr.Sheldonsays,
''Tellusofyourobservationsofeducationalworkabroad.''Justat
thismomentIlookoutofthewindowandseemorethaCntwohundred
schoolboysmarchingalongthestreet,whiletherainpoursdown.
Theyareallages,fromsixtofourteen,andthoughitthundersand
lightens,notasmallboyflinches,butsteadilymakeshisway
throughthemud,apparentlyascontentaswhenhestartedatseven
o'clockthismorningforatrampintothecountry.Thisisthe
Yolk'sSchulewheretheverypoorestchildrengo.Energyanden
duranceareamongthevirtuesinwhichtheyaretrained,sothata
thunderstorm,moreorless,makesnottheleastdiflferencetothem
.Theymustbearthecoldofwinterandtheheatofsummerwithout
theslightestcomplaint.Theyhavebeengonesevenhours,sowill
havenomoreschooltoday.Notaboyamongthemhaslookedintoa
booktoday,yettheeducationalwheelisturningandmakingagoodly
record.Theywillhavemanysuchatrampbeforethesummerisover.

LastweekinDresden,intheearlymorning,Isawthesamething,
girls,boys,mastersanddirectors,allgoingtothemeadowsinstead
oftotheschoolroomstostudy.Itwasapleasantsight.To
morrowmorningjustbeforeseveno'clock,ifyoucouldlisten,you
wouldhearthesoundofsmallfeet,andifyoupossessedsuitable
visionyoucouldSeeyoungGermanyagainonitswaytoschool.Girls
andboysfillthelonglines.Theydonotscamperandscreamasour
childrendo,butsedatelymarchtowardsthedutiesoftheday.Each
childhasaknapsackcontainingworkingutensilsstrappeduponhis
back,andnotoneinahundredhasforgottenpen,notebookorink
wiper,andnotoneinfivehundred,perhapseveninfivethousand,
willbelate,although7a.m.isalittleearlytobeginschool.
Agreatmajorityofthesechildrenarepoorerperhapsthanyoucan
imagine,yetyouwillhardlyseeanuntidygarment,oratornshoe.
Patchesanddamsyouwillseeinplenty,butnoonepatchesand
darnssoskillfullyastheGermanhousemother,andclothesthat
havepassedthroughherfingersareratherattractivethanotherwise
Astoschoolaccommodations;Oh,youdearAmericanteachers,who
pineforincreasedsalaries,betterschoolhouses,largergrounds,
moreapparatus,etc.,etc.!ThanktheEducationalGeniusofthe
Republicthatyouhavehalfasmanythingsasyouneed,andgoright
toworkandmakeatleastfivetimesmoreofyourresourcesthanyou
haveeverdonebefore;thoughatthesametimeIchargeyou,donot
abateonejotortittleofyour demands, for no good teacher was

ever yet sufficiently paid ; and liberal expenditure in the schoolroom, especially in a country such as ours, im- plies immense
saving in reformatories, prisons, asylums, hospitals. Only see to it
that, at least so far as you are concerned, the expenditure is
intelligent and compati- ble with the principles of economy.
112
A little later in the day 70a might get a glimpse of military Grermany
going through its eyolutions. Those ranks upon ranks of blue-coated
young men from fifteen to eighteen years of age are the small boys
of a short time ago. Every one has served his time in the
elementary school, and every one of them can, at the least, read
and write intelligently. This military drill of three years is the second
grade in the educa- tion of the German citizen, and the punctuality,
forethought, readiness, tidiness and concentrated attention
enjoined upon the lad of ten years, are no bad preparation for the
development of the cool, steady, courageous, enduring soldier. The
girls who a few years ago kept step with their brothers, have
disappeared. A few of them may be found in Teachers' Seminaries,
Schools for needlework, '^Kliniks" where nurses are trained, etc.
The great majority however, are pursuing their studies at home or
in private ''pensions'' where they are being inducted into the
mysteries of washing, ironing, dusting, brewing and baking.
Capability in house- keeping is truly the end and aim of the German
woman ; yet in view of the fact that the country boasts a yearly
average of at least half a million of wtmen who have no houses to
keep, such elaborate preparation would in some cases seem to be a
work of supererogation. Later still in the day, in fact so late that if
you could have a choice in the matter you would prefer dreaming to
listening, you might hear sounds of marching, shout- ing, singing,
etc., and if you could look into the coffee rooms and public gardens

in the University-towns, you might see Germany's highest grade


pupils. The elemen- tary school, the gymnasium, the military drill,
are all things of the past, and the ''student'' so-called, takes his turn
in the educational grind. He is nocturnal in his habits, and away into
the wee small hours he is occupied in vigorously moistening with
beer the thirsty soil in which the learned professors have laboriously
sowed the seeds of science. Judging from the quantity of liquids
consumed, the soul of a German student must be a perfect Sahara
as to dryness, yet that it is far from barren the yield of later years
abundantly proves. In his earlier years the university student is
picturesque. He drinks and smokes and fights and sings, and does
everything which he ought not to do, in defiance of all rules for law
and order, yet before his course is over, he gathers himself
together, makes his examinations creditably, and enters the world
with no more bad habits than the majority of humans, and furnished
with no mean share of physical and mental ability. His career is
phenomenal and contradicts all psychological law. How the quiet,
thoughtful obedient boy breaks out into the rollicking, careless,
lawless, youth, and how he subsides again into the peace-loving,
law-abiding citizen are mysteries. Germany and America are so
difierent that it is difficult to state in what respects one country is
doing better educationally than the other. The system of education
which suffices for a country where the tendency of thought even in
this nineteenth century is strongly localized, and man only knows
his fellow-man through a knowl- edge of himself, and only knows
himself through introspection and not through his knowledge of
other men, must be insufficient for a country where the widest distances are united and where a community of interests brings the
people of the ex- treme east and west into as clos^contact as if
they were next door neighbors. No peculiarly German institutions
could, I think, flourish in America, yet in the work of instruction
there are points of
ellence calculated to command the respect and emulation of the
educator in America. And first, I may mention, the economy of
money, time, physical and mental wear and tear. As the American
cent has about four times the value of the German pfennig, so are
the American people about four times as wasteful in school work
as in everything else, as the Germans. Secondly. The German
teachers are better trained than ours. I do not mean that we have
not in America individual teachers who compare favorably with the
best in Germany, but we have unfortunately a large class of
untrained, unskilled
113 uneducated people who persist, and
who are, I sometimes think, encouraged to per- sist in occupying
our school-rooms, to the incalculable injury of the children. Here
every man and woman, who undertakes to teach, must be trained.
Even the private schools are subjected to the inspection of
government officials, while the teachers of sewing and knitting,
etc., must at least go through the form of an examination in
pedagogy. Oh, this training ! It saves time ; it saves money ! It

saves humanity ! To it 1 should say the German schools owe their


excellence. The work which I have everywhere seen is
characterized with a degree of thoroughness, steadiness, evenness
and freedom from excitement, which cannot fail to have the finest
influence upon the disposition and character of the child. And now
I wish I had time to tell you of my beautiful Jena. A very insignificant little town it may seem to many, as it lies here in the shadow of
the everlasting hills with the Saale winding through it like a thread
of light. It is a satisfying place* You go away from it, and you long to
return ; you have an approving glance for every old house and you
feel like greeting the people as if they were of your kin. It is also no
unimportant place in the educational history of Germany. Here was
fought the battle of Jena, Oct. 14, 1806, which decided the defeat of
Prussia and proclaimed the victory of Napoleon. And here on the
afternoon of that day came Jahn, a vigorous young man of twentyeight or thirty years. The sorrow over the hopelessness of the
Prussian cause turned his beard white in a few hours. His resolve to
fit Germany to resist a foreign enemy was made here, and the rest
ofhislifewasspentincarryingouttherevolution.Thefewyears
thatfollowedweretrulytheschoolmaster'sage.Pestalozziwas
justbeginningtobeheard.FroebelhadjustseenPestalozziandwas
beginninghislifework.Schiller,ofJena,Herder,twelvemiles
away,hadjustdiedandlefttheirworksbehindthem.Richter,
Goethe,Schleiermacher,FichteandHerbartwereaUvigorousmen;
Diesterwegwasaboyofsixteenyears.IndirectlythebattleofJena
wasthecauseofthepresenteducationalsystemofGermany.How
noblytheschoolmastersdidtheirworkthetriumphsof1870can
tell.PestalozziandJahnsecuredthevictoryofSedan,provingthat
whilethepenismightierthanthesword,thelivingwordspringing
freshandpurefromtheearnest,selfforgettingheartismore
potentforgoodthaneither.WhatGermanyaccomplishedbetweenthe
yearsof1806and1870,Francehasbutlatelyundertakeninamanner
whichpromisesthefinestsuccess.ThestrifeinEuropepromises
forsometimetobeeducational,inwhichletushopethehighest
victorywillbemutualforbearanceandcooperation,whennations
shallnotlearnwaranymore,andwhenselfseekingshallbelost
sightofinthecommonefforttoreachahigherandnobler
civilization.Faithfullyyours,MARGARETK.SMITH.
Philadelphia,July6,1886.Prof.E.A.SheldoUjOswego^N.Y.
DearSir:TheprogramandcircularssoKindlysent,received.I
regretexceedinglythatIcannotbepresentatthecommencement,
onewhichpromisessomuchthatwillbeinterestingandprofitable.
ButsinceImustforegothatpleasure,aswellasthatofmeeting
oldfriends,Ishallcomfortmyselfwiththethoughtthatifabsent
inbody,Ishallbepresentinmind,andinimaginationshalltake
partintheAssemblyRoomasofold,andwatchforfamiliarfaces
amongtheseaofnewonesthatwillbethere.AsIsaidina
formerletter,Ihavenothingof^importancetowrite,yetIfeltthat
Iwantedtosendmybestwishes,notonlyforthesuccessofthe
commencement,butalsofortheschool,thatitmaybecomea
veritableandacknowledgedgiant,toweringfaraboveeveryother
educationalinstitutionintheland;alsothathealthandmanyH
114yearsbegivenitshonoredprincipal,whohasmadetheschool
allthatitisnow,andallthatitwillbeinthefuture.With
kindregardstotheFacultyingeneral,andtoMissCooper,Dr.Lee,

andProf.Kriisiinparticular,Iremain,Yerytrulyyours,
ANNIET.COLLINS.Cor.HamiltonandBaldwinSts.,Manayunk,Phila.
Mexico,June30,'86.Mr,SheldonMyDeaeFriend:AlthoughI
amonlyaverysmallfractionalpartofthegreatbodyofNormalites
towhomyourcircularletterisaddressed,andalthoughIcan
neitherbepresentnorinanywaycontributetotheinterestofthe
occasion,Iwant,atleastbyletter,to**takeyoubythehand"and
thankyouforwhattheOswegoNormalSchoolhasbeentome.Ithas
beenaninspirationthroughoutallmyworkasateacher.Ioften
wonderwhatsortofworkIshouldhavedonehadIbegunteaching
immediatelyaftergraduatinginRochesterasIhadintended
doing.ButwithallduedeferencetoMr.Whittier,Idonotbelieve
thereissuchathingasamighthavebeenandIamsurethata
kindFatherdirectedmewhereIcouldbebestfittedfortheworkI
havesinceengagedin.WithHisblessingIhopeandbelievethat
Oswego'sinfluencewillsomedaybefeltinmanyanIndianvillage
throughoutMexico.Ithasbegunalready,andtherearealwaysplaces
for^^ourgirls"assoonastheyarepreparedforthework.My
ambitionatpresentistofurnishateacherforYucatan,butIshall
sendnooneuntilIamsuresheisworthytorepresentOswego
methodsinthatprogressivestate.Iampositivelyhomesicktobe
withyouallnextweek,andamverysurethatthereunionwillbea
delightfulone.Youofthenorth,withthe*'summerschools"and
constantcontactwithothereducators,canhardlyimaginethestarved
conditiontowhichoneisreducedwhohasbeenpracticallycutoff
fromsuchadvantagesforfiveyears;thelongingtogoandfeaston
thegoodthingspreparedthisyearfortheNormalitesgrowsdayby
day,butImustcontentmyselfwithreadingaboutit.Meanwhile
dearfriend,letmecongratulateyouonseeingyourworkthuscrown
edandmayGodgrantthatformanyyearsyoumayseeitsever
wideninginfluence.Withheartywishesforthebestofsuccessin
theschool'sfuturelife,andwithlovingmemoriesandwarm
gratitudeformyshareinitsbenefits,Iremain.Yoursmost
sincerly,FANNIEC.SNOW.Apartado247,Mexico.U.S.S.
Omaha,Yokohama,Japan,June2,1886.DearSir:Althoughlatein
answeringtheinterrogatoriessentouttothegraduates,Idonot
wishyouoranyofmyformerschoolfriendstothinkthatIhave
lostinteresteitherintheschoolorthoseconnectedtherewith.The
firstcircularwasreceivedjustasIwasonthepointofleaving
theUnitedStatesand,whatwithfamilyashoreanddutiesaboard
shiptoengageallmythoughtsandtime,answeringitwasdeferred
untilyoursecondreminderconvincedmethatdelaywasdangerous.I
supposeImayasweUfollowtheoldNormalhabitofhonestyin
regardtoderelictions'fromdutyandownupthatIhavebeenlazy.
Iexpectthispleatobereceivedwithyourusualemphatic
disapprovalofwrongdoing,andthereforewillonlyurgefurther
thatyearsagomyteachersdidnotsucceedincompellingmeto
conquerthisbad115habit.Theytriedfaithfully,bothby
exampleandprecept,Intfustadmit,butasthehabitstillexists,
Isupposeitmusthavebeenaverybadonetobeginwith.AsIam
itsworstvictim,Imustregrettheirwantofsuccess.Your
circularcallsupahostofrecollectionsconnectedwithfourofthe
happiestyearsofmylife,andastheobjectoftheAlumnimeeting
isnotonlyforoldMendstocometogether,butalsotorevive
memoriessimilartomine,ithasmyheartiestsympathy.Inthe
retrospect,whatalotofgoodfellowstheword'*Kormal,"recaUs!
Whathappymemoriesofwomanlygrace,inteUigenceandbeautyare
connectedtherewith!Butitistotheteachers'corpsthatexisted

duringthefouryearsthatIwasaformalpupil,thatmemorymost
frequentlyturns.Itwouldtakealongtimetorecountthe
impressionsmadeuponmymindbythemandalwaystobeassociated
withtheirpersonalities.Howfrequentlyhasthethoughtoccurredto
me,^'HowwouldMissCoopersaythis?"*'HowwouldeitherMiss
RiceorMissArmstrongwritesuchasentencefIhaveoftenwondered
howmanyobscuremathematicalmysteriescouldbearanyrelationtoa
steamboat.Thoughtsofpatienceandkindnessindealingwithothers,
havebeensuggestedtomebyarecollectionofadefinitiononce
givenoftheword*'gentility.""WhatNormalofmydatecanthink
longofanysubjectinAstronomy^ChemistryorNaturalPhilosophy,
withoutrecallingProf.Armstrong1Itisuseless,andseeminglya
vaintasktosetitalldowninblackandwhite,butwhatpleasure
itwillbetothosewhoareprivilegedtomeetandtalkabouttheold
picnics,tugboatridesandothersocialgatheringspossiblyto
participate[inthemoncemore!SometimeinthefutureIhopeI
maybeinOswegoatanAlumnimeeting.OfpersonalinformationI
fearIhavebutlittleofinteresttocommunicate.Ihavebeen
attachedtothisshipalittleoverayear,andexpecttoservetwo
yearsmoreinher.WecameoutviaSuezCanal,andhopetogohome
viaSanFrancisco.IsupposemyboyisthefinestyoungfeUowtobe
foundanywhere.Ihavenotseenhimyet.(Incasetheproposed
historyoftheNormalSchoolispublished,pleasesendmeacopy.
EnclosedisaP.0.M.0.for$2.00,tobeappliedformemorial
purposesasproposed.)"Withmanygreetingsandkindwishestomy
friends,Iremain.Yourfriendandattachedpupil,G.B.RANSOM.
July,1869.Prof.E.A.Sheldon,Principal,StateNormaland
TrainingSchool,Oswego,NewYork,UnitedStates,America.
Newark,N.J.,July4th,1886.TotheClassofJune,1880.Dear
Classmates:Itisonlyabsolutenecessitythatpreventsmyjoining
withyouintheAlumnicelebrationofourgoodoldschool.Manyof
thepleasantestmemoriesofmylifeareclusteredaboutthetime
thatIspentwithyouallasapupilthere,andduringthesesix
longyearsthathavepassedsincewestoodtogetherontheplatform
holdingourdiplomasinourhands,thosememorieshavecrowdedupon
meinmanyplaces;theeveningwalks"downtothelake"thatwere
suchanessentialpartofdivineserviceonSunday;thesociety
meetings;theoftrepeatedremark'Tleasesteptotheoffice;"the
strugglesinthemethodclasses;theagoniesandthefunofthe
practiceterm;theoldstoryoftheeveningcriticismallthese
thingswerethenparts.ofourlives,andnowwecanonlyrecall
themwithasmileorasighastheycomeupbeforeus.116
TherearemanyinthatclassofourswhomIshallneverseeagain,
andafewwhomIshallmeet,buttoallofyouwhogatherinthe
buildingonthehillonTuesdayandWednesdaynext,Isendmy
heartiestgreetingandbestwishes.Itiswithdeepandsincere
regretthatIfinditimpossibletobewithyou.Sincerelyyours,
JOHNL.BABCOCK.KansasCity,Mo.,July3,1886.MissWalter:
IhavehopedtobepresentattheAlumnimeetingofthisyearto
seeinpersontheteacherswhosolongandsuccessfullyhaveworked
forareformineducation,andtohearthereportsofmanywho
caughttheirfirst"enthusiasmforhumanity"fromtheOswego
school,butother,notdearer,interestshaveinterposed,andsoI
gladlyrespondto your invitation of January 5, to write a brief ac-

count of personal experiences in carrying out the principles enforced


at Oswego. To be brief as possible, my own work has been in the
training department of Normal schools, where I have been engaged

sometimes alone and sometimes with other Oswego graduates


in the preparation of teachers ; (for a period covering fifteen
years during which time some hundreds have been trained. ) I
recall the work of these years with pleasure, and am thankful for the
enthusiasm and success of those who entered into the practical
work for themselves. In the work of these years nothing has been of
such permanent, productive use in begetting in- telligent
enthusiasm as the Pestalozzian principles elaborated carefully in
both peda- gogical history and philosophy, and then carefully
enforced and illustrated in prac- tical work. If the first is neglected,
the result is mannerism ; if the second, the students are at first
impractical, and to a degree inefficient. There seems to be no
difficulty in arousing enthusiasm and a real spirit of self- fiiacrifice in
young teachers. The ardor of these young disciples is sometimes
damp- ened by older teachers who, without love, or real efficiency
beyond ability, etc., con- duct a small drill on technicalities (that is
supposed to have a direct influence on per cents, when the
examination is of the right sort), and still manage to exert
temporarily a depressing influence on beginners. In the city
schools, too, unless there is a strong superintendent, the incapacity
of some Boards of Education to grapple with a question of
importance, necessarily causes a discount in all school values by
fluctuating policy or want of it. Still with all obstacles that are in the
way, the tide is rising educationally all over the country ; and,
without question, the impulse which is called the '*Quincy"
movement, was given by and is directly traceable to the Oswego
School. Toward that school the thoughts of many of the distant
alumni must gratefully turn at this time. Very truly, MART F. HALL.
Class of July, '69. Greene, Iowa, June 12, 1886. Hon. E. A. Sheldon,
Oswego, N, Y., Dear Friend : Your circular letter, and enclosures
call to mind many pleasant recollections. In my youth I attended
several schools, but while all taught me, none trained my powers
for work and success as did the Oswego Iformal and Training
School. All institutions with which I have been connected as pupil,
imparted to me much valuable information, for which I shall never
cease to be grate- ful, but to the Oswego school I must accord the
highest place, as it did more, it called into action subjective powers
of which I had before been partially unconscious and
117 OH
which I have since learned to rely. My last school work was in this
pleasant little village of Greene, from '78 to '83, where I built up a
public school which has liberal course of study from which
graduates are admitted to the Freshman Class of our State
University. Since that time I have been practicing law here. I
prepared myself for admission to the bar during vacations in the
years while teaching. I have an established practice worth $3,000 a
year, and under the continued blessings of a Providence that has
been so kind, I may look forward to useful and comfortable years.
But more helpful and of far greater comfort and happiness than all
else on earth to me is my pleasant home, with the best wife man

ever had, and three bright and affectionate children. I hope some of
these now baby darlings will be among the Alumni at your semicentennial. Ever yours most truly, CASSIUS M. GREENE. Olassof
July '69.
London, July 5, 1886. Cablegram. Dr. Sheldon, Oswego,
N, Y.: Tenderest greetings to Alma Mater, friends and pupils.
SARAH J. ARMSTRONG.
ALUMNI EXERCISES.
Twenty-fifth
Anniversary.
WED]S^ESDAY, JULY 7th, 1886, 9.00 A. M. Reading
of Scriptures and Prayer. SINGIXG DOXOLOGY. Address of
Welcome by the President. Response by Mrs. M. H. Pratt, Class of
'64. MUSIC. Yocal SoloThe Creole Lover Dudley Buck, - - Miss
Anna B. Sheldon. Remote Causes which led to the Organization of
the Normal Schoool, A Paper by Hon. 0. J. Harmon. Brief addresses
on the subject of this paper hy prominent citizens. MUSIC. Yocal
Duet, - - - - - - - TV. G. Rappleye, Chas. S. Sheldon. History of
Pestalozzianism in England, - - Mrs. Margaret Lawrence Jones. Read
by Miss M. S. Cooper. History of the Oswego Normal School,
Herman Krtisi. 2.30 P. M. Necrological Report, Mrs. M. D. Moore,
Class of July, *72. Our Normal Schoool as related to the Work
among the Freedmen, Amos "W. Famham, Class of June, 75. This
paper will he followed by brief addresses by persons who have been
engaged in this work. MUSIC. Instrumental Solo, . . . . . . _ . Miss
Laura A. Sheldon. Our Normal School as related to the Educational
Work in the West, Mrs. Delia Lathrop Williams, Class of Feb., '68.
This paper will be followed by brief addresses by persons who have
been engaged in educational work at the West. MUSIC. Yocal
Solo, W. G. Rappleye. Our Normal School as related to Educational
Work in this State, W. J. Milne, Ph. D., L. L. D. The Kindergarten as
related to the Normal and Public Schools, Mrs. Clara A. Burr, Class
of July, '73. 9.00 P. M. Banquet at Doolittle House.
THURSDAY,
JULY 8th, 1886, 9.30 A. M. Devotional Exercises. The School of
Practice ^Its Present and Prospective Work, Sarah J. Walter,
Class of June, '76. Instrumental Duet I Montechi e Capuleti
Bellini, Miss Gillette, Miss Laura Sheldon
119 The Gymnasium
Its Mission, - - - - Dr. Mary Y. Lee, Class of 6:^. The reading of
Letters from Absent Members by the Secretary. Five Minute
Speeches by Members of the Association. Meetings in Sections.
2;30 P. M. Miscellaneous and Unfinished Business. Yocal Solo, Miss
Mary E. Hutcheson. 3.30 P. M. The Training School in America, Dr.
A. D. Mayo. Singing by the Alumni, '* Auld Lang Syne."
Brief
Historical Sketch of the Association of Alumni. The first meeting of
this Association was held at Normal Hall, July 9, 1867. E. A. Sheldon
presided, and Ellen Seaver was re- cording* Secretary. The following
program was presented. ORDER OF EXERCISES.
1. ANTHEM
'HowBeautifulontheMountains."2.ReadingScriptureandPrayer.
MUSIC.Solo''Comeinandshutthedobr."MaryPerkins.3.
ESSAYGovernment.MargaretL.Andrews.4.POEMQueens.MaryM.
Holbrook.MUSIC.InstrumentalDuettLesSouvenirs.5.Letters
fromabsentmembersandReportsofHistorians.MUSIC.Duett
''OurBeautifulMountainHome."MissesHolbrookandFunnelle.6.
ESSAYSomethingl^ewALecturetoTeachers.MissRebeccaJones.

7.ADDRESSSignsoftheTimes.EdwardTrowbridge.MUSIC.
InstrumentalDuett.8.TransactionofBusiness.MUSIC.Chorus
''AuldLangSyne."9.BE^^EDICTION.10.SOCIABLE.Atthis
meeting"wasinauguratedthecustomofplantingtheclassivy,and
eachclassthathadgraduatedprevioustothisdateplantedavine.
Thiscustomwaskeptup,withtheexceptionoftwoorthreeclasses
thatplantedtrees,untiltheoldbuildingwastorndowntogive
placetothenewone.120Tothiscustomtheoldbuildingwas
welladapted.Alongtheentirelengthoftheeastandsouthfrontof
theeastwing,andthesouthfrontofthewestwing,werebroad
piazzasoneachofthetwostories,supportedbyflutedcolumns
afterthestyleofGrecianarchitecture.Atthebaseofeachcolumn
wasplantedaclassivy.Thisgaveaverypleasingeffecttothe
building.Unfortunately,whentheoldstructurewastorndown,
thesevineshadalltobetakenup;anditwasnotdeemedbestby
thebuildingcommitteetoreplantthem.Theywere,however,
preservedbytheprincipal,andeithertheoriginalvines,or
offshootsfromthem,havebeenplantedaboutthetreesinhisown
privategrounds.This,ofcourse,putanendtothecustomof
plantingtheivy.Asasubstitute,theclassesnowcontribute
somethingforthegeneralornamentationoftheHall,whichshall,at
thesametime,serveasmementoes.Theproceedingsofthesecond
meetingwereprintedinpamphletform.Atthismeeting,heldJuly
6th,1869,thePrincipal,E.A.Sheldon,presided,andDr.JohnW.
Armstrong,theHeadMaster,gavetheAddressofWelcome.Miss
Cooperreadareportcontainingstatisticscoveringtheentire
periodoftheschoolfromthetimeofitsorganization.The
followingitemsfromthisreportwillbeofinteresttoall."There
havebeennineTrainingSchoolsestablishedoutsideofourown
state,ofwhichourgraduateshavesolecharge,andinwhichour
methodsareexclusivelyused.Asidefromthese,anumberhavebeen
employedtoinstructteachersindifferentlocalities,forthe
purposeofintroducingthemethodsintothepublicschools.Alarge
numberarealsoemployedinStateNormalandTrainingSchoolsin
differentpartsofthecountry."Mrs.MaryHoweSmith,atthattime
ateacherintheschool,readanoriginalpoem.Atthismeetingthe
classesof1868and'69plantedvines.Thereportsays:"There
beingnogentlemenintheclassofFeb'y?1868,thedutyof
plantingtheivydevolvedupononeoftheladies.MissEvaS.
Edwards,whohandledthespadewithasmucheaseandgraceasany
gentleman.Theclassmottowasgiven,^LaborwinsSuccess,'andMiss
LunDelanoreadaselectedpoem,^OnebyOne,'byMissAdelaide
Proctor."Mr.HenryDouglassplantedtheivyfortheclassofJuly,
1868,afterwhichanoriginalpoemwasreadbyMaryD.Sheldon,a
teacherintheschoolandamemberofthisclass.""Mr.ManlyT.
Brownwastheoneappointedtoperformtheceremonyfortheclassof
Feb'y,1869,whichhedid,makingashortimpromptuspeech.Thiswas
followedbyasongarrangedfortheoccasion."121"Mr.
CharlesRichardsplantedtheivyfortheclassofJuly,1869,
giving"anappropriatesentiment,afterwhichanoriginalpoemwas
readbyMissAmeliaMorey,amemberoftheclass."Thereport
closes,"Thescenewassolemnandimpressive,andwillnotsoonbe
forgottenbythoseassembledintheschoolyardthatmorning.The
daywasoneofthemostlovelySummergives,andnatureseemedto
smileherbenedictionontheenthusiasticyounghearts,thus
performingtheirlastlovingservicefortheirAlmaMater."The
thirdmeetingwasheldatNormalHall,Friday,June30,1871,E.A.
Sheldonpresiding.Thesessionwasopenedat9o'clocka.m.The

exercisesconsistedofaddresses,reports,readingoflettersfrom
absentmembers,andtheplantingoftheivybytheclassesof1870
and71.Thetriennialmeetingof1873washeldatNormalHall,
Tuesday,July1st,commencingat9o'clocka.m.Thesessionwas
openedbythePresident,E.A.Sheldon,who,afterreadingapor
tionofScriptureandofferingprayer,addressedtheAssociation
withwordsofwelcome.Theusualreportswerereadandimpromptu
speechesmade,andlettersfromabsentmembersread,interspersed
withvocalandinstrumentalmusic.ClaraJ.Armstrongreadan
originalpoem,andEdwardTrowbridgereadanaddress.Thiswas
followedbyivyplantingbytheclassesof18723.MissMartha
McCumber,sincedeceased,whowasatthattimecriticintheSchool
ofPractice,wascorrespondingsecretary.Anexcursiontothe"
ThousandIslands"wasplannedforthismeeting,tostarton
WednesdaymorningandreturnonSaturdaynight.Aboatwaschartered
forthispurpose,andalargeparty,madeupoftheAlumniandtheir
friends,hadadelightfultimecruisingintheSt.Lawrenceamong
the"ThousandIslands,"andreturnedwithoutanaccidentora
regret.ThemeetingofJune29th,1875,heldatNormalHall,was
madesomewhatmemorablebythegrandexcursionuptheSaguenay
river.Averyracyaccountofthistrip,whichoccupiedabouttwo
weeks,waspreparedbyDr.MaryV.LeeandMaryD.Sheldon,whowere
membersoftheparty.Thiswaspublishedinpamphletform,entitled
"UptheSaguenay."Onlyalimitednumberwereprintedanditwould
bedifllcult,atthisdate,toobtainacopy.Themeetingof
July3d,1877,wasoccupiedbytheusualreports,speechesand
music.WordsofWelcomeweregivenbythePresident,E.A.Sheldon.
Twoessayswereread;onebyMissJulietA.Cook,subject,^*The
Teacher'sIdeal;"theotherbyMissHelenHamilton,subject,
"EducationinSociology."The122classesofJan.,'76,andthe
classesofJan.,'77,plantedtheivy.TheclassofJune,1876,
plantedatreetheorangeleafwillow,andtheclassofJune,
1877,plantedanevergreen.TheseclassesandtheclassesofJune,
1875,whichplantedanevergreen,aretheonlyclassthatdidnot
planttheivy.Inthegradingofthegrounds,thetreessharedthe
samefateasthevines.Theexercisesofthisoccasionwereclosed
byasociableintheevening,attheBoardingHall.OnWednesday,
July4th,asmallpartytookanexcursion,forwhicharrangements
hadalreadybeenmade,totheThousandIslands.Thenextmeeting
w^ouldhavecomeregularlyin1879,butatthattimetheold
buildingwasbeingtorndownandthenewonewasintheprocessof
erection.ForthisreasonthemeetingwaspostponedtoJuly6,1880.
AtthismeetingMissCooperpresided,havingbeenelectedatthe
meetingin1877.Mr.C.W.RichardswaselectedVicePresident,and
MissIdaJ.King,RecordingSecretary.GilbertMoUison,President
oftheLocalBoard,gavetheaddressofwelcome,towhichMr.W.
ScottSmithresponded.TheusualAlumnireport,preparedbyMissF.
E.Sheldon,wasreadbyMissE.Stocks.Severalreportswerealso
readbyclasshistorians.MissAmeliaMyers,ateacherinthe
school,gavearecitation.Mr.Sheldon,thePrincipaloftheschool,
wascompelledtogototheseashore,onaccountofhishealth,and
sowasnotpresentatthemeeting.Aletterandtelegramwere
receivedfromhim,whichwereread.BymotionofMr.Wilcoxthe
AssociationsentaresponsetoMr.Sheldonbytelegram.Atthis
meetingMrs.HattieDairympleEagerpresentedafinecrayon
portraitofMr.Sheldon.Aresolutionofthanksforthesamewas
offeredbyMissO.A.Lesler,andadopted.AportraitofMr.
SheldonwasalsopresentedbyMissAnnaWoolman,inbehalfofthe

classofthesummerof1878.Intheeveningasociablewasheldin
theNormalSchoolbuilding,atwhichacollationwasserved.At
thismeetingnoiviesortreeswereplanted.Theoldbuildinghad
givenplacetoanewstructure,andthuswascrowdedoutanoldtime
andpleasingcustom.Thenewbuildingbroughtgreatlyincreased
facilitiesandaccommodationsforschoolwork,butatthesacrifice
ofmanydelightfulmemoriesandassociations.Theoldbuilding,
withitspleasingproportionsandlight,airypiazzas,willnotsoon
beforgottenbythepupilsandteacherswhoassembledinitforso
manyj^ears.Atthismeetingthefollowingofllcerswereelected:
E.A.Sheldon,President,C.W.Richards,VicePresident.AliceWil
liams,RecordingSecretary,O.A.Lester,CorrespondingSecre
123tary.AtthemeetingofJune28th,1882,MissLesterbeing
absent,MissA.B.M^^erswasappointedSecretaryprotern.Rev.
HenryW.Sherwood,analumnusoftheschool,openedtheexercisesby
readingaportionofscripture,andprayer.Thetimeofthissession
waslargelyoccupiedbythereadingoflettersfromabsentmembers,
andreportsfromclasshistorians.Mr.Sherwooddiscussedthe
subjectof"TeachingasanElementinEducation."Dr.Leereada
veryinterestingpaperon"Gymnastics."MissMarySheldonandMrs.
Burrhadalsopreparedpapersfortheoccasion,but,forwantof
time,theywererequestedtoreadthematthebanquettobeheldin
theevening.Afterthesingingof"AuldLangSyne,"theAssociation
adjourned.ThebanquetwasattheDoolittleHouse,atwhichabout
onehundredmemberswerepresent.Thefollowingofficerswere
electedatthismeeting:HenryW.Sherwood,President,MaryV.Lee,
VicePresident,JulietCook,CorrespondingSecretary,MissGeorgia
Timerson,RecordingSecretary.ThemeetingofJuly2d,1884,was
openedbj'thereadingofScripture,andprayerbythePresident,
Rev.HenryR.Sherwood.Mr.Sheldonofferedwordsofwelcome,to
whichthePresidentresponded.Lettersfromabsentmemberswere
readbyMissA.B.Myers.Inadditiontotheusualclass
necrologicalandotherreports,averypretty,originalpoem,
entitled,"TheAmethyst,"writtenbyMissEleanorWorthington,was
readbyMissMarySheldon.Mrs.Burrreadaveryinterestingpaper
on"TheKindergarten."Mr.E.A.Tuttledeliveredanaddresson
"SelfPreservation."Severalsubjectsofconsiderableinterestwere
discussedandcommitteesappointed.Amongthemoreimportantof
thesewere:1.PermanentClassmemorials.Byvotethiswas
entrustedtothefacultyoftheschool.2.Classreportspoints
tobeincluded.ThiswasreferredtoacommitteeconsistingofMiss
M.K.Smith,MissCheneyandMr.Stimets,andMr.W.G.Rappleyewas
madeSecretaryofClassHistorians.3.Asuggestionwasmadethat
ahistoryofteachersandgraduatesoftheschoolbeprinted.This
was,onmotion,referredtothefaculty,andthefollowing
resolutionwasadopted:'^Resolved,ThattheAlumniput
themselvesonrecordasbeinginfavorofsuchahistorybeing
printed."4.Teachers'Bureau,inconnectionwiththeAlumniofthe
school.Thiswasreferredtothefollowingcommittee:MissO.A.
LesterandMessrs.TuttleandStimets.124Thefollowing'
officerswereappointedforthesucceedingyear:E.A.Sheldon,
President;LewisW.Jones,VicePresident;SarahJ.Walter,
CorrespondingSecretary;MargaretK.Smith,RecordingSecretary.
IntheeveningtherewasareceptionandsupperattheDoolittle
House.QUARTERCENTENNIALANNIVERSARY.Thiswasameetingofrare
interestandenthusiasm,andwaslargelyattendedbythegraduates
andfriendsoftheschool.Asthemoreimportantpapersandletters
readatthismeetingareprintedinfull,itisnotnecessaryto

refertothemindetail.Theyspeakforthemselves.Intheabsence
ofMrs.Pratt,theresponsetotheWordsofWelcomewasmadebyMiss
HattieMorrisoftheClassof'67.MissMargaretK.Smith,the
RecordingSecretary,beingabsent.MissSarahT.VanPettenwas
appointedSecretaryjprotern.Mr.W.G.Rappleyewasappointed
TreasureroftheAlumniMemorialFunduntilapermanentcommittee
ortreasurershouldbeappointed.Mr.F.N.Jewett,andMissesAmy
RobertsandEUorCarlisle'wereappointedacommitteetodevise
meansfordefrayingtheexpensesofthepresentmeeting.On
Thursdayafternoonseveralimportantreportsweremade.I.Report
ofCommitteeonDecorationoftheHall.MissSarahT.VanPetten,as
ChairmanoftheCommittee,madethefollowingreport,and
recommendations:"TheamountreceiveduptodatefortheAlumni
MemorialFundis$342.50.TheCommitteewouldrecommend:1.That
thefundbeappliedtothedecorationofthenewhallwith
appropriatepicturesandbusts.2.That,tosecureharmonybetween
theroomanditsdecorations,alsoharmony,togetherwithunityof
design,amongthedecorationsthemselves,thePresidentappointa
permanentdecorativeCommittee,themajorityofwhosemembers
shallbelocatedatOswego,orinconvenientartcenters,whoseduty
itshallbetodisbursethefundinthepurchaseofsuitable
decorations.3.Inviewoftheimportanceofdecorationinthe
schoolroom,asameansofartisticdevelopement,andinviewofthe
desirabilitythatthishallshouldfurnishtoourpupilsmodelsof
goodtasteinornament,itissuggestedthatthecommitteeact
slowlyandcarefully,sothattheresultsmayaccomplishtheend
desired."Thereportwasacceptedandtherecommendationsadopted.
125AmotioninstructingthePresidenttoappointacommitteeof
fiveasapermanentdecorativecommitteewascarried,andthefol
lowingcommitteewasappointed:SarahT.VanPetteu,Mrs.H.H.
Straight,MissC.L.G.Scales,Mrs.MaryS.Barnes,andDr.MaryV.
Lee.II.ReportofcommitteeonPublicationofaHistoricalSketch
andproceedingsofthemeetings.^^TheCommitteerecommendthe
publicationofahistoricalsketchoftheschool,arecordofthe
proceedingsofthetwentyfifthanniversarymeeting,andthepapers
readatthismeeting.TheCommitteealsorecommendthefollowing
topicsforpresentationinthissketch:1.HistoricalSketchof
Organization.2.Notableeventsandorderofoccurrence.3.
ExtractsfromminutesofAlumnimeetings.4.Constitutionsand
changesofLocalBoard.5.""''"theFaculty.6.Alphabetical
listof.graduates,withlocalityfromwhichtheycametothe
school.7.Biographicalsketchesofgraduatestoincludethe
followingpoints:a.Name(husband'sname)andpresentaddress.
6.Yearstaughtatpositionsfilled.c.Subsequentstudiesand
graduation.d.Subsequentoccupationsotherthanteaching.e.
StudiesandgraduationprecedingNormalcourse.8.Necrological
report.9.Fulltextofpapersandaddressespresented.10.
Generalremarks.11.GeneralStatistics."Mr.H.W.Sherwood
movedtheadoptionofthereport.Mr.W.S.Smithmoved,asan
amendment,thatacondensedstatementofthepsychological
principleswhichtheschoolhassetforth,beembodiedinthe
publishedsketch.Theamendmentwasadopted,andthereportas
amendedwasadopted.Thecommitteethenofferedthefollowing
resolutions,whichwerecarried:Resolved,ThatMr.I.B.
Poucher,E.A.Sheldon,Dr.MaryY.LeeandMissM.S.Cooperbe
appointedaCommitteeonpublication.Resolved,ThatthisCommittee
beauthorizedtodirectandsupervisetheworkofpreparing,
publishing,anddistributingthehistoricalsketchthathasbeen

approvedbytheAlumni.III.ReportoftheCommitteeonFinance.
126TheCommitteereportedthat$68.50hadbeenreceivedandthat
$35morewereneededtomeetnecessaryexpenses.Mr.Rappleyeand
MissVanPettenreportedaprobablesurplusfromthesaleofbanquet
ticketsandAlumnibadges.IV.TheCommitteehavingchargeofthe
nominationofofficersforthenextmeeting,madethefollowing
nominations,whichwereratified:LewisW.Jones,President;
CharlesC.Stimets,VicePresident;SarahT.VanPetten,Recording
Secretary;MaryD.Moore,CorrespondingSecretary;FranklinN.
Jewett,Treasurer.TheretiringPresidentmadesomeremarks
appropriatetotheoccasion,andintroducedthePresidentelect,
who,thankingtheAssociationforthehonortheyhadthusconferred
uponhim,tookthechair.AfteravocalsolobyMaryE.Hutchinson,
thePresidentintroducedDr.A.D.Mayo,ofBoston,a
distinguishedguestoftheAssociation,whoreadapaperon"The
TrainingSchoolinAmerica.''OnmotionitwasresolvedthatDr.
Mayo'saddressbereferredtotheCommitteeonpublicationwith
referencetospecialpublicationforwidercirculation.After
someremarksbyMr.Sheldoninregardtofutureplansandprospects
oftheschool,theAssociationjoinedinsinging"AuldLangSyne,"
andadjourned.Wedeemourselvesexceedinglyunfortunateinnot
beingabletoincludeinthereportoftheproceedingsofthis
meetingtheaddressofDr.W.J.Milne,PrincipaloftheGeneseo
StateNormalandTrainingSchool,"OnourNormalSchoolasrelated
totheEducationalWorkofthisState."A*feitwasnotawritten
address,andnoreportwastakenatthetime,wehavebeenunableto
secureevenanoutlineofhisspeech.Thisisowingtothefailure
ofDr.Milne'shealth,whichcompelledhimtolayasideallwork.He
saidmanythingsthatwereveryflatteringtoourschool,andit
wouldhavegivenusgreatpleasuretohavemadeapermanentrecord
ofthem.HistoryoftheAtheneanandAvalonianSocieties.One
ofthemostpleasingroomswhichavisitorwillseeinpassing
throughtheOswegoNormalSchool,issituatedinthethirdstoryof
thebuildingandistheassemblyhalloftheAtheneanSociety.The
wallsandceilingaretastefullydecorated,theflooriscovered
withahandsomecarpet,andthechairs,officers'desks,&c.,areof
suchappearanceandqualityastohappilyharmonizewiththeother
partsoftheroom.ThemembersoftheSocietyareenjoyingthis
pleasantplaceofmeeting,becauseoftheearnesteffortsofthose
whohaveprecededthem,sincetheSocietywasorganizedinthe
Springtermof1879fromtheoldAvalonianSociety.Thelatterhad
beeninexistencesincetheFalltermof1866;itwasorganizedat
thattimewiththeavowedobjectofpromotingtheintellectualand
socialgrowthofitsmembers.Thissocietymettwiceamonthand
intheevening,andwasnotunderthedirectsupervisionofthe
faculty,joiningitbeingentirelyoptionalwiththepupils.The
workofthesocietywasmostlyofamiscellaneouscharacter,
consistingofmusic,charades,essays,recitations,declamations,
debates,etc.,somewhatsimilartothatofthedebatingsocietiesin
theschoolatthepresenttime,noparticularsubjectorlineof
thoughtbeingfollowedforalongertimethanonemeeting.Inthe
AtheneanSocietytheplanfollowedisentirelydifferent.Atthe
beginningofeachterm,subjects,usuallytwoinnumber,arechosen
bythesocietyforthehteraryworkoftheterm.Thenthesocietyis
dividedintoseveraldifferentdivisionsbyacommitteeappointed
forthatpurpose;andthechairmanofeachdivisionprepares
essaysubjectsandotherwork,andassignsthesetothedifferent
membersofhisdivisionfortheweekhisprogramistoberendered.

Alsotwiceduringeachtermthesocietygivespublicexercisesin
NormalHall,andthebestoftheexercisesthathavebeengivenin
privatemeetingsonthesubjectareusuallychosenforthepublic
program.Followingthisplanofworkisverybeneficialtothe
society,asbesidesgrowthinarhetoricalandliterarydirection,
muchvaluableinformationisgainedthatcouldnototherwisebe
secured.128TheSocietyisnowinaveryhealthyand
prosperouscondition.Itisburdenedwithnodebt.Thereareabout
thirtyfiveactivemembers,amongwhomperfectharmonyprevails,all
workingtogetherformutualgrowthandtheadvancementofthebest
interestsoftheSociety.Theofficersatthepresenttimeare
MissL.A.Sheldon,President;Mr.A.C.Howe,VicePresident;Mr.
C.N.Millard,RecordingSecretary;MissM.A.Lathrop,Corres
pondingSecretaryandMr.M.P.Connor,Treasurer.Whilethe
membersoftheSocietyfeelthattheyhavegreatreasontobeproud
oftheirpresentprosperouscondition,theyarebynomeans
satisfiedtorestandenjoythelaborsofthosewhohavepreceded
them,butaredeterminedthatwithprogressionastheirmotto,no
effortshallbesparedwhichwilltendtopromotethegrowthofthe
societyandstrengthenitasanorganization.ABriefHistoryof
theAdelphiSociety.TheAdelphiSocietywasorganizedFebruary4,
1879,withfiftyfivemembersenrolled.E.O.Pearcewasthefirst
President,andDelosRadcliffethefirstVicePresident.The
objectsofthesocietywere,tosecureforthemselvesgreaterskill
inliterarywork,greatereaseinspeakingbeforeanaudience,and
widerliteraryculture,themembersconsideringtheaccomplishment
oftheseobjectsanimportantpartoftheireducation.Theregular
meetingsofthesocietywereheldeveryWednesdayafternoon,and
thefirstpublicmeetingwasheldFebruary19,1879.Formerly,the
societymettwiceeachweek,butsinceitwasdecidedtohavebut
onemeetingduringtheweek,thetimeofeachregularmeetingwas
changedtoeveryFridaymorning.Theobjectsofthesocietyhave
alwaysbeensustained,andthemembersoftheAdelphiSocietyhave
derivedgreatbenefitfromtheworkdonebytheorganization.At
present,theAdelphiSocietyisinafiourishingconditionandbids
fairtomaintaininthefuturethereputationithaswoninthe
past.TheKeystoneSociety.AllstudentsenteringtheNormal
SchoolaremembersoftheKeystoneSociety,duringthefirstyearof
theirwork.Thissocietywasorganizedinthespringof'79,as
theHallSociety,underthesupervisionofDr.LeeandMissLester;
thisistheonlysocietyunderthedirectionofthefaculty.129
InJuly1880,Dr.LeeongoingtoEurope,resignedherpositionin
thesociety,andMissMyerswasassociatedwithMissLesteruntil
July1882,whenthelatterlefttheschool,andMissCoopertook
herplace.Inthespringof'83,theHallSocietychangeditsname
totheKeystoneSociety.WhileunderthedirectionofMissCooper
andMissMyers,thesocietyhavegivenfourpublicentertainments,a
readingbyJamesE.Murdock,theveteranactorandreader;a
complimentaryconcertbySyracuseandhometalent;aconcertby
CamillaUrsoandM.Sauret;andadramaticentertainmentbythe
elocutionclassofMissMyers.Withtheproceedsofthese
entertainments,thesocietyhavepresentedtheschoolwitha
GermanphotographofLongfellow,afinecrayonofMissCooperand
oneofProf.Krusi,andhavecontributedlargelytowardthepurchase
ofthestagedecorations.Everyotherweekthesocietymeetsfor
privateexercisesofaninstructivecharacter,andonceeachterm
givesapublicentertainment.Theworkofthissocietyisvery
beneficial,andfitsitsmemberstocarryontheworkoftheother

twosocietieswithoutthesupervisionofthefaculty.Astheother
societiesobtaintheirmembersfromthissociety,itisindeedthe
KeystoneSociety.HistoryoftheNormalSchoolPrayerMeeting
andChristianAssociation.AtthetimewhentheNormalSchoolmoved
intotheoldbuildingonthepresentsite.Dr.Sheldoninvited
aboutadozendevoutstudentstomeethimintheofficeonSaturday
eveningtoholdaprayermeeting.Suchwastheoriginofameeting
whichhasbeenapowerfulmoralinfluenceinthisschool.These
meetings,ledbyMr.Sheldon,werecharacterizedbysuchfervorand
growthinmembersthattheofficebecametoosmallaplace,andthey
weremovedto"No.14,"dearold"No.14!"aplacedeartomany
whowillreadthishistory,fortheretheywerehelpedintoahigher
spirituallife,ortheretheyfirstmettheirRedeemer.Atthe
timeofthechangeofroom,Dr.Sheldonsuggestedthatthestudents
shouldleadthemeeting,theleaderofonemeetingappointingthe
nextleader,whilehewould^asheretofore,givethemhispresence
andaid."No.14"foryearswascrowdedeveningaftereveningwith
enthusiastic,devoutyoungmenandwomen,eagertogainspiritual
helpfromothers,eagertogiveit,andasaI130result
manywhocameintotheschoolcarelessaboutthelifeofthesoul,
becameconverted.ThewriterrecallsthefeelingamongtheChristian
studentsabouttheyear1870,thefeelingthatnooneoughtto
graduateunconverted,theearnesteffortsmadetoaccomplishthis,
andtheexultantremarkofoneman,"we'vegotthemallbuttwo!"
Itwasacommonsayingduringthoseyears,"Thereneverweresuch
meetingsanywherebefore;"andoneofthefirstquestionsasked
whenAlumnireturnedwas,"Istheprayermeetingasgoodasit
usedtobe?ThatisthefirstthingIthinkofwhenOswegois
mentioned."Butintheyear1880,themeetingseemedtohavelost
itsholdonthestudents;itwasoftenthinlyattended,andin
discouragementsomeofthefaithfulfewasked,"Hadwenotbetter
giveitup?"Intheanxiousdiscussionofplansforresuscitating
it,therecametheurgentsuggestionfororganization,inorderthat
thestudentsmighthavetheadvantageofoneleaderandanexecutive
committeetocarryonsystematicwork.ThisplanwasadoptedinMay,
1881,andefficientlycarriedoutbyGeorgeH.Howe,thefirst
PresidentoftheNormalChristianAssociation.Aboutonehundredand
seventynameswereenrolledduringthefirstyear.MissEllaGerow
^whosoearlyfinishedherearthlywork,andwhoaccomplishedso
muchfortheMasterinthisschoolbyherconsecratedlife^the
Secretaryatthecloseofthefirstyear,saysinherreport,"We
havecelebratedourfirstanniversary.Inreviewingtheworkof
thepastyearwehaverealizedmorethaneverbeforetheutilityof
organization,andfeelthatallthingsworkforgoodtothemthat
loveGod,"andinanotherreportshesays,"Anumberhaveconfessed
theirfaithinChrist,andallfeeltheyhavebeengreatlyblest."
Thecharacteristicsofthefirstyearhavemarkedtheyearssince,
andrecalltheformertimesofearnestness;spiritualgrowthis
quickened,timidchristiansaretrainedtogreaterselfrelianceand
powertoleadinchristianworkwhentheygooutfromus,secret
Christiansarebroughttoopenconfessionoffaith,thoughtful
onestoadecision,unbelieversaregraduallymoldedbytherelig
iousatmosphereaboutthem,andsomecometosavingknowledgeofthe
truth.AstheolderAlumniusedtolooktoward"No.14"whenSat
urdaynightcame,andofferedaprayerforGod'sblessingandthe
faroffmeeting,sodothelatterAlumnilooktoward"No.34"as
theirMecca.LISTOFTEACHERS.Alistofthenamesof
teacherswhohavebeenemployedintheOswegoNormalandTraining

School.MargaretE.M.Jones,E.A.Sheldon,HermanXmsi,I.
B.Poncher,MatildaS.Cooper,E.D.Weller,EmersonJ.Hamilton,
KateDavis,EllenSeaver,AmandaP.Fnnnelle,MaryHoweSmith
Pratt,YirgilC.Donglass,JohnW.Armstrong,MaryE.Perkins
Hayes,S.C.BancroftTillinghast,LeonoraT.ClappChnte,Lois
BrantErwin,KateA.Whitney,SarahM.HaskellWood,C.C.Cnrtis,
JosephA.Prindle,JohnB.McLean,AnnaT.RandallBeihl,SarahJ.
Armstrong,MaryD.SheldonBarnes,MarthaMcCumber,DefransaA.
HallSwan,DavidH.Cmttenden,Wm.A.Aber,MaryByan,EdwinA.
Strong,MaryW.HnntStickney,EmilyJ.Rice,MaryDavisMoore,
NathanielT.Trne,JohnG.Parkhnrst,MaryR.AilingAber,EUa
M.StewartCollins,IsabelLawrence,OrdeliaA.Lester,MaryY.
Lee,JamesN.Baker,MaryF.Crowe,EmmaDickermanStraight,
MarthaA.KeelerMcKay,S.IdaWiUiams,HenryH.Straight,Rose
Whitney,SarahJ.Walter,F.ElizabethSheldon,JnlietA.Cook,
MargaretW.Morley,MarthaE.Chnrchill,GeorgiaA.Timerson,
SarahT.YanPetten,AmeliaB.Myers,FannieC.Snow,EmilyS.
Comer,CarrieP.HerrickWheeler,ClaraA.Bnrr,MaryMattison,
WalkerG.Rappleye,CarrieL.G.Scales,KateBnndy,Mary
HolbrookMcElroy,MargaretK.Smith.Difficultyhasbeen
experiencedingettingsketchesofthosewhohavetaughtinthe
Normalschool;therehasbeendisinclinationtoindulgein
autobiography,asthebrevityofthesketchesfurnishedbyseveral
ofourbestknownandmostsuccessfulteachersbearswitness.Ina
fewcases,friendsofwellknownteachershavecometotherescue
andgivenmoreadequatehistories.Editor.MARGARETE.M.
JONES.ForthedetailsofthelifeofMargaretE.M.Jones,the
firstprincipaloftheOswegoNormalandTrainingSchool,weare
indebtedtohersister,Mrs.BessieCoghlan,ofLondon."Mrs.
JoneswasborninBondstreet,London,England,about1824.Her
fatherwasahighlyintellectualman,agreatreaderandarare
conversationalist.Hermotherwasgiftedwithmanygraceswhich
fittedhertoadornsocietyandmadehertheidolofherhusband
andchildren.Margaret,thedaughterofthesefavoredparents,had
afondnessforlearning,evenwhenatinychild.Nooneknewhowshe
learnedtoread,andattheageoffouryears,nobookwastoo
difficultforher.ShemasteredFrenchandGermanwithlittle
help,committedpagesoffavoriteauthors,celebratedfamily
eventsbypoems,attheageoftwelve;andthosenotbeingthedays
ofcheapbooksandcirculatinglibraries,sheborrowedreading
matterfromallwhowouldlend."Feelingthatshewastheeldest
daughterofsixchildrenandthereforeoughttosupportherself,she
wasadvisedbyherfriend,Mrs.JohnValpy,tobetrainedatthe
HomeandColonialCoUege,London,foragoverness.Onenteringthis
collegeshefoundherselfdelightedwitheverythingtaughtthere,
especiallyeverywordrelatingtomentalscienceandthetheoryof
education.Shelistenedtoalllecturesuponthesesubjectsand
reportedthem,evenmorefullythantheyweregivenherclear,
farreachingthoughtenablinghertogobeyondthethingsaidto
thelargerthoughtbehindandbelowtheexpression."Attheend
ofhertrainingattheHomeandColonial,shewasappointedoneof
theHeadGovernesses.AstheHomeandColonialCollegewasthe
pioneerofallteaching.Whiteland'sTrainingSchoolappliedthere
foraHeadGovernesswhocouldgivelessonsonEducation,Methods
andCriticism.Mr,Reynoldsfelttherewasnoonewhowouldbeso
fitforthispositionasmysister.ShewasatWhiteland'sabouta
year,Ibelieve,butforcertainreasons,sodislikedtheworkas
carriedonthere,thatshereturnedtotheHomeandColonialand

thereremaineduntilshewasselectedtogotoyourCollege(Oswego
Trainingschool)in1861."Idonotthinkanyworksheeverdid
gavehermorepleasurethanthatofOswego.Shelovedyoualland
wasnevertiredof133talkingoftheintellectofthe
Americans,andtheirenormouscapabilityofacquirementaswellas
ofalltheloveandkindnessshemetwithwhileinOswego."She
returnedtoEnglandinthesummerof1862,andaboutthreeanda
halfyearsafterleavingOswegoshemarriedhercousin,Mr.Lawrence
Jones."Imayaddthatforsometimesheoccasionlywrotepoetry
foraweeklynewspaper,andthatshepublishedseveralstories,a
bookofpoems,&c."Throughoutherlife,shehasbeenmostamiable
andunselfishreligiousinthewidestandhighestsense
^possessingapowerofseeingthebestsideofeveryone.Perhaps
forherownhappinessshehasbeentoosensitive.Unkindnessmight
vexandannoyothersitdeeplywoundedher.Shehadthehighest
moralnatureandneverleftadifficultdutyundone,thoughher
nervoustemperamentmadehershrinkfromassertingherself."She
wasconsideredanexcellentteacher;shethoroughlyknewher
subject,herselectionofwordswasperfect;allherexplanations
andillustrationsweremostclear.Herpatience,hergentlevoice
andherlovinginterestendearedhertoallwholearnedfromher."
Thealumnioftheclassesof'62and'63rememberMrs.Joneswith
deepaffection,respectandadmiration.Inhertherewasarare
minglingofqualities;shewasallgentleness,love,persuasive
patience,diffidence,reverenceforhumannature.Shehadalmost
infinitetendernessforchildren,forthesuffering,fortheerring.
InallthegentlergracesshewastrulyChristlike;butshewasal
sobrave,heroic,undaunted;shewasfarsightedandlargeminded;
shecamequicklywithsympathywiththosewhosethinkingandworking
wereinfieldsremotefromherown.Shewasinshort,truly
philosophicpossessingpowertoseethingsintheirtrue
relations.HerpupilsinAmericarememberhercriticismsupon
lessonsgivenbeforeherassomanygemsclear,faultless,
diffusinglight.Intheirstronglight,faultsunseenbeforewere
plainlyshown,butmostofallthevirtues,thestrongpointsinthe
lessonsgivenwererevealedforourinspection,appreciationand
imitation.AsacriticMrs.Joneswasamaster;herlanguagewas
classic;herinfluencerefiningandinspiring,andwhenshe
returnedtoEnglandsheleftuponusablessing,spiritualaswell
asintellectual.WhileinOswegosheassistedMr.Sheldoninthe
preparationof"Sheldon'sManualforTeachers."Manyofthe
strongestgraduatesofourschool,thosewhohavetakenchargeof
trainingclasses,owetheirfirstinsightand134inspiration
toMrs.Jones.ThousandsofteachersintheUnitedStates,andeven
inotherlandstowhichOswegograduateshavegone,littledream
theyowemuchofinspirationandprogresstothecriticalworkof
thefirstPrincipaloftheOswegoNormalMrs.M.E.M.Jones.
NineteenyearsafterMrs.JonesreturnedtoEngland,MissMaryD.
SheldonandDr.MaryV.Leeweremakingaprotractedstayin
England,andwereinvitedtovisitMrs.Jones,thenlivingin
Pontefract,Yorkshire.Theywillneverforgetthegraciousand
generoushospitalitytheyreceived,northekindlyinterestwith
whicheachoneofMrs.Jones'Americanpupilswasremembered.Mrs.
Joneswasinfullestpossessionofherremarkablepowers,aliveto
allinterestsathomeandabroad,herdeepandcharmingconversation
sheddinglightuponvarioussubjects,hertendernessandsympathy
creatingaboutheraheavenlyatmosphere.LaterMrs.Jonesvisited
Dr.LeeandMissSheldonatCambridge,theircollegehome,andwas

intenselyjinterestedinseeingallthatfamousuniversitywas
doingforwomen.Mrs.Jonesisstillliving,andnotinfrequently
sendstoherOswegofriendspapersnarratingEnglisheventswhich
maybeinterestingtothem.^^J^^'k.^.^,....^Biographical
SketchofE.A.Sheldon.BYMARYSHELDONBARNES.Thereinthe
orchard,among'thebeehives,standsmyfather,lookingtoward
sunset;itisnowMay,intheyearofourLord,1887,andhewas
borninOctober,intheyearofourLord1823;butheartandeye
andsteparethoseofayoungmanyet.Forstronggenerationscame
tohisbirthoneitherside,generationsofpioneerfarmers,of
longlivedNewEnglandPuritans.Hisfatherandmothercommenced
lifebycomingfromtheBerkshirehillsofMassachusettstothe
"farwest''oftheGeneseecounty,andtherewasheborn,ina
little,unpaintedframehouseofasingleroom.Thereinthehardy,
multiformlifeofthefarm,childhoodandearlyyouthwerespent;
PerryCentre,wherethefamilyspeedilybecameleadersinall
localmatters,notablyinchurchaffairs,wasthenearestvillage;
andthere,intime,cameanearnest,enthusiastic,youngcollegian,
Charles^Huntingtonbyname,whostartedaprivateacademywhere
GreekandLatinweretaught,andwhereMathematicsrosetothe
dignityofAlgebraandGeometry.Hitherto,myfatherhad,tousehis
ownphrase,"gonetoschoolonanashheap,"thatis,hehadfor
tenyearsbeensenttooneofthosedistrictschoolssetinsome
arid,uselessspotanddispensingfromyeartoyearamixed,
uncertaindietofreading,writingandciphering,variedwitha
littlegeography.Tothisdrearyanduselessround,myfatherwent
withtheutmostreluctance,theenergyofhisnaturemakinghim
impatientofabsencefromthegenuineworkofthefarm.Charles
Huntingtonchangedallthis,andopenedanewworldofambitionand
worktotheseventeenyearoldboy,who,firedwithhisteacher's
spirit,hastenedtoborrowsomeLatinbooksandprepareforcollege.
Attheageoftwentyone,heenteredHamiltonwiththeambitionof
fittinghimselfforthebar,aftercompletingtheregularClassical
Course.Butwhilepreparingforaprizeorationtowhichhewas
appointed,hishealthbrokeandhewasforcedtoleavecollegeat
thecloseofhisJunioryear;not,however,beforethecollegehad
enabledhimtomeasurehimselfwithmenandthings,andhadtaught
himtoactwith136confidenceandenergy.Asforthe
impressionshehadleftbehindhim,Ifindhisprofessorsusingsuch
phrasesasthefollowing:"diligentandcapableinbusiness,"
"distinguishedbyregularandstudioushabits,aswellasbygreat
excellenceincharacterandscholarship,""ayoungmanof
intelligence,ability,thefirmestintegrityandawarmheart."He
nowwenttospendashorttimewiththefamoushorticulturist,
CharlesDowning,inNewburgh,wherehemetagentlemanwhopersuaded
himto,cometoOswegoandjoinhiminthenurserybusiness.But
thisenterprisewasdestinedtofailure,andforafewmonthsthe
youngmanwasinastateofsuspenseastohisfuture,andagainand
againhistrustful,eagersoulraisedtheprayer,"Lord,whatwilt
thouhavemetodo."Myfatherhasalwaysfeltthattheanswercame
intheimpulsehereceivedduringthiswaitingtimetostudy
somewhatintotheconditionofthepoor;tohim,rearedinthe
country,whereallcouldreadandwrite,andwhereallwere
comfortable,thoughnonewerelearnedorrich,theignoranceand
miseryofthecitypoorseemedlikeaveryrevelationofheathendom.
Dayafterdayhewentthroughtenementhousesandshanties,learning
tolaiowthemiseriesandwantsoftheirinmates;armedwitha
littlebookfullofstatisticshehimselfhadgathered,withhis

freshyounghearturgingontoaction,hepersuadedsomeofhis
mostinfluentialfriendstojoinhiminformingan"OrphanandFree
SchoolAssociation,"whichshouldfindsomewayofgivingahometo
theorphans,andfreeschooltothepoorerchildrenofOswego.The
wholemovementwasinitsessenceatfirstreligious,themeetings
ofthelittlesocietyalwaysopeningwithprayer,whileitwasto
thechurchesthattheylookedforaid.Activeresultssoonappeared,
andaroomwasrentedandfittedforaschool.Butwhoshouldbethe
teacher?Tohisownuttersurprize,everyoneturnedtomyfather
asamatterofcourse.Hehadjustcompletedarrangementsfor
enteringtheTheologicalSeminaryatAuburn;butsincenoteacher
appeared,andhisassociatesdeclaredthatunlesshewouldteach
theschoolthevwouldabandontheenterprise,heanswered,trusting
stilltheleadofProvidence,"Verywell,thenteachtheschoolI
must."Whenaskedwhatsalaryhewanted,hesaid,"Itwillcostme
about$275ayeartolive,andthisisallIwant;theygavehim
$300,andmyfatherenteredwhatafterwardprovedhisown
chosen^career.Behold,then,intheearlywinterof1848and1849,
the3''oungschoolmasterbeforehisfirstschool;utterlywithout
experience,almostwithoutaplan,hestandstherefacetofacewith
onehundredandtwenty"wildIrishboysandgirlsofallages,
fromfivetotwentyone,"utterlyrudeanduntrained.Yet,hesays,
theygaveV/137him"notrouble;"iftheyengagedin
afreefight,itwasfromignoranceoftheproprietiesofthetime
andplace,notfromanydesiretobeugly;ifsomeoftheboys
becamerestless,theyweresentouttoracearoundtheblockandsee
whocouldbebackfirst;thej'^werecalledtoorderbyrappingon
thestovepipe;theywereheldinorderandkepttotheirworkby
thegenuinelovetheyboretheiryoungschoolmasterandbythe
genuineloveheboretothem.Ihavenotbeenabletofindthatany
caseofdisciplineoccurredinthisrough"Raggedschool."Asmj'^
fatherwenttohisworkofamorning,hiswarmheartedIrish
childrentroopedabouthim,seizinghimbythefingersorthecoat
tails,wherevertheycouldbestcatchhold,tothegreatamusement
ofthestorekeepersandthepassersby.Saturdaymorninghespent
inpastoralwork,thatIs,invisitinghispupilsathomeandin
seeingthattheywerenotsufferingforthenecessariesoflife.
Thiswasthehardestdayofhisweek;andtheyoungschoolmaster
generallyfoundhimselfexhaustedbynoon,sogreatwasthedraft
madeonhissympathiesbyignorance,sickness,incompetenceand
misfortune.Thew^orkcouldnotstophereinmyfather'smind;and
fromthisbeginning,asmaybeseeninMr.Harmon'sexcellentpaper,
sprangintimetheorganizationoffree and graded schools in

Oswego and the establishment of the orphan asylum. But while this
movement was passing through the stages of opposition and
apparent failure, my father had been living with his usual energy. In
May, 1849, while yet a teacher in the "Ragged school," he had
married Miss Francis A. B. Stiles, and in the next year he undertook
a private school in the old United States Hotel, whose wide piazzas
some of the Alumni will remember as a pleasant social annex to the
old Normal. But he was not intended for the master of a private
school, and his patronage proving insufficient, he applied for the
position of Superintendent of Public Schools in Syracuse. Among
the recom- mendations given him by Oswego citizens, I find the
following from an old physician: "I speak from extensive experience,

in saying that I have never known a person so successful in gaining the attention and exciting the energies of children as Mr. Sheldon. In rising to address his school, the earnest gaze of every pupil
is riveted on him with the animated expectation of receiving both
entertainment and instruction. * * * This I have repeat- edly
witnessed." In the two years of his Syracuse residence, he
consolidated, graded and organized the lower schools, brought
together various ill-kept and ill-distributed collections of books into
a Central Li- brary, now one of the flourishing and valuable
possessions of Syra138 cuse, published the first annual school
report of the city, and gave the impulse and the plan which resulted
in establishing one of the finest hig-h schools in our State. In
Oswego, meanwhile, the free-school party had at last suc- ceeded,
and naturally looked to my father as the man to shape and execute
their wishes. From May, 1853, dates my father's perma- nent
residence in Oswego. By September of that year he had already so
thoroughly organized the schools that they at once began their new
cares on plans which have remained practically unchanged for
thirty years. But nothing was ever finished for mj'^ father ; there
was still a class to be provided for, the young men and boys who
sailed the lakes from early spring till early winter, but who were idle
from December to April ; for them he organized the arithmetic
schools, rough-and-ready ungraded schools, where the arithmetic
was the basis of the work ; and in 1859 an '^ Unclassified School "
was added to meet the wants of irregular, laboring people, for
whom the graded school was im- possible. In addition to all this
secular work, no one was more active than my father in lay
religious work ; every Sunday saw him still teaching, now in a
regular Sunday School, now at the Orphan Asylum, and now in
some poverty-stricken little country school-house. Meanwhile, his
sincere and thoughtful nature had become dis- satisfied, not only
with the current ways of teaching in our public schools, but even
with their range of subjects. His early life on the farm, his taste for
practical work, his sympathetic contact with the poor, had
convinced him that something better and more useful could be
done in the way of education. He felt that children should learn to
know forms, colors, weights, the commoner facts and re- lations of
their own bodies and the material world not as mere names, but
as objective realities. While working the problem over, he visited
Toronto, where he saw, in the National Museum, though not used in
their own schools, collections of appliances em- ployed abroad
notably in the "Home and Colonial Training School " in London. Well
do I remember the delight with which he returned from this visit,
armed with some material appliances for accomplishing his desires.
The dark shelves of the little closets opening off fromjbhe dingy
office where my father lived and worked all day, as Secretary of the
Board of Education, became filled with wonders delightful to my
childish eyes, and, I think, no less so to his own colored balls and
cards, bright-colored pictures of ani- mals, building-blocks, boxes in

which were silk-worm cocoons, cotton balls, samples of all sorts of


grain, specimens of pottery and glass. In school all day, I employed
my lunch-time in hunting
139 over these precious treasures
while my father was busily writing*, or, perchance, trying to reach
^the heart and conscience of some "bad boy," sent to him as a last
resource, from one of the public schools.* In 1859 and '60, a
thorough^ detailed plan of work was in- troduced into the Oswego
Schools, embrac
lessons in form, color, size, weight, animals, plants, human body,
moral instruction. The whole program was worked out with such
attention to detail that the work of every hour, in every grade, was
printed in black and white. But a partial difficulty instantly arose,
and the question was asked on every side, "How shall we teach
these things?" Every -Saturday, my father met his teachers for
discussion, and gave illustrations, as best he could. But he sadly
felt the inade- quacy of his instruction and determined, if possible,
to obtain a model or training teacher from the " Home and Colonial
" itself. The Board of Education agreed to such an invitation, " on
condi- tion that it shall not cost the city a single cent." My father
was ready to meet this condition ; he at once went to the teachers
inter- ested in the reform, and from them obtained the promise that
in return for instruction in the training class, they would, for one
year, resign half oftheirsalaries.*TeachersfromoutsideOswego
whocamefortraining,shouldpayatuitionfee;andalittlewould
besavedtothecitybyusingthesesameoutsidersasfreeteachers
intheschoolsselectedforpractice.Forthehistory,circumstances
andtemperofthefirsttrainingclass,fortheEducationalConven
tioncalledtoexaminetheworkingofthenewmethods,andforthe
mostinterestingexternalhistoryofthenextfewyears,Imust
refertoMr.Krusi'smostadmirablepaperonthehistoryofthe
NormalSchool.*fThereitwillbeseenhowthisundertakinggrew
fromlocaltoStateandNationalimportance,andhowithasresulted
inchangesofmethod,inthefoundationofNormalandTraining
Schools,andinthepracticaldisseminationofsuperiorteaching
powerthroughoutthecountry.Itmustnotbeimagined,however,
thattheseresultswereobtainedwithoutencounteringhealthy
opposition;intheNewYorkStateConventionof1862,andinthe
NationalConventionof1864,thewholesystemwasveryseverely
attackedfromphilosophicalstandpointsbyDr.Wilbur,
superintendentoftheStateIdiotAsylum,amaneverywherenotedfor
thesuccessful*OnceInalongwhile,the"badboy"neededa
whippingalwaysadministeredreluctantlyandgenerallyjoinedwith
theargumentand"moralsuasion."*Salariesrangingfrom$300to
$500.+SeealsoMr.Harmon^spaperonthe"HistoryofthePublic
Schools."*Fortheoriginaldiscussion,seeNewYorkTeacherof
October,1862,AmericanJournalofEducation,March,1864,andthe
sameforMarch,1865,140trainingoftheunfortunates.These
papersrousedsomuchattentiontowhathecalledthe'^vicious
tendencies"oftheOswegosystem,thatacommitteewasappointedto
examinemorethoroughlyintoitstruepracticalbearings.The
chairmanofthiscommitte,Prof.GreeneofBrownUniversity,after
visitingourschoolsandtestingtheresultsasthoroughlyand
impartiallyaspossible,madeareportbeforetheNational
Conventionof1865,sointelligent,exhaustiveandfavorable,that

itwasacceptedasfinal,andsincethattimetheunderlying
principlesoftheOswegoMethodshavenevermetseriousopposition
ordiscussioninanyauthoritativebody.Theseyearsfrom1860to
1870,wereperhapsthebusiestofmyfathersbusylife;as
PrincipaloftheyoungTrainingSchool,aplacewhichfelltohim
naturally,hewasinvolvedinaneverincreasingcorrespondenceand
acertainamountofteaching.AsSuperintendentoftheCity
Schools,hewasnecessarilyengagedinaheavyandperpetualroutine
ofvisitingschools,keepingaccounts,lookingaftercasesof
discipline,makingoutexaminationquestionsandmarkingexamination
papers,inshort,inathousandpettydetailsknownonlytoone
familiarwiththebusiness.Thesewerethebarenecessitiesofthe
case;addtothese,thepreparationofvariouspapersand
addresses^theeditingandpublicationofagraduatedcourseof
ObjectLessonsandofaManualofElementaryInstructionthe
preparationofasetofReadingChartsandBooksactivelaborsin
theSundaySchoolandchurchthecaresofagrowingfamily,lately
transplantedtothenewlyfiaishedhousebythelake,whichhas
sincebecomeourdear,familiarhome.Itwillthusbereadily
understoodthatmyfather'sdaywasbusy;heinvariablyroseat
five,andafterlightingthefires,wroteorstudieduntilaseven
o'clockbreakfast.Afterthis,hewasofffortheschools,returning
atfiveorsix,fordinner,afterwhichheworkedorstudiedforat
leasttwohours,beforeretiringattenorhalfpast.Hischief
recreationsconsistedintrimmingtrees,attendingtohisorchard,
andinrarevisitstohisoldcountryhome.Butthesearduousyears
werenoburdentomyfather.Astrongphysicalconstitutiongavea
goodphysicalbasisfortheselabors;worthfarmorewerethefacts
thathishomewashappy,hisworkcongenial,hisspiritenthusiastic
andhopeful;worthmostofallwasthefactofmyfather'sfaith,
thefactthat,throughallhiswork,hefeltthathewasdivinely
guidedandhelpedandthatbeyondhisownmortalstrength,the
purposesofGodwouldsurelyworktheirownbestway.Theseyears
oflaborwere,however,alsoyearsofhonorandrecognition.Itis
almoststartlingtoseehowinstantlytheeduca141tional
leadersofthedayacknowledgethesuperiorityofOswegomethodsand
ideas.In1862myfatherwaselectedSuperintendentoftheschools
inTroy,butheresignedthehonor,althoughtheplacewasmore
importantandcentralandthesalarylargerbysomehundredsthan
thathethenreceived,forthesimplebutsufficientreasonthat
hefeltthattheworkinOswegowasnotyetripeforanindependent
life;thebooksonmethodsnotonlystirredupteachersthroughout
ourowncountry,buthadagoodsaleinEnglanditself;whilethe
fameoftheOswegoschoolsbroughttothemodesthomebythelake
manyaneducationalpilgrimofdistinction,amongwhomare
especiallyremembered,LowellMason,B.G.Northrup,afterward
SuperintendentofPublicInstructioninConnecticut,A.A.Calkins,
AssistantSuperintendentofPublicInstructioninNewYorkcity,
Prof.Davies.ProfessorofmathematicsatWestPoint,A.G.
Rickoff,SuperintendentofClevelandschools.In1865theOswego
principlesandmethodshadbeenacceptedassoundbyformalaction
oftheNationalConvention;in1867myfatherwasinvitedtotake
chargeofapedagogicaldepartmentintheUniversityofMissouri;
andinthesameyearhewasstronglyurgedtobecometheprincipal
oftheStateNormalSchoolatAlbany.ThereasoQSforhisrefusing
theseflatteringoffers,withtheirnotablylargesalaries,will
bestbeunderstoodbyreferencetomyfather'slettersinregardto
theAlbanyplace;hewrites:**Ihaveendeavoredtoputmyselfin

thepositionofwillingnesstopursuethelineofduty,withoutany
referencetopersonalinclinations,seekingsimplytoknowmy
Father'swill,andthentodoit.***Iamtoldpositivelythat
shouldIleave,allfurthereffortforthisschoolwillbe
abandoned,andthatitcannotbesustained.Iknowmuchyetremains
tobedoneandthattherearemanyobstaclestobeovercomeinthe
accomplishmentofwhatwewishtosecureforthisschool;thereare
otherswhocandothisaswellasI,butthismakeslittledifference
solongasthefeelingissuchasitis.****Itwouldnotbe
rightformetojeopardizetheeducationalinterestshereunlessa
greatergoodcouldbeaccomplishedelsewhere.SofarasAlbanyis
concerned,therearemanywhocandotheworkrequiredthere,better
thanIcan.***icanassureyou,thishasnotbeenahasty
conclusion.Ihavecarefullyandprayerfullyweighedthewhole
matter,andafterasevereconflictbetweeninclinationanda
senseofduty,Iamledtodeclineyourflatteringoffer."
Meanwhile,thetrainingschoolhadbecometheStateNormaland
TrainingSchool,anddemandedmyfather'senergiessocompletely
thatinSept.,1869,heresignedhis.placeasSuperintendentofthe
CitySchoolsandgavehimselfentirelytothedutiesofthis
principalship.Atthistime,too,hereceivedthedegreeofA.M.
fromHamilton,anhonorallthemoregratifyingfromthefactthat
hehadbeenunabletotakehisfirstdegree.**Tothiswasadded,
in1875,thedegreeofPh.D.fromtheRegentsoftheUniversityof
NewYorlc.142Itwouldnowseemasthoug*!!successwere
assured,ontheprinciplethat"nothingsucceedslikesuccess."Yet
in1872beganwhatmyfatheralwaysdesignatesasthe"bigfight;
"yetitwasconfinedtothecityofOswego,andbeganbythe
offeringofthefollowingpropositiontotheBoardofEducationin
thatcity:"Besolved,Thatwediscontinueobjectteachinginour
juniorschoolsandsubstituteinsteadComeH'sprimarygeography
andAppleton'selementaryarithmetic."Thissimple,intelligible
andintelligentresolutionwastheopeningofamostsevereand
bitterattackuponwhatwasunderstoodasobjectteaching.This
attacklastedthebetterpartofayear,anditsgrounds,as
appearinginthepapers,were,thatthepupilsdidnoteasilypass
fromonegradetoanother,thatteachersandparentswishedtext
booksinsteadoforallessons,thattheexpenseofsendingchildren
toschoolwasgreatlyincreasedbyhaving"tobuysomanytext
books,thatthepupilswerenotabletopassregents'examinations,
thatthepupilswereheldinschoollongerthanformerly,andthat
thenumberofteachershadbeenincreased.Myfatherhadbefore
encounteredopposition;hehad,inearlieryears,beenaccusedof
teachingthechildren"cruelty,"onaccountofthecollectingfuror
rousedbysomelessonsoninsects;hehadbeennicknamed^^The
Pope"onaccountofhispredominantinfluenceintheBoardof
Education;hehadhadtomeetsarcasticandseriouscriticismof
Pestalozzianprinciples,butneverhadhemetanythingsobitter,
personalanddiscouragingasthislocalattack;itsnatureand
spiritcanbestbeshownbythefollowingextractsfromthedaily
papersofthetime:''Thesystem,whateveritis**was
introducedhereunderthepersonalsupervisionanddirectionof
itsmosteminentadvocate.Wehadalmostsaiditsinventor.He
selectedandtrainedhisteachers,withoutletorhindrance,andhas
succeededinonewayandanother,inworkingoutoftheirsituations
nearlyeveryteachernotespeciallytrainedinhismethods,orwho
differedwithhimastotheirvalue."''Ibelievenineoutoften
headsoffamiliesherelookupontheOswegosystemofschoolsasa

mischievous,expensiveandcruelhumbug.****ifyour
correspondent,Mr.Editor,hadthemanagementofpubliceducationin
thiscity,hewouldmakemanychanges.Inthefirstplace,hewould
discontinuetheHighSchool**Thereisnojusticeorproprietyin
levyingataxuponthewholepeopletoteachafewchildrenbotany
orgeometryorLatin.**Hewoulddropfromthe[publicschool]
courseofstudyeverythingbutreading,writing,arithmetic,geogra
phyandgrammar.***Inthenextplace,hewouldreturntothekind
andformofschoolbooksthatwereinusetwentyfiveyearsago**
Objectteachingandgymnasticsshouldbesentoutofdoorsagain.
Doesachildneedtogotoschooltolearnaboutlightandheavy,
aboutroughandsmooth?**Areourchildrenmoremuscularormore
symmetricalthantheywerebeforetheyweretaughttopawtheairin
rhythm?***Theintroduction of this principle has of late tended

to increase the number of teachers . * * The more teachers we


have, the higher
143 price, of course, we must pay for each. A
diminished demand would be more eco- nomically supplied. '*The
Pestalozzian propagandists are just now filling the Press with
interminably long and dreary articles or the 'great underlying
principles' of the 'Objective Methods of Teaching.' ]S"obody but the
man who writes these wrong wanderings reads them, and they are
consequently, unworthy of serious consideration. At the election yi
May the people will have something to say about a system by which
they have been humbugged out of large sums of money and an
incalculable amount of time. *'The tax-payers of Oswego will see to
it that their schools shall be run in the in- terests of sound practical
education, and not * * to build up fortunes of Book Publishing Bings,
and Pestalozzian monomaniacs.'' "We have very little hope that the
people will effect a reform in this matter. Too many men live by this
humbug to render easy of destruction. "We have yet to hear of a
person outside of the Pestalozzi Ring, who does not believe that
Objective Teaching in Oswego schools has failed. "We have yet to
find a person not directly interested in the profits of 'the system,'
who does not agree with us that Beading, Writing, English Grammar,
Arithmetic and Geography and those branches only should be
taught in the Public Schools at the public expense." "Teachers can
keep carriages. Common Council men have to travel on foot." My
father, aided by a few strong* friends, met these charges seriously
and temperately; admitted that mistakes might have been made,
indicated some errors of administration, and in a series of careful
papers tried to show the good people of Oswego the in- nermost
meaning and drift of objective methods. Nevertheless, the "popular
reform" was carried; lessons in color, form, size, animals and plants
were thrown out of the program after the close of the first primary
year ; map-drawing was a thing of the past ; ^^CorneH's
Geography and Appleton's Arithmetic" had a clear field; no teachers
were to be employed who were not natives of Oswego ; for a short
time, the High School itself was abolished ; and by their measures.
Objective Methods were supposed to be slain. Before 1880, years
of toil and labor began to tell upon my father's firm constitution,
and in 1879, he felt that he must resign his place as principal of the

school, which had become a part of his very life ; it was then that
strong friendships came forward to sustain him ; the Normal School
Board would accept but a tem- porary resignation, and insisted
upon continuing his salary ; his faculty, hard-worked as they always
were, generously divided his work among themselves, in order that
he still might keep his place ; and this was no sudden impulse, but
through all the dark, depress- ing months of a prolonged nervous
prostration, with its slow and seemingly uncertain recovery, his
friends never failed in their con- stancy of hope and helpfulness. It
was during these dark days that my father turned to country life
again, and in light occupation about his orchard, about his hens and
bees, began to find return144 ing interest, and, as days went
on, returning health and hope ; 1881 saw him once more ready to
enter upon the full duties of his principalship, which he has since
held with ever-increasing vigor. In 1881, he added a Kindergarten
to the departments of the '^ Normal School, and he is, at present,
at work on three practical problems. One is, how best to connect
the Kindergarten smooth, ly with the primary schools ; the second,
the unification of the school systems of New York State ; the third,
how to elicit from industrial work, its true educational value.* But
the prime study at present absorbing his mind, is one of theory, and
perhaps even more fundamental than these ; it is What are the
psychological facts which should underly our educa- tional methods
? What can children themselves teach us of the ways by which they
acquire knowlege, and develop mental power ? This study has led
him to invite to our school, from the University of Jena, Germany,
Dr. Mohlberg, a disciple of the famous Herbart. With his aid he
hopes to make some genuine progress in enlarging the
psychological outlook of our teachers and in making our methods
more soundly philosophical. /f- *^^ *^^ ^^^ ^^^ And so my
father stands among his trees and bee-hives, think- ing, acting yet ;
and if you ask him his ideal of a future state, he will answer
promptly, smiling at you with his clear and steady eyes
"Constant activity." To my own great pleasure, I find that I am not
allowed to close this paper without saying something of the part my
mother has contributed to my father's success ; perhaps no one has
been a more intimate witness than myself of the ingenuity and
cheerful- ness with which she has combined a generous life and a
limited in- come ; of the bright and elastic spirit with which she has
met the thousand petty burdens of life as if they were but play ; of
the un- swerving steadiness of hopeful courage with which she has
sustain- ed my father through his trial of ill-health, depression and
opposi- tion. Sprung from an intellectual stock, and originally
endowed ^^ with unusual talent, she has never failed to enter with
intelligence and interest into all my father's plans and ideas ; and in
all hi&literarywork,shehasbeenhisbestandmosteffectiveaid.
Indeed,ineverydirection,shehasbeenmostthoroughlyahelp
meetforhim,andhehasfoundathousandoccasionstoconsiderthe
16thofMay,1849,asthemostmomentousandfortunatedayofhis
life.*Thisinquiryhasalreadyledtotheestablishmentofshop

workalongthelinesIndicatedbyMr.Straight.^Al.145
HERMANNKRtfSI,A.M.HermannKrusiwasbomin1817,atYverdon,
Switzerland.HisfatherwasteacherintheschoolofPestalozzi,
thenattheheightofitspopularity.Fouryearslater,however,he
resignedhisposition,andremovedwithhisfamilytotheCanton
ofAppenzel.SoonafterheestablishedaprivateNormalschoolin
Gais,anditwasinthisschoolthatHermannKrusireceivedhis
earlyeducation.From1835to1838hepursuedacademicalstudiesin
DresdenandBerlin,visitedandstudiedtheworkingsofthePrussian
Normalschools,whichwerethebestinEurope,andwerechiefly
conductedbymenwhohadbeenstudentsunderPestalozzi.Returning
toGais,heassistedintheNormalschooluntil1846,whenthedeath
ofhisfathercausedtheschooltobegivenup,andKrusiwas
obligedtoseekelsewhereforemployment.Twosituationswere
offeredtohimtheonefromDr.Mayo,asteacherinaprivate
schoolinEngland;theotherastutorinthefamilyofaRussian
nobleman.HechosetheformerandwassoononhiswaytoEngland.
Dr.Mayo'sschoolwassituatedatCheam,fifteenmilesfromLondon,
andwaspatronizedbythewealthyclassesandthenobility.Butthe
methodofteachingemployedtheremainlytheoldroutinesystem
wasdistastefultoKrusi,andheresignedattheendoftheyear.
OnleavingCheam,hevisitedtheHomeandColonialSchool,in
London,andwhiletherewasinvitedtojointhecorpsofteachers.
Thisschoolaimedtohaveallitsworkbasedontheprinciplesof
Pestalozzi.Krusiacceptedthesituation,andbecameteacherof
arithmeticanddrawing,andalsoaidedinworkingoutmethodsof
instructioninotherbranches.Duringthethreeyearsthathewas
connectedwiththeschool,hearrangedacourseofinventivedrawing
thefirstthatwaseverprepared,andwhichwasafterward
introducedintoMassachusettsbyMr.Whitaker,whohadbeenhis
pupilinLondon.Allworkonthissubjectcanclearlybetracedback
totheworkofKrusi,fromwhichlaterauthorshavefreelyborrowed.
In1852hereturnedtoSwitzerland,intendingtoteachtheyouthof
hisownland;butsoonafter,throughtherecommendationofDr.
LowellMasonandothers,whohadseenhisworkinLondon,a
situationwasofferedhimb}'Prof.WilliamRussell,whohad
establishedaprivateNormalinstituteinLancaster,Mass.Thisgave
himanopportunitytorealizeoneofhischerisheddreamstovisit
Americaandin1852heagainlefthismountainhometobeginwork
inanewland.J146Forthreeyearshehadchargeinthis
institutionofthedepartmentsofmodernlanguagesanddrawing,
andalso,foratime,themathematicaldepartment.Itwasduring
thistimethathewrotehisfirstworkonperspective,whichwas
publishedin1857.Krusiwasafterwardsengagedasaregular
lecturerbeforevtheMassachusettsStateInstitutes,underthe
direction,first,ofDr.Sears,andafterward,ofHon.GeorgeS.
Boutwell.Thisworkbroughthimintointimateassociationwithhis.
owndistinguishedcountrymen,AgassizandGuyot,andalsowith
Mason,Russell,Emerson,Northrop,Tenney,andotherwellknown
educators.Itwasthroughtheinfluenceoftheseandlaterfriends
that,in1871,YaleCollegebestoweduponhimthehonorarydegreeof
MasterofArts.IntheInstitutes,Krusi^ssubjectswere
arithmeticanddrawing.Inthelattersubjecthiswastruly
pioneerwork.Onlyafeweducatorsinthegreatcentreshadawakened
totheimportanceofdrawingasabranchofinstructionincommon
schools^andpeoplegenerallyweremuchopposedtospendingtimeand
moneyonwhatwasconsideredasonlyanaccomplishment,anduseless
tothecommonpeople.>rIn1857Krusiacceptedacalltobecome

oneoftheteachersintheStateNormalSchoolatTrentonN.J.,
retaining,however,forthefirstyear,hisconnectionwiththe
InstitutesofMassachusetts,devotingtothemapartofhistime.He
remainedinTrentontwoyears,andthenreturnedtoMassachusetts.
HisInstituteworkwasnotconfinedtothatState.ItembracedNew
Hampshirealso,andin1860and1861hedidthesameworkinOhio.
In1862KrusiwenttoOswego,N.Y.,attherequestofMr.E.A.
Sheldon,whohadjustestablishedaTrainingschoolforteachers,
foundeduponPestalozzianprinciples.Fromthattimeuntilnow
(1887,)fullytwentyfiveyears.Prof.Krusi'sworkhasbeenchiefly
connectedwiththatoftheOswegoNormalSchool.Hewasfirst
employedtoelaboratemethodsinNumber,FormandDrawing.The
lattersubjecthetaughtandsuperintendedintheNormalSchoolas
wellasintheschoolsofthecity.Theinventiveprinciple,which
inducedthepupilstofinddesignsforthemselves,wasalso
appliedtoGeometry,wherethemembersoftheclassfoundsolutions
fortheirproblemsbytheirowningenuity,i.e.,notwiththehelp
ofabook.Thisworkwasverysuccessful,anditwaspleasantto
witnesstheanimationandintelligenceofhisclasses.Healso
taughtPhilosophyofEducation,includingMentalandMoral
Philosophy,withoutabook,by147appealingtotheexperience
andtothereflectivepowersofthepupilsthemselves.Itwasto
beexpectedthatKrusi'smindshouldbegreatlyexercisedby
Pestalozzi.AsthesonoftheearliestcolaborerofthegreatSwiss
schoolreformer,hefeltithisdutytocontributeasharetohis
betterappreciationinAmerica.Thishedidbythepublicationofa
bookentitled"Pestalozzi,hisLifeandWork."Anotherpublication,
whichhasreachedthousandsofschoolsthroughouttheUnion,is
Krusi'sDrawingCourse,thesystematicallyarrangedexercisesof
whichbaseduponagradedevolutionofForm^havecontributed
muchtowhatisknownas"IndustrialDrawing."Thedepartmentof
ModernLanguages,FrenchandGerman,wasalsounderhischarge.
Althoughtheclasseswerenotlarge,theinstructiongivenhasnever
failedtoenlistenthusiasmandintelligentpupils.Afterfifty
yearsofteaching,ofwhichtwentyfivehavebeenspentinOswego
NormalSchool,Krusiisabouttoretirefromhislaborsasapublic
teacher.Hisunfailmghealthhaspermittedhimtoattendtohis
dutieswithhardlyaday'sabsence.Moreover,thefriendlyrelations
inwhichhehasstoodtohiscolleaguesandpupilshaverenderedhis
tasksoeasyandpleasantasnevertodeprivehimofstrengthand
courage.Butdutiestowardshisoldhomeanddistantmembersofhis
family,inducehimtoleavetoyoungerteachersthetaskofcarrying
furtherontheworksoauspiciouslybegunbytheunweariedexertions
ofDr.E.A.Sheldon.Mr.Krusihassoendearedhimselftohis
pupilsduringthepasttwentyfiveyears,thathisnamewillbelong
cherishedinlovinghearts.Theclear,simpleandlogicalwayin
whichheanalyzedasubjectintoitssimplestelements,thus
openingituptotheunderstanding,hisquiet,conversationalmanner
andpleasanthumormadetheconditionsformentalactivityand
growththebestpossible.Outsideofclass,too,thepupilshadin
himagenial,sympatheticfriend,interestedintheirlives,
entertainingandinstructiveinconversation,andfullofpoetic
imagination,whichhelpedotherstolivewithhiminaworld
idealizedbypureandnoblethought.Addedtotheirrespectforhis
powerandfaithfulnesstoduty,hissimple,modest,andchildlike
spiritwonforhimtheaffectionofall."Astrongorcultivated
mindmaychallengerespect;butthereisneededanobleonetowin
affection."148ISAACB.POUCHER.Mr.IsaacB.Boucher

graduatedfromtheAlbanyNormalschoolin1847.Inthewinterof
'4748hetaughtatMartville,CayugaCo.,N.Y.,receivingseventy
fivecentsperday,and"boardedaround."Inthespringof1848he
cametoOswegoandtaughtinthe"redschoolhouse,"nearthecorner
ofWest8thandVanBurenSts.FromherehewenttoWest4thSt.,
betweenSenecaandVanBuren,inthe"j'ellowschoolhouse."Laterhe
went,asPrincipal,totheAcademywhichstoodonthesiteofthe
presentHighschool.Heresignedthispositionin1852,andwentto
NewYork,toattendMedicallecturesattheMedicalDepartmentsof
theUniversityoftheStateofNewYork.Afteranabsenceofsix
monthshereturnedtoOswegoandresumedhisformerpositioninthe
Academy.WhenthepresentSchoolLawwentintoeffect,in1853,a
BoardofEducationbeingelected,hedeclinedanappointmentas
teacher,expectingtoreturntoNewYorkinOctober,andfinishhis
Medicalstudies,graduatinginthefollowingSpring.AMr.
Barstow,whowasappointedPrincipalofSeniorSchoolNo.2,located
intheoldCourtHouseintheEastPark,wastakensickbefore
beginninghisdutiesandMr.Poucherwastemporarilyengagedtoopen
andclassifytheschool.Mr.BarstowdiedandMr.Poucherwasin
ducedtoremain.AnewschoolbuildingwaserectedonEast4thSt.,
intheSecondWard,andMr.PoucherandMr.Douglasswereappointed
AssociatePrincipalsin1855.In1859anewbuildingwascompleted
intheSixthWardonEastFourthStreet,andMr.Poucherwas
transferred,asPrincipalofSeniorSchool,tothisbuilding,
whereheremaineduntiltheNormalSchoolwasmovedtoitspresent
location.HewasthenappointedPrincipalofthePracticeSchooland
InstructorinMathematicsintheNormalschool.Duringanabsence
oftwoyearsofthePrincipaloftheNormalschool,Mr.Poucherwas
ActingPrincipal.HewasInstructorinMathematicsuntilAugust,
1885,whenhewasappointedCollectorofUnitedStatesCustomsat
thePortofOswego,N.Y.Byvirtueofthispositionheis
SuperintendentoftheAmericanLightHousesonLakeOntarioandthe
St.LawrenceRiverasfarasSisterIsland,andalsoamemberof
theBoardofDesignatorsofLocalSteamboatandHullInspectors.
MATILDAS.COOPER.MatildaS.CooperwasborninBlauveltville,New
York,Feb.2,1839.Shereceivedherearlyeducationindistrict
schools,chieflyfromNormalgraduates,afterwardsattending
Hardcastle'sInstiy^Q^^^^^C^^'i't^^6"t_^*::
f^<:?C^'149tute,atNyack,NewYork,ashorttime,and
ClintonLiberalInstitute,twoyears.ShethenenteredtheState
NormalSchoolatAlbany,NewYork,fromwhichshegraduatedinthe
summerof1856.Immediatel}'^ongraduationshewasemployedby
theOswegoBoardofEducation,totakechargeofadepartmentofone
oftheSeniorschools.ShewasafterwardtransferredtoaPrimary
school;hersuccessasateacherwassomarkedthatontheorgan
izationoftheCityTrainingschool,shewasappointedasoneofthe
critics.Astheworkoftheschooldevelopedshewassucceededto
thepositionofteacherofLanguageandMethodsintheNormalschool
;andthisworksheretaineduntilherwithdrawal.Thus,withthe
exceptionofafewmonthsinPackerInstitute,shehasbeen
connectedwiththeOswegoschoolalmostfromthebeginningofits
existence;andhereshehasbeenalwaysatMr.Sheldon'sright
hand,readytodoallhemightask,tothelastdegreeofskilland
conscientiousness.Herresignation,comingatthesametimewiththe
quartercentennialanniversary,in1886,seemedtoemphasizethe
factthattheschoolhadreachedtheendofitsfirstera,andthe
newsofherintendeddeparturewasagreatsurprisetoallwhohad
knownherincredible,indeedtomanyfortoitsgraduates,it

seemsimpossibletothinkofOswegoNormalwithoutMissCooper.
Shekeptalltherecordsofscholarship,attendanceandlocation
aworkcalculatedtotestthosequalitiesofcelerityandaccuracy
whichhaveeverbeencharacteristicofher.Inconnectionwiththis
work,herretentivenessofmemoryoftenastonishedherfriends.She
knewalmostinvariably,withoutreferencetoherbooks,thenameand
locationofeverypupilconnectedwithschool,aswellastheir
characteristicsandattainments.Ofalltheeffectivework
accomplishedbyMissCooper,nonewasmoresothanthatwhichshe
didinherpositionaspreceptressoftheNormalBoardingHall.No
onewhohasnotbeeninsomewayresponsibleforsuchacharge,can
realizehowmuchitinvolveswhattact,sympathy,justnessof
judgment,andwithal,whatomniscienceareneeded;howmanyarethe
possibilitiesofinsubordinationinspiteoftheexerciseofutmost
wisdom.ButallwhohaveeverlivedintheBoardingHallhave
wonderedatthemasterlyeasewithwhichMissCooperquietlycarried
allthecares,andfirmlymetallthevexationsofherchargethere,
neverseemingtofeeltheburden.Theyhaveknown,too,how
steadilyshegrewintotheaffectionofthoseunderhercare,in
spiteoftheequalandunsparingseveritywithwhichsheinsistedon
conformitytorules.Forwhileshecommandedadmirationbyher
strictjustice.^150sheyetmorewonlovebyheruntiring,
unostentatiousfulfillmentofthehighermissionwhichalwaysstands
opentooneinsuchaposition.Itisraretofindonesoreadyto
seeandtoembracethemanyopportunitiestoturn,atacritical
moment,thecurrentofastudent'slife,ortobringneededaidto
onestrugglingundertoogreatdiflftculties.Andsodelicatelyand
unostentatiouslywasthismissionfulfilledbyMissCooper,that
many,ignorantofthissideofherwork,havenotfullyappreciated
hercharacterandhavebeenpuzzledattheholdwhichshehadupon
theaffectionofmanj''ofthepupils.Asateachershewas
distinguishedforherkeen,logicaltreatmentofsubjects,her
severeadherencetoprinciplesintheleastdetail,herforcible
expositionofallthatshehadtoteach,andherunswerving
strictness,accompaniedwithexactjustice,inallthatrelatedto
theconductoftheschool.Shedemandedmuchofothers,althoughno
morethanshedemandedofherself.Butsheworkedwithsomuchease,
accuracyandceleritythatsheoftenexpectedofothersmorethan
theywereabletoperform,anddidnotalwaysknowjusthowmuchto
allowfordifferenceincapacity.Perhapshercrowninggracewas
themodestywithwhichsheboreallhonor,andwhichmadehershrink
fromanyprominencewhichcouldbeavoidedinconsistencywithher
duty.KATEH.DAVIS.MissKateH.Davis,thesubjectofthis
briefsketch,wasbominthecityofNewYork.Herearlyeducation
wasreceivedinPublicSchoolsofOswego^passingfromPrimary
GradetoHighSchool,andgraduatingfromthatinstitutioninApril,
1861.Justatthistimewasstartedthe"OswegoTrainingSchool,^'
withMissMargaretE.M.JonesofLondon,England,asprincipal.The
firstclassconsistedofninemembersandMissDaviswasoneofthe
favorednine.Oncompletingthecourseofinstructionforoneyear,
shewasgivenapositionasPrincipalandCriticinthePrimary
DepartmentoftheSchoolofPracticeinthe"OswegoNormaland
TrainingSchool.'^ThispositionMissDavisfilledforseveralyears
resigningtoacceptasimilarpositionasteacheratOakPark,
Illinois,atasalaryofonethousanddollars.MissDavisremained
inthisschoolfromSeptember,1871toSeptember,1876resigning
theschooltotakeamuchneededrest.Stillretainingalovefor
thework,andhealthbeingrestored,sheacceptedanofferin

September,1879,totakechargeofaTrainingSchoolatEast
Saginaw,Michigan,asitsPrincipalandCritic.151Thisschool
isintendedtofitthegraduatesoftheHighschoolforpositionsin
thePublicschools.HereMissDavisisstilltobefoundslaboring
faithfullyandwithsuccesstoimpartathoroughknowledgeofthe
methodsandprinciplesastaughtinourmuchlovedOswegoNormal
School.MISSELLENSEAVER.ThelateMissEllenSeaver,bornin
thetownshipofAlbany,OrleansCo.,Vermont,March4th,1829,at
theageofsevenyearsremovedwithherparentstoMassachusetts.
Heropportunitiesforeducationwerelimitedtoaboutfiveyearsin
thepublicschools,endingwhenshewasaboutfourteen.Allofher
lateracquirementsresultedfromprivatehomeapplication,with
littleoutsideassistance.Intheyear1854MissSeaverbecamea
teacherinthepublicschools,primarygrade,atOswego,NewYork,
withoutanypreparationfortheposition.Shereceivedmuchkind
assistancefromMissJaneBruce,hersuperiorintheschool,during
hertimeofinexperience.Theintellectualpowerdevelopedlater
inlife,manifesteditiSelfinherchildhood;whenotherchildren
wereatplay,shesoughtrecreationinherbooks.Herreportsfrom
schoolwerealwaysperfect,standingattheheadofherclasses.
Promptness,punctuality^energy,intenseconcentrationofthought,
quicknessofperception,acutereasoning,markedherintellectual
life.Greatloveofcountryandkindred,anearnestadvocacyof
theabolitionofslaveryandtherecognitionofthehighereducation
andequalrightsofwomen,wereprominentpointsinhercharacter.
ShewasanearlyandenthusiasticadmirerofthePestalozziansystem
ofteachingandgavethewholeweightofherenergeticmind,heart
andsoultoitsdevelopment,andwhentheNormalschoolwas
establishedatOswego,themanagementselectedherforoneofits
activemembers.Inobediencetocallsfromeducatorsinterestedin
thisnewsystem,shevisitedtownsinOhioandNewYork,addressing
largeaudiences,andwasenthusiasticallyreceived,manypermanent
positionsbeingofferedonflatteringterms.Largenumbersof
lettersfromprominentmeninthedifferentstatestestifytotheir
highesteemofhertalentsandskillinthework.Althoughher
lecturesweremainlyextemporaneous,sheleftalargemassof
valuablemanuscript,whichshewasintendingtA152arrangeand
publishinbookform,butitwasfoundintoocrudeashapetobe
madeavailableafterherdeath.Theheavylaboroflecturinginthe
CountyInstitutesandexposuresoftravellingduringinclement
seasonsoftheyear,weretheimmediatecausesthatbrokeherpowers
ofendurance.InFebruar3%1869,shesoughtrestandrecuperationat
thehomeofherparents,theninthevillageofStowe,Vermont.But
thisreliefcametoolate,shehadfinishedherpartinthegreat
work;slowlysinking,shediedonthe29thofAugust,ofthatyear,
greatlydeploringtothelasthourherinabilitytocontinuewhat
shetermedher"Lifework."AMANDAP.FUNNELLE.Birthplace,
Hempstead,L.I.,date,1842.Parents,English;education,common
schools,somestudiesinOswegoHighSchoolandprivatetuition.
EnteredOswegoTrainingClassinSpringof1861;wasgraduateda
yearfromthefollowingJune.TaughttwoyearsintheOswego
TrainingClass.LeftthispositiontotakechargeoftheModel
PrimarydepartmentintheAlbanyStateNormal.Attheendofthree
yearstookchargeoftheCityTrainingSchoolatIndianapolis
(thenjustorganized).Gaveupthispositiontofilltheplaceof
teacherofMethodsofPrimaryInstructionintheIndianaState
Normal.Remainedinchargeofthisdepartmentforelevenyears.Held
positionofPrincipalTeacherofDetroitNormalandTrainingClass

forfiveyears.Thesepositionswereheldwithoutintermission,and
eachatanincreaseofsalaryoverthepreceding.Salaryinlast
position$1,800.Notteachingatpresent.Lineofstudiestowhich
specialtimehasbeengiven:Pedagogy,ScienceandHistoryof
Psychology,Literature,History,PhilosophyandEthics.MRS.
MARYHOWESMITH.MaryHowewasbominthetownofDryden,Tompkins
Co.,NewYork,thedaughterofSquireandMaryHowe.Herearlylife
wasspentinthecountry,amidthehomelyindustriesofthefarm,
andindailycommunionwiththebeautiesofNatureofwhichshehas
everbeenanardentadmirer.Withfewopportunitiesforstudy,her
insatiablethirstforknowledgeledhertoemploythetimeusually
givenbytheyoungtorecreationandsocialenjoyment,inthe
eagerstudyofsuchbooksascamewithinherreach.Thushabitsof
applicationwereestablished,intellectualpowerdeV153
veloped,andagoodfoundationlaidforthosehigherattainments
whicharesuretoawaitthosedeterminedtoexcel.MissHowebegan
theworkofteaching,inthedistrictschoolsofhernativecountry,
attheageoftwenty.Successinthishumblespheresecuredfor
heranappointmenttotheStateNormalSchoolatAlbany,fromwhich,
afteroneyear'sstudy,shegraduatedwithhonorinJuly1853.She
wascalled,atonce,totheHighSchoolatOswego,N.Y.,wherethe
publicschoolshadbeennewlyorganizedunderthesuperintendencyof
Mr.E.A.Sheldon,whosenamehassincebecomeasynonymefor
devotiontothecourseofeducation,andimprovedmethodsofschool
work.Hereshetaught,stillfillingallleisurehourswithintense
study,alittlemorethantwoyears,whenaseriousafflictionofthe
eyescompelled,foraconsiderabletime,thecessationofalluseof
books.In1857shemarriedAugustusMarshallSmith,and,fouryears
later,wasleftawidow,withtwochildren,andwhollywithout
means.Mrs.SmithwasatonceinvitedbyMr.Sheldontoreturnto
Oswego,andshareinthework,justbegunbyhim,ofadaptingthe
educational^methodsofPestalozzitotheneedsoftheElementary
schoolsunderhiscare.ByhisdirectionMrs.Smithgaveher
attentionchieflytothesubjectofGeography.Suchwashersuc
cessinthisdepartmentthat,in1864:,shewasinvitedbythelate
Prof.ArnoldGuyotofPrinceton,N.J.,theeminentscientist,to
cooperatewithhiminthepreparationofaseriesoftextbooksin
Geography.Having,throughthekindnessoftheLocalBoardofthe
OswegoNormalandTrainingSchool,obtainedleaveofabsence,she
wasenabledtoenteruponthiswork.ReturningtoOswegointhe
Autumnof1866,sheresumedherdutiesasTeacherofGeographyand
History,whichpositionshecontinuedtoholduntilFebruary,1870,
whenthepressureofotherdutiescompelledherresignation.
Meanwhile,inthesummerof1866,Mrs.Smithwassolicitedtoassist
intheworkofinstructioninaseriesofStateNormalInstitutes
tobeheldinIndiana,inthemonthsofJulyandAugust.Suchwas
hernaturaldiffidenceandaversiontoappearingasapublic
instructor,thatonlythemosturgentsenseofdutyledhertoenter
uponthiswork.Herinstructioneverywherearousedthegreatest
enthusiasm,andatthecloseoftheengagementshecompliedwith
thealmostimperativeinvitationofthePresidentoftheNational
Teacher'sAssociation,toappearbeforethatbody,atitscoming
sessioninIndianapolis.Withanintervalofbuttwodaysfor
preparation,shepresentedapaperentitled^^OralInstruction,
154itsPhilosophyandMethods,"whichreceivedthehighestencom
iumsoftheleadingeducatorsofthecountry.Thisintroductionto
theeducationalworld,ledtorepeatedcallsforsimilarwork,the
largernumberofwhichwere,necessarily,declined.But,forthe

nextsixyears,everysummer,togetherwithfrequentintervalsofa
fortnightoramonthduringtheschoolyear,wasfilledwithsimilar
engagements.Mrs.Smiththusaddressedbodiesofteachersinall
thestatesnorthofthePotomac^theOhio,andtheMissouri,
exceptingonlyMaineandMaryland.Everywhere"theOswego
methods,''aspresentedbyher,arousedthegreatestenthusiasmand
calledforthinnumerableinquiriesonthepartofteachersastothe
practicabilityofobtainingathoroughknowledgeofthem.Itisno
exaggerationtosaythatthiseducationalmissionarywork
contributedverymuchtomakethereformbegunatOswegowidelyand
favorablyknown,andtohastentheawakeninginregardtomethods
ofinstructionwhichhassincebecomesogeneral.In1873Mrs.
SmithmarriedHiramAldenPratt,PresidentofPeddleInstituteyat
Hightstown,N.J.,andanalumnusofAmherstCollege,classof
1848.Herson,HarryAugustusSmith,wasgraduatedfromAmherst,in
theclassof1883.Herdaughter,AnnieL.Smith,isthewifeof
Prof.E.F.Mearkle,ofHamlineUniversity,Minnesota.Released
fromtheburdenofcaresanddutieswhich,forsomanyyearsmade
thepursuitofknowledgeforitsownsakeanimpossibility,Mrs.
Prattresumedstudywithalltheardorofearlyyouth,findingin
theModernLanguagesandLiteratureamostinvitingfield,the
propercomplementofthechosenstudiesofformeryears.Herhealth,
muchimpairedbytheyearsofintenseactivityandceaselesscare
fortheeducationofherchildren,hasbeencompletelyrestoredby
restandthequietlifeathome;and,thoughpastthemeridian,she
isstilllookingforwardtoyearsofusefulnessinherchosen
vocation.VIRGILC.DOU&LAS.VirgilC.Douglaswasbornin
Westmoreland,OneidaCo.,March22,1820.Inthespringof1824he
removedwithhisparentstoRichland,OswegoCo.,andthesame
seasonhebegantoattendthedistrictschool,inwhichhe
continued,exceptwhenatworkonthefarm,till1838.Possessing
morethanaverageabilityandbeingindustrious,heoccupiedthe
frontrankofpupilsofhisownage.Whilehe155madegood
proficiencyinallsubjectstaughtinschool,hewasmostsuccessful
inArithmetic.IntheAutumnof1838hestudiedatMexicoAcademy,
succeedingwellinhisstudies.Thefollowingwinterhetaught,
andwithfairsuccess.Afterthis,forseveralyears,histimewas
dividedbetweenfarmwork,studyingatMexicoandataselectschool
nearhome,andteachinginvariousdistricts,withtheexceptionof
oneyearspentasclerkinastore.Asarithmeticwashisfavorite
studyinyouth,soheexcelledinotherbranchesofMathematicsin
hisafterstudentlife.Intheyear1843hewasassistantteacher
inMexicoAcademy.In1849heenteredCazenoviaSeminaryandspent
sometimethereasassistantteacherofLanguages.In1851hecame
toOswegoandengagedinteachinginthePublicSchool.In1864and
1865hetaughtWritingandMathematicsintheNormalSchool.In1866
hebecameAssistantSecretarj^oftheBoardofEducationandin1869
tookchargeofthePublicSchoolsasSuperintendantandSecretaryof
theBoardofEducation,whichpositionheheldtill1883,whenhe
wascalledtohisHeavenlyhome.JOHNW.ARMSTRONG.Rev.John
W.Armstrong,D.D.,wasborninWoolwich,England,September
20th,1812.In1824hisfathermovedtoCanadaandsettledin
Quebec,wherehebeganhisAcademicstudies.In1836heentered
CazenoviaSeminaryasastudent.Afterfinishinghiscourseasa
student,bebecameprincipaloftheNicholasAcademy,Tioga
County,in1839.Herehefirsttriedhisskillinteaching.
Exhaustedbyhispreviousyearsofhardstudy,andtheunfamiliar
workofteaching,hewenthometorestalittlebeforetheendof

theyear;healthhavingbeenrestored,hefoundemploymentasa
privatetutorinthefamilyofColonelBolton,CommandantofBritish
EngineersoftheOttawaDistrict,Ontario.Herefortwoyearshe
availedhimselfofthescientificadvantagesofthedepartmentat
Bytown(Ottawa),thensuperiortoanyinAmerica.Hisnextschool
wastheRedCreekAcademy,WayneCounty,in1841.Duringthisyear
hewasordainedaministerintheMethodistEpiscopalChurch,
joiningtheBlackRiverConference.Muchagainsthiswishes,hewas
takenoutofthepastoralworkandappointedPrincipalofthe
GouverneurWesleyanSeminary.Herehelaboredsixyears,then
acceptingacalltothechairofSciencesinCazenoviaSeminary,
whereheremainedfouryears;duringthistimetheWesleyan
UniversityhonoredhimwiththedegreeofA.M.Subsequentlyhewas
PrincipalofFalleySeminaryatFul156ton,N.Y.,of
SusquehannaSeminaryatBinghamton,N.Y.,andofAmeniaSeminaryat
Amenia,N.Y.HewasmadepresidingelderofWatertownDistrict
from1864to1865,andwasamemberoftheGeneralConferencein
1860,1864and1868.In1865heacceptedacallasHeadMasterand
teacherofSciencesintheStateNormalandTrainingSchoolat
Oswego.Hereheremainedforfouryears;whileatOswegothe
GeneseeCollegehonoredhimwiththedegreeofDoctorofDivinity.
In1869,attheurgentrequestofHon.AbramWeaver,Superintendent
ofPublicInstruction,heacceptedacalltotheprincipalshipofthe
StateNormalandTrainingSchoolatFredonia,N.Y.,wherehe
remaineduntilhisdecease,the12thofAugust,1878.Dr.Armstrong
wasthehonoredPresidentoftheAssociationofNormalSchool
PrincipalsofthisStatefrom1869,thedateofitsorganization.
Thefollowingtributeisfromthepenofhisfriendandassociate.
Dr.Hoose,oftheCortlandNormalSchool.'^Dr.Armstrongwasa
manofrareintellectualendowmentsandwasastudentinthehighest
senseoftheterm.Whilehewasneverunderdisciplineofcollege
teaching,yetheappliedhimselftostudywithsomarkedsuccessthat
hearrivedatgreateminenceasalinguist,scientist,psychologist,
mathematician,andartist.Hismindwasespeciallyremarkablefor
itsretentivepowers.Healsopossessedsuperiorpowersof
perception,andasalogicianhetookhighrank."Asan.educator
hewasthoroughlyinductiveinhismethodsofstudyandpractice.
Asastudenthewasnotonlyintenseinhishabitsofthinking,but
hewashabituallyunderselfcontrol,wasalwayscalmandcomposed.
Thisenabledhimtoconservehisintellectualenergiesandto
accomplishamaximumofmentallabordailywiththeleast
expenditureofvitalandnerveforce.Indispositionhewasun
assumingandmodest,shunningpublicityandparade.Hewasalways
thoroughlydignifiedinhisbearingandcandidinhisconversation.
Asacompanionhewasgenial,entertaining,instructive,courteous,
kindhearted,andneverwoundedthefeelingsofotherswhenitcould
beavoided.''Thesetraitsofcharactermarkedhispracticeasa
managerofschools.Healwayschosethehopefulsideofthecaseand
exercisedgreatleniencytowardstherefactory."Asa
conversationalisthewasalmostwithoutapeer,forheseemedequally
ateaseandreadyinallfieldsofconversation,andwithall
classesofpeople.Asapublicspeakerhewasalwaysinteresting
andinstructive,neverdemonstrative,yetofteneloquent.Allwho
cameinclosecontactwithhimlovedhimasafriend;hewasatrue
andvaluablefriendtoallyoungpeoplewhowerestrugglingwith
povertyandadversityforanoblerliving.Especiallyshouldhis
encouragementofyoungmenbenoted.Itwashisconstantpracticeto
seekoutandcommendyoungmenwhoweretryingtorisetoposition

intheirprofession.'*ButitisasaneducatorintheStateof
NewYorkthatDr.Armstrongwillstandlongestandbrightestbefore
thepublic.Thefollowingwillillustratehisunselfishdevotionto
theprofessionofteaching:Hesteadilyrefusedtoleavehis
positionintheNormalSchoolatOswego,whichwasmuchtohis
taste,untilsomeoftheleadingeducatorsintheStateurgedupon
himthatitwashisdutytoassumechargeofthe157Normal
SchoolatFredonia,becausetherebyhisabilitytoaidthegeneral
causeofeducationwouldbevastlyenhanced."Whilehewasalways
truetohisconvictionsineducationalmatters,yethewasever
readytolearnthebetterways."Hisearnestandintelligent
effortstoelevateandenobletheprofessionofeducation,his
profoundcomprehensionofthetheoriesofteaching,hissKillasan
experimentalist,histenacityofpurpose,hisconfidencethata
brighterdayisdawningupontheArtandScienceofEducationall
thesejoinedtoplacehimhighamongthemenwhosefameshall
descendasablessingupontheirfellowmen.Thethousandswhoknew
himbuttolovehimwillclierishhismemory,bothintheir
recollectionsandintheirliving."MARYE.PERKINS.MaryE.
PerkinswasborninCircleville,Ohio,May6th,1842.Herfather
movedtoConstantia,N.Y.,in1848,wheresheattendedthedistrict
school,andtheprivateschoolofaculturedEnglishlady,towhose
refining"infiuence,atanagewhenimpressionsareinefTaceable,
shehasalwaysfeltgreatlyindebted.Fromthirteentofifteenyears
ofageshewasapupilatMexicoAcademyandatWhitestownSeminary.
AboutthistimeherfathermovedtoOswego,N.Y.,thathemight
moreconvenientlyeducatehischildren,andsheenteredtheHigh
school,hopingtofitherselfforteachinginafewyears.Home
dutiescompelledhertoleaveschoolseveraltimes,andtheHigh
schoolcoursewasnevercompleted.Herstudieswerecontinued,
however,forsheneverquiterelinquishedthehopeofbecominga
teacherofsomesort,atsometime,thoughthedifficultiesoften
seemedinsurmountableduringthoseyears.Meanwhile,aj'ounger
sistergraduatedfromtheHighschoolandenteredtheTraining
school,theninitsthirdyear.Nearthecloseofthefirsttermshe
waskeptathomeseveralweeksbyillness,andMarywasallowedto
takeherplaceinthepracticingdepartment.Sheevincedsome
aptitudeforteachingandwasadvisedtoentertheschool.She
passedtherequiredexamination,completedtheworkoftheyear,and
graduatedcreditablyApril6th,1865.Thefollowingtermshebegan
herworkasateacherintheNormalandTrainingSchool,being
appointedtoassistMissCooperinthePracticingDepartment,and
Prof.KrusiinteachingDrawingandFormintheNormalDepartment.
InSeptemberofthatyear,theschoolwasremovedtoitspresent
location,andshewasappointedoneofthecriticsintheJunior
PracticingDepartmentwithMissSeaver,andteacherofFormand
DrawingintheNormalDepartment.Thefollowingyearshewas
changedtothePrimaryPracticingDepartment,apositionshegreatly
preferred,continuingtheteach158ingofFormandDrawingin
theNormalschool.Sheretainedthispositionduringherconnection
withtheschool,herpleasureandinterestincreasingeachyear.The
teachingandmanagementoflittlechildrenwasaconstantdelight,
anditwasasatisfactiontofindDrawingcouldbemadean
interestingstudy,eventothosewhowereatfirstunwillingto
beginit.ShereluctantlyresignedherpositioninFebruary,1872,
andlefttheworksolongdesired,somuchenjoyed.Shewasmarried
toMr.M.D.L.Hayes,April19th,ofthatyear,andaftera
residenceofthreeyearsinBrooklyn,cametoRochester,herpresent

home.Sincehermarriage,shehasbeenfullyoccupiedwithhome
duties,andthecareandtrainingofherthreesons,thoughshe
stillfeelsadeepinterestineducationalmatters,andespecially
intherapidgrowthandprogressofherAlmaMater.SUSAN
CHENERYBANCROFT.SusanCheneryBancroft,wasborninMontague,
Massachusetts,May18,1844,herearlyeducationbeingobtainedin
thepublicandprivateschoolsofthattown.Herfirstexperiencein
teaching,wasduringtheyears186062,inasmalldistrictschool.
InthelatteryearsheenteredtheStateNormalSchoolatWest
field,Massachusetts,graduatinginFebruary,1864.Thefollowing
April,shebeganteachingintheFourthWardGrammarschoolin
Oswego,NewYork,andwhilethereemployed,taughtgeographyinthe
Trainingschoolforatime.Onbecomingtheteacherofvocalmusic
inthepublicschoolsofthecity,thecareofthatbranchinthe
Trainingschoolwasalsoassignedtoher.Theprotractedillnessof
anearrelativerequiredhertorelinquishteachingforatime,and
sheendedherworkinOswegoinJuly,1866.InMay,1867,she
resumedwork,goingfirstintothepublicschoolsofNewHaven,
Connecticut;fromthatplace,in1868,totakechargeofthe
Trainingschoolforteachers,inSpringfield,Massachusetts,and
thencein1871,toteachintheRhodeIslandStateNormalschoolat
Providence.Shewasmarriedin1877,toLeonardTillinghast,ofthe
lattercity,andintheeducationofherownchildrenafterwards,
madeaspecialstudyofthekindergartensystemandmethods,
carryingonaprivatekindergartenforseveralyears.LOUISEH.
BRANT.InitsearliestdaysLouiseH.Brantwasconnectedwiththe
schoolasoneoftheCriticteachers.Bornin1843inOswego,she
therespentallherearlylife.159Passionatelyfondofstudy,
sheavailedherselfoftheexcellenteducationaladvantages
affordedherbyhernativecity;graduatingfromtheHighschoolin
theclassof'62,andfromtheNormalandTrainingschoolinthe
yearfollowing.Afterhergraduation,andafterteachingseveral
monthsinthecityschools,shebecameconnectedwiththeNormal
schoolasCriticteacherintheJuniorPracticingDepartment,in
whichpositionsheremainedforthreeyearsanduntilhermarriage
inFeb.,1867,withM.E.Erwin,alsoofOswego.Withher
marriage,theworkofteachingsofondlyenjoyedgaveplacetothe
endearingcaresanddutiesoffamilyandhome.Withherhusbandand
twochildren,asonandadaughter,bomrespectivelyin1868and
1872,sheislivinginthatnoblestateoftheWest,Iowa,inthe
cityofDubuque,wheretheirhomehasbeenforanumberofyears.
CATHARINEA.WHITNEY.CatharineA.WhitneywasbominOswegoand
receivedher^educationintheprivateschoolsofthatcityandin
theLadies'SeminaryatCanandaigua.Earlyinlife,havinga
desiretobecomeateacher,sheenteredtheNormalScdioolat
Oswego,anduponhergraduationin1867,wasappointedPrincipalof
theModelPracticeschool.Atthecloseofoneyearsheresignedto
acceptapositionintheAdelphiAcademy,Brooklyn,N.Y.After
remainingtheretwoyears,shereceivedfromDr.Armstrongthe
appointmentofCriticteacherintheNormalSchoolatFredonia,N.
Y.Heresheremainedforthreeyears,andthenresignedtoaccompany
herbrotheronanEuropeantour.Afterherreturn,shetaughtfor
twoyearsinthePracticeschoolatOswego,andisnowattendingthe
Normalschoolpreparatorytoresumingagainthepositionof
teacher.SARAHM.HASKELLWOOD.SarahM.HaskellWood,wasborn
atMiddlesex,NewYork,January18th,1842.Shereceivedagood
Academiceducation;commencedteachingattheageofseventeen;
graduatedfromtheOswegoTrainingschoolApril,1867,andtaught

oneyear,afterwhichshetaughtoneyearintheBrockportTraining
school.December,1868,shewasmarriedtoSethC.Wood,of
Knowlesville,whereshehassinceresided.Inherprivatelifeshe
hasengagedinmissionary,temperanceandSundayschoolwork.The
trainingreceivedatOswegohasa;lwaysbeenhelpfultoher.
160SARAHJ.ARMSTRONG.SarahJ.Armstrong,daughterofCharles
HamiltonandSarahMcConoUArmstrong,wasbominWaterloo,N.Y.,
May7th,1849.Soonafterherbirth,herparentsremovedtoPhelps,
wheresheliveduntiltheageofthirteen,whenshewassentto
Oswegotobeeducated.OncompletingtheHighschoolcourse,she
enteredtheNormalschool,fromwhichshegraduatedinJuly,1867.
ThefollowingAutumnattheageofeighteenshebecomeateacher
intheNormalschool,actingasAssistantintheLibraryDepartment,
andCriticintheTrainingschool.OntheresignationofMissEmily
Rice,MissArmstrongtookchargeoftheDepartmentofComposition,
RhetoricandLiterature,whichpositionshehelduntilJuly,1875,
whensheleftOswegotoestablishaprivateschoolinCincinnati,
Ohio.InSeptember,1887,"MissArmstrong'sSchoolforGirls"enters
uponthetwelfthyearofitsexistence.MARYSHELDONBARNES.1.
BirthHighandancient;oldestdaughterofMr.andMrs.E.A.
Sheldon,bomintheskyparloroftheUnitedStatesHotel,Oswego,
N.Y.,afterwardsknownasthe"OldNormal,"onthe15thof
September,1850.2.EducationTaughttoreadaccordingtothe
wordmethodbyherfather;taughttocounttoonehundredbyher
grandmother;senttopublicschoolsatsevennotbeingableto
"talkplain"beforethatage;passedthroughtheseschoolsin
regularcourse,beginningLatinatthirteenintheHighschool;
enteredclassicalcourseinNormalatsixteen;sameyearbegan
teachinggymnastics,inwhichshehadbeentrainedbyDioLewis;
graduatedfromadvancedandclassicalcoursesinduetime,doing
meanwhilesometeachingofbotany,spelling,Latia,etc.;entered
MichiganUniversityasSophomoreinclassicalcourseinSeptember,
1871;electedasmuchscienceaspossibleinjuniorandsenior
year,inordertopreparePhysicsasaspecialty;graduatedin
1874,oneofsevengirlsinaclassofeightyodd.3.Education
continuedandconsequentworkGreatlydisappointedatbeing
invitedtoreturntoOswegototeachLatin,Greek,botanyand
history,insteadofarangeofs^ciences;revengesherselfby
applyingscientificmethodstohistory;becomesinterestedinher
revengeandprojectsabook;"Othatmineenemywouldwritea
book!"determinestodevoteherselftocompletingthisidea;
invitedin1876totakechairofchemistryatWellesleyCollege;
refuses,againsttheadviceofherfriends,ontheground161
ofhaving"chosenhistoryasaspecialty;shortlyafter,invitedto
becomeProfessorofHistory,shegladly^accepts;remainsatWel
lesleytwoyearsandahalf^teaching,studying,lecturingonher
chosensubject;becomesthoroughlycommittedandaddictedto
historyandbreaksdownherhealth;remainsayearathomeforrest
;in1880,startsforEuropeincompanywithherfriend,Dr.MaryV.
Lee;makesatourofayearthroughEngland,France,Italy,Egypt,
Germany,Switzerland;returnstoEnglandandentersCambridge
Universityasaspecial"outstudent'^ofNewnhamCollege;
devoteshertimeentirelytomodernhistory,inwhichsheis
especiallyguidedbytheadviceandinstructionsofProf.J.R.
Seeley;returnstoAmericain1882,andisnotdisappointedto
becometheteacherofhistoryandliteratureintheOswegoNormal;
worksoutcompletelyhermethodofteachinghistory,andembodies
theresultsinabookentitled,"StudiesinGeneralHistory,'^

whichisaccompaniedbya"Teacher'sManual,"andwhichis
consideredavery"hard''book,asitoughttobe.4.Marriage.
Married,August6th,1884,Mr.EarlBarnes,butbeingunableto
breakoffheroldhabitsallatonce, is still in- volved in " making a

book ; " this time a text-book in American History. But still I wish to
say a serious word ; when a grown-up person is asked to write his
own biography, he is obliged to ask himself : *^ After all, what have
I to show for the years and the toils ?" And where I come to ask
myself this question, what can I say ? I have taught so many
classes in so many subjects, I have written so many papers, I have
read so many books, yes, I have even made a book of my own, and
have, I hope, shown teachers a little more cle.arly how to bring
their students into living, thoughtful relation with historical
realities ; but what has it all been worth ? It is hard to measure, for
it must be measured by the progress in sin- cerity, strength and
happiness that I and my pupils have made. For them I cannot
answer ; for myself I can only say that the dearest prize that life has
brought has been the confirmation of my creed, which runs
somewhat as follows : I believe in God, the immortality of the soul,
and the progress of humanity ; I believe that the ultimate forces are
spiritual, and that the ideal toward which the spirit strives and
which it shall at last attain, is absolute harmony with all that is.
MARTHA C. McCUMBER. Martha C. McCumber, youngest child of
George and Eunice Comstock McCumber, was bom August 19th,
1837, in Homer,
L
162 New York. In 1840 she moved to
Preble, New York, where she attended district school till 1852. She
studied at Homer Academy one year, after which she cared for an
invalid mother till '56. She then resumed her studies at Homer, and
later attended the Academy at Cazenovia. In the spring of 1858 she
commenced her teaching in a district school, where she remained
till February, 1866. She then received an appointment from the
State Superintendent to the Oswego Normal, from which she
graduated in February, 1867. She was Critic teacher till July, '74.
The same year she became Preceptress in the St. Cloud, Minnesota
Normal school, where she remained till December, '76. In June, '76,
she married George S. Spencer, of St. Cloud, formerly of Corning,
New York. She died at St. Cloud, January 30th, 1880, leaving two
children. The young- est followed the mother in three days. She
was an obedient child, an affectionate sister, a consistent Christian,
a faithful teacher, a dutiful wife and a loving mother.
DEFRANSA
A. HALL SWANN. Defransa A. Hall Swann during her youth attended
Academies located in Homer and Cortland ; in 1867 she graduated
from the Oswego Normal. She taught in Nyack, N. Y., in the Oswego
Normal, and for thirteen years was connected with the Normal
school of Mankato, Minn. In 1875 she married Charles M. Swann.
No children have blessed this union. Travel in the West and South,
reading of the best literature in educational matters particularly
drawing and methods ^together with home interests, fill the
present life.
DAVID H. CRUTTENDEN. David H. Cruttenden
prepared for college at Fairfield Acad- emy, N. Y., and was

graduated from Union College, Schenectady. On leaving College he


took charge of the Lyceum of Schenectady'', a preparatory school of
the college. Here he remained about four years, after which he took
charge of the Academy at Amsterdam for several years. He then
taught Greek and Latin in the Clark and Fanning school on
Washington Square, N. Y. From this school he went to the
Mechanics' Society School as its principal. Prof. D. H. Cruttenden
prepared for college at Fairfield Acad- emy in New York State, and
graduated from Union College. On leaving college, he took charge
of the Lyceum in Schenectady, a preparatory school of Union
College, where he remained about four years. From this he went to
Amsterdam, New York, and
163 took the Academy there, where
he remained several years. He then went to New York city, first to
the Professorship of Greek and Latin, in the Clark and Fanning
school, on Washington Square, and afterwards to the Principalship
of the Mechanics' So- ciety school. Everywhere he did excellent
work, far in advance of the methods of his day. During these years
he was also engaged in writing and pub- lishing text-books on
Arithmetic and on English Grammar and Rhetoric ; and in lecturing
at Teachers' Institutes throughout New York State. Wearied with
the strain of his cares and labors, he purchased a farm m Michigan
and retired to it for needed rest. Unfortu- nately he there contracted
malaria, which resulted in loss of sight and finally in paralysis.
After this loss of sight he resumed Institute work in New York State,
and in th
utumn of 1870 was invited to the Oswego Normal school to take
charge of the work in English Grammar and in Greek and Latin. He
remained there two years, when the first approach of paralysis
ended the active labors of his busy life. The most striking
characteristic of his mind was its power of keen and exhaustive
analysis of a subject, of selecting the vital points, and logically
grouping under these heads the minor ones. But the man was
stronger and greater than his work. Strik- ingly original and selfreliant, he impressed himself strongly upon pupils and teachers and
awakened in them earnestness and enthu- siasm. His noble
struggle during the last years of his life to continue his work against
such heavy odds, would have been pathetic had it not been the
rather inspiring to all who witnessed it, because he bore it so
bravely and with such a cheerful courage. Possessing talents which
insured success in almost any profession, he devoted his life to the
cause dearest to him, the cause of education, ^nd died a brave
soldier, true to his colors to the last.
WM. M. ABER. Wm. M. Aber
was born in 1848, near the small village of Sparta, among the hills
of northern New Jersey. His earlier years were chiefly spent on a
farm at his native place, with the opportunities for education
afforded by the district school. This was followed by a course in a
business College and
164 by three years^ employment as bookkeeper and salesman in a dry- goods store at Owego, New York. In
1869 he entered the Oswego Normal school and graduated from

the Classical course in 1872. He began to teach in the Normal


school before graduation, and afterward remained for two years in
charge of History, Latin, Greek and Botany. He then entered Yale
College and graduated from the Classical course in 1878. Since
this graduation he has taught as follows : Physics, Latin and Greek,
for one year in Lake Forest Academy, Illinois ; Common English
branches with charge of schools, for one year at Del Norte,
Colorado ; Natural Sciences for three years in Atlanta University,
Atlanta Georgia ; Physics and Chemistry for one year in private
school at six East Forty-fifth street. New York City. One year was
spent in business at Waterbury, Conn., and one year in travel on
the Pacific Coast and in study of Chemistry and Physiology at John
Hopkins' University. He was married in 1884 to Miss Mary R. Ailing.
He is now engaged as Professor of Physics and Chemistrj'- in the
Male High School of Louisville, Kentucky.
MARY RYAN. Mary Ryan
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 23, 1839. She attended the
public schools of that city from the age of six years until the
completion of her sixteenth year. During the eight years that
followed she was principal of two unclassified schools and first
assistant in a grammar school. She took this position in order to
become familiar with grammar school work, prior to taking the
principalship of the George W. Nebinger Grammar School. A first
class certificate obtained from the Board of Educationof
Philadelphia,madehereligibletothisposition.Heresheremained
eightyears.Inthemeantimeshepreparedherselfunderthemost
competentinstructorstoteachelocution.InFebruary,1871,she
wasappointedteacherofElocutionintheOswegoNormalSchool,and
thereremaineduntilJuly,1872.InSeptemberofthatyearshe
enteredtheStateNormalSchoolofNewJersey,atTrenton,as
teacherofElocution.InApril,1880,shebecamepreceptressinthe
sameinstitution.Sheisengagedinthesetwopositionsatthe
presenttime.165EDWINA.STRONG.EdwinA.Strongwasbom
inOtisco,OnondagaCounty,NewYork,January3,1834.Hespentmost
ofhisyouthonhisfather'sfarminthattown,withperiodsof
residenceatthehomeofhisgrandparentinHampshireCounty,
Massachusetts.HeattendedCortlandAcademyatirregularintervals
forseveralyears,andwentfromthatschooltoUnionCollege,from
whichinstitutionhewasgraduatedinJuly,1858.Immediatelyupon
graduation,hewenttoGrandRapids,Michigan,totakechargeofthe
Highschoolofthattown.Previoustothishehadassistedhimself
incarryingforwardhispreparatoryandcollegiatestudiesbyteach
ing,oneseasoneach,inadistrictschool,aprivateschool,andthe
mathematicaldepartmentofOnondagaAcademy.InFebruary,1863,he
wasappointedtotheSuperintendencyofthePublicschoolsofGrand
Rapids,apositionwhichhehelduntilFebruary,1871,whenhewas
calledtotakechargeofthedepartmentofPhysicalandChemical
Science,intheOswegoNormalschoolofNewYork.InJuly,1872,he
wasaskedtoresumehisoldplaceattheheadoftheGrandRapids,
Michigan,Publicschools,butpreferringtheworkofinstructionto
thatofschoolmanagement,itwasarrangedthathisoldfriendand
classmate,A.J.Daniels,whowasthereinchargeoftheHigh
school,shouldassumetheSuperintendencyandleavehimthe
PrincipalshipoftheHighschool.ThispositionhehelduntilJuly,
1885,whenhewasplacedinchargeofthedepartmentofPhysics

andChemistryintheMichiganStateNormalSchoolatYpsilanti,a
placewhichhestillholds.August8,1861,hemarriedHarrietJ.
Pomeroy,ofAuburn,NewYork.Thetwodaughters,LillyM.andFanny
P.,arebothlivingwiththeirparentsinYpsilanti.Prof.
Strong'sinfluenceoverhispupilswasgreatandenduring;forthey
owedtohimthedevelopmentorincreaseofmostvaluablequalities
ofcharacter.Anincidentwillillustrate.AclassinChemistryis
reciting.**Whatisanelement?"asksthemaster.Apupilreplies,
"Anelementisasubstancethatcannotbedividedintosimple
elements."Themasterrepeatsthequestiontothenextpupil.
Eighteenpairsofeyesareliftedinsurprisetothemaster'sface,
whileoneafteranothertriestogivethesameanswerina
satisfactoryform.Thenasilenceensuesinwhichthemaster
gravelylooksathisdesk.Thepupilsgooverwhathasbeenretained
ofpreviousteaching,knowingthat,althoughthedefinitionofan
elementhasbeenaskedforthefirsttime,somewhereintheprevious
workhasbeengivenknowledgesufficientforacorrectanswer,and
they166havealreadylearnedthattextbookstatementsarenot
alwayspleasingtothemaster.Likeaflashcomesthetrue
perception,and,springingunbiddentoherfeet,oneofthepupils
breaksthesilencewith,"Anelementisasubstancethathasnotyet
beendividedintosimplerelements."Themastersmiles;theclass
approve;pupilsarecalledupontotellwhythelatterdefinition
ispreferable;andtherecitationproceeds.Theorieswerecare
fullydiscriminatedfromfacts;andfacts,socalled,dividedinto
theassuredandthetentative.Prof.Strong'slaboratorywasa
placenevertobeforgottenbythosewhohadthepleasureofworking
init.Patient,reverent,earnest,accurateworkhadtobedone
there,anddonebyeachforhimself.ApupiPsblunderswere
corrected,hisunsuccessfulexperimentsrepeated,notbythe
teacherbutbyhimself.Adevotiontotruthwhichtoleratedno
carelesslyformedopinions;anattitudetowardallformsof
investigationthatbrookednoirreverenttrifling;aneverfailing
courtesyoftoneandmannerandapoiseandreposeofcharacterthat
kepthispupilsfromdiscouragementandhaste,^thesearehis
chiefattributesasateacher.MARYW.HUNTSTICKNEY.Iwas
bornatEastClarence,N.Y.,July26th,1849,andremainedat
homeuntilIwasseventeenyearsold.IenteredtheBuffaloCentral
school,Dec,1866,andwasgraduated,June,1868.Itaughtavillage
schoolfromApriltillSeptember,1869,whenIwenttoNiagaraFalls
asteacherinayoungladies'boardingschool,whereIremainedfor
oneschoolyear.InSeptember,1870,1enteredtheOswegoNormal
schoolasapupil,graduatingintheclassofJune,1871.Iwas
assistantteacherintheJuniordepartmentoftheTrainingschool
untilFeb.,1873whenItookapositionintheBuffaloNormal
schoolasteacherofEnglish,remainingthereuntilmymarriagein
November,1878.AfterIwasmarried,untilthedeathofmyhusband,
March1885,1livedatUxbridge,Ontario.LastyearIwasteacherof
HistoryandLiteratureinMilwaukeeCollege;atpresentIam
teachingHistory'andRhetoricintheHighschoolofSt.Paul.M^'^
workhaschieflyledtostudyofHistory,LiteratureandArt.I
havealwaysbeen,evenduringmymarriedlife,enthusiastically
interestedinteaching,andnowthatIamleftalone,Ihave
returnedtoitwithmorethanmyoldardor.167EMILYA.
RICE.EmilyA.RicewasborninClymer,ChautauquaCo.,NewYork,
June19th,1834.Shewaseducatedinprivateschoolsandbyelder
brothersandsisters,allofwhomwereteachers.Shecommenced
teachingaprimaryschoolMarch,1847,receivingaTown

Superintendent'scertificate;taughtthesummerandwinterof1848;
attendedBuffaloHighschoolin'49,andinSeptember,'51,
commencedteachinginthePublicschoolNo.10.Sheenteredthe
StateNormalschoolofAlbanySeptember,'54,andwasgraduated,
July,'55.Shetaughttheretwoandahalfyearsandinthe
ClassicaldepartmentoftheUnionschoolofSchenectadyfiveyears
;thenintheBuffaloHighschoolfouryears.Shebecameoneofthe
facultyoftheOswegoNormalschoolin'66.AfterleavingOswego,
shebecamePrincipalofaYoungLadies'Boardingschool.Wesubjoin
anextractfromarecentletterfromMissRice:"Ishouldenjoy
sittingdowntotalkovertheteachingdays,theearlytimesand
nowthetimewhenawomantaughtthesummerschoolandamanmust
beemployedinwinterfor,"Mightwasright"andwhentheroyal
DavidPageandthegrandHoraceMann,urgeduponmenandwomento
maketeachingaprofession,notasteppingstonetosomething
else.IrememberwelltheinspirationgivenbyRev.JohnC.Moses,
oneofthefirstgraduatesoftheAlbanyNormalschool.AsItakeup
alittleyellowpieceofpaperandreadthedateJuly12th,1847,my
firstcertificate,itseemstobelongtosomefaroffperiodof
existence.CouldIpaintforyouinwordsthatsummerinthelittle
schoolhouseinthewoods,thetwentyorthirtylittlefolkscoming,
one,twoandeventhreemilesthesesunnyfaces,barefeetand
eager,gladsomespirits^itwouldbeinstrongcontrasttothat
sameschooltodaywithitstwodepartmentsandschoolappliances.
Thentherewasnaughtbutbarewallsandbenches^notachart,
blackboard,orobjectafewoddbooksinheritedfromparentsor
elderbrothersorsisters.ThenandthereIwasintroducedto
DaboU'sArithmetic,broughtbyagirloften,becauseusedbyher
brotheratCollege.Ihadsixtolearnthealphabetandinventedmy
ownblocksusingapieceofsunbonnetpasteboard,cutintosquares
ofaninchandahalf.Theletterswerepaintedindifferentcolors
withyellowweed,berriesandgreenleaves.Howthese
reminiscencescrowdoneupontheother!Whatstrideshavebeenmade
inthecauseofPublicEducation!CollegesandUniversitieshave
alsofelttheimpetusgivenbythosewhohavelaboredsowellto
makeachanceforeverychildtobeeducated.Yearsago,itwassaid
thesafetyof168thenationisintheeducationofthepeople.
HewhostandsbythealtarofPublicschools,certainlyservesin
holythings.Whileforafewyearsmylaborhas been in a different

field, circumstances making a home life necessary, I have never


lost the deep interest felt in the public schools. To train girls to be
noble, true-hearted women, has been full of charms, and I have
often tried the mental and heart balance to see which outweighed
the other in thought and affection but could not find ^the scale
to turn but in the es- timation of a hair.' ''
MRS. MARY DAVIS
MOORE. Mrs. Mary Davis Moore, born in 1845, was reared in
Chenango Co., N. Y., receiving her earlier education in a district
school of the better sort ; she taught for five years in the public
schools, a part of the time on the " boarding round '' plan ; studied
three years in Oxford Academy and Collegiate Institute under
Principal Barber well known in Chenango Co. for the fine quality
of his work ^graduating in 1869 ; was led to go to Oswego for
pro- fessional training, through meeting Prof. Johonnot at an
institute ; graduated from. Oswego Normal School in 1870 ; held
the Princi- palship of a High School in the West for one year,

returning to the Normal School to serve as tutor, and take farther


studies ; grad- uated in 1872 ; taught in the Preparatory
Department of the Albany Boys' Academy for three years ; married
and returned to Oswego. For the years 1877 and 1879, Mrs. Moore
taught General His- tory in the Normal School ; and Latin and Greek
1879-1885, with the exception of one year's leave of absence spent
in a voyage in a merchant ship to China and the Pacific coast.
During the last eight years, Mrs. Moore has given special at- tention
to plans for the comparative study of Latin and English
constructions, and to the application to subjective studies of the
principles and methods which are used in the best science teaching.
The building up of forms, and, later on, topical studies in syntax in
connection with Latin prose, also characterize the Latin course. The
need which exists for better elementary linguistic training in our
secondary schools, enhances the educational value of this kind of
Latin training. DR. NATHANIEL TUCKERMAN TRUE. Dr. Nathaniel
Tuckerman True was born in Pownal, Me., March 15th, 1812, being
the oldest of seven children of John True. The years succeeding
childhood were mainly spent in labor upon
169 his father's farm,
excepting about three months in each, during which he enjoyed the
benefit of a common district school. As it was not until he was eight
years of age that even English Gram- mar (to say nothing of Latin)
was taught in the schools of his native place, it is not surprising that
he had reached his twenty- second year before, after a brief
preparation at the Academy in Yarmouth, Me., he entered, in 1833,
Bowdoin College. Here he remained only two years ; though he
subsequently received, from Waterville College in 1842, and from
Bowdoin in 1868, the honorary degree of Master of Arts. In the
year 1835 he opened, in Bethel, Me, one of the first schools of a
high grade which that town had ever enjoyed. The year following he
married Miss Ruth Ann Winslow, of Portland, by whom he had five
children, two of whom are still living. For the ten years, 1836-1846,
he taught, to great acceptance, the Academv at Monmouth, Me. In
the last named year, contemplating a change of occupation, he
attended medical lectures at Bowdoin College and Harvard
University, and spent the next two years in the practice of medicine at Durham, Me. But, finding his new profession less con- genial
than the old one, in 1848 he returned to his life-long work as a
teacher ; for that purpose removing, with his family, to Bethel, Me.,
where for the thirteen years ensuing, he was Principal of Gould's
Academy, and where he has ever since had his home. On the
breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, in the spring of 1861, Dr.
True earnestly sympathized with the loyal side, and at once formed
his male pupils into a military company, which he himself daily
drilled in company evolutions and manual of arms ; in consequence
of which timely instruction, several of them sub- sequently held
commissions as officers in the volunteer force of the United States.
But as some of the patrons of his school sympa- thized with the
rebels, the Doctor's patriotic course awakened dis- affection in

some, and led to his terminating his connection with the Academy,
in the following summer. His first wife having died in 1849, in the
same year he had married Miss Susanna Webber Stevens, by whom
he had three children, all of whom are still living. The next eleven
years, 1861-72, Dr. True spent partly as Super- intendent of the
Public schools of his own town and (during a part of the time) of
those of the county also, as well as in holding Teachers' Institutes ;
and partly in lecturing throughout his na- tive State, on scientific
subjects, particularly on Geology and Mineralogy, which he had
always made a specialty of, and in illus- tration of which he made
several valuable collections, one of which
170 he still retains. He
also contributed sundry papers on scientific topics to the Portland
Natural History Society, and to the Essex Institute at Salem,
Massachusetts. In 1872, he accepted an invitation to teach the
Natural Sciences in the State Normal school at Oswego, New York,
and discharged the duties of that position until the summer of
1876. From 1876 till 1883, Dr. True was engaged in his life-long
profession in, or near, his native state ; teaching High schools or
Academies, successively at Gorham, New Hampshire, at Bethel,
Maine, at Milan, New Hampshire, and Litchfield, Maine. It was while
he was actively employed, as principal of the Academy in the last
named place, that, in Spetember, 1883, he was stricken down,
without a moment's warning, by a stroke of partial paraly- sis,
which brought his activity to a sudden close. For although, in the
February following, he had recovered sufficiently to attend a large
and enthusiastic gathering of his old pupils and fellow- townsmen
assembled, at Bethel, Maine, to present to him a public testimonial
of their affection and respect, and on that occasion to deliver an
address of considerable length ; yet, for the last three years, Dr.
True has lived, for the most part, in an enforced retire- ment from
all active occupation. He is now, September, 1886, in his seventyfifth year, and is enjoying, at his beautiful home in Bethel, Me., as
well as his in- firmities will permit, the tranquil retrospect of a
laborious and useful career of a half a century devoted to the cause
of common school, academical and scientific education.
JOHN G.
PARKHURST. I was bom in Ascutneyville, Vt., Dec. 7, 1840 ; moved
my family from thence to Cohoes, N. Y., when I had arrived at the
age of three months a daring and difficult feat for one so young.
It was successfully accomplished, however, and I spent my boyhood's days in the classic precincts of that noted town. After the
ordinary common school experience in Cohoes, I attended the
Methodist Conference Seminary at Charlotteville, N. Y., for two
years, and a Presbyterian Institution at Princeton, N. Y., for one year.
Thus I obtained what little eductation I possess. My father was a
manufacturer, during my early youth, of bedsteads, during my later
youth, of knit goods. I learned practically both indus- tries, and at
the age of nineteen, superintended a knitting factory at
Amsterdam, N. Y. When the war broke out I was one of the first to
enlist; was a member of the band of the 3rd Vermont reg- iment ;

was discharged in August, 1862 ; went to Oswego and en171


gaged in the knitting business with Mr. Conde and afterwards with
Strong &Hubbard.DuringallofthistimeIhadmadeastudyof
vocalmusicparticularlythescientificuseofthevoice,and,in
1864IleftOswegoforChicagotoengageinconcertsinginghaving
concludedthatIhadalittletoomuchofthemusicalgiftto
thoroughlyenjoyandperfectmybusinesslife,andthatitwouldbe
bestformetomakemusicaprofession.Ispenttheyearsfrom*64
to'71inconcertingconductingmusicalconventions,festivalsand
intrainingthevoice.IreturnedtoOswegointhelatterpartof
'70,Ibelieve,taughtsingingandengagedinthepianobusiness,
alsoorganizedmusicalfestivalsforthreeseasons,uponalarge
scale,whichoccupiedmuchofmytime.Itwasduringtheseyears
thatItaughtintheNormalschool.IleftOswegointhewinterof
'73and*74;spentthreeyearsconductingmusicalfestivals,and
placing,dramaticmusicalcompositionsonthestage.Icameto
Albanyin'76andhaveremainedhereeversince,asateacherofthe
voice,ofmoreorlessreputation.Sofarasmylinesofthought
areconcerned,theyarealmostentirelyinthedirectionofmy
profession.Ihavestruggledhardtogetthemasteryofthe
technicalproductionofthevoice,bothinsongandspeech,andhave
succeeded.Icantruthfullysayinconclusion,thatmyexperience
withtheOswegoNormalSchoolisoneofthepleasantest
recollectionsofmylife.MARYR.ALLING.MaryR.Ailingwas
bornin1851,inasmallvillageofNortheasternPennsylvania,but
herhomesincesixyearsofagehasbeenamongtheCatskill
mountains,inNewYorkstate.UntilenteringtheOswegoNomialin
1868,heropportunitiesforeducationwerelimitedtoirregular
attendanceatthehomecountryschool,fivemonthsatagrammar
schoolinNewYorkcity,onewinteratavillageschool,and
teachingthehomeschoolforfourmonths.Shegraduatedfromthe
elementarycourseatOswegoinJune,1869.Afterteachingtwoyears
shereturnedandgraduatedfromtheAdvancedEnglishcoursein1873,
Sinceherfirstgraduationshehasheldthefollowingpositionsin
theplacesandatthetimesdesignated:PrincipaloftheJunior
(Grammar)departmentoftheUnionSchool,Nyack,N.Y.,186970;
PrincipalofthepracticedepartmentoftheCityNormalandTraining
school,Cincinnati,O.,187071;teacherofGymnastics,Elocution,
Penmanship,Drawing,Composition,andsomemethodsatdifferent
timesin172OswegoNormalSchool,187275;teacherof
PhysicalGeography,Geology,Astronomy,andGeneralHistory,inCook
countyNormalschool,Englewood,111.,187576;teacherof
Chemistry,Botany,Zoology,GeologyandEnghshLiterature,inHigh
SchoolOmaha,Neb.,187677,andpartof187778;principalofthe
Girl'sdepartmentandteacherofRhetoric,AmericanandEnglish
LiteratureandMentalandMoralPhilosophy,inHighSchool,
Springfield,Mass.,187880;PreceptressofStateNormaland
teacherofEnglishGrammar,Physiology,ZoologyandVocalculture.
Providence,R.I.,188081;Principalofprimarydepartmentof
Mrs.Shaw'sprivateschool,Boston,Mass.,188184;Ladyprincipal
ofMr.Brearley'sprivateschoolandteacheroftheHistoryofHe
brewsandEnglishLiterature,NewYorkcity,188586.Since
graduationatOswegohertimehasbeenspentatteaching,except
partofoneyear,1877'78,spentinstudyatWellesley,andone
year,1884'85,spentinBaltimore,Md.MissAilingwasmarriedin
1884,toMr.Wm.M.Aber,andisnotnowteaching.Herspecial
linesofstudysincegraduationhavebeeninNaturalScienceand

Literature.PartofoneyearwasspentatWellesleycollegeinstudy
ofFrenchandGerman.WhileteachingatProvidence,shetook
privatelessonsonSaturdaysinZoologyandGeologyattheNatural
HistoryRoomsandInstituteofTechnologyinBoston,andin
BaltimoretookprivatelessonsinFrenchandDrawing.Hermost
importantcontributiontotheprofessionistheresultsofan
experimentwhichwasmadeatMrs.Shaw'sschoolinBoston.The
experimentsoughtananswertothesequestions:1.Canchildrenbe
sotaughtthatthereshallbeasteadyincreaseoftheloveof
learningforitsownsake?2.Canthemindbesotrainedthatits
processeswillbetrustworthy?Allthatcouldbedoneinthe
Bostonschooltoanswerthesequestions,wastomakewhatwas
thoughttobetherightbeginning.Theexperimentwasconducted
withchildrenfromfiveandahalftotenyearsofageandcontinued
throughthreeyears.Todevelopaloveoflearningforitsownsake,
itwasthoughtthatthechild'smindmust,fromtheveryfirstof
itsschooldays,bebroughtincontactwithgreatandpermanent
realities.Tothisendthechild'sowntrivialandtransientworld
ofgamesandtoyswasabandoned.Thechildwastakenatonceinto
anunknownandunfamiliarworld,wherehismindwasbroughtinto
contactwithideasofrealvalueaspartofthefurnishingofan
educatedmind.Theseideas173thechildrenwereledto
discover,asfaraspracticable,forthemselves;andthe
children'sownexpressionsfortheideassogainedwerethebasesof
lessonsinreading,writing,drawing,computing,etc.Whateverthe
childdid,hismindwasintentoilsometruthinnature,historyor
art;andwhiletheexpressionforsuchtruthswerecarefullyand
thoroughlytaught,thechild'smindbeingintentonthetruth,
ratedtheexpressionatitstruevalueanddidnotmistakeitfor
theknowledge.Itwasthoughtthatthehumanmindcouldnotfailto
lovelearningiffromthefirstitdealswithrealitiesinsteadof
shadows,withthegreatinsteadofthetrivial,withthepermanent
insteadofthetransient.Theresultsofthethreeyears'work
wereencouragingbeyondallanticipations.Theresultsinreading
areshowninthelittlebooks,"TheChildrens'OwnWork,"the
prefacestowhichgivesomedetailofthemethodpursued.Toreach
thesecondaim,intellectualhonesty,thechildrenwereled,in
additiontotheworkalreadynamed,todoindividualindependent
work,andtoapplythepropertests.Afteratimetheycametosee
andfeelthattohaveopinionswithoutknowledgeisfoolishness,and
thatonefalsestep,howeversmall,willspoiltheresult,however
important.Nothingsemedofsomuchvalueforthispurposeasthe
industrialwork.Thechildrenhadlessonsintheuseoftheten
simplesttoolsofthecarpenter.Theirworkwithrule,trysquare,
saw,chisel,plane,hammer,etc.,gaveconstantconcrete
illustrationsofthefactthataperfectresultisneverattained
withanythinglessthanabsoluteaccuracyandcompletenessateach
stepoftheprocess.Thisreactedonthemindandmadethemmore
accurate,patient,truthfulandpainstakinginallwork.ELLA
STEWARTCOLLINS.EllaStewartCollinswasborninBerlia,
Wisconsin,December15th,1851;graduatedfromtheBerlinHigh
schoolinJuly,1868;taughtthenextthreeyears;oneterminthe
country,oneinchargeofthevillageschoolatDartfort,andtwo
yearsasPrincipalofawardschoolinBerlin.Sheenteredthe
OswegoschoolinSeptember,1871;returnedtoBerlinthefollowing
springandtaughtonetermintheHighschool.Shereturnedto
Oswegointhefallof'72,andgraduatedfromtheAdvancedCoursein
July,'73.ShewasinchargeoftheJuniorPracticeschoolconnected

withtheNormalthethreefollowingyears.174Afterresting
duringtheautumnof'76,shetaughtoneandonehalfyearsatSt.
Cloud,Minnesota,havingchargeofaPracticeschool,teaching
MethodsandsomeclassesinMathematics.Shewasmarried,September
4th,1878,toL.W.Collins,ofSt.Cloud,Minnesota,andhashad
threechildren,ofwhomtwoareliving.ISABELLAWRENCE.Iwas
bomAugust31,1853,inJay,Maine.WhenIwassixyearsold,my
familyremovedtoPortland,Maine.ThereIattendedthepublic
schools,graduatingfromtheHighschool,in1868.Ayearofstudy
followed.Afterteachinginthepublicschoolsofthecity,I
enteredtheOswegoNormalschoolinFebruary,1873,remaining
therefortwospringtermsonly.IgraduatedinJuly,1874.For
thenexttwoyears,IheldthepositionofCriticteacherand
PrincipalofthePrimaryDepartmentofthePracticeschool.Ileft
Oswegoin1876,tosuperintendthirteenroomsinthePublicschools
ofYonkers,NewYork.IwascalledfromthisplacetoWhitewater,
Wisconsin,inSeptember,1877,totakechargeoftheDepartmentof
Methods,intheStateNormalSchoolatthatplace.InAugust,
1878,IbeganworkasPrincipalofthePracticeDepartmentand
teacherofMethods,intheNormalschoolatSt.Cloud,Minnesota,a
positionwhichIstillhold,atasalaryof$1,400.Duringthe
summerof1883,IvisitedEuropeforashorttime.Mystudieshave
beenlargelyinthedirectionofPhilosophyandPsychology,with
directreferencetoeducationalbearings.InthestudyofMethod
andinthetrainingofteachers,Ihavebeenabletoworkwiththe
utmostfreedom,andhavebeengreatlyassistedbytheheartyco
operationofmyfellowworkers.Iamatpresentengagedin
assistingProf.Shoemaker,oftheSt.CloudNormal,inpreparinga
textbookinArithmetic,fortheMinnesotaschools.O.A.
LESTER.O.A.LesterwasborninOswego,NewYork,wastaughtat
hometillnearlyeightyearsofage,thenenteredJuniorDepartment
ofPublicschoolNo.4,Oswego.WhenjustenteringSeniorDepart
ment,aremovaltoBrooklyn,NewYork,ledtoachangeinschool
life.Inthreeyears,sheremovedtoFulton,NewYorkandsoon
175enteredFalleySeminaryinthatvillage.Intwoyears,it
becamenecessarytoleaveschoolandbeginworkbyteachinga
districtschoolinOnondagaCountysalary$2.50perweekand
"boardingaround."Thenextsummer,shetaughtthedistrictschool
inVolneyCentre,nearFulton.SheenteredtheTrainingschoolin
Oswego,NewYork,thatfail(1869),andwasgraduatedfromthe
ElementaryCourseinJuly,1871.Thefollowingyear,shehadcharge
oftheIntermediateGradeinUnionschool,Hamburgh,NewYork,
thenreturnedtoOswegofortheAdvancedCourse;wasgraduatedJune,
1873,receivinganappointmentasAssistantCriticinJunior
DepartmentofPracticeschool.InJune,1875,shewasappointed
teacherofRhetoric,Composition,SpellingandVocalMusicinNormal
Department,whichworkwascontinueduntilJune,1882.Sheentered
CornellUniversityinSeptember,1882,foraspecialcoursein
History,AngloSaxonandEnglishLiterature.InSeptember,1883,she
became.teacherofEnglishintheAcademicDepartmentofthe
PackerCollegiateInstitute,Brooklyn,NewYork.InJune,1884,she
wasappointedInstructorofRhetoricandCompositioninthe
AdelphiAcademy,Brooklyn,andholdsthepositionatthepresent
time.DuringthenineyearsconnectionwiththeNormalschool,at
tentionwasconstantlydirectedtowardsthebestandmostpro
gressivemethodsofteaching,andstudyinthislineisstillcontin
ued.WhileinCornellUniversity,AmericanHistory,andthestudyof
theEnglishlanguageandliterature,receivedspecialattention,

andreadingandstudysince1883havebeenwithreferencetothe
samesubjects.MARYV.LEE.TheyeartheBritishEnipire
welcomedVictoriatothethrone,GeorgeandAdalineLeewelcomedto
theirhomeinNorthGranby,Conn.,astrongbabygirl,whomthey
namedMaryVictoria.Thishomewassetinahighbird'snestamong
thehills,butlookedoutbroadlytowardsMts.TomandHolyoke,and
sawtheearlymorningmistsmarkingthecourseoftheConnecticut
riverflowingbetweenitsmountains,sixteenmilesawa3\Greatoxen,
cows,sheep,hens,dogs,cats,overshadowingmaples,agreatflower
garden,lichencoveredboulders,tumblingbrooks,patientindustry
andunswervinghonestyweretheearlyandlateteachersofthe
child.Beforeshewasfour,shewassenttothedistrictschool,
andtheresheremainedafaithfulattendantuntilshereachedher
176seventeenthyear.Thatrobustgirlhadthebestofreasonsfor
believingtheoutsideworldavast,beautifuloasis,andtheschool
aparcheddesert.Thefirsttermsinthatschool,gavehereachday,
afewminutesdrillonA,B,C,andab,ab,eb,eb,if,if.After
fourorfiveterms,additiontablesfromabookweresandwiched
betweenthereading?lessons;latercameGeography;atninecame
Smith'sGrammarandPenmanship;atfourteenU.S.Historyand
Physiology;duringseveralsummersthegirlcompelledtheteachers
tohearherrecitefroma"BookofNature"alittleworn,yellow
volumnshefoundinthehouse,theshortsketchesofbeasts,birds,
fishes,plants,planetsandpeople,delightinghergreatly.That
wastheageofsingleblessedness.Noteacherdreamedofweddingthe
oasistothedesertbyquestionslike,"Mary^haveyoueverseen
thesurfaceoftheEarth?""Howmanylegshasafiy?Howmany
havetwofiles?""Ifonemeadowlfiystalkbearsthreeblossoms,
howmanymeadowliliesonfivesuchstalks?"Severalofthe
biographiesofourteachersstatethatnooneknewwhenlearnedto
read;itisequallytruethatnotoneofthefirstfourorfive
teachersMaryLeehad,knewwhenshelearnedtoread;itwasnota
thingtheycouldknow.Nottillshewasfifteenwasthedesert
blessedbyarefreshingshower;thenthedormantpowerswakenedto
vigorouslife.Wm.McLoudwasthemanwhobroughtaWhy?intothat
districtschool,whoaskedfordefinitionsandsynonymsofwords
foundinthereadinglessons,whoputoutlinemapsonthewallsand
compelledexplanationsofproblemsinarithmetic.Mrs.Caroline
Soul,whotaughtforonetermtheGranbyAcademy,madethegirlfeel
thatitislegitimatetoreadaswewouldtalk,andMrs.S.
introducedthestudyofbotany^fromthebooktobesure^yetin
suchfashionastoincreaseobservationandloveofnature.Whfie
theschoollifefortenortwelveyearswasforthemostpart
utterlybarren,theotherlifewasfruitful.Fortunatelythegirl's
parentswerelargemindedandfree;eachpossesseddramaticand
poeticsense;thefatherwasremarkablyrefined,cameofateaching
ancestry(Mrs.EmmaWillardandMrs.AlmiraLincolnPhelps,
educationalleadersoftheirday,werehisaunts).Hehadan
intuitiveknowledgeofhowtoteach,wasanamateurartist,hada
sweetvoiceandwassingingmasterandschoolteacherduringmany
winters;hersister,tenyearshersenior,wasalwa3''sarefining
infiuenceandhermotherastimulatingone.Thegirlearlymade
intimateacquaintancewiththedomesticanimals;learnedtheir
individualdispositions;tamedbykindlytactthewildestheifers,
whichshecouldmilklongbeforethe"hired177boys"could
approachthem;brokesteersandcolts;taughtherbeloveddogDime
todrawheronasledandobeywordsofdirection;knewevery
sheepinherfather'sflockbyitscountenanceandconvertedthem

intoapetflock,which,bleating,crowdedaboutherasshestrode
overthestonypastures.Shedrovetheoxenwhileherfatherplowed,
andwhenparticularlyfinespecimensofquartz,feldspar,micaor
granitewereturnedupbythesteelnose,herfatherwould"breathe
"theoxenwhilehenamedthesestonesandpointedouttheir
peculiarities;flowersandtheirpartsweretaughtherbyher
father,andontheirlongridesoftwentyandfortymiles,beauties
ofearthandsky,ofmeadowandmountain,weremadesubjectsof
conversation.Sheknewthehauntsofallthespicy,aromaticthings
childrenliketochewandwhicharegoodforlightbeer;andof
courseagirlwhosespendingmoneycamefromthingsshe"picked,''
kneweverychestnutandwalnuttree,everyclamberinggrapevine,
everyhuckleberrypatchandevery"cranberrymarsh"inher
legitimatedomain;andequallyofcourse,agirlwhogloriedinher
strength,andwhorantwomilesoverthefarmforthehorsethatshe
mightrideonthesidesaddleonemile,whowouldnotbeboundby
anygarment,whoalways"swelledup"when"MissLiddy"was
fittingherdresses,who,whenshestudiedphysiology"allaloneby
herself,"promptlyandforevergaveupallunhygienic,andadopted
allhygienicmodesoflivingsuggested,was*'asstrongasanox,"
andrejoicedinthefactthatshecouldwork"fromrosymorntill
dewyeve"inhuckleberrylot,chestnutwoodorgrassymeadow,
"justaswellasaboy."Inallthistherefinedfathersaw
educationandcauseforcongratulation.Buthedidnotapprovewhen
hisyoungdaughterchastisedabiggirl"blackandblue"because
shewasunkindtosmallchildren,organizedamobagainstayoung
manwho"crackednuts"onlittleboys'heads,andwhenshewasready
toannihilateanyonewhofailedtoaffiliatewithherpetprotege
abeautifulolivegirlcalled"nigger"bythebeforenamed
annihilated.Thegentlefathertriedtoteachabetterway,andgood
teachingreachesontotheyearsthataretobe.Withthepoorest
tools,thischildtriedherhandatmakingallsortsofthings,from
arafttoahenhouse.Shebecameusefulandtrustedonthefarm;
importantinterestswerecommittedtoher,anderraticideaswere
executed,forinstance,thetakingofyoungchickensfromthehens,
inorderthatthemothersmightsoonerresumelaying.Thisinvolved
artificialbrooding;oldflannelstakingtheplaceoflivefeathers.
Thechickensdidnotprosperoncrude,unscientificfood,their
cropsenlargedfearfully,grewhard;thecreatureslookedso
melancholyandsomanyceasedtolive,Li178thatthe
girlseemedforcedtoperformherfirstsurgicaloperation,which
consistedincuttingopenthecrops,emptyingthemoftheircontents
andsewingthemup.Thiswasrepeatedoftenenoughtoconvincethe
childthatthefirstdeaths,whichfollowed,werenotcoincidences.
Therewasnocruelintentioninthis,quitethereverse.The
experimentswereconductedwithoutinterferenceonthepartofthe
elders.Anyonewithhalfaneducationaleye,canseethatinthis
free,outdoorlifeofthechild,weresplendidmaterialsforschool
workallthecommonbranches,aswellasBotany,Zoology,Geology,
PoliticalEconomy,IndustrialEducation,andthegermtheoryof
diseasebuttherewasnoteacherbig,wiseandbraveenoughtouse
thesematerials;andthegirlwhocouldneverspellandhatedat
theageofnine.Smith'sGrammar,didnotdreamthatinspiteof
schools,shewasgettingstraightfromGod'sbigbookthatwhichshe
wouldneverforgetandalwaysenjoy.Itiseasytoimaginethatsuch
achild,confinedinanuninterestingschoolroom,mightbean
objectofwonder,dreadandeventerrortotheinexperiencedyoung
womenandmenwhotaughtinthatdistrict.Nooneknewhowtoget

theengine,whichwasunderafullheadofsteam,uponatrack.By
lookingatthebiographiesofmanyofourteachers,oneinfersthat
theyhadnochildhood.MaryLeehadone,anditisinsad,loving
remembranceofitthatshehaswrittentheabove,whichshenow
entitles"Itmighthavebeen."Attheageofsixteenandahalf
years,havinggraduatedfromthecommonschool,shestraightway
beganteachinginEastGranville,Mass.,at$1.75aweek,and
boardedaround.Thiswasrelativelythelargestsalarysheever
received,andthiswastheonlyschoolsolicitedbyherorher
friends.IntheFallof1854,sheenteredtheConnecticutNormal
SchoolatNewBritain,andwasgraduatedfromitin1860.Inorder
todefrayexpenses,shealternatedstudywithteachingatthe
followingplaces:Westfield,Hartford,MiddlefieldandNewBritain.
TheNormalschoolhadnocoursethatdeservedthenameof
professional,andwhateverimprovementtookplaceinherteaching,
wasduetoforceofcircumstancesandgrowingloveforthework.
Therewerenobleteachersandnoblepupilsintheschool,and
thesewereoffarmoreimportancetoherfuturelifethanany
studyshepursued.JaneA.Bartholomew,longateacherinthe
school,exertedgreatinfluenceuponhercharacter.Mr.andMrs.
JamesDickinson,ofMiddlefield,gaveherherbroadestideasof
teaching.Throughoutherteachingcareershehasfounditwiseto
listentotheadviceofpersonsoutsidetheteachingrut.179
Thewintersof'60and'61,andof'61and'62,werepleasantly
spentinthegradedschoolofKensington,Conn.IntheSpringof
'62,Prof.DavidN.Camp,SuperintendentofPublicInstructionin
Connecticut,chosehertogotoOswegotolearnthePestalozzian
methods,therebeingintroducedunderthesuperintendencyofDr.E.
A.Sheldon,andtheteachingofMissMargaretE.M.Jones.All
instructionreceivedcameaftertheday'steachingandonSat
urdays,buttherewascompensationforthehardwork,inthegrowing
convictionthattheschoolandhomelivesoughttobemoreclosely
related,andthatthereisanaturalandbeautifulwayofteaching
everything.InSeptember,'62,incompanywithMrs.MaryE.
McGonegal,sheopenedtheDavenport,Iowa,Trainingschoolfor
teachers,underthegeneraldirectionofSuperintendentA.S.
Kissell;thisschoolisstillaflourishinginstitution.Thegreat
kindnessreceivedthereduringalonganddangeroustyphoidfever
taughtherwhatunselfishheartsmaybeatintheheartsofstrangers
;thatillnessgaveheralifelongfriend,MaryE.Gould.Inthe
springof1865shebecameProfessorWm.F.Phelps'firstassistant
intheNormalschoolofWinona,Minnesota,andfirstteacherin
MinnesotafromOswego.HeresheremainedtillsheenteredMichigan
Universityin'72.WhileinMinnesotasheoftenattendedInstitutes
andS.S.Conventions,whereshegavelessons.Therelessonsledto
amemorablesummerspentwiththegreatpreacher,D.L.Moody,who
broughthertoIllinoisthatshemightgivebeforebodiesofS.S.
teachers,lessonstaughtinaccordwithPestalozzianprinciples.
WhileinWinona,shetaughtGrammarwithoutabookbytheSocratic
method.Shebecameconvincedthatbythismethodmoreintellectual
laborisdonebytheteacherthanbythepupils,thatthelatter
dependtoomuchupontheformerandthatwhileseemingperfectly
strong,theymaybecomeinreality''intellectualinfants;she,
therefore,wroteagrammarcontainingsentence^,orproblems,with
questionsuponthemwhichthepupilsweretostudybythemselves,
reachingtheirconclusionswithoutaidfromtheanswersofbright
pupilsasisthecaseintheordinaryquestionandanswer
method.ThisbookwaspublishedbyH.Hadleyin1873as"Leeand

Hadley'sGrammar."ItsplanisthesameasthatemployedinMiss
Sheldon's"StudiesinHistory"publishedin1885.Whilein
Winona,alongcherisheddesiretostudymedicinewasstrengthened
byafriendshipwiththegiftedandlamentedDr.CharlotteDenman
Lozier,withwhomsheplannedtostudyandpracticeinNewYork.The
deathofherfrienddelayedthisstudy,butagrowingconviction
thatwomenshouldbetrainedtorespect180andcareforthe
bodyasthetempleofthesoul,andtheconvictionthataphysician
canspeakwithpowerbecausewiththeauthorityofknowledge,led
hertobeginseriousworkundertwoliberalmindedphysicians,Drs,
StewartandMcGaughey,ofWinona.Withthemshepreparedfor
MichiganUniversity,theMedicaldepartmentofwhichsheenteredin
^72,andfromwhichshegraduatedin'74.AtAnnArborshelearned
thatnotallmedicalstudentsstudytoinculcateorpractice
hygienicrules.In'74,Dr.LeebecameconnectedwiththeOswego
NormalasteacherofPhysiology,andsheresidedintheNormal
SchoolBoardingHousethatshemighthaveageneraloversightof
thehealthofthehouse;shealsobeganthepracticeofmedicine
withDr.MaryE.Little.Thenextyear,inadditiontoPhysiology,
shetaughtReading,Gymnasticsand*MethodsinReading,Botany,
GeographyandForm.Thispositionsheheldtillthesummerof'80.
InpartnershipwithDr.CynthiaSmithandDr.ElviraRanier,she
practicedmedicineasschooldutiespermitted.In'80,incompany
withherfriendMissMaryD.SheldoQ,shewentabroad,spendingtwo
yearsinEngland,Scotland,France,Italy,Egypt,Germany,Holland
andSwitzerland.Thelastyearshewasan"outstudent"ofNewnham
College,Cambridge,devotinghertimetoPhysiologyandBiology.On
returningtoOswegoin'82,shetaughtPhysiology,Zoology,Methods
inZoology,BotanyandHumanBody,andhadchargeofPhysical
Cultureinthewholeschool.In'87,BotanyMethodswereexchanged
forReadiugMethods,thusleavinginherhandsthecloselyrelated
subjectsofZoology,Physiology,PhysicalCultureandtheMethodsin
thesebranches,andinReading.WhenDr.LeereturnedfromEurope,
throughtheteachingofagenius,Mrs.HenriettaCrane,shebecame
acquaintedwiththeDelsartemethodofgymnastics,whichseeksto
producebodiesstrongenoughforlife'suses,beautifulinform,
poseandaction;ittrainsthebodytosmooth,rhythmicalmovement,
inharmonj'withthelawsofexpressionandwonderfullyquietingto
thenervoussystem.Dr.Leesawtheadvantagesofthissystem,ex
changedtheoldforit,andduringthelastfiveyearshassoughtto
introduceitintotheNormalandPracticeschools.Thesystemgrows
infavor,thepupilsenjoytheexercises,andMissWalterreports
theirrefininginfluenceuponthechildrenwhomshehasincharge.
Dr.LeehasendeavoredinmanywaystofollowProf.Straightinher
Zoologicalwork,makingitthoroughlyobjective;shehasbecome
greatlyinterestedintemperance;nearlyallthemembersofher
Physiologyclassessignthepledge,andsheoftenlectures181
uponthissubject.ShehasspentdifferentvacationsatSalem,
Martha'sVinej^ard,BostonSchoolofOratory,Cornell,OceanGrove,
andDesMoines,inthestudyofNaturalHistory,PhysicalandVocal
Culture.Sheoftengiveslessonsandlecturesatinstitutes.In
'S6,incompanywithMissMargaretW.Morley,sheorganizedclasses
inPhysicalCultureinconnectionwiththeSauveurCollegeof
Languages.Theseclassesarewellattended.Thequalityofstudents
inattendanceatthepresentwriting,July,'87,attestsasound
interestintheDelsartemethod.Sincereachingmaturity.Dr.Lee
hasworked,notsomuchtogiveinformation,astoinfluencelife.
SheoftenrememberstheGranbygirlsheknewyearsagoandhopes

thatsomeotherGranbygirlmayhaveherhomeandschoollives
weddedinhealthfulunion,infruitfulunion,throughherdirector
indirectinfluence."Thechildisfatheroftheman."MARYF.
CROWE.MaryF.Crowe,graduatedJuly1873.Aftergraduationwas,
forashorttime,employedasassistantinthePrimaryDepartment
oftheSchoolofPractice.Afterwardsheenteredaconvent.Her
presentnameisSisterMaryCamilla,intheconventofSt.Bernard,
Cohoes,NewYork.JAMESN.BAKER.OldestchildofAldenSprague
BakerandElizabethWantonBaker,bornatSodusPoint,WayneCounty,
NewYork,November10th,1824;parentsremovedtoNiagaraCounty,
wherehisearlylifewaspassedintheusualwayofAmericanboys;
graduatedfromtheAlbionAcademywiththehonorsofhisclass,at
theageofeighteen;thenengagedinbusinessstudyingmusicasa
pastime;removedtoOswegointheyearof1855andengagedinthe
millingbusiness,andfromtheretoFulton;October23d,1862,
marriedCatherineTaylor,daughterofSamuelR.andMargaretS.
Taylor;wasteacherofVocalMusic,CompositionandHarmonyinthe
OswegoNormalschoolfrom1874to1875.DiedMarch10th,1883,
leavingAvechildren.182EMMADICKERMANSTRAIGHT.Emma
DickermanStraightisanativeofIllinois.Sheattendeda
districtschooluntilherfifteenthyear,whensheenteredtheHigh
schoolatCanton,111.,wheresheremainedthreeyears,teaching
intheintermediatedepartmentoftheschoolwhilecompletingher
lastyear'scourseofstudy.Herfather,Col.W.A.Dickerman,of
the103dIllinoisregiment,waskilledinMay,1864,inthefamous
"MarchtotheSea."Shebeganattheageoffourteenherlifeasa
teacher,asassistantinthedistrictschoolwhichshehadattend
ed,underMissCarolineDutch,towhosethoroughnessandrare
teachingpowershefeelssheowesherownlovefortheprofession.
InNovemberof1868,sheenteredtheseniorclassintheTwelfth
streetschool,NewYorkcity,underMissWadleigh'sprincipalship,
andimmediatelyafterhergraduationin1869,beganteachingas
governess.Latersheenteredaprivateschool,whichsheleftin
February,1870,tofillapositioninGrammarschoolNo.35,inNew
Yorkcity,whichpositionsheresignedinJulytoentertheState
NormalschoolatOswego,fromwhichshewasgraduatedinJuly,1871.
AfterassistingMr.Johonnotinseveralinstitutesthatsamesummer,
inSeptembersheacceptedthepositionofpreceptressintheState
NormalschoolatPeru,Nebraska,butafterafewmonths,chosethe
workofPrincipaloftheModelschoolinthesameinstitution.In
September,1872,sheformedoneofthecorpsofteachersinthe
StateNormalschoolatWarrensburg,Missouri,underthe
principalshipofJamesJohonnot.In1873shewasmarriedtoH.H.
Straight,andwithherhusbandtaughtinWarrensburg,until1875,
whenbothwereappointedtopositionsintheNormalschoolat
Oswego,N.Y.AsteacherofLiteratureandDrawing,shewas
connectedwiththatschoolforfouryears.In1883Prof.Straight
wasappointedtotheViceprincipalshipoftheCookCountyNormal
school.NormalPark,111.In1885,hisfailinghealthmadeit
necessarythathespendthewinterintheSouth.Shereenteredthe
schoolroomtotakechargeofhisclassesandwasalsorequestedto
continuetheCourseofLectureshehadalreadybegun,beforethe
studentsoftheFreeKindergartenAssociationinChicago.The
coursewasrepeatedinthespring,andinthesummershetaughtin
theInstituteheldbyCol.Parker,aswellasinotherInstitutesin
IllinoisandIowa.IntheAutumnof1886shebegananotheryearof
workintheCookCountyNormalschool,whichwasearlyinterrupted
byaninoperativecalltothecareofherhusband,thenin

California.Anomnivorousreaderfromearlychildhood,her
preferenceinteachingwasalwaysLiteratureandthekindred
branchesof183RhetoricandHistory.Butthesummersof1873
and'74werespentatPenikeseIsland,whereshereceivedthe
impulseinthemethodofinvestigationwhichmadehersubsequent
teaching*anendeavortoapplytoherfavoritestudiesthe
ScientificMethod,andthesuccessofherlaterworksheattributed
tothisfact.Differentvacationswerespentinspecialstudyof
DrawingandPainting;ofLiterature,underProfessorCorson,ofthe
CoruellUniversity,andProfessorW.J.Rolfe;andoftheDelsarte
methodofexpression.Whileaseverdeeplyinterestedin
LiteratureandspeciallyinthestudyofShakespeare,sheisat
presentabsorbedintheproblemsofPrimaryeducation.Theneedsof
thelittlechildren,theconsiderationoftruer,morescientific
methodsofinstructiontofollowthekindergarten,formthesubjects
ofhernewlessonsandlectures,andtothisendallherpreceding
studiesarebutstepsinanascendingladder.Withpeculiarlyquick
sympathiesandinstinctiveknowledgeoftheneedsofothers,Mrs.
Straighthasendearedherselftoallwithwhomshehascomein
contact,byherunselfishanduntiringthoughtfulnessforthe
happinessofthoseabouther.Asateachersheisunsurpassed,
possessingremarkableaccuracyindetailandbreadthofopinion,
weddedtoanenthusiasmwhichcarriesallbeforeit.Shestood
shouldertoshoulderwithherhusbandinhiswork,andduringthe
yearswhennotengagedintheschoolroom,shedidanotunimportant
workathome,asscoresofthebeautifulchartswithwhichProf.
Straightwaswonttoillustratehisbiologicallectureswill
testify,thesechartsbeingtheworkofMrs.Straight'sskilful
hands.Althoughastrangertotheschoolroomforseveralyears,
andalthoughherformerteachinghadbeenentirelyinthedirection
ofLiteratureandArt,uponProfessorStraight'sleavinghisworkto
recruitinFlorida,Mrs.Straightsteppedbravely''tothefront,
tookuphisunfinishedbiologicalworkintheCookCountyNormal
school,ashasbeenstated,andcarrieditoninawaytoexciteboth
wonderandadmiration.Thedifficultyofsuccessfullycarr^dngona
workbegunbyanother,andthatotheramasterinhisprofession,
willbeappreciatedbyeveryteacher,yetsuchwasMrs.Straight's
determinationtoforwardherhusband'slifeworkandkeephis
classesingoodconditionuntilsuchtimeashecouldresumethem,
thatshesucceeded,notonlyingaininghardworkandenthusiastic
devotionfromherpupils,butinmakingherselfindispensabletothe
CookCountyNormalschool.Inadditiontoherregularschoolwork
shegavetheweeklykindergartenlecture,whosepreparationrequired
carefulthought184andmuchtime,andwithalltherest,found
timetogiveamother'stendernessandcaretohertwolittle
children.AsProf.Straight'ssubstitute,Mrs.Straightdidhis
workinfull,andreceivedhissalary;thenextyear,1886,
appointedinherownrighttothesamework,hersalarywasreduced
elevenhundreddollars.Sooncalledtothebedsideofherdying
husband,Mrs.Straightdisplayedherusualheroismandendurance,
cheeringandcomfortinghimtothelast,sittingupnights'and
teachingalittljeeachday,thatshemightcontributetothe
supportofherlittlefamily.AfterProf.Straight'sdeath,she
returnedtoNormalParkandresumedherteachingthere.Inthe
Springof'87,muchworn,andneedingrestandchange,Mrs.Straight
receivedaflatteringinvitationtoteachEnglishintheHighschool
atTokio,Japan.IthasbeenoneofherlifedreamstovisitJapan
andidentifyherselfwithacivilizationandartinwhichsheis

deeplyinterested,andherfriendsrejoicedforherinthethought
oftherest,mentalandphysical,thechangewillbringtoher.It
hasseemedwelltothewriterofthisbiographytodoalittlemore
justicetotheremarkablepowersofMrs.Straight,thanthemere
outlineofherlifecoulddo,^hence,hascomethistributeina
formwhichisperhapsmorecommonlyusedofthosewhoselifeworkis
done.MARTHAKEELER.MarthaKeelerwasborninWhitehall,N.
Y.,1848.ShereceivedherearlyeducationatBurlington,Vermont,
towhichplaceherparentsmovedsoonafterherbirth.In1869she
securedapositionasteacherinoneoftheschoolsofthatplace.
HerworkattractedtheattentionoftheSchoolBoardandshewas
urgedbyseveralofthememberstotakeacourseintheOswego
Normalschool.Inaccordancewiththeiradvice,sheenteredthis
schoolin1870.Beforethecloseoftheyearshewasoffereda
position,whichsheacceptedandheldfortwoyears.In1874she
returnedtoOswegoandgraduatedthefollowingyear.After
graduating,sheacceptedthepositionofassistantcriticinthe
JuniordepartmentoftheTrainingschool.Thenextyearshewas
giventhePrincipalshipofthePrimarydepartment,whichsheheld
till1879,whensheresignedbecauseofpoorhealth.Afterarestof
sixmonths,shetookchargeoftheTrainingdepartmentoftheNormal
schoolatIndiana,Pa.In1880shewasmarriedtoJohnS.McKay,
teacherofNaturalScienceinthesameschool.Shehasonechild.
185S.IDAWILLIAMS.S.IdaWilliamswasborninWeedsport,
CayugaCo.,N.Y.,April16,1852.Shewasgraduatedfromthe
WeedsportUnionSchoolandAcademy,and,inFebruarj^1872,fromthe
AdvancedEnglishCourseoftheOswegoStateNormalschool.After
teachingforsevenyearsintheOswegoschools,sheresignedand
returnedtoherhomeinWeedsport.HElSTRYH.STRAIGHT,A.M.
HenryH.StraightwasborninChautauquaCounty,N.Y.,July20,
1846.Beingleftanorphanwhilestillaboyhesupportedhimselfby
workingonfarms.Whensixteen,hetaughthisfirstschool,andwith
thethirtyninedollarsreceivedforthethreemonths'teaching,he
enteredthepreparatorydepartmentofOberlinCollege,Ohio.This
amount,withadditionalmoneyearnedwhilestudying,carriedhim
throughoneyear.Duringhisjuniorandsenioryearsheassistedin
teachingtheLatinandGreekclassesinthepreparatoryschool.His
successinthelanguagesdeterminedhimtomakephilologya
specialty,soattheendofhissophomoreyearheleftcollegeto
earnmoneyforstudyinGermany.Butatthistime,whilePrincipal
ofthepublicschoolsatGalena,O.,hebeganacourseofobject
lessonsinScience,andbecamefilledwiththeideathatthenatural
sciencesarespeciallyfittedtodevelopthepowersandtofitman
forlife.ThisideawasstrengthenedbyspecialstudyatCornell
Universityduringhissenioryear,underthelamentedCharlesFred
Hartt,fromwhomhereceivedanimpulseonlysecondtothatwhichhe
laterreceivedfromAgassiz.Afterhisgraduationhegavehalfa
yeartotheologicalstudy,andthenleftOberlintobecome
principaloftheStateNormalschoolatPeru,Nebraska.Agrowing
convictionofthevalueofscienceinschemesofpubliceducation,
inducedhimtoresignthepositionattheendoftheyear(although
hehadselectedacorpsofteachersforthenextterm),inorder
thathemighttakethemorecongenialsituationofteacherof
NaturalScienceandPsychologyinthesameschool.Herehelaythe
foundationofallhisfuturework,mappedoutaschemeofeducation
baseduponscienceandtheindustries,andinthewinterof1862,
statedinhislecture,"WhatWeWantandHowtoGetIt,"thesame
beliefsandhopesthateverfoundexpressioninhislater

teaching.AcorrespondencewithProf.Shaler,inregardtoasummer
schoolofScienceforteachers,calledoutmuchofhisenthusiasm,
andwhentheproposedschoolwas186finallylocatedat
PenikeseIsland,Prof.Straight'snamewasoneoftheveryfirston
thelistofprospectivestudents.AsapupilofAgassizhereceived
theinspirationthatwashisguidingstar.Hebecamepositivethat
laboratoriescanbesomanagedthatlargenumbersmayprofitably
experimentinthem.Hedemonstratedthisbyconvertingthe
unfinishedbasementoftheMissouriNormalschoolintolaboratories,
wheremuchenthusiasticworkwasdoneduringthetwoyearsofhis
connectionwiththisschool.In1874,hewasagainatPenikese;in
1875withProf.Shaler,andwiththeStateGeologistofNorth
Carolina,ingeologicalexpeditionsamongthemountainsof
Kentucky,NorthCarolinaandTennessee.Theschoolyearof'75and
'76wasspentinspecialstudyatCornellandHarvard,andin
September,1876,hetookthechairofNaturalSciencesintheOswego
Normalschool.In1880,tohisdutiesasProfessorinthis
department,wasaddedthatofDirectorofthePracticeschool,and
in1882,hewasgivenchargeoftheHistoryandPhilosophyof
Education.WhileconnectedwiththeOswegoNormalschoolthe
presentbuildingwaserected,andhehadtheentireplanningofthe
laboratories,which,asawhole,areprobablyfinerthanthose
connectedwithanyotherNormalschool.Hereheconductedclassesof
ninetyfive,indissectionandexperimentation,andbegantocarry
outhisplansofindustrialeducationbytheopeningofaworkshop
forthemanufactureofapparatususedinillustratinghisteaching.
IntheSpringof1883,hewasappointedoneofthecorpsofteachers
intheCookCo.NormalSchool,111.,underthemanagementofCol.
F.W.Parker,andinthesummerhetookchargeoftheDepartmentof
PhysicalScienceandIndustrialEducationintheMartha'sVineyard
SummerInstitute.TheresultoftheSummer'sworkisbest
expressed,perhaps,bytheappendedresolutions..M.Y.S.I.,
CottageCity,Mass.August11,1883.Thestudentsoftheclassin
PhysicalScienceandIndustrialEducation,desirous,ofexpressing
thedeepinteresttheyhavefeltinProfessorStraight'swork,drew
upthefollowingresolutions,whichwereunanimouslyadopted:
Resolved,ThatthemembersofthisclasstestifytoProfessor
Straighttheirfeelingsofsatisfactioninregardtothefollowing
pointswhichhehassoclearlybroughtout:I.Theadaptationof
scientifictraininginthephysicalsciencestoelementary^
education.II.Thepossibilityofintroducingsuchtraininginto
elementaryschoolsby^meansofsimpleandinexpensiveapparatus,
whichmaybemadebytheteachersandpupilsthemselves.III.The
practicabilityofteachingindustrialprocessesthroughthemakingot
thisapparatus,andofinterestingthepupilsinthoseprocesses
throughtheapparatuswhichtheythemselveshavemade.187
IT.Thepossibilityofgivingabasisfromwhichtodecidethe
naturalbentotthepupils,andtoencouragethemtofollowthis
bentinschoolsforspecialwork.Y,Theeducationalvalueofa
broadoutlookintoallindustrialprocesseswhichwillenable
studentstodotheirownspecialworkmoreintelligently.YI.The
greatimportanceoftheintellectualandmoralpoweracquiredbythe
scientificmethodpursuedinthework,whichwillenableonetomeet
successfullytheproblemsofdailylife.YII.Thegreatadvantage
ofanearlyawakeningandcultivationoftheinventivefaculty,in
orderthatthestudentmaythemorereadilyadapthimselftoallpos
sibleenvironments.AndResolvedfurtherfThatwegoawayfrom
theMartha'sYineyardSummerInstitutewithahighappreciationof

ProfessorStraight'seflfbrts,andgreatlyencouragedtotrytodo
betterwork,anddeterminedtoassisthimindevelopingandcarry
ingoutthebroadanddeepideasoftheunityoflife,andofthe
trueeducationalprocesswhichhehassocarefullypresented.It
maybeinterestingheretonotethatfrom1873to1885,butone
summerfoundhimfreefromspecialwork,eitherasstudent,teacher
orcollector.IntheSummerschoolofScienceatSalem,Mass.,1880
and1881,hegavethecourseoflecturesuponthe"Comparative
Anatom.yandPhysiologyoftheVertebrates."Inthewinterof'83
and'84helefthisschoolworkatNormalParkforafortnight's
visitintheEasternStates,thespecialobjectofhisjourneybeing
togivelecturestoteachersinNewHavenandBrooklyn.Atthe
FroebelAcademy,inBrooklyn,hehadtheenthusiasticreception
whichwasdeservedbyhisinterestintheenterprisefromitsvery
inception.Thesummerof1884sawhimagainatMartha'sVineyard,
thistimeinchargeoftheDepartmentofPedagogy,withMr.G.W.
Fitz,asdirectoroftheworkshopthetwodepartmentsbeingindis
solublyconnected.Alargeandenthusiasticclassofstudentsfound
hisworkmostinspiringandhelpful^thelecturesbeingofwonder
fulclearnessandpracticality.Thenextyearhewasinsomewhat
feeblehealth,butgaveinadditiontohisclasswork,acourseof
lecturesbeforetheFreeKindergartenAssociationofChicago,which
wereofgreatbenefittothoseteacherswhoformedtheclass.His
workatMartha'sVineyardwasgivenupbecauseofhisdelicate
health.Butheoccupiedhimselfintheplanningandmakingofa
deskwhichshouldrenderitpossibleforeachPrimarychildtohave
collectionsofminerals,plants,etc.,traysforsandandclay
modeling,etc.,aswellasaplacefortoolsandaproperly
constructedworkbench.Hewasalsobusyinwritingstoriesfrom
Indianlegends,andfolklore,designedtoformthegroundworkfor
historicalinvestigation,andinworkingoutdetailsof
instructioninNaturalScience,Geometry,etc.,forlowestgradeof
schools,tofollowcloselyuponthe"gifts"oftheKindergarten,
andtoformthebasisformaterial188forreading*lessons.In
theFallof'85,hewasadvisedtoseekawarmerclimate.Hespent
thewinterinFloridabutwaslittlebene&ted, and returned in

April to Chicago. In the summer he went to San Diego, Cal., thence


in a few weeks to Pasadena, where he grew rapidly worse. Here he
was joined by Mrs. Straight and his two children. The fine climate,
grand scenery, and the presence of his family, delayed, but could
not prevent death from consumption, which took place November
17th. He leaves little in print to adequately convey an idea of his
theories of education, a few lectures, a pamphlet on Industrial Education, guides to Laboratory Teaching, consisting of systematic and
carefull}^ arranged questions that simply direct and stimulate the
student's powers of observation and inference. Carefully pre- pared
lectures of which full synopsis remain, show something of his
projected work on Psychology. But he had not time and strength to
write still more was it true that he did not feel himself ready to
write, until he had developed by actual demonstration, the ideas he
had believed to be fundamental and irresistible. The Board of
Education of the Normal school, Oswego, in res- olutions relating to
his resignat

, speak of his work, "that will remain a monument to his intelligent


thought, his earnest effort, and untiring industry." His whole
conception in planning a course in Science, was to select the most
significant facts that lead most directly to the most significant laws.
To him each laboratory where pupils were at work, was a laboratory
of mental science. When made Director of the Practice Department
at Oswego, he was relieved in part of the actual teaching of
Science, and for two years he studied carefully the problems of
Primarj- Education, making the entire Practice School a Pedagogical
Laboratory. The result of this study was embodied in his lectures on
Pedagogy, and in his Science of Industrial Education. In 1885 he
was elected one of the Directors of the Workingmen's School in New
York City, and appointed one of the Executive Committee of the
same Insti- tution to represent the subject of Pedagogy. Beginning
as a special student of language, following this by special work in
science, then by investigation of human industries, all the time
viewing language, science and industries from the standpoint of
mental action. Prof. Straight's study and teaching was a steady,
consistent advance in the one direction of his ambi- tion to help
build a science of education. In these days, successful
investigation brings scientific reputa- tion. Prof. Straight had a
scientific mind. But he never pursued reputation. His great aim
during mature years, was to bring Science to the people, through
which he believed better thinking
189 and better living could be
secured; hence, he chose to work in Normal schools, (rejecting
higher salaries and more honored posi- tions in other educational
institutions,) hoping thus to train teachers, who in turn would train
the children and youth of our land. In his Normal school work, he
never lost sight of this aim, and those most intelligent regarding,
and most sympathetic with this aim, saw him ever training the
observing, reasoning and me- chanical powers. He led his students
to interrogate things around them ; to make simple, inexpensive
apparatus to illustrate great truths in Physics and Chemistry ; to
prepare specimens in Zoology and Botany. He believed a teacher
thus equipped, is better pre- pared to rouse in pupils interest in
Natural Science, than one who has been through books and seen
experiments on expensive pieces of apparatus. Prof. Straight
believed that a teacher who can make a battery with materials
worth twenty-five cents will be more likely to intro- duce his pupils
to electricity than a teacher who is dependent upon a twenty-five
dollar battery ; that a teacher who can prepare the skeleton of a
dog is more likely to rouse enthusiasm regarding Physiology than a
dependent upon a thirty dollar human skeleton ; that one who for
three cents can prepare oxygen or carbonic acid, and illustrate the
life-giving properties of the one and the life- destroying properties
of the other, is more likely to impress thenecessityofgood
ventilationthanonewhosimplyassignsabooklessononthese
gases.Prof.Straighthadclearandcorrectideasregardingthe
relatingofbranchespursuedinschoolintoanorganicwholewhich
shouldfulfilltheendsofeducationinthesymmetricaldevelopment

ofchildrenandthefittingthemfordomestic,socialandpolitical
life.Progresshasbeenmadeineducationalmethodsduringthelast
tenyears,butthetheoriesProf.Straightattemptedtocarryoutin
OswegoandatNormalParkareabreastofthenewestandbest
methods.Col.ParkerhassaidthatthemostperfectPrimaryworkhe
haseverseen,wasdoneunderthedirectionofProf.Straight.Prof.
Straightwas"visionary,''i,e.,hesawvisions.St.Paulsays,
"Theyoungmenshallseevisions."Itissafetosaythatmany
Normalschoolgraduatesarerealizingthevisionsopenedtothemby
Prof.Straight.Prof.Straightwasbrave,butgentle;firm,but
courteous;yielding,yetpersistent.Hislivingwasonahighplane
abovesmalldisputations,intrigue,deception,jealousy;itwas
purefromtheheartouttothewordandact.Itistheuniversal
testimonyofProf.Straight'snoblestpupilsthathislifewasan
inspirationtopurityandtodevotiontothepursuitoftruth.He
diesyoung.190buthehasscatteredwideandinthebestsoil,
seedsthatwillgerminateandbearfruitlong*afterthesower's
nameisforgottenonearth.DuringthelastfewyearsofProf.
Straight'slifehisthoughtsweremoreandmoreconcentratedupon
thelifeanddevelopmentofthelittlechild.Thegermfromwhich
themancomesgrewtohimtobethemostimportantfactorinthe
developmentoftherace,andallthatyearsofhardworkandstudy
putintohimwaspouredoutfinallyalongthischannel.Hisdelight
wasinplanningforworkforchildren,forsurerandbettermethods
oftrainingthem.Oneofhisbeliefsinregardtochildlifewas
thattheliteratureshouldbeofthebestfromthebeginning,and
hisownlittlesonwasasfondofandasfamiliarwiththesongof
Hiawatha,thestoryofEvangeline,andthestoriesoftheGreek
Heroes,asmostchildrenarewithMotherGoose.Prof.Straight's
lastillnesswasafitclosetohisnoblelife,inthebraverywith
whichhefoughtsufferingandweakness,thebrilliancywithwhich
hismindblazedtotheverylast,fullofenthusiasmand
aspiration,andintheunfailingsweetnessandtenderness,the
lovingnesswhichheshedabouthim,whichincreasedtothevery
last,sothathispresencewasabenediction.MISSROSEWHITNEY.
MissRoseWhitney,cametoOswegofromBinghamton,NewYork,where
shewasengagedasteacher.Aftergraduation,July,1869,shewas,
forseveralyearsemployedasprincipaloftheIntermediate
DepartmentoftheSchoolofPractice.Latershereturnedto
Binghamtontoteach,wheresheisatpresentemployed.MISS
MARTHAE.CHURCHILL.MarthaE.Churchill,daughterofJudgeJohnC.
ChurchillofOswego,NewYork,graduatedJanuary29th,1878;had
forsometimechargeofthePrimaryDepartmentoftheSchoolof
Practice;taughtforashorttimeinYonkers,NewYork;married
WalterR.Fisher,andwenttoSanFrancisco,California,tolive.
SARAHJ.WALTER.SarahJ.WalterwasborninPomeroy,Ohio,in
1850.ThePublicschoolsofthatplaceaffordedexcellentadvantages
foracommonandhighschooleducation,whichwassupplementedby
attendanceatanAcademyforhigherinstruction.191Atsixteen
thecareofaPrimaryschoolofeig*htylittleones,showedtheneed
ofsomethingnotpossessedaknowledgeofwhatandhowtoteacha
Primaryschool;educationalbooks,reportsandjournalswereread
witheagerness,butthegreatesthelpatthattimewasattained
throughthesummerNormalschoolsorInstitutes.Four.years
werespentinPrimaryworkandfourmoreasprincipalofaGrammar
schooLInSeptember,1874,theOswegoNormalschoolwasenteredand
inthemethodcoursewasrealizedsomethingofthefulfillmentof
thelongingsoftheeightpreviousyears.Upongraduating,inJune,

^76,thepositionofassistantintheJuniorPracticeschoolwas
takenfortwoyears;thenextyearwasmostpleasantlyand
profitablyspentasPrincipalofthePrimaryschool.September,'81,
thePracticeschoolswereconsolidatedandorganizedintoone
department,withasupervisingprincipalincharge.Februaryofthe
sameyeartheSeniordepartmentwasadded.Fromentranceintothe
school,untilthepresenttime,thetrainingofteachersand
applyingtheprinciplesofeducationtothistraining,hasbeenthe
specialwork.FRANCESE.SHELDON.FrancesE.Sheldon,bornat
Oswego,April12,1857,wasgraduatedfromtheClassicalCourseof
theNormalSchoolinJune,1875.Shespentthefollowingyear
teachingEnglishandLatininAveryInstitute(forcoloredpeople),
atCharleston,S.C,undertheprincipalshipofherclassmate,Mr.
A.W.Farnham,whocontinuedhisworkthereforsomeyears
following.Itseemsimpossibletoomitanexpressionofadmiration
forthequietbutdecidedmannerinwhichMr.Farnhamtookholdof
theschool,betteringdisciplineandmethods,givingamore
practicaltendencytothework,andarousinganewenthusiasmamong
thepupils.Allthiswasdone,moreover,inthefaceofopposition
fromvariousquarters.IntheAutumnof'76,MissSheldonentered
CornellUniversity,butwascalledinJanuarytotakechargeof
theLatinandGreekintheOswegoNormalschool,wheresheremained
untilJune,1879.Sheentereduponthiswork,feelingmuch
dissatisfactionwiththeprevailingmethodsofteachingthese
languages.Itseemedthattheyshouldbepresentedinamethod
similartothatemployedbyourbestteachersofthesocalled"
Sciences."Thestudentshouldfirstbemadeacquaintedwiththe
languageasameansofexpression,notasacollectionofunrelated
wordsto192beawkwardlyputtogetherintomechanical
sentences;asalivinggrowthrevealingtotheobserveritsown
structureandlaws,notastherigidsubjectofagrammarfullof
arbitraryrules.Fromtheverybeginning,thelearnersmightbeled,
stepbystep,toobservethedetailsfromwhichtheymightdraw
theirowngeneralizationsastoitsformationandlaws;andthose
generalizationsandclassificationsshouldbeverifiedagainand
againasopportunityoffered.Again,byconstantcontactwith
thelanguageinliteraryforms,andtosomeextentbyactualdaily
useonthetongue,thevocabularyneededforsightreadingmightbe
acquired,toagreatdegreeunconsciously.Meantime,bothasan
aidtofullappreciationoftheclassictongues,andasameansof
reflectingtheirlightuponourkindredtongue,thereshouldbea
constantthreadofcomparisonbetweentheii'Avords,formsand
constructions,andthoseoftheEnglish.Thoughrealizingtheneed
ofsomechangeinthesedirections.MissSheldonfeltincompetentas
yettomakearadicalexperimentinthematter,butattemptedin
partialwaystorendermorelivethestudyofthe''dead"
languages.Aboutthistime.Dr.Sauveurhadbeenmakingbold
experimentswithlikeaims,andissuedhispamphletdescribinghis
viewsandmethods.MissSheldon,findinggreatpromiseinthese,
attendedtheSauveurSummerSchoolofLanguagesatAmherstin1878,
thusbecomingacquaintedwiththepracticalworkingofthenatural
method.Duringthenextyear,sheappliedit,withsomenecessary
adaptationtocircumstances,intheNormalschool.Theresultsof
thatyearwerenotaltogethersatisfactory,butthefailureseemed
duetolackofexperienceinthemethod,nottothemethoditself.
Thenextschoolyear,MissSheldonresumedherUniversitycourseat
Cornell,devotingherselfchieflytolanguagestudies.Inthesummer
of1880,sheaccompaniedDr.M.V.LeeandMissM.D.Sheldonto

Europe,andforthefollowingthreeyears,studiedinOxford,with
intermissionsoftravelandstudyonthecontinent.Herchief
subjectwasEnglishPhilosophyandLiterature;shealsogavesome
attentiontogeneralPhilologyandGerman.Attheendofthetime,
shepassed,1883,theexaminationinEnglishscholarship,underthe
auspicesofOxfordUniversit}',receivinginconsequence,the
certificateoffirstclasshonors,grantedbytheUniversity.The
firstyear after returning to America, was passed in teach- ing

English in the intermediate grades of a private school which had


been established in Boston b^^ Mrs. Quincy Shaw, with the
193
original purpose of testing the most advanced methods for preparatory school training. In the English work, the basis of instruction
was chiefly the oral and written work of the children themselves,
together with supplementary reading adapted to the children's age
and subject of study. The year's experience was such as to confirm
the teach- er's confidence in such a course. In the summer of '84,
Miss Sheldon accepted the post of teacher of English composition in
the High school at Omaha, Neb., which position she still holds. This
work was now first made a recognized department in the course
there. The main object of the plans instituted by Miss Sheldon is to
test and develop the pupil's power of original and systematic expression, largely in connection with the branches of science and
literature pursued at the same time. Imaginative, as well as lit- eral
treatment of school topics, is called for ; and besides this, prac- tice
in the more general, lighter lines of composition, with both
imaginative and literal treatment, is found a valuable feature in the
training. But experience has shown that in the case of the majority
of pupils, something must be done to cultivate literary taste in
order to awaken a desire and a power to succeed to some degree in
written expression. This need is met by the constant presentation of
attractive modern prose models in the various kinds of composition
attempted by the pupils. In some cases a course of light reading is
allowed for a time in place of a part of the writ- ten work.
Meanwhile, the principles of Rhetoric are deduced and illustrated by
reference to standard writings and those of the pupils ; and
exercises are given to cultivate facility in applying these. Miss
Sheldon has, from the beginning, been greatly encouraged and
assisted in her work in Omaha, by freedom of action granted her,
and by sympathy and co-operation of the school authorities and
associate teachers ; also by the fact that the English work in the
lower grades has been for several years exceptionally good, and
constantly improving under the guidance of an able Superintendent.
JULIET A. COOK. I was born June 29, 1852, in Pulaski,
Oswego County, New York. I am unmarried. My education, so far as
school advan- tages are concerned, was obtained from the District
schools of our own county, the Public schools of the city and the
Oswego Normal
194 school. I graduated from the High school in
1869, and from the classical course at the Normal, in 18T1. I began
teaching in an academy in Martinsburg, in 1872, and remained
there one term ; at the end of the term the school changed hands.

During the next two years, I taught Grammar in the Potsdam


Normal school. For three years, during the absence of Mrs. H. H.
Straight, I taught in our own Normal school. For the past three years
I have been employed as first assistant in the Oswego High school.
During the interval between my work in the Potsdam Normal school
and the Oswego school, I spent some time in the farther study of
English Literature and History in the Normal, and oc- casionally
acted as a supply teacher in the High school.
MARGARET WARREN
MORLEY. Margaret Warren Morley was born on a prairie farm at
Mon- trose, Iowa, February 17th, 1857. When she was but a baby
her parents returned to their home in the East, where she grew up,
absorbed in books and Natural History objects, but caring very little
for the companionship of those of her own age. She was ed- ucated
in a Brooklyn public school until she entered the New York Normal
College, from which she graduated in the spring of ^78, having
taken one year from her college time to teach. It was in the Normal
College that her love of Nature was for the first time encouraged.
Professor C. E. Day showed his pupils real things, encouraged them
to look and find out for themselves, set them hunting cocoons,
beetles, butterflies, &c.,andopenedanewworldformeditationand
enjoyment.Ataboutthistimethetheoryofevolutionwasthought
uponandacceptedbyMargaretMorley.Everythingpertainingtolife
becamefullofanewinteresttoher.ButnotuntilFebruaryof'79,
whenshewenttosubstituteforayearandahalfforMrs.Straight
intheOswegoStateNormalschool,didshemeettheinfluenceswhich
lightedherfuturepathandstartedherinmanywaysonahigher
roadthanshemightotherwisehavefound.Theseinfluencescame
fromtheacquaintanceofandintimacywithDr.MaryV.Leeand
ProfessorandMrs.Straight.Scoresofwomenalloverthecountry
arebetterandtruerforhavingknownDr.Lee,andMargaretMorely
gratefullyandreverentlytestifiestothelovingwatchfulness,the
greatheartedpatience,thehelpfulstrengthwhichguidedher
inexperiencedfeetoveroneofthecrisesofherlife;underDr.
Lee'sstrengthandsweetnessofspirit,orderbegantogrowoutof
chaos,lifeseemedmorepreciousandmoreworthyofnobledeeds.
195WhileDr.Lee'sinfluencewasmoreimmediateinitseffect,
workdoneinthelaboratory,underthedirectionofProf.Straight,
gaveaninsightintohisthoughtsinrespecttoteaching,whichwas
afterwardsofinestimablevalue.Inthesummerof'83,Margaret
MorleystudiedagainunderProf.StraightinhisScienceclassesat
Martha'sVineyard.TheenthusiasmofProf.Straight'sstudentsthere
wasunboundedforthemasterfulwayinwhichheledthem,by
observations,throughtheirsenses,todiscoverthesecretsof
physicalactionandtoapplytheirknowledgetothewantsofthe
littlechild,andeverymemberoftheclassburnedwithadesireto
lielpinthedevelopmentofthechildnature.MargaretMorleybegan
atonceinaNewJerseyHighschooltoputintopracticetheideas
shehadreceived.Justassheentereduponherpleasantduties
there,itwashergoodfortunetomeetonewhomDr.LeeandProf,
andMrs.Straighthadalreadyfoundtopossessaknowledgeofgreat
valuetotheteacher,aswellastotheindividual.ThiswasMrs.
HenriettaCrane,teacheroftheDelsartesystemofexpression.It
wastheonethingthatMissMorleyhadlongwishedfor,thispower
ofeasyandexpressivemotionandvoicecontrolandsheentered

withenthusiasmintothenewwork,whichshefoundtobeinperfect
harmonywithherscienceteachingandofmuchassistancetoit.The
greatpossibilitiesintheDelsartesystem,thepowerfor
helpfulnesswhichitgavetoitsstudents,hadbutjustdawnedupon
her,whenMrs.CranewastakenillandwasorderedtoFloridabyher
physician.ThitherMissMorleyaccompaniedherandstudieduntil
summer,whenthefieldofactionwaschangedfromFloridatotheNew
Jerseycoast,wherethelessonscontinueduntilOctober,whenshe
wentWesttoteachthenewartshehadacquired.Thesummerof1885
wasspentinstudywithMrs.CraneatDesMoines,la.Sincethen
MissMorleyhasdevotedherselftoteachingtheDelsartesystem.At
presentshespendsfourdaysoftheweekintheMilwaukeeState
Normalschool,teachingdrawingandgymnastics,theremainingtwo
daysbeingdevotedtoclassesinChicago.MissMorleywishesto
proveintheMilwaukeeNormalschpol,thatthebeautifuland
valuableDelsartegymnasticsmaybegiveninanordinaryclassroom
withnootherpreparationthantheintroductionofabundanceof
freshair.Everydayofworkstrengthensherbeliefinthe
efficiencyoftheDelsartesystemtogiveimprovedphysicaland
moralpowertothestudent.Itisaglorioussubject,embracingall
departmentsofartandbasedonthesolidfoundationofscience.
196GEORGIAA.TIMERSON.GeorgiaA.TimersonwasbomatOswego,
N.Y.,andattendedtheQtyschoolsthere;enteredtheNormalin
'71,andgraduatedfromtheAdvancedEnglishCourseinJanuary,1874
;remainedintheNormalpartofthefollowingyearengagedin
study.ShetaughtinoneoftheCityschoolsfourandahalfyears,
thenasCriticteacherintheSchoolofPracticeattheOswego
Normal,fiveyears.ThenextyearwasspentasCriticteacherinthe
NormalschoolatWinona,Minn.Atpresentsheisnotteaching.
SARAHTHERESAVANPETTEN.SarahTheresaVanPetten,wasbomof
DutchandEnglishancestors,intheTownofOswego,andspentthe
firsteightyearsofherlifeintheStateofNewYork.Amongher
early,strongimpressions,werethehappyhoursspent,whenabout
fouryearsold,ingatheringgardenandfieldflowersforher
grandmother,whoshowedherhowtopressandarrangesetsofthemin
abook.Shehadgreatpleasureintalkingofthese,listeningto
storiesaboutthem,andinreciting:"Howdoththelittlebusy
bee,etc."likethebutterflyratherthanthebee,shewasnot
stillaminutethewholedaylong,andremembersashermost
severepunishment,beingrequiredtositstillhalfanhourand
saynothing,likeotherchildren,sheperformedinminiature,all
industrialprocessesexecutedbyherelders,fromthemakingofa
pieordolFsbonnettoahouseorgarden.Anearlydeterminationto
becomeateachergrewassherantomeetherfatherafterschool,
playedatwritingathisdesk,pickedupchestnutsontheAcademy
grounds,orwatchedwithanxietytheexpiringmouseinthejarof
carbonicacid.Howproudshefeltalittlelater,whenshecould
helpherfather"teachschool"byreadingrollsandaveragesfor
himtocopy!Shedoesnotrememberwhenorhowshelearnedtoread,
write,orcipher,butitwasathome"incidentally"inconnection
withlessonsinsewing"overandover,"andknittingacertain
stint,whenshewouldratherhavebeentestingthequalityofthe
maplesapontheoppositehills,orfishinginthespringbrook.One
dailytask,begunwhenfiveorsixyearsofage,sherememberswith
gratitude,thatofreadingandlearningaversefromtheBible,and
repeatingthesevenontheSabbath.^Wheneightyearsofage,her
parentsmovedtoPeoria,111.Thereshebeganherschoollifeinthe
excellentgradedschools.197graduating"fromtheclassical

courseoftheHighschoolin1869,attheageofsixteen.TheHigh
schoolhadacorpsofthoroughteachersandfittedpupilstoentera
yearinadvanceatMichiganUniversity.Herdesiretobeamongthe
firstladiesadmittedatAnnArborwasnotgratified.Inthe
summerof1869,sheattendedateachers'institutewhichhadforone
ofitsinstructorsMaryHoweSmith,whoseaccountoftheOswego
Normalschoolawakenedinhergreatinterest.Thisinterestwas
furtherdeepenedbythereadingofDr.Sheldon'sManualsandother
booksonobjectiveteachinginconnectionwithherworkwithPrimary
grades.ThefollowingyearsheassistedherfatherinaHighschool
andwasgraduatedfromthePeoriaCountyNormalschool..Twoyears
werethenspentinteachingaPrimaryschooloffiftychildren,
teachingreadingaccordingtothe"wordmethod,"andsup
plementaryplant,animal,colorandother"oral"lessons.The
sentencesthusobtainedwerewrittenupontheboardandusedas
readingandwritingexercises.Easynumbercombinationsweretaught
withtheuseofobjects,andapaperontheteachingofnumberwas
publishedin"T%eIllinoisTeacher,^^In1872shewasappointed
assistantinthePeoriaCountyNormalschool,whereshetaughtfor
fouryearsthecommonschoolstudies,chieflygrammar.Foroneterm,
duringtheillnessofthePrincipalofthePracticeschool,shehad
chargeofthatdepartment.ThePrincipaloftheschoolwasS.H.
White,oneofthemostprominentandprogressiveeducationalmenin
theState,editorformanyyearsof"TheIllinoisTeacher,^^also
amanofnationalreputationandinfluence,havingbeenSecretary
andPresidentoftheNationalTeachers'Association.Itwasarare
privilegetobeassociatedwithsuchaman,andtohisexampleand
wisecounsel,MissVanPettenowesthefoundationofherworkas
teacher,andadesireforgrowthintheprofession.In1875,she
attendedaSummerschoolofNaturalHistoryatPeoria,atwhich
ProfessorsWilderandComstock,ofCornellUniversity,andProf.
Wood,theauthorofbotanicaltextbooks,weretheinstructors.
Underthisinstruction,accordingtothebestscientificmethods,
shebecameenthusiasticoverNaturalHistory,anddesiredto
continuethemunderaspecialist,havinginmindAgassizandthe
schoolatPenikese.Suchanopportunity,notwithAgassiz,butwith
oneofhispupils,togetherwiththefulfillmentofherdesireto
studyOswegoMethods,wasofferedthenextyearwhenshevisited
Oswego.Prof.Straightgenerouslyofferedspecialfacilitiesforthe
studyofZoologyanduseofthemicroscope,andfromhisalready
overtaxed198timeandstreng'th,gavegeneraloversighttothe
work.Sheremainedintheschoolfortwoyears,givingspecial
attentiontothestudyandmethodsofteachingNaturalScience.She
wasinthoroughsympathywithProf.Straight'sideasandmethodsin
education,andfoundhimamostsuggestive,broadminded,true
heartedteacher.WhatmaybegoodinherScienceteaching,sheowes
tohisinspiration.Withtheideaofmakingnaturestudiesa
prominentelementintheeducationoftheyoung,shetaughtthe
childreninafamilyatJamestown,N.Y.Whilehereshebecame
interestedintheChautauquamovement,joiningthefirstclassof
theC.L.S.C,andstudyingintheSchoolofLanguages.In
September,1880,shereturnedtoOswegoasProf.Straight's
assistantintheScientificdepartmentandasteacherofDrawing.
Afterthreeyears,shewenttoWellesley,Mass.,totakechargeof
theScientificdepartmentinDanaHall,apreparatoryschoolfor
Wellesle^^College.Whilehere,shecontinuedherstudiesin
Science,especiallyGeologyandMineralogy,underthedirectionof
specialistsinBoston.Thetwosummerswerespentintheschoolat

Martha'sVineyard,inmakingapparatusintheworkshopunderthe
directionofProf.StraightandMr.Fitz.Attheendoftwoyears,
theScientificcourseatDanaHall,notbeingrequiredforentrance
tocollege,wasdiscontinued,andMissVanPettenreturnedto
Oswego,whereshenowis,teachingBotany,FamiliarScience,Geology
andMineralogyandDrawing.Shehaschargeoftheworkshop,andhas
supervisionoftheForm,DrawingandHandworkinthePractice
school,havingarrangedacourseofworkinthatline.The
industrialworkhasinviewthecarryingonoftheworkplannedby
Prof.Straight,theobjectbeingtomakeclearerordinarystudies,
togiveprinciplesofconstructioninvariousmaterials,andto
sendoutteacherstothecommonschoolsequippedwithsetsof
inexpensiveapparatus,readytomakeexperimentsforthe
illustrationofimportantnaturallawsincludedinthestudyofair,
waterandcommonphenomenarelatedtoGeography.Besidesthe
ordinarycourseindrawing,ingeometricalconstruction,
designing,andobjectdrawing.MissVanPettenisespecially
interestedintheuseofdrawingintheillustrationofregular
subjectsofstud^^,thepracticalapplicationoftheprinciplesof
designtotheselectionofhomeandschoolfurnishings,andinthe
workingoutofacourseofconcretelessonsforyoungerpupilsin
exactconstructionandcalculationconnectedwithgeometrical
figures,layingagoodbasisforgeometry,believingthatsucha
coursedevelopsexactness,decision,andreason,trainsthemind
199andhandtoacttogether,thatitissimpler,morepractical
andabettertrainingofthereasonthanthearithmeticusually
taughtinthesamegrades.Withtheseendsinview,shehadmuchto
dowiththelaterevisionoftheManualsoftheKrusiDrawing
Course.AMELIAB.MYERS.AmeliaB.MyerswasborninBuck's
county,Pennsylvania.Herearlyeducationwasreceivedinthe
districtschoolsofthecountyandinthepublicschoolsof
Philadelphia,towhichplaceherparentsremovedwhileshewasquite
young.Fromherearliestchildhoodshehaddesiredtobeateacher,
andasameanstothisendshewassenttotheWesternFemale
SeminaryatOxford,O.,wheresheremaineduntilgraduated.Shethen
taughtinDelawarecounty.Pa.,atthesametimepursuingacourse
ofstudyinelocution,gradutaingfromtheschooloforatoryin
Philadelphia,in1875.In1877sheenteredtheNormalschoolat
Oswegoasapupil,inwhichschoolshehasbeenateachersinceher
graduationinJanuary,1879,withtheexceptionofoneyear's
teachinginMrs.Sutton'sprivateschoolinPhiladelphia.FANNIE
C.SNOWHAMILTON.Mrs.HamiltonwasgraduatedfromtheNormal
schoolinFebruary,1880,andtaughtthesucceedingtermin
HoosickFalls,NewYork.ThenextyearshecamebacktoOswegoas
assistantcriticintheJuniorDepartment.Thefollowingyearshe
wasoneoftwoladieswhowenttoMexicocity,U.S.M.,toteachin
agirls'schoolundertheauspicesoftheWoman'sBoardofForeign
Missions.Beforethecloseoftheyearshewasputinchargeofthis
school,whereshelaboredmostsuccessfullyuntilhermarriagewith
Mr.HamiltoninJanuary,1887.TheBoardofForeignMissions
recognizedinMissSnow'sworkthevalueoftrainedteachersinthe
missionfield,andattributedmuchofhersuccesstothistraining,
atthesametimeappreciatingherversatilityofgeniusand
sweetnessofcharacter.Sheis,atpresent,livinghappilyinMexico
City,devotinghertimetohusbandandbaby.200EMILYA.
COilER.IwasbominOsire^andeducatedinitspublicschools.
Graduating'fromtheOswegoXormalschoolin1S75,1obtaineda
positionimmediatelyasteacherofArithmeticinSeniorschoolXo.

1,ofOswegx).Laterthegranmiarofthatschoolwasmy^^ork.From
thisIwasappointedtothePrincipalshipoftheJuniorschoolof
PracticeintheOswegoNormalschool.Afterworkingforoverfive
yearsinthelatterschool,IacceptedthepositionofCritic
teacherintheNewPaltzNormalschoolinSeptember,1SS6.My
presentpositionisexceedinglypleasant.Myaimtomaketheschool
lifeofmypupilsprofitableanddelightfulisstrengthenedasthe
yeai^goby,andIrealizesomethingofwhatitistoteachschool.
MRS.CLARAA.BURR.Mrs.QaraA.BurrgraduatedfromtheOswego
Normalschoolin18T3.Shehassincepaidmuchattentiontovocal
music,French,German,BotanyandKindergartenwork.Shehastaug>ht
inCincinnatiNormalschool,CincinnatiWesleyanCollege,Phila
delphiaNormalschool,andintheOswegoNormalschool.Heraimin
thelatterschoolhasbeentoextendtheKindergartenspiritand
worktothePrimarygrades.Inthisshehasbeensuccessful.At
present,Mrs.BurrisPrincipalofthePrimaryworkinthePractice
schoolconnectedwiththeOswegoNormal.SheisalsoPrincipalof
theTrainingschoolforKindergartenteachers.Mrs.Burrhasdone
goodworkinSundayschools,byshowing*theadaptabilityof
Kindergartenmethodstoreligiousandspiritualculture.MARYH.
MATTESON.IwasbominOswegoin1862,andeducatedinthepublic
schools.IgraduatedfromtheOswegoHighschoolinFebruaryof
1880,andfromtheElementaryCourseoftheOswegoNormalTraining
schoolinJune,'81.AfterthisIspentaboutayearandahalfin
Kindergartenwork,graduatingfromthatdepartmentoftheNormal.In
September,'84,IwenttoAlbany",whereforthreeyearsIhad
chargeofaPrimaryDepartmentoftheBoys'Academy,atasalaryof
$700.ThepreparatorydepartmentoftheAcademywasinchargeof
MissE.A.Andrews,whohadthreeassociateteachers,allfromthe
OswegoNormal,makingtheworkandassociationsverydelightful.In
SeptemberIexpecttogotoMinneapolis,Minnesota,todofirst
yearworkatthesamesalaryasabove.201WALKERG.RAPPLEYE.
WalkerG.RappleyegraduatedfromtheOswegoNormalschool,Junej
1875;fromCornellUniversity,Junej1882;taughtatFisk
University,Nashville,Tenn.;HasbrouckInst.,JerseyCity;has
taughtfouryearsinOswegoNormalschool.CAROLINEL.G.SCALES.
A.Educationobtainedin:1.DistrictschoolsofCumberland
County,Maine.2.Highschool,PortlandMaine.3.Private
classes.4.WellesleyCollege.a.Asspecialstudent.5.Oswego
StateNormalandTrainingschool.a.Forfourmonthsonly.B.
Teacherin:1.PublicschoolsinPortland,Maine(threeyears).
2.Highschool,Leominister,Massachusetts(threeyears).a.Of
Latin,French,History,EnglishLiteratureandBotany.3.Oswego
StateNormalandTrainingschool(threeyears).a.OfHistory,
EnglishLiterature,French,CompositionandRhetoric.CSpecial
educationalinterestsinthepast:1.Generalreadingasameans
ofculture.2.ThestudyoftheFrenchlanguageandliterature.
3.ThestudyoftheLatinlanguageandliteratureandthebest
methodofteachingthem.D.Specialeducationalinterestsat
present:1.Theapplicationofthesciencemethodtothestudyof
history.2.Thepossibilityofteachingthehistorymakersof
todaytoprofitbytheexperiencesofthehistorymakersofthe
past.3.Thesolvingofthefollowingproblems:a.Howbest
secureforthepupilaccuracy,facilityandforceinwritten
expression?b.HowbestmakethestudyofEnglishliteraturein
ourschoolsasourceofinspiration,and"apowerthatmakesfor
righteousness?"202KATEA.BUNDY.KateA.Bundywasborn
atOswego,NewYork,andhasalwaysresidedthere.Sheattended

privateschoolsexclusively,heforeenteringtheNormalschool.
SheenteredOswegoNormalschoolSeptember,1877;tookElementary
Coursewithnumerousadvancedsubjects,andgraduatedin
January,1881.Aftergraduating,shespentsometimeinCambridge,
Mass.InSeptember,1883,sheenteredMrs.Burr'sTrainingClass,in
theKindergartenDepartment,andgraduatedfromthatCoursein
January,1884.InFebruary,1884,tookpositionofPrincipalofthe
PrimaryDepartment,intheOswegoNormalschool,holdingthat
positionuptothepresenttime,withaslightchangeofduty,which
bringsherintoKindergartenWorkanditsconnectionwiththehigher
grades.MARYH.Mcelroy.Mrs.MaryH.McElroygraduatedinthe
classof1867,taughtforoneyearintheAdelphiAcademy,Brooklyn,
marriedin1869,returnedtotheprofessionin187*^asteacherin
theHomeInstituteofMrs.HamiltonatOswego,wheresheremained
forthreeyears.In1884,sheenteredtheNormalschoolasassistant
criticinthePracticeschool.MARGARETK.SMITH.MargaretK.
SmithisanativeofAmherst,NovaScotia.Sheisagraduateofa
NormalschoolinNewBrunswick,Canada.SheenteredtheNormal
schoolatOswego,1875;graduatedfromtheOswegoNormalin1883.
Aftergraduation,sheoccupiedthechairofSchoolEconomyand
MethodsofInstructionintheStateNormalschoolatPeru,Nebraska.
In1885shewenttoEuropeforthepurposeofstudyingsystemsof
Pedagogy.Shereturned,Februar^^,1887,andenteredtheState
NormalschoolatOswego,asteacher.Herlineofthoughtisinthe
directionofExactPhilosophyasfoundedbyHerbart203LOCAL
BOARD.TheLocalBoardoftheOswegoStateNormalandTrainings
schoolwasorganizedMay11th,1867.Previoustothistimethe
schoolhadbeenunderthesupervisionoftheCityBoardofEduca
tion.ThefollowinggentlemenwereappointedbyHon.VictorM.
Rice,StateSuperintendentofPublicInstruction,asmembersofthe
firstLocalBoard.DelosDeWolf,DanielG.Fort,SamuelB.Johnson,
DavidHarmon,JohnM.Barrow,GilbertMoUison,BenjaminDoolittle,
TheodoreIrwin,JohnK.Post,AbnerC.Mattoon,ThompsonKingsford,
ThomasS.Mott,RobertF.Sage.TheBoardremainedunchangeduntil
thespringof1870whenMr.Sageremovedfromtown.Atameetingof
theBoardheldApril23rd,1870,byaunanimousresolution,the
BoardrecommendedtotheStateSuperintendenttheappointmentof
AlansonS.PagetofillthevacancyoccasionedbytheremovalofMr.
Sage.Mr.PagewasappointedbytheSuperintendentincompliance
withtherecommendationoftheBoard.Inthespringof1878,Mr.
ThompsonKingsfordresignedandSuperintendentNeilGilmanappointed
Hon.GeorgeB.Sloantofillthevacancy.Thisappointmentbears
dateofMay31st,1878.ThefirstofJanuary,1883,DelosDeWolf
died,andbeforethecloseofthesamemonthMr.J.M.Barrows
followed.The9thofFebruary,1883,SuperintendentGilmore
appointedEdwinAllenandJohnDowdletofillthevacancies
occasionedbythedeathofthesemembers.EarlyinOctober,1884,
DanielG.Fortdiedverysuddenlywhileattendingtobusinessin
Chicago.InthedeathofMr.ForttheBoardlostaveryactiveand
efficientmember.Nearlyuptothetimeofhisdeath,hehadbeen
TreasureroftheBoard,andfromthetimeoftheorganizationofthe
BoardtohisdeathhehadbeenchairmanoftheCommitteeon
teachers.Asyet,July,1887,noonehasbeenappointedtofillthe
vacancy.Theboardasatpresentorganizedstandsasfollows:
GilbertMollison,President;JohnK.Post,Secretary;Theodore
Irwin,Treasurer;SamuelB.Johnson,AlansonS.Page,ThomasS.
Mott,BenjaminDoolittle,JohnM.Dowdle,AbnerC.Mattoon,Edwin
Allen,GeorgeB.Sloan.Janitors.PatrickMalonewasjanitorfrom

thetimeofthefirstoccupancyofthebuildingtoSeptember,1885.
JohnBushingerservedfromSeptember,1885,toMarch,1886.
FrederickH.CyreniustookthepositionontheresignationofMr.
Bushingerandisthepresentincumbent.XNECROLOGICAL
REPORT.Asastrangertomanywhosenamesarerecordedhere,looks
overthelistofourAlumnideadthedeathrollforaquarterofa
centuryitislikewanderinginachurchyardwherelieburiedour
kindred,manyofwhomareonlyanametous,somewiththeirlives
inwroughtintoourown.Weturnoureyeshitherandthither,reading
thenamesandthefewfactsrecordedonthestones;wegatherfrom
othersourcesafewmorefactsconcerningtheirlivesandwork
onlythesefewdata;yeteachonelivedhislifeaswedonow,
liveswiththeirhopes,theiraspirations,theircares,theirwork.
SuchistherecordIbringyoutodaythenames,afewfacts;
somehaveservedmanyyears,othersdiedjustasthepromiseof
futureusefulnessbecameapparent;afewhavenottaught.But
surroundthenamesandthefewfactsIbringwiththeinterestsof
life,withthehaloofaconsecratedspirittoserveGodbyteaching,
andyouhavethehistoryofeachlife.Tenderly,then,letuscall
thembyname;tenderly,asitbecomesustospeakofout*kindred.
CLASSOF'62.Sevenofthepioneerclassoftheschoolhavedied:
SarahP.Brewster,Oswego,diedJnne,1868.Mrs.H.M.Harmon,
(MarthaA.Seeber,)diedinOswego,May,1886.Shewasclosely
associatedwithDr.Sheldon,inhisearlyworkinthecityschools,
andlefthermarkherenotonlyinthisrespect,butthroughher
deeplyreligiousnature.Mrs.RobertW.Jordan,(MatildaLewis,)
Oswego,diedinSanFrancisco,October,1884.Mrs.FrankWaugh,
(MarthaMiller,)Oswego,diedJuly,1883.FloraT.Parsons,Oswego,
diedJanuary,1874.Shehadwidereputeasateacherinthe
ShippensburgI^'ormalschool,Pa.,anddidinstituteworkinthe
West.Hersister,ElizabethParsons,diedinApril,1872;another
sister,LauraS.Parsons,diedinMarch,1881.ElizaH.Weed,
Oswego,diedOctober,1885.Sheservedthecityfaithfullyformore
thantwentyyears.CLASSOF'63.EllenSeaver,Vermont,diedin
August,1869.ShewasacriticintheTrainingschool,andamost
enthusiasticteacherofbotany,workingoutmethodsinplants.She
contestedeveryinchofthegroundwithherfoe,consumption,not
givingupherN"ormalSchoolworkuntilsixmonthsbeforeher
death;shediedwhileattendingaTeachers'Institute.Mrs.James
M.Brown,(MaryWilliams,)Oswego,diedAugust,1885.CLASSOF'64.
Mrs.StewartMontgomery,(AmeliaE.Hubbard,)Oswego,diedatGrrand
Kapids,Mich.,June,1871.205MaggieJ.Staats,diedFeb.,
1883.Sheleavesatleastthreememorialsinthis^citythemany
yearssheconductedthePrimarydepartmentoftheCongregational
ChurchSundaySchool;heralmostascoreofyearsofPrimaryworkin
thecityschools;andtheuseofscriptinsteadofprintinwork
withyoungchildren,originatingtheideaasfarasOswegois
concerned,longbeforeitwasamatterofdiscussionineducational
circles.CLASSOF'65.Mrs.PutnamFields,(KateM.Burt,)
Oswego,diedinJerseyCity,October,1876.Mrs.JohnMcKenna,
(ElizaJ.Hyland,)Oswego,died.Mrs.GeorgeN".Goble,(Lizzie
Leffen,)Oswego,diedDecember,1870.AnnaM.Tyler,Oswego,died
August,1870.JennieP.Yocum,diedatAtlanticCity,June,1884.
CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'66.Mrs.E.Stanton,(AugustaL.Grilchrist,;
OnondagaCo.,died^"ovember,1885.AnnaHanen,Oswego,died
N^ovember,1867.Mrs.JohnM.Purdy,(MarthaA.Pride,)ofMonroe
Co.,diedApril,1876.GertrudeThurman,Oswego,diedJanuary,1867.
CLASSOFJULY,'66.HannahJ.Collins,ofMt.Carmel,Ind.,died

December,1875.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'67.AlidaJ.Brant,Oswego,
diedMarch,1871.Mrs.M.C.Spencer,(MarthaMcCumber,)Cortland,
died,January,1880.ShewasseveralyearsCriticTeacherand
PrincipaloftheJuniorDepartmentoftheTrainingschool.Shewas
characterizedbyenergyandearnestness.Afterleavinghere,she
taughtintheSt.CloudNormalschool,Minnesota,whereshemarried,
andthereshedied.Mrs.E.P.Goodenough,(EmilyM.Merriam,)of
FranklinCo.,diedinCincinnati,March,188*2.CLASSOFJULY,
'67.Mrs.A.P.Stevenson,(HarrietN.Benedict,)ofMontgomery
Co.,diedinWilmington,Del.,January,1875.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,
'68.TeenJ.Delano,ofEssexCo.,diedMarch,1875.George
Dunning,ofClintonCo.,diedOctober,1870.EudoraF.Galloway,of
MonroeCo.,diedOctober,1877.Mrs.C.A.Robinson,(Elvinia0.
Hicks,)ofCortlandCo.,diedJanuary,1875.Mrs.D.L.Johnston,
(JennieHughes,)ofMonroeCo.,diedMay,1880.CLASSOFJULY,
'68.Mrs.J.C.Grant,(SusanR.Henry,)ofCattaragusCo.,died
January,1883.MaryA.Romans,ofLaPorte,Ind.,diedinher
schoolroom,February,1874.MaryE.Riggs,Oswego,diedJuly,1871.
Mrs.ChasA.Jayoox,(AgnesA.Ste\censon,)Oswego,drownedonthe
PacificCoast,July,1876.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'69.AddieF.
Battis,Oswego,diedSeptember,1870.200EMILYA.COMER.I
wasborninOswegoandeducatedinitspublicschools.Graduating
fromtheOswegoNormalschoolin1875,Iobtainedaposition
immediatelyasteacherofArithmeticinSeniorschoolNo.1,of
Oswego.Laterthegrammarofthatschoolwasmywork.FromthisI
wasappointedtothePrincipalshipoftheJuniorschoolofPracticein
theOswegoNormalschool.Afterworkingforoverfiveyearsinthe
latterschool,IacceptedthepositionofCriticteacherintheNew
PaltzNormalschoolinSeptember,1886.Mypresentpositionis
exceedinglypleasant.Myaimtomaketheschoollifeofmypupils
profitableanddelightfulisstrengthenedastheyearsgoby,and
Irealizesomethingofwhatitistoteachschool.MRS.CLARAA.
BURR.Mrs.ClaraA.BurrgraduatedfromtheOswegoNormalschool
in1873.Shehassincepaidmuchattentiontovocalmusic,French,
German,BotanyandKindergartenwork.ShehastaughtinCincinnati
Normalschool,CincinnatiWesleyanCollege,PhiladelphiaNormal
school,andintheOswegoNormalschool.Heraiminthelatter
schoolhasbeentoextendtheKindergartenspiritandworktothe
Primarygrades.Inthisshehasbeensuccessful.Atpresent,Mrs.
BurrisPrincipalofthePrimaryworkinthePracticeschool
connectedwiththeOswegoNormal.SheisalsoPrincipalofthe
TrainingschoolforKindergartenteachers.Mrs.Burrhasdonegood
workinSundayschools,byshowingtheadaptabilityofKindergarten
methodstoreligiousandspiritualculture.MARYH.MATTESON.
1wasborninOswegoin1862,andeducatedinthepublicschools.I
graduatedfromtheOswegoHighschoolinFebruaryof1880,andfrom
theElementaryCourseoftheOswegoNormalTrainingschoolinJune,
'81.AfterthisIspentaboutayearandahalfinKindergarten
work,graduatingfromthatdepartmentoftheNormal.InSeptember,
'84,IwenttoAlbany,whereforthreeyearsIhadchargeofa
PrimaryDepartmentoftheBoys'Academy,atasalaryof$700.The
preparatorydepartmentoftheAcademywasinchargeofMissE.A.
Andrews,whohadthreeassociateteachers,allfromtheOswego
Normal,makingtheworkandassociationsverydeUghtful.In
SeptemberIexpecttogotoMinneapolis,Minnesota,todofirst
yearworkatthesamesalaryasabove.201WALKERG.RAPPLEYE.
WalkerG.RappleyegraduatedfromtheOswegoNormalschool,Junej
1875;fromCornellUniversity,Junej1882;taughtatFisk

University,Nashville,Tenn.;HasbrouckInst.,JerseyCity;has
taughtfouryearsinOswegoNormalschool.CAROLINEL.G.SCALES.
A.Educationobtainedin:1.DistrictschoolsofCumberland
County,Maine.2.Highschool,PortlandMaine.3.Private
classes.4.WellesleyCollege.a.Asspecialstudent.5.Oswego
StateNormalandTrainingschool.a.Forfourmonthsonly.B.
Teacherin:1.PublicschoolsinPortland,Maine(threeyears).
2.Highschool,Leominister,Massachusetts(threeyears).a.Of
Latin,French,History,EnglishLiteratureandBotany.3.Oswego
StateNormalandTrainingschool(threeyears).a.OfHistory,
EnglishLiterature,French,CompositionandRhetoric.CSpecial
educationalinterestsinthepast:1.Generalreadingasameans
ofculture.2.ThestudyoftheFrenchlanguageandliterature.
3.ThestudyoftheLatinlanguageandliteratureandthebest
methodofteachingthem.D.Specialeducationalinterestsat
present:1.Theapplicationofthesciencemethodtothestudyof
history.2.Thepossibilityofteachingthehistorymakersof
todaytoprofitbytheexperiencesofthehistorymakersofthe
past.3.Thesolvingofthefollowingproblems:a.Howbest
secureforthepupilaccuracy,facilityandforceinwritten
expression?6.HowbestmakethestudyofEnglishliteratureinour
schoolsasourceofinspiration,and"apowerthatmakesfor
righteousness?"202KATEA.BUNDY.KateA.Bundywasborn
atOswego,NewYork,andhasalwaysresidedthere.Sheattended
privateschoolsexclusively,beforeenteringtheNormalschool.
SheenteredOswegoNormalschoolSeptember,1877;tookElementary
Coursewithnumerousadvancedsubjects,andgraduatedinJanuary,
1881.Aftergraduating,shespentsometimeinCambridge,Mass.
InSeptember,1883,sheenteredMrs.Burr'sTrainingClass,inthe
KindergartenDepartment,andgraduatedfromthatCoursein
January,1884.InFebruary,1884,tookpositionofPrincipalofthe
PrimaryDepartment,intheOswegoNormalschool,holdingthat
positionuptothepresenttime,withaslightchangeofduty,which
bringsherintoKindergartenWorkanditsconnectionwiththehigher
grades.MARYH.Mcelroy.Mrs.MaryH.McElroygraduatedinthe
classof1867,taughtforoneyearintheAdelphiAcademy,Brooklyn,
marriedin1869,returnedtotheprofessionin1872asteacherin
theHomeInstituteofMrs.HamiltonatOswego,wheresheremained
forthree3^ears.In1884,sheenteredtheNormalschoolas
assistantcriticinthePracticeschool.MARGARETK.SMITH.
MargaretK.SmithisanativeofAmherst,NovaScotia^Sheisa
graduateofaNormalschoolinNewBrunswick,Canada.Sheentered
theNormalschoolatOswego,1875;graduatedfromtheOswegoNormal
in1883.Aftergraduation,sheoccupiedthechairofSchoolEconomy
andMethodsofInstructionintheStateNormalschoolatPeru,
Nebraska.In1885shewenttoEuropeforthepurposeofstudying
systemsofPedagogy.Shereturned,February,1887,andentered
theStateNormalschoolatOswego,asteacher.Herlineofthought
isinthedirectionofExactPhilosophyasfoundedbyHerhart
203LOCALBOARD.TheLocalBoardoftheOswegoStateNormaland
TrainingschoolwasorganizedMay11th,1867.Previoustothistime
theschoolhadbeenunderthesupervisionoftheCityBoardof
Education.ThefollowinggentlemenwereappointedbyHon.Victor
M.Rice,StateSuperintendentofPublicInstruction,asmembersof
thefirstLocalBoard.DelosDeWolf,DanielG.Fort,SamuelB.
Johnson,DavidHarmon,JohnM.Barrow,GilbertMoUison,Benjamin
Doolittle,TheodoreIrwin,JohnK.Post,AbnerC*Mattoon,Thompson
Kingsford,ThomasS.Mott,RobertF.Sage.TheBoardremained

unchangeduntilthespringof1870whenMr.Sageremovedfromtown.
AtameetingoftheBoardheldApril23rd,1870,byaunanimous
resolution,theBoardrecommendedtotheStateSuperintendentthe
appointmentofAlansonS.Pagetofillthevacancyoccasionedbythe
removalofMr.Sage.Mr.PagewasappointedbytheSuperintendentin
compliancewiththerecommendationoftheBoard.Inthespringof
1878,Mr.ThompsonKingsfordresignedandSuperintendentNeilGilman
appointedHon.GeorgeB.Sloantofillthevacancy.Thisappointment
bearsdateofMay31st,1878.ThefirstofJanuary,1883,Delos
DeWolfdied,andbeforethecloseofthesamemonthMr.J.M.
Barrowsfollowed.The9thofFebruary,1883,SuperintendentGilmore
appointedEdwinAllenandJohnDowdletofillthevacancies
occasionedbythedeathofthesemembers.EarlyinOctober,1884,
DanielG.Fortdiedverysuddenlywhileattendingtobusinessin
Chicago.InthedeathofMr.ForttheBoardlostaveryactiveand
efficientmember.Nearlyuptothetimeofhisdeath,hehadbeen
TreasureroftheBoard,andfromthetimeoftheorganizationofthe
BoardtohisdeathhehadbeenchairmanoftheCommitteeon
teachers.Asyet,July,1887,noonehasbeenappointedtofillthe
vacancy.Theboardasatpresentorganizedstandsasfollows:
GilbertMollison,President;JohnK.Post,Secretary;Theodore
Irwin,Treasurer;SamuelB.Johnson,AlansonS.Page,ThomasS.
Mott,BenjaminDoolittle,JohnM.Dowdle,AbnerC.Mattoon,Edwin
Allen,GeorgeB.Sloan.Janitors.PatrickMalonewasjanitorfrom
thetimeofthefirstoccupancyofthebuildingtoSeptember,1885.
JohnBushingerservedfromSeptember,1885,toMarch,1886.
FrederickH.CyreninstookthepositionontheresignationofMr.
Bushingerandisthepresentincumbent.NECROLOGICALREPORT.As
astrangertomanywhosenamesarerecordedhere,looksoverthe
listofourAlumnideadthedeathrollforaquarterofacentury
itislikewanderinginachurchyardwherelieburiedourkindred,
radbuyofwhomareonlyanametous,somewiththeirlives
inwroughtintoourown.Weturnoureyeshitherandthither,reading
thenamesandthefewfactsrecordedonthestones;wegatherfrom
othersourcesafewmorefactsconcerningtheirlivesandwork
onlythesefewdata;yeteachonelivedhislifeaswedonow,
liveswiththeirhopes,theiraspirations,theircares,theirwork.
SuchistherecordIbringyoutoday^thenames,afewfacts;
somehaveservedmany^''ears,othersdiedjustasthepromiseof
futureusefulnessbecameapparent;afewhavenottaught.But
surroundthenamesandthefewfactsIbringwiththeinterestsof
life,withthehaloofaconsecratedspirittoserveGodbyteaching,
andyouhavethehistoryofeachlife.Tenderly,then,letuscall
thembyname;tenderly,asitbecomesustospeakofoutkindred.
CLASSOF'62.Sevenofthepioneerclassoftheschoolhavedied:
SarahP.Brewster,Oswego,diedJune,1868.Mrs.H.M.Harmon,
(MarthaA.Seeber,)diedinOswego,May,1886.Shewasclosely
associatedwithDr.Sheldon,inhisearlyworkinthecityschools,
andlefthermarkherenotonlyinthisrespect,butthroughher
deeplyreligiousnature.Mrs.RobertW.Jordan,(MatildaLewis,)
Oswego,diedinSanFrancisco,October,1884.Mrs.FrankWaugh,
(MarthaMiller,)Oswego,diedJuly,1883.FloraT.Parsons,Oswego,
diedJanuary,1874.Shehadwidereputeasateacherinthe
ShippensburgJ^ormalschool,Pa.,anddidinstituteworkintheWest.
Hersister,ElizabethParsons,diedinApril,1872;anothersister,
LauraS.Parsons,diedinMarch,1881.ElizaH.Weed,Oswego,died
October,1885.Sheservedthecityfaithfullyformorethantwenty
years.CLASSOF'63.EllenSeaver,Yermont,diedinAugust,1869.

ShewasacriticintheTrainingschool,andamostenthusiastic
teacherofbotany,workingoutmethodsinplants.Shecontested
everyinchofthegroundwithherfoe,consumption,notgivingupher
NormalSchoolworkuntilsixmonthsbeforeherdeath;shediedwhile
attendingaTeachers*Institute.Mrs.JamesM.Brown,(Mary
Williams,)Oswego,diedAugust,1885.CLASSOF'64.Mrs.Stewart
Montgomery,(AmeliaE.Hubbard,)Oswego,diedatGrandEapids,
Mich.,June,1871.211Bishop,ElectaREl.July'67.Bishop,
MaryAElJan.'78.Black,JennyEl.'62.Blackwood,BelleEl.
Feh.'66.Blair,CharlotteMEl.July'72.Blakeman,EstellaJ
El.Jan.'79.Blanchard,OliverRAd.June'83.Blanch,Cornelia
FEl.Feh.'80.Blasdell,AmeliaEl.Jan.'74.Blasdell,Minnie
El.July'77.Blasdel,SusanEl.Feh.'69.Blood,ElizaAEl.
'62.Bloomer,JennieEl.July'69.Bodman,MirandaAAd.June
'83.Boggs,MaryJEl.Jan.'77.Bogle,AliceIEl.July'78.
Bogle,EdithRCI.Jan.'81.Bond,MaggieLEl.'65.Boyd,AdaE
El.Jan.'81.Boyd,AndrewJ.Ad.Feh.'68.Bradley,MaryFEl.
July'84.Bradt.AmeliaHEl.Feh.'66.Brangan,HarrietREl.
Jan.'78.Brant,AlidaREl.Feh.'67.Brant,LouisaHEl.'63.
Brennan,KateSEl.July'71.Brewster,SarahPEl.'62.
Brickell,GeorgeWAd.July'78.Brickell,MaryEEl.July'84.
Briggs,IdaLEl.Jan.'78.Brigham,ElvaMEl.July'71.Brodie,
HughHAd.July'80.Brooks,MahelEEl.June'83.Brooks,Minnie
LEl.Jan.'83.Brown,AdaBEl.Feh.'67.Brown,AdellaMEl.
July'84.Brown,AmeliaEl.July'67.Brown,CoraAAd.June'75.
Brown,HarrietJEl.Jan.'75.Brown,JohnEAd.Feh.'86.Brown,
JosephineEl.July'78.Brown,ManUyTAd.Feh.'69.BrownMaryJ
El.June'76.Bruce,EllenMEl.'62.Bruce,IdaAd.Feh.'70.
Bruce,LizzieEl.Jan.'85.Bryan,CoralieC....=El.July
'78.Bryan,MaryEl.'65.Bryant,MarieEEl.Feb.'66.Bryoe,
MargaretEEl.June'75.Buckland,MarthaBEl.June'85.Buell,
MaryJEl..Ittly'73.Bullis,GeorgeEAd.Jan.'81.206
Mrs.JohnRogers,(JuliaFitzpatrick,)ofLewisCo.,taughtinthis
StateandTirginia;shediedatCarthage,i^.Y.,November,1876.
AnnaH.Strong,Oswego,diedJanuary,1880.CLASSOFJULY,'69.
Mrs.WarehamJohnson,(KittieL.Dempsey,)Oswego,diedat"Wolcott,
2^.Y.,April,1883.MaryE.Dildine,ofSteubenCo.,died
January,1675.LindleyEdwards,Indiana,diedAugust,1881.Letitia
J.Gillespie,Oswego,diedMay,1885.HarrietD.Kendall,ofWyoming
Co.,diedOctober,1870.CatherineMiller,ofSuffolkCo.,died
October,1872.MatthewRiggs,ofOrangeCo.,diedSeptember,1870.
CLASSOFFEBRUARY,70.Mrs.Wm.A.Gile,(MaryG.Waitt,)of
Middlesex,Mass.,diedJuly,1876.CLASSOFJULY,70.MariaE.
Davis,ofLivingstonCo.,died1880.HenriettaMunson,of
WashingtonCo.,diedSeptember,1882,ontheeveofherdeparture
fromColoradoSpringstoreturnhome.Shetaughtsuccessfallyforten
yearsintheElmiraFreeAcademy,resigningherpositiontoseek
healingforherlungsintheWest.Mrs.JohnMunson.(IdaE.
McLean,)Oswego,died]S"ovember,1875.JeannetteL.Moody,of
FranklinCo.,diedSeptember,1885,afterteachingalongtimein
Cleveland,0.IdaR.Noble,ofSt.LawrenceCo.,wascriticfor
severalyearsintheFredoniaNormalSchool;shediedinAugust,
1877.CLASSOFJANUARY,71.HelenA.Tiffany,asuccessful
PrimaryteacherinManistee,Mich.,andinHackettstown,N.Y.,
diedinSeptember,1885.CLASSOFJANUARY,72.Mrs.George
Roberts,(AnnaA.Rice,)diedinJanuary,1881.ShetaughtinSouth
Americaforatime,establishingworkontheNormalplan.CLASSOF
JULY,72.EllaH.Green,ofSuffolkCo.,diedinMay,1880.Mrs.

AndrewDeMott,(JosephinePearsall,)ofWayneCo.,diedinAtay,
1883.CLASSOFJAJ^UARY,73.KateH.Badger,Rochester,N.Y.,
diedDecember,1885.CLASSOFJULY,73.Thisclassfurnisheda
missionarytoMadras,India,HarrietA.Jewett,ofKent,Mich.,
marriedamissionarySamuelW.Nichols,andwentwithhimtoIndia;
shediedDecember,1881.Mrs.GeorgeS.Merriam,(NellyA.Riggs,)
Oswego,taughtseveralyearsinthecityschools;shediedMay,
1881.207CLASSOFJUNE,75.EuniceChisholm,ofClintonCo.,
taughtinIthacaseveralyears,dyinginMay,1878.MaryE.
Leffin,Oswego,taughtsuccessfullyinthewest;shediedinOswego,
February,1884.CLASSOFJUNE,76.EmmaE.Baker,acityteacher
inOswego,diedFebruary,1884.CorneliaC.Bannister,Oswego,died
inMarch,1880.MinnieH.Cram,ofRocklandCo.,diedinNovember,
1883.Mrs.JasonM.Benton,(HattieE.Morgan,)ofMadisonCo.,died
inApril,1879.CLASSOFJANUARY,77.Mrs.WilliamJones,
(JennieC.Robbins,)ofOneida,diedinOregon,October,1883.
CLASSOFJULY,77.OharlesH.Ailing,ofGreeneCo.,diedMay,
1879.Mrs.W.B.Smith,(MinnieBlasdell,)ofWashingtonCo.,died
January,1886.Mrs.HenryHastings,(EmmaH.Wright,)Oswego,died
May,1883.CLASSOFJULY,78.CoralieC.Bryan,ofDutchessCo.,
taughtinaPrivateSchoolinPhiladelphia,dyingofconsumption
inSeptember1883.GeorgeW.Brickell,ofRocklandCo.,died
December,1881.Mrs.FrankY.Brown,(MaryE.Gaites,)ofSuffolk
Co.,diedSeptember,1881.Mrs.ThomasBurden,(AnnaM.Kenefic,)
Oswego,diedNovember,1884.Mrs.J.R.O'Gorman,(IsabellaK.
Nelson,)Oswego,diedNovember,1884.CLASSOFJANUARY,79.Mrs.
WallaceD.Lovell,(JosephineHastings,)Oswego,washighlyesteemed
forherbeautifulcharacter;shediedFebruary,1886.AliceJ.
Smith,diedApril,1880.CLASSOFJUNE,79.IsabellaG.Corwin,
ofSuffolkCo.,diedinAugust,1881.MaryGriflSth,Indiana,died
May,1881.MarthaJ.Hart,Ohio,diedinApril,1883.CharlesF.
Hubbard,ofSuffolkCo.,diedinOctober,1884.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,
'80.CorneliaF.Blanch,Nyack,diedMay,1886.CLASSOFJULY,
'80.JuliaM.Fisk,Oswego,diedinJuly,18d3.CLASSOFJUNE,
'81.EllaA.Gerow,ofUlsterCo.,diedMay,1884.Shetookup
trainingworkinLelandUniversity,NewOrleans,alsointheNew
HampshireNormalschool.Her208briefprofessionallifewas
useful,butsheisrememberedmostofallforworkintheChristian
Associationofourschool;fortherearemanywhocallherblessed
becauseofherbeautiful,unselfishworkhere.CLASSOFJAK,'82.
AmyK.Shaw,ofClintonCo.,diedJune,1882.CLASSOFJUNE,85.
DeliaM.Barrett,Oswego,diedFebruary,1886.Thisistherecord
ofourdead,asfarascanbeascertained;eightythreehavedied;
seventeenclasseshavetheirnumbersfull.Butthoughtheheart
stillachesforoneandanotherwhohavegone,wecancomfort
ourselveswiththethoughtthattheyhaveonlylefttheearthly
schoolalittlesoonerthanwe.ALPHABETICALLISTOFGRADUATES
OFTHEOSWEGONORMALANDTRAININGSCHOOL,FOETHEFIRSTTWENTY
FIYEYEARS,WITHCLASSANDDATEOFGRADUATION.Aber,
WUliamMCI.July72.Adams,CorneliaCAd.June'85.Adrianee,
JuliaLEl.July'72.Alden,M.HelenCI.June'81.Allen,JohnG
Ad.Jan.'71.Allen,MargaretAEl.Jan.71,Ad.July'71.
Ailing,CharlesHEl.July'77.Ailing,Harriet,SEl.June'83.
Ailing,J.CareyCI.June'79.Ailing,MaryR.El.July'69,Ad.
July'73. Anderson, Augusta B CI. June '82. Anderson. Ellen S El.

June '83. Anderson, John H CI. June '82. Anderson, Medora C El.
Feb. '67. Anderson, Mercy A El. Jan. '84. Andrews, Eliza E El. June

'81. Andrews, Esther A El. '63. Andrews, H. Adella Ad. July '77.
Andrews, Jane El. '62. Andrews, Margaret L El. '64. Aplin, K. Louise
El. July ^69. Armstrong, Clara J El. July '68. Armstrong, George P
Ad. July '84. Armstrong, Sarah J El. Feb. '67, Ad. July '67. Arnold,
Fanny .Ad. July '68. Arnold, Helen M El. Feb. '69. Arnold, Marcia A
Ad. Jan. '71. Arquit, Mary El. June '83. Atwood, Cynthia M El. Jan.
'74. Avery, Jennie H Ad. July '70, El. Jan. '71. Aylesworth, Mary F
Ad. Jan. '73k N
210 Babcock, John L CI. July '80. Backer, Amy A
El. Jul^ 'TZ, Backer, Stella M El. Feb. 'm. Badger, Kate H Ad. Jan.
'73. 3adger, J. Ward zVd. June '85. Baily, Alice F El. July '69.
Baker, Emma E El. June '76. Baker, Lillian Ad. June '79. Baker,
Louis W 01. July '78. Baker, :N'ellie El. Feb. '86. Balch, E. Alice El.
Jan. '72. Baldrige, Fanny El. June '79. Baldwin, Anna G El. July '77.
Baldwin, Frances A El. July '77. Baldwin, Maria J El. July '84.
Baldwin, William A Ad. July '84. Banning, E. Adell El. Jan. '75.
Bannister, Cornelia C El. June '76. Bannister, Elvira El. Jan. '72.
Barber, Leila Jane Ad. July '86, Barber, Mary S El. - '62. Barker,
Hannah J Ad. Feb. '69. Barker, Mary , El. '62. Barlow, Daisy D El.
June '85. Barlow, Jane El July '73. Barlow, Mary E El. July '67.
Barnes, Earl H Ad. July '84. Barnes, Sarah A El. Jan. '73. Barr,
William J Ad. June '85. Barrett, Delia M El. June '85. Barrett, H.
Elbert Ad. July '72. Barrett, Minnie El. June '85. Barrow, M. Augusta
Ad. June '75. Barstow, Ellen El. Feb. '66. Barth, Eella J El. July '70.
Bassett, Wayland G. S Ad. Feb. '70. Batcheler, F. May El. June '85.
Baxter, J. Gertrude El. Feb. '86. Beaman, Mary E Ad. July '69.
Becker, Helen El. '62. Beeman, H. Augusta Ad. July '71. Beman,
Jessie B El. July '80. Benedict, Harriet N El. July '67. Benjamin,
Amelia H El. June '85. Bennett, Emeline M El. July '72. Bennett, Ida
W Ad. July '60, El. Feb. '70. Benson, Carrie El. June '81, Ad. June '82.
Bernhard, Margaret ' Ad. June '81. Bero, Kate M El. Jan. '85. Bettis,
Addie F El. Feb. '69. Bickford, Minnie A El. July '77. Bicknell, Helen
M El. Jan. '78. Bierce, Sarah C CI. June '75.
211 Bishop, Electa R
El. July '67. Bishop, Mary A ..El Jan. '78. Black, Jenny El. '62.
Blackwood, Belle El. Feb. '66. Blair, Charlotte M El. July '72.
Blakeman, Estella J El. Jan. '79. Blanchard, Oliver R Ad. June '83.
Blanch, Cornelia F El. Feb. '80. Blasdell, Amelia El. Jan. '74.
Blasdell, Minnie El. July '77. Blasdel, Susan El. Feb. '69. Blood,
Eliza A El. '62. Bloomer, Jennie El. July '69. Bodman, Miranda A Ad.
June '83. Boggs, Mary J El. Jan. '77. Bogle, Alice I El. July '78.
Bogle, Edith R CI. Jan. '81. Bond, Maggie L El. '65. Boyd, Ada E El.
Jan. '81. Boyd, Andrew J. Ad. Feb. '68. Bradley, Mary F El. July '84.
Bradt, Amelia H El. Feb. '66. Brangan, Harriet R El. Jan. '78. Brant,
Alida R El. Feb. '67. Brant, Louisa H El. '63. Brennan, Kate S El.
July '71. Brewster, Sarah P El. '62. Brickell, George W Ad. July '78.
Brickell, Mary E El. July '84. Briggs, Ida L El. Jan. '78. Brigham, Elva
M El. July '71. Brodie, Hugh H Ad. July '80. Brooks, Mabel E El. June
'83. Brooks, Minnie L El. Jan. '83. Brown, Ada B El. Feb. '67.
Brown, Adella M El. July '84. Brown, Amelia El. July '67. Brown,
Cora A Ad. June '75. Brown, Harriet J El. Jan. '75. Brown, John E Ad.

Feb. '86. Brown, Josephine El. July '78. Brown, Manily T Ad. Feb.
'69. Brown Mary J El. June '76. Bruce, Ellen M El. '62. Bruce, Ida
Ad. Feb. '70. Bruce, Lizzie El. Jan. '85. Bryan, Coralie C . . . . El.
July '78. Bryan, Mary El. '65. Bryant, Marie E El. Feb. '66. Bryoe,
Margaret E. El. June '75. Buckland, Martha B El. Jiine '85. Buell,
Mary J Bl. .)hiy^73. Bullis, George E Ad. Jan. '81.
202 KATE A.
BUND Y. Kate A. Bundy was born at Oswego, New York, and has
always resided there. She attended private schools exclusively, before entering the Normal school. She entered Oswego Normal
school September, 1877 ; took Elementary Course with numerous
advanced subjects, and graduated in January,1881. After graduating, she spent some time in Cambridge, Mass. In September, 1883,
she entered Mrs. Burr's Training Class, in the Kindergarten Department, and graduated from that Course in January, 1884. In
February, 1884, took position of Principal of the Primary Department, in the Oswego Normal school, holding that position up to the
present
e, with a slight change of duty, which brings her into Kindergarten
Work and its connection with the higher grades.
MARY H. Mcelroy.
Mrs. Mary H. McElroy graduated in the class of 1867, taught for one
year in the Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, married in 1869, returned
to the profession in 1872 as teacher in the Home Institute of Mrs.
Hamilton at Oswego, where she remained for three years. In 1884,
she entered the Normal school as assistant critic in the Practice
school.
MARGARET K. SMITH. Margaret K. Smith is a native of
Amherst, Nova Scotia. She is a graduate of a Normal school in New
Brunswick, Canada. She entered the Normal school at Oswego,
1875 ; graduated from the Oswego Normal in 1883. After
graduation, she occupied the chair of School Economy and Methods
of Instruction in the State Normal school at Peru, Nebraska. In
1885 she went to Europe for the purpose of studying sys- tems of
Pedagogy. She returned, February, 1887, and entered the State
Normal school at Oswego, as teacher. Her line of thought is in the
direction of Exact Philosophy as founded by Herhart
203 LOCAL
BOARD. The Local Board of the Oswego State Normal and Training
school was organized May 11th, 1867. Previous to this time the
school had been under the supervision of the City Board of Education. The following gentlemen were appointed by Hon. Victor M.
Rice, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, as members of the
first Local Board. Delos DeWolf, Daniel G. Fort, Samuel B. Johnson,
David Harmon, John M. Barrow, Gilbert MoUison, Benjamin Doolittle,
Theodore Irwin, John K. Post,AbnerCMattoon,ThompsonKingsford,
ThomasS.Mott,RobertF.Sage.TheBoardremainedunchangeduntil
thespringof1870whenMr.Sageremovedfromtown.Atameetingof
theBoardheldApril23rd,1870,byaunanimousresolution,the
BoardrecommendedtotheStateSuperintendenttheappointmentof
AlansonS.PagetofillthevacancyoccasionedbytheremovalofMr.
Sage.Mr.PagewasappointedbytheSuperintendentincompliance
withtherecommendationoftheBoard.Inthespringof1878,Mr.
ThompsonKingsfordresignedandSuperintendentNeilGilmanappointed
Hon.GeorgeB.Sloantofillthevacancy.Thisappointmentbears

dateofMay31st,1878.ThefirstofJanuary,1883,DelosDeWolf
died,andbeforethecloseofthesamemonthMr.J.M.Barrows
followed.The9thofFebruary,1883,SuperintendentGilmore
appointedEdwinAllenandJohnDowdletofillthevacancies
occasionedbythedeathofthesemembers.EarlyinOctober,1884,
DanielG.Fortdiedverysuddenlywhileattendingtobusinessin
Chicago.InthedeathofMr.ForttheBoardlostaveryactiveand
efficientmember.Nearlyuptothetimeofhisdeath,hehadbeen
TreasureroftheBoard,andfromthetimeoftheorganizationofthe
BoardtohisdeathhehadbeenchairmanoftheCommitteeon
teachers.Asyet,July,1887,noonehasbeenappointedtofillthe
vacancy.Theboardasatpresentorganizedstandsasfollows:
GilbertMoUison,President;JohnK.Post,Secretary;Theodore
Irwin,Treasurer;SamuelB.Johnson,AlansonS.Page,ThomasS.
Mott,BenjaminDoolittle,JohnM.Dowdle,AbnerC.Mattoon,Edwin
Allen,GeorgeB.Sloan.Janitors.PatrickMalonewasjanitorfrom
thetimeofthefirstoccupancyofthebuildingtoSeptember,1885.
JohnBushingerservedfromSeptember,1885,toMarch,1886.
FrederickH.CyreniustookthepositionontheresignationofMr.
Bushingerandisthepresentincumbent.NECROLOGICALREPORT.As
astrangertomanywhosenamesarerecordedhere,looksoverthe
listofourAlumnidead^thedeathrollforaquarterofacentury
^itislikewanderinginachurchyardwherelieburiedour
kindred,msmyofwhomareonlyanametous,somewiththeirlives
inwroughtintoourown.Weturnoureyeshitherandthither,reading
thenamesandthefewfactsrecordedonthestones;wegatherfrom
othersourcesafewmorefactsconcerningtheirlivesandwork
onlythesefewdata;yeteachonelivedhislifeaswedonow,
liveswiththeirhopes,theiraspirations,theircares,theirwork.
SuchistherecordIbringyoutodaythenames,afewfacts;
somehaveservedmany^'^ears,othersdiedjustasthepromiseof
futureusefulnessbecameapparent;afewhavenottaught.But
surroundthenamesandthefewfactsIbringwiththeinterestsof
life,withthehaloofaconsecratedspirittoserveGodbyteaching,
andyouhavethehistoryofeachlife.Tenderly,then,letuscall
thembyname;tenderly,asitbecomesustospeakofoui*kindred.
CLASSOF'62.Sevenofthepioneerclassoftheschoolhavedied:
SarahP.Brewster,Oswego,diedJune,1868.Mrs.H.M.Harmon,
(MarthaA.Seeber,)diedinOswego,May,1886.Shewasclosely
associatedwithDr.Sheldon,inhisearlyworkinthecityschools,
andlefthermarkherenotonlyinthisrespect,butthroughher
deeplyreligiousnature.Mrs.RobertW.Jordan,(MatildaLewis,)
Oswego,diedinSanFrancisco,October,1884.Mrs.FrankWaugh,
(MarthaMiller,)Oswego,diedJuly,1883.FloraT.Parsons,Oswego,
diedJanuary,1874.Shehadwidereputeasateacherinthe
ShippensburgJ^ormalschool,Pa.,anddidinstituteworkintheWest.
Hersister,ElizabethParsons,diedinApril,1872;anothersister,
LauraS.Parsons,diedinMarch,1881.ElizaH.Weed,Oswego,died
October,1885.Sheservedthecityfaithfullyformorethantwenty
years.CLASSOF'63.EllenSeaver,Yermont,diedinAugust,1869.
ShewasacriticintheTrainingschool,andamostenthusiastic
teacherofbotany,workingoutmethodsinplants.Shecontested
everyinchofthegroundwithherfoe,consumption,notgivingupher
NormalSchoolworkuntilsixmonthsbeforeherdeath;shediedwhile
attendingaTeachers^Institute.Mrs.JamesM.Brown,(Mary
Williams,)Oswego,diedAugust,1885.CLASSOF'64.Mrs.Stewart
Montgomery,(AmeliaE.Hubbard,)Oswego,diedatGrandRapids,
Mich.,June,1871.205MaggieJ.Staats,diedFeb.,1883.She

leavesatleastthreememorialsinthis^citythemanyyearsshe
conductedthePrimarydepartmentoftheCongregationalChurchSunday
School;heralmostascoreofyearsofPrimaryworkinthecity
schools;andtheuseofscriptinsteadofprintinworkwithyoung
children,originatingtheideaasfarasOswegoisconcerned,long
beforeitwasamatterofdiscussionineducationalcircles.CLASS
OF'65.Mrs.PutnamFields,(KateM.Burt,)Oswego,diedinJersey
City,October,1876.Mra.JohnMcKenna,(ElizaJ.Hyland,)Oswego,
died.Mrs.GeorgeN.Goble,(LizzieLeflfen,)Oswego,died
December,1870.AnnaM.Tyler,Oswego,diedAugust,1870.JennieP.
Yocum,diedatAtlanticCity,June,1884.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'66.
Mrs.E.Stanton,(AugustaL.Gilchrist,;OnondagaCo.,diedNovember,
1885.AnnaHanen,Oswego,diedN^ovember,1867.Mrs.JohnM.
Purdy,(MarthaA.Pride,)ofMonroeCo.,diedApril,1876.Gertrude
Thurman,Oswego,diedJanuary,1867.CLASSOFJULY,'66.HannahJ.
Collins,ofMt.Carmel,Ind.,diedDecember,1875.CLASSOF
FEBRUARY,'67.AlidaJ.Brant,Oswego,diedMarch,1871.Mrs.M.
C.Spencer,(MarthaMoCumber,)Cortland,died,January,1880.She
wasseveralyearsCriticTeacherandPrincipaloftheJunior
DepartmentoftheTrainingschool.Shewascharacterizedbyenergy
andearnestness.Afterleavinghere,shetaughtintheSt.Cloud
Normalschool,Minnesota,whereshemarried,andthereshedied.
Mrs.E.P.Goodenough,(EmilyM.Merriam,)ofFranklinCo.,diedin
Cincinnati,March,1882.CLASSOFJULY,'67.Mrs.A.P.
Stevenson,(HarrietN.Benedict,)ofMontgomeryCo.,diedin"Wil
mington,Del.,January,1875.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'68.TeenJ.
Delano,ofEssexCo.,diedMarch,1875.GeorgeDunning,ofClinton
Co.,diedOctober,1870.EudoraF.Galloway,ofMonroeCo.,died
October,1877.Mrs.C.A.Robinson,(Elvinia0.Hicks,)ofCortland
Co.,diedJanuary,1875.Mrs.D.L.Johnston,(JennieHughes,)of
MonroeCo.,diedMay,1880.CLASSOFJULY,'68.Mrs.J.C.Grant,
(SusanR.Henry,)ofCattaragusCo.,diedJanuary,1883.MaryA.
Romans,ofLaPorte,Ind.,diedinherschoolroom,February,1874.
MaryE.Riggs,Oswego,diedJuly,1871.Mrs.ChasA.Jaycox,(Agnes
A.Ste\censon,)Oswego,drownedonthePacificCoast,July,1876.
CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'69.AddieF.Battis,Oswego,diedSeptember,
1870.206Mrs.JohnRogers,(JuliaFitzpatrick,)ofLewisCo.,
taughtinthisStateandYirginia;shediedatCarthage,X.Y.,
November,1876.AnnaH.Strong,Oswego,diedJanuary,1880.CLASS
OFJULY,*69.Mrs.WarehamJohnson,(KittieL.Dempsey,)Oswego,
diedat"Wolcott,N".Y.,April,1883.MaryE.Dildine,ofSteuben
Co.,diedJanuary,1875.LindleyEdwards,Indiana,diedAugust,
1881.LetitiaJ.Gillespie,Oswego,diedMay,1885.HarrietD.
Kendall,of"WyomingCo.,diedOctober,1870.CatherineMiller,of
SuffolkCo.,diedOctober,1872.MatthewRiggs,ofOrangeCo.,died
September,1870.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,'70.Mrs.Wm.A.Gile,(Mary
G.Waitt,)ofMiddlesex,Mass.,diedJuly,1876.CLASSOFJULY,
'70.MariaE.Davis,ofLivingstonCo.,died1880.Henrietta
Munson,ofWashingtonCo.,diedSeptember,1882,ontheeveofher
departurefromColoradoSpringstoreturnhome.Shetaught
successfullyfortenyearsintheElmiraFreeAcademy,resigningher
positiontoseekhealingforherlungsintheWest.Mrs.John
Munson.(IdaE.McLean,)Oswego,diedi^ovember,1875.JeannetteL.
Moody,ofFranklinCo.,diedSeptember,1885,afterteachingalong
timeinCleveland,0.IdaR.N'oble,ofSt.LawrenceCo.,was
criticforseveralyearsintheFredoniaNormalSchool;shediedin
August,1877.CLASSOFJANUARY,71.HelenA.Tiffany,a
successfulPrimaryteacherinManistee,Mich.,andinHaek

ettstown,N.Y.,diedinSeptember,1885.CLASSOFJANUARY,72.
Mrs.GeorgeRoberts,(AnnaA.Rice,)diedinJanuary,1881.She
taughtinSouthAmericaforatime,establishingworkontheNormal
plan.CLASSOFJULY,72.EllaH.Green,ofSuffolkCo.,diedin
May,1880.Mrs.AndrewDeMott,(JosephinePearsall,)ofWayneCo.,
diedinAtay,1883.CLASSOFJAJ^UARY,73.KateH.Badger,
Rochester,N.Y.,diedDecember,1885.CLASSOFJULY,73.This
classfurnishedamissionarytoMadras,India,HarrietA.Jewett,of
Kent,Mich.,marriedamissionarySamuelW.Nichols,andwentwith
himtoIndia;shediedDecember,1881.Mrs.GeorgeS.Merriam,
(NellyA.Riggs,)Oswego,taughtseveralyearsinthecityschools;
shediedMay,1881.207CLASSOFJUNE,75.EuniceChisholm,
ofClintonCo.,taughtinIthacaseveralyears,dyinginMay,1878.
MaryB.Leffin,Oswego,taughtsuccessfullyinthewest;shediedin
Oswego,February,1884.CLASSOFJUNE,76.EmmaE.Baker,acity
teacherinOswego,diedFebruary,1884.CorneliaC.Bannister,
Oswego,diedinMarch,1880.MinnieH.Crum,ofRocklandCo.,died
inNovember,1883.Mrs.JasonM.Benton,(HattieE.Morgan,)of
MadisonCo.,diedinApril,1879.CLASSOFJANUARY,77.Mrs.
WilliamJones,(JennieC.Robbins,)ofOneida,diedinOregon,
October,1883.CLASSOFJULY,77.CharlesH.Ailing,ofGreene
Co.,diedMay,1879.Mrs.W.B.Smith,(Minnie Blasdell,) of

Washington Co., died January, 1886. Mrs. Henry Hastings, (Emma


H. Wright,) Oswego, died May, 1883. CLASS OF JULY, 78. Coralie
C. Bryan, of Dutchess Co., taught in a Private School in Philadelphia, dying of consumption in September 1883. George W. Brickell,
of Rockland Co., died December, 1881. Mrs. Frank V. Brown, (Mary
E. Gaites,) of Suffolk Co., died September, 1881. Mrs. Thomas
Burden, (Anna M. Kenefic,) Oswego, died November, 1884. Mrs. J.
R. O'Gorman, (Isabella K. Nelson,) Oswego, died November, 1884.
CLASS OF JANUARY, 79. Mrs. Wallace D. Lovell, (Josephine
Hastings,) Oswego, was highly esteemed for her beautiful character
; she died February, 1886. Alice J. Smith, died April, 1880. CLASS
OF JUNE, 79. Isabella G. Corwin, of Suffolk Co., died in August,
1881. Mary GriflSth, Indiana, died May, 1881. Martha J. Hart, Ohio,
died in April, 1883. Charles F. Hubbard, of Suffolk Co., died in
October, 1884. CLASS OF FEBRUARY, '80. Cornelia F. Blanch,
Nyack, died May, 1886. CLASS OF JULY, '80. Julia M. Fisk, Oswego,
died in July, 18d3. CLASS OF JUNE, '81. Ella A. Gerow, of Ulster
Co., died May, 1884. She took up training work in Leland University,
New Orleans, also in the New Hampshire Normal school. Her
208
brief professional life was nseftil, but she is remembered most of all
for work in the Christian Association of our school ; for there are
many who call her blessed because of her beautiful, unselfish work
here. CLASS OF JAN., '82. Amy K. Shaw, of Clinton Co., died June,
1882. CLASS OF JUNTE, 85. Delia M. Barrett, Oswego, died
February, 1886. This is the record of our dead, as far as can be
ascertained ; eighty-three have died ; seventeen classes have their
numbers full. But though the heart still aches for one and another
who have gone, we can comfort ourselves with the thought that
they have only left the earthly school a little sooner than we.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GRADUATES
OF THE
OSWEGO NORMAL

AND TRAINING SCHOOL, FOR THE FIRST TWENTY-FIYE YEARS,


WITH CLASS AND DATE OF GRADUATION.

Aber, William M CI.


July '72. Adams, Cornelia Ad. June '85. Adriance, Julia L El. July '72.
Alden, M. Helen CI. June '81. Allen, John G Ad. Jan. '71. Allen,
Margaret A EL Jan. 71, Ad. July '71. Ailing, Charles H El. July '77.
Ailing, Harriet, S El. June '83. Ailing, J. Carey CI. June '79. Ailing,
Mary R El. July '69, Ad. July '73. Anderson, Augusta E CI. June '82.
Anderson, Ellen S El. June '83. Anderson, John H CI. June '82.
Anderson, Medora C El. Feb. '67. Anderson, Mercy A El. Jan. '84.
Andrews, Eliza B El. June '81. Andrews, Esther A El. '63. Andrews,
H. Adella Ad. July '77. Andrews, Jane El. '62. Andrews, Margaret L
El. '64. Aplin, K. Louise El. July ^69. Armstrong, Clara J El. July '68.
Armstrong, George P Ad. July '84. Armstrong, Sarah J El. Feb. '67,
Ad. July '67. Arnold, Fanny .Ad. July '68. Arnold, Helen M El. Feb.
'69. Arnold, Marcia A Ad. Jan. '71. Arquit, Mary El. June '83.
Atwood, Cynthia M El. Jan. '74. Avery, Jennie H Ad. July '70, El. Jan.
'71. Aylesworth, Mary F Ad. Jan. '73k. N
208 brief professional
life was useful, but she is remembered most of all for work in the
Christian Association of our school ; for there are many who call her
blessed because of her beautifal, unselfish work here. CLASS OF
JAN., '82. Amy K. Shaw, of Clinton Co., died June, 1882. CLASS OF
JUNE, 85. Delia M. Barrett, Oswego, died February, 1886. This is
the record of our dead, as far as can be ascertained ; eighty-three
have died ; seventeen classes have their numbers full. But though
the heart still aches for one and another who have gone, we can
comfort ourselves with the thought that they have only left the
earthly school a little sooner than we.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF
GRADUATES
OF THE
OSWEGO NORMAL AND TRAINING
SCHOOL, FOR THE FIRST TWENTY-FIYE YEARS,
WITH CLASS AND
DATE OF GRADUATION.

Aber, William M CI. July '72. Adams,


Cornelia C Ad. June '85. Adriance, Julia L El. July '72. Alden, M.
Helen 01. June '81. Allen, John G Ad. Jan. '71. Allen, Margaret A Bl,'
Jan. 71, Ad. July '71. Ailing, Charles H El. July '77. Ailing, Harriet, S
El. June '83. Ailing, J. Carey CI. June '79. Ailing, Mary R El. July '69,
Ad. July '73. Anderson, Augusta E CI. June '82. Anderson, Ellen S
El. June '83. Anderson, John H CI. June '82. Anderson, Medora C El.
Feb. '67. Anderson, Mercy A El. Jan. '84. Andrews, Eliza B El. June
'81. Andrews, Esther A El. '63. Andrews, H. Adella Ad. July '77.
Andrews, Jane El. '62. Andrews, Margaret L El. '64. Aplin, K. Louise
El. July fid, Armstrong, Clara J El. July '68. Armstrong, George P Ad.
July '84. Armstrong, Sarah J El. Feb. '67, Ad. July '67. Arnold, Fanny
.Ad. July '68. Arnold, Helen M El. Feb. '69. Arnold, Marcia A Ad. Jan.
'71. Arquit, Mary El. June '83. Atwood, Cynthia M El. Jan. '74.
Avery, Jennie H .Ad. July '70, El. Jan. '71* Aylesworth, Mary F Ad.
Jan. '73k.
212 Bundy, Kate V. D El. Jan, '81. Bunker, Josephine
C. El. June '81. Bunnell, Hannah K El. '63. Bnrohard, Oscar R Ad.
July '69. Burgoyne, Mary E El. Jan. '75. Burhaus, Oelina M Ad. June
'76. Burke, Ellen B El. July '68. Burleson, Harriet R El. June '83.
Bumes, Letitia H Ad. July '78. Bumes, Teresa E Ad. June 75. Bums,

Fannie U El. July '84. Burr, Clara A El. July '73. Burrington, LOlia E
El. July '73. Burt, Carrie M El. June '76. Burt, Hittie A El. June '76.
Burt, Jessie M Ad. June '75. Burt, Kate B Ad. Feb. '67. Burt, Kate M
El. '65. Burt, Lizzie El. July '77. Burt, Margaret M El. '64. Burt,
Marion Y El. Feb. '66. Burt, Mary H CI. Jan. '72. Burt, S. Jennie. El.
Jan. '81. Burton, Antoinette E Ad. July '73. Burton, Ella May El.
June '82. Bush, Arthine A El. July '72. Butler. Amelia P El. July '77.
Butler, Mary L El. Feb. '70. Butler Rachel A Ad. June '81. Butts,
Flora E El. July '78. Butts, Melissa M El. July '72. Byrne, Mary A El.
July '77. Cady, Lizzie P El. June '83. Calkins, Minnie H Ad. June '79.
Callaghan, Anna C El. July '84. Calvert, Harvey J Ad. July '73.
Campbell, Anna El. '63, Card, Florence El. '63. Card, George N"
Ad. Feb. '69. Card, Milton H , Ad. Feb. '69. Carlisle, Ellor E , El. Jan.
'85. Carpenter, Hannah M &.July'73.Carpenter,MaraEEl.July
'69.Carpenter,MarianNEl.July'67.Carpenter,RosamondHEl.
Feb.'69.CJarpenter,Sarah;El.'63.Carr,GeorgiaAAd.June
'85.Carrier,MaryEAd.Jan.'71.Carter,NancyJEl.'63.
Cartwright,YirginiaCI.June'79.Case,PameliaC..El.'62.
Canlfield,MaryBEl.Jan.'83.Chalmers,AngelineEl.'65.213
ChalmerS;JuliaAEl.Feb.W.Champion,AnnaEl.July'71
Chandler,ElizaEl.'65.Chapin,AlvinPCI.Juiy73.Chapin,
EdwardEl.July71.Chapman,EmmaJEl.June'82Charles,Libbie
SEl.July'67.Chase,OliveAEl.July71.Cheyney,ElizaAEl.
June'81.Chisholm,AnnaBELJune'79.Chisholm,EuniceEl.June
'75.Chisholm,LucyAd.Jan.'74.Churchill,H.JennieEl.July
'69.Churchill,MarthaEEl.Jan.'78.Churchill,OctaGAd.July
'72.Clancey,MarieLEl.'64.Clapp,EvaHEl.Feb.'68.
Clapp,LenoraTEl.'62.Clark,AgnesL,El.June'76.Clark,
AliceMAd.Jan.'84.Clark,CalvinJAd.June'79.Clark,
CharlesDEl.'62.Clarke,FannyMEl.Jan.'71.Clark,Elizabeth
YEl.Jan.'76.Clark,FlorenceEl.'63.Clark,HattieEl.Feb.
'68.Clark,MargaretJEl.July'80.Clark,NelUeEAd.Feb.'86.
Clary,CarolineEl.June'81.Clary,CharlotteAEl.Jan'77.
Cleghom,M.JaneEl.June'74.Cleveland,AdellaYEl.July'84.
Clock,MayWoodEl.June'82.Clubbs,S.AnnaEl.July72.Clute,
AlfarattaEl.June'81.Coats,PhoebeEl.'63.Cole,AnnaR.El.
July'80.Cole,EllaJEl.Feb.'67.Cole,MaryREl.Jan.'79.
Collier,JohnEl.July'78.Collins,AbigailLCI.July'80.
Collins,AnnaTEl.July'80.Collins,EmmaMEl.July'79.
Collins,HannahJEl.July'66.Colnon,CarolineMEl.Jan.'84.
Comer,EmilyA,El.June'74.Comstock,AmyCI.June'83.Cook,
JulietACI.July'71.Cooley,HelenCI.July'80.Coon,Emily
El.Feb.'70.Cooper,ArthurAd.July'71.Cooper,ClaraFEl.
Jan.'85.Cooper,FannyEl.'63.NECROLOGICALREPORT.Asa
strangertomanywhosenamesarerecordedhere,looksoverthehst
ofourAlumnideadthedeathrollforaquarterofacenturyit
islikewanderinginachurchyardwherelieburiedourkindred,many
ofwhomareonlyanametous,somewiththeirlivesinwroughtinto
ourown.Weturnoureyeshitherandthither,readingthenamesand
thefewfactsrecordedonthestones;wegatherfromothersources
afewmorefactsconcerningtheirlivesandworkonlythesefew
data;yeteachonelivedhislifeaswedonow,liveswiththeir
hopes,theiraspirations,theircares,theirwork.Suchisthe
recordIbringyoutoday^thenames,afewfacts;somehave
servedmanyyears,othersdiedjustasthepromiseoffuture

usefulnessbecameapparent;afewhavenottaught.Butsurroundthe
namesandthefewfactsIbringwiththeinterestsoflife,withthe
haloofaconsecratedspirittoserveGodbyteaching,andyouhave
thehistoryofeachlife.Tenderly,then,letuscallthembyname;
tenderly,asitbecomesustospeakofout*kindred.CLASSOF'62.
Sevenofthepioneerclassoftheschoolhavedied:SarahP.
Brewster,Oswego,diedJnne,1868.Mrs.H.M.Harmon,(MarthaA.
Seeber,)diedinOswego,May,1886.Shewascloselyassociatedwith
Dr.Sheldon,inhisearlyworkinthecityschools,andlefther
markherenotonlyinthisrespect,butthroughherdeeplyreligious
nature.Mrs.RobertW.Jordan,(MatildaLewis,)Oswego,diedinSan
Francisco,October,1884.Mrs.FrankWaugh,(MarthaMiller,)
Oswego,diedJuly,1883.FloraT.Parsons,Oswego,diedJanuary,
1874.ShehadwidereputeasateacherintheShippensburgJ^ormal
school,Pa.,anddidinstituteworkintheWest.Hersister,
ElizabethParsons,diedinApril,1872;anothersister,LauraS.
Parsons,diedinMarch,1881.ElizaH."Weed,Oswego,died
October,1885.Sheservedthecityfaithfullyformorethantwenty
years.CLASSOF'63.EllenSeaver,Yermont,diedinAugust,1869.
ShewasacriticintheTrainingschool,andamostenthusiastic
teacherofbotany,workingoutmethodsinplants.Shecontested
everyinchofthegroundwithherfoe,oonaumptioa,notgivingupher
NormalSchoolworkuntilsixmonthsbeforeherdeath;shediedwhile
attendingaTeachers'Institute.Mrs.JamesM.Brown,(Mary
Williams,)Oswego,diedAugust,1885.CLASSOF'64.Mrs.Stewart
Montgomery,(AmeliaE.Hubbard,)Oswego,diedatGrandEapids,
Mich.,June,1871.215Day,DeUaMEl.Feb.'69.Deacon,Jane
El.July'78.Deering,HarrietAAd.July'73,DeLano,TeenJ
El.Feb,'68,Ad.July'69.Dempsey,EllaAAd.Jan.'75.
Dempsey,KittleLEl.July'69.Dennison,"WilliamAd.July'78.
Denton,SarahLAd.Feb.,'69,El.July'69.Derby,MaryMCI.Juno
'76.Dermot,SarahAEl.Jan.'83.DeShong,HarrietEl.July'73.
Dewey,LolaMAd.July'7*2.Deyo,MaryEl.Jan.'83.Deyo,M.
LouiseEl.Jan.'81.Dickerman,EmmaEl.July'71.Dickinson,
HelenEl.July'78.Dickeman,CharlotteNEl.Feb.'69.Dildine,
MaryEEl.July'69.Dilley,MaryLAd.Jan.'73.Dinmore,Lizzie
El.'65.Dobbie,E.LinaEl.Feb.'68.Dobbie,LucyMEl.June
'85,Dodd,HattieMEl.Jan.'85Donnan,EmmaEl.Jan.'77.
Donnolley,AliceELJune'74.Doran,MinnieEEl.July'73.
Doris,ElizabethLEl.July'68.Douglas,JuliaBEl.June'76.
Douglass,HenryMCI.July'68.Dowd,HarrietEEl.Feb.'80,Ad.
Jan.'82.Downes,WilliamBAd.June'85.Downey,M.Elizabeth
El.June'85.Dowse,HattieYAd.July'70.Doyle,CarrieCEl.
July'80.Draper,MargaretAAd.Jan.'75.Drew,JeannetteEl.
Feb.'67.Dubois,EllaMEl.Jan.'77.Dugane,SarahDEl.'64.
Dunning,GeorgeAd.Feb.'68.Dunning,IdaLEl.Feb.'80.
Earley,MichaelJ.'Ad.July'86.Edic,Ii*abellaLEl.June79.
Edmunds,ElizabethMEl.July'80.Edwards,AdelineSEl.July'72.
Edwards,D.SophiaAd.July'72.Edwards,EllaIEl.Jan.'75.
Edwards,EvaSEl.Feb.'68,Ad.Feb.'69.Edwards,LindleyMAd.
July'69.Eggleston,HenriettaMAd.July'71.E\h,AmeliaAEl.
Feb.'67.Enos,FannieFEl.July'78.Evans,AddieFEl.June
'76.Evans,EmmaLEl.June'83.216Fairchild,EllaAEl.
June75.Fairchild,FannyMEl.July'68.Famham,Amos"WAd.
June'75.Famham,LeRoyDCI.July72.Farrington,MaryJELJune
'82.Fearey,SophiaEl.Jan.73.Fenner,EmmaJEl.July'67.
Ferguson,SarahMEl.July'69,Ad.July'71Ferris,JennieMEl.
July'73.Ferris,LauraEEl.Jan.'85.Ficken,EmmaCEl.June

'74.Finch,AdelaideYEl.June'83.FisherCoraBEl.June'81.
Fish,MinnieUEl.July'80.Fisk,JuliaMEl.July'80.Fitz,
GeorgeWAd.June'83.Fitzpatrick,JuliaAEl.Feb.'69.
Flanagan,MaryWAd.July'86.Flynn,MinnieGEl.Jan.'81.
Fogle,M.YirginiaAd.June'83.Forbes,AnnaEEl.June'81.
Forbes,SarahMEl.Jan.'77.Forbush,J.EstelleEl.July'71.
Ford,M.LouiseEl.Jan.'85.Foster,H.FranklinEl.June'79.
Foster,IdahoPEl.July'84FosterMaryFEl.Feb.'67.France,
AaronRAd.Feb.'70.Franklin,LizzieJEl.June'83.Franks,
MariaBEl.July'70.Eraser,JessieS/El.July'78.Freeston,
MaryCAd.Jan.'85.French,ArminaAd.Feb.'67.Fuller,
ReunetteEEl.June'76.Funnelle,AmandaPEl.'62.Funnelle,
LenaSAd.Feb.'67,El.July'67.Furman,G.MonroeAd.July'69.
Furman,JohnWAd.Jan.'71.Gage,L.JennieEl.Feb.'68.Gage,
MaryE^.El.'65.Gaites,MaryE.'Ad.July'78.Galloway,F.
EudoraEl.Feb.'68.Gaylord,MargaretKEl.Feb.'69.Gardner,
AdaEEl.Jan.'77.Gardner,HelenREl.July'84.Garrison,
EdithMEl.July'86.Geer,GilesAEl.July'84.Gerow,EllaA
El.June'81,Ad.Jan.'83.Gibbs,FrankMEl.Feb.'66.Gibbs,
M.EUzabethAd.Feb.'67,El.July'67.Gilbert,ChristinaHEl.
^'62.GUbert,FannieSEl.July'73.Gilchrist,AugustaLEl.
Feb.'66.207CLASSOFJUNE,75.EuniceChisholm,ofClinton
Co.,taughtinIthacaseveralyears,dyinginMay,1878.MaryE.
Lefin,Oswego,taughtsuccessfullyinthewest;shediedinOswego,
February,1884.CLASSOFJUNE.76.EmmaE.Baker,acityteacher
inOswego,diedFebruary,1884.CorneliaC.Bannister,Oswego,died
inMarch,1880.MinnieH.Crnm,ofRocklandCo.,diedinNovember,
1883.Mrs.JasonM.Benton,(HattieE.Morgan,)ofMadisonCo.,died
inApril,1879.CLASSOFJANUARY,77.Mrs."WilliamJones,
(JennieC.Robbins,)ofOneida,diedinOregon,October,1883.
CLASSOFJULY,'77.OharlesH.Ailing,ofGreeneCo.,diedMay,
1879.Mrs.W.B.Smith,(MinnieBlasdell,)ofWashingtonCo.,died
January,1886.Mrs.HenryHastings,(EmmaH.Wright,)Oswego,died
May,1883.CLASSOFJULY,78.CoralieC.Bryan,ofDutchessCo.,
taughtinaPrivateSchoolinPhiladelphia,dyingofconsumption
inSeptember1883.George"W.Brickell,ofRocklandCo.,died
December,1881.Mrs.FrankY.Brown,(MaryE.Gaites,)ofSuffolk
Co.,diedSeptember,1881.Mrs.ThomasBurden,(AnnaM.Kenefic,)
Oswego,diedNovember,1884.Mrs.J.R.O'Gorman,(IsabellaK.
Nelson,)Oswego,diedNovember,1884.CLASSOFJANUARY,'79.Mrs.
WallaceD.Lovell,(JosephineHastings,)Oswego,washighlyesteemed
forherbeautifulcharacter;shediedFebruary,1886.AliceJ.
Smith,diedApril,1880.CLASSOFJUNE,79.IsabellaG.Corwin,
ofSuffolkCo.,diedinAugust,1881.MaryGriflSth,Indiana,died
May,1881.MarthaJ.Hart,Ohio,diedinApril,1883.CharlesF.
Hubbard,ofSuffolkCo.,diedinOctober,1884.CLASSOFFEBRUARY,
'80.CorneliaF.Blanch,Nyack,diedMay,1886.CLASSOFJULY,
'80.JuliaM.Fisk,Oswego,diedinJuly,18r33.CLASSOFJUNE,
'81.EllaA.Gerow,ofUlsterCo.,diedMay,1884.Shetookup
trainingworkinLelandUniversity,NewOrleans,alsointheNew
HampshireNormalschool.Her208briefprofessionallifewas
usefiil,butsheisrememberedmostofallforworkintheChristian
Associationofourschool;fortherearemanywhocallherblessed
becauseofherbeautiful,unselfishworkhere.CLASSOFJAN.,'82.
AmyK.Shaw,ofClintonCo.,diedJune,1882.CLASSOFJUNE,85.
DeliaM.Barrett,Oswego,diedFebruary,1886.Thisistherecord
ofourdead,asfarascanbeascertained;eightythreehavedied;
seventeenclasseshavetheirnumbersfull.Butthoughtheheart

stillachesforoneandanotherwhohavegone,wecancomfort
ourselveswiththethoughtthattheyhaveonlylefttheearthly
schoolalittlesoonerthanwe.^ALPHABETICALLISTOF
GRADUATESOFTHEOSWEGONORMALANDTRAININGSCHOOL,FORTHE
FIRSTTWBNTYFIYETEARS;WITHCLASSANDDATEOFGRADUATION.
Aber,WilliamM..CI.July'72.Adams,CorneliaCAd.June'85.
Adriance,JuliaLEl.July'72.Alden,M.HelenCI.June'81.
Allen,JohnGAd.Jan.'71.Allen,MargaretAEl.'Jan.71,Ad.
July'71.AUing,CharlesHEl.July'77.Ailing,Harriet,SEl.
June'83.AUing,J.CareyCI.June'79.Ailing,MaryREl.July
'69,Ad.July'73.Anderson,AugustaECI.June'82.Anderson,
EllenSEl.June'83.Anderson,JohnHCI.June'82.Anderson,
MedoraCEl.Feb.'67.Anderson,MercyAEl.Jan.'84.Andrews,
ElizaBEl.June'81.Andrews,EstherAEl.'63.Andrews,H.
AdellaAd.July'77.Andrews,JaneEl.'62.Andrews,MargaretL
El.'64.Aplin,K.LouiseEl.July,69.Armstrong,ClaraJEl.
July'68.Armstrong,GeorgePAd.July'84.Armstrong,SarahJ
El.Feb.'67,Ad.July'67.Arnold,Fanny.Ad.July'68.Arnold,
HelenMEl.Feb.'69.Arnold,MarciaAAd.Jan.'71.Arquit,Mary
El.June'83.Atwood,CynthiaMEl.Jan.'74.Avery,JennieHAd.
July'70,El.Jan.'71*Aylesworth,MaryFAd.Jan.'7a.N
210Babcock,JohnLCI.July'80.Backer,AmyAEl.July'72.
Backer,StellaMEl.Feb.'d6.Badger,KateHAd.Jan.'73.
badger,J.WardAd.June'85.Baily,AliceFEl.July'69.Baker,
EmmaBEl.June'76.Baker,LillianAd.June'79.Baker,LouisW
01.July'78.Baker,NellieEl.Feb.'86.Balch,E.AliceEl.
Jan.'72.Baldrige,FannyEl.June'79.Baldwin,AnnaGEl.July
'77.Baldwin,FrancesAEl.July'77.Baldwin,MariaJEl.July
'84.Baldwin,WilliamAAd.July'84.Banning,E.AdellEl.Jan.
'75.Bannister,Cornelia^El.June'76.Bannister,ElviraEl.
Jan.'72.Barber,LeilaJaneAd.July*86,Barber,MarySEl.
'62.Barker,HannahJAd.Feb.'69.Barker,MaryEl.'62.
Barlow,DaisyDEl.June'85.Barlow,JaneElJuly'73.Barlow,
MaryEEl.July'67.Barnes,EarlHAd.July'84.Barnes,SarahA
El.Jan.'73.Barr,WilliamJAd.June'85.Barrett,DeliaMEl.
June'85.Barrett,H.ElbertAd.July'72.Barrett,MinnieEl.
June'85.Barrow,M.AugustaAd.June'75.Barstow,EllenEl.
Feb.'66.Barth,BellaJEl.July'70.Bassett,WaylandG.SAd.
Feb.'70.Batcheler,F,MayEl.June'85.Baxter,J.GertrudeEl.
Feb.'86.Beaman,MaryEAd.July'69.Becker,HelenEl.'62.
Beeman,H.AugustaAd.July'71.Beman,JessieBEl.July'80.
Benedict,HarrietN"El.July'67.Benjamin,AmeliaHEl.June'85.
Bennett,EmelineMEl.July'72.Bennett,IdaWAd.July'69,El.
Feb.'70.Benson,CarrieEl.June'81,Ad.June'82.Bemhard,
Margaret'Ad.June'81.Bero,KateMEl.Jan.'85.Bettis,Addie
FEl.Feb.'69.Bickford,MinnieAEl.July'77.Bicknell,Helen
MEl.Jan.'78.Bierce,SarahCCI.June'75.211Bishop,
ElectaREl.July'67.Bishop,MaoyAElJan.'78.Black,Jenny
El.'62.Blackwood,BelleEl.Feb.'66.Blair,CharlotteMEl.
July'72.Blakeman,EstellaJEl.Jan.'79.Blanchard,OliverR
Ad.June'83.Blanch,CorneliaFEl.Feb.'80.Blasdell,Amelia
El.Jan,'74.Blasdell,MinnieEl.July'77.Blasdel,SusanEl.
Feb.'69.Blood,ElizaAEl.'62.Bloomer,JennieEl.July'69.
Bodman,MirandaAAd.June'83.Boggs,MaryJEl.Jan.'77.
Bogle,AliceIEl.July'78.Bogle,EdithRCI.Jan.'81.Bond,
MaggieLEl.'65.Boyd,AdaEEl.Jan.'81.Boyd,AndrewJAd.
Feb.'68.Bradley,MaryFEl.July'84.Bradt,AmeliaHEl.Feb.
'66.Brangan,HarrietREl.Jan.'78.Brant,AlidaREl.Feb.

'67.Brant,LouisaHEl.'63.Brennan,KateSEl,July'71.
Brewster,SarahPEl.'62.Brickell,GeorgeWAd.July'78.
BrickeD,MaryEEl.July'84.Briggs,IdaLEl.Jan.'78.
Brigham,ElvaMEl.July'71.Brodie,HughHAd.July'80.
Brooks,MabelEEl.June'83.Brooks,MinnieLEl.Jan.'83.
Brown,AdaBEl.Feb.'67.Brown,AdellaMEl.July'84.Brown,
AmeliaEl.July'67.Brown,CoraAAd.June'75.Brown,HarrietJ
,El.Jan.'75.Brown,JohnEAd.Feb.'86.Brown,JosephineEl.
July'78.Brown,ManilyTAd.Feb.'69.BrownMaryJEl.June
'76.Bruce,EllenMEl.'62Bruce,IdaAd.Feb.'7o!Bruce,
LizzieEl.Jan.'85.Bryan,CoralieC....:El.July'78.Bryan,
MaryEl.'65.Bryant,MarieEEl.Feb.'66.Bryce,MargaretE.
El.June'75.Buckland,MarthaBEl.June'85.Buell,MaryJBl.
Jhiy'73.BuUis,GeorgeEAd.Jan.'81.212Bundy,KateV.D
El.Jan,'81.Bunker,JosephineC..El.June'81.Bunnell,
HannahKEl.'63.Burohard,OscarRAd.July'69.Burgoyne,Mary
EEl.Jan.'75.Burhaus,CelinaMAd.June'76.Burke,EllenB
El.July'68.Burleson,HarrietBEl.June'83.Bumes,LetitiaH
Ad.July'78.Bumes,TeresaEAd.June75.Bums,FannieUEl.
July'84.Burr,ClaraAEl.July'73.Burrington,LilliaEEl.
July'73.Burt,CarrieMEl.June'76.Burt,HittieAEl.June
'76.Burt,JessieMAd.June'75.Burt,KateBAd.Feb,'67.
Burt,KateMEl.'65.Burt,LizzieEl.July'77.Burt,MargaretM
El.'64.Burt,MarionYEl.Feb.'66.Burt,MaryHCI.Jan.'72.
Burt,S.Jennie.El.Jan.'81.Burton,AntoinetteEAd.July73.
Burton,EllaMayEl.June'82.Bush,ArthineAEl.July'72.
Butler.AmeliaPEl.July'77.Butler,MaryLEl.Feb.70.Butler
RachelAAd.June'81.Butts,FloraEEl.July'78.Butts,MeUssa
MEl.July'72.Byrne,MaryA...El.July'77.Cady,LizzieP
El.June'83.Calkins,MinnieHAd,June'79.Callaghan,AnnaEl.
July'84.Calvert,HarveyJAd.July73.Campbell,AnnaEl.'63,
Card,FlorenceEl.'63.Card,GeorgeN"Ad.Feb.'69.Card,
MiltonH,Ad.Feb.'69.Carlisle,EllorEEl.Jan.'85.
Carpenter,HannahMtl.July'73.Carpenter,MaraEEl.July'69.
Carpenter,MarianNEl.July'67.Carpenter,RosamondHEl.Feb.
'69.Carpenter,Sarah;El.'63.Carr,GeorgiaAAd.June'85.
Carrier,MaryEAd.Jan.'71.Carter,NancyJEl.'63.
Cartwright,Yirginia.CI.June'79.Case,PameliaC..El.'62.
Canlfield,MaryBEl.Jan.'83.Chalmers,AngelineEl.'65.213
Chalmers,JuliaAEl.Feb.W.Champion,AnnaEl.July'71'
Chandler,ElizaEl.'65.Chapin,AlvinPCI.July73.Chapin,
EdwardEl.July71.Chapman,EmmaJEl.June'82Charles,Libbie
SEl.July'67.Chase,OliveAEl.July71.Cheyney,ElizaAEl.
June'81.Chisholm,AnnaBELJune'79.Chisholm,EuniceEl.June
'75.Chisholm,LucyAd.Jan.'74.Churchill,H.JennieEl.July
'69.Churchill,MarthaEEl.Jan.'78.Churchill,OctaGAd.July
'72.Clancey,MarieLEl.'64.Clapp,EvaHEl.Feb.'68.
Clapp,LenoraTEl.'62.Clark,AgnesL,El.June'76.Clark,
AliceMAd.Jan.'84.Clark,CalvinJAd.June'79.Clark,
CharlesDEl.'62.Clarke,FannyMEl.Jan.'71.Clark,Elizabeth
YEl.Jan.'76.Clark,FlorenceEl.'63.Clark,HattieEl.Feb.
'68.Clark,MargaretJEl.July'80.Clark,NellieEAd.Feb.
'86.Clary,CarolineEl.June'81.Clary,CharlotteAEl.Jan
'77.Cleghom,M.JaneEl.June'74.Cleveland,AdellaYEl.July
'84.Clock,MayWoodEl.June'82.Clubbs,S.AnnaEl.July72.
Ciute,AlfarattaEl.June'81.Coats,PhoebeEl.'63.Cole,Anna
R.El.July'80.Cole,EllaJEl.Feb.'67.Cole,MaryREl.Jan.
'79.Collier,JohnEl.July'78.Collins,AbigailLCI.July'80.

Collins,AnnaTEl.July'80.Collins,EmmaMEl.July'79.
Collins,HannahJEl.July'66.Colnon,CarolineMEl.Jan.'84.
Comer,EmilyAEl.June'74.Comstock,AmyCI.June'83.Cook,
JulietACI.July'71.Cooley,HelenCI.July'80.Coon,Emily
El.Feb.'70.Cooper,ArthurAd.July'71.Cooper,ClaraFEl.
Jan.'85.Cooper,FannyEl.'63.214Cooper,MatildaSEl.
'62.Copley,EuphemiaDEl.'63.Corwm,CarrieMEl.June'76.
Corwin,IsabellaGrEl.June79.Corwin,IsabellaGEl.July'84.
Corwin,MarthaJEl.July'78.Cox,MarthaEEl.July'80.
Cozzens,LauraWAd.July'78.Crabb,EugeneMAd.July'70.
Cragin,LucyMEl'63.Craig,JosephineMEl.Jan.'73.Crane,
MariettaCCI.Jan.'82.Crawford,CharlesHCI.July'70.
Crippen,ElmaCAd.July'77.Crippen,EllaMEl.July'78.
Crockett,AliceJEl.June'79.Crooks,HelenAAd.Feb.'68.
Cross,HelenGEl.Feb.'67.Crossman,AliceLAd.June'74.
Crowe,MaryFEl.July'73.Crura,EllaJEl.Jan.'72.Crum,
MinnieHEl.June'76.Crura,TaylorAd.July'72.Cuddeback,
CharlotteBEl.June'74.Cuddeback,OliveEl.July'80.
Culkin,MaryCAd.Jan.'79.Cullen,AliceFEl.Jan.'85.
Cullinan,GeorgeWCI.Jan.'81.Cummings,Byron.CI.Jan.'85.
Cumraings,EramaEl.Feb.'86.Curry,SarahEAd.July'73.
Curtice,DeliaEl'65.Curtis,HannahAd.July'69.Cusick,Mary
Ad.Jan.'72.Cyrenius,FrankJEl.Feb.'66.Dahryraple,Harriet
AEl.July'69,Ad.July'73.Daly,LizzieMAd.June'81.
Daniels,LottieCEl.Jan.'84.Darrow,HenriettaLEl.June'74.
Darrow,MaryEEl.July71.Dashley,ErailyBCI.Jan.'84.
Dashley,MarieL..El.July'73.Davies,AdalineEEl.Feb.'67.
Davis.AdaAd.Jan.'71.Davis,AnnaE,El.Feb.67.Davis,
GeorgeHAd.June'85.Davis,HattieEAd.Jan.'71.Davis,Helen
AEL'62.Davis,KateHEl.'62.Davis,MariaEEl.July'70.
Davis,MaryEEl.'62.Davis,MaryBCI.July'70,El.July'72.
Davis,MaryJanetAd.July'86.215Day,DeliaMEl.Feb.'69.
Deacon,JaneEl.July'78.Deering,HarrietAAd.July'73.De
Lano,TeenJEl.Feb.'68.Ad.July'69.Dempsey,EllaAAd.Jan.
'75.Dempsey,KittleLEl.July'69.Dennison,WilliamAd.July
'78.Denton,SarahLAd.Feb.,'69,El.July'69.Derby,MaryM
CI.Juno'76.Dermot,SarahAEl.Jan.'83.DeShong,HarrietEl.
July'73.Dewey,LolaMAd.July'7*2.Deyo,MaryEl.Jan.'83.
Deyo,M.LouiseEl.Jan.'81.Dickerman,EmmaEl.July'71.
Dickinson,HelenEl.July'78.Dickeman,CharlotteNEl.Feb.'69.
Dildine,MaryEEl.July'69.Dilley,MaryLAd.Jan.'73.
Dinmore,LizzieEl.'65.Dobbie,E.LinaEl.Feb.'68.Dobbie,
LucyMEl.June'85.Dodd,HattieMEl.Jan.'85Donnan,EmmaEl.
Jan.'77.Donnolley,AliceEl.June'74.Doran,MinnieEEl.July
'73.Doris,ElizabethLEl.July'68.Douglas,JuliaBEl.June
'76.Douglass,HenryMCI.July'68.Dowd,HarrietEEl.Feb.
'80,Ad.Jan.'82.Downes,WilliamBAd.June'85.Downey,M.
ElizabethEl.June'85.Dowse,HattieYAd.July'70.Doyle,
CarrieCEl.July'80,Draper,MargaretAAd.Jan.'75.Drew,
JeannetteEl.Feb.'67.Dubois,EllaMEl.Jan.'77.Dugane,
SarahDEl.'64.Dunning,GeorgeAd.Feb.'68.Dunning,IdaLEl.
Feb.'80.Eariey,MichaelJ.'Ad.July'86.Edic,IsabellaLEl.
June'79.Edmunds,ElizabethMEl.July'80.Edwards,AdelineS
El.July'72.Edwards,D.SophiaAd.July'72.Edwards,EllaI
El.Jan.'75.Edwards,EvaSEl.Feb.'68,Ad.Feb.'69.Edwards,
LindleyMAd.July'69.Eggleston,HenriettaMAd.July'71.
Ells,AmeliaAEl.Feb.'67.Enos,FannieFEl.July'78.Evans,
AddieFEl.June'76.Evans,EmmaLEl.June'83.222Martin,

FannieEEl.Feb.'68.Masters,FannieH^El.July'77.Masters,
LillieBEl.Jan.'77.Mastin,EmmaLEl.Feb.'82.Matheson,
FrancesLEl.July72.Matheson,HelenWEl.Jan.'83.Mathews,
ElizabethAAd.June'81.Mathews,H.JennieEl.July'83.
Matteson,EmmaAEl.June'76.Matthews,FrankieLEl.June'83.
Mattison,KateAAd.Jan.'75.Mattison,MaryHEl.June'81.
Maxwell,EllaHEl.July'73.Maxwell,FannyCEl.July'66.
MaxweU,KateWEl.July'77.Mayboe,SarahHEl.Jan.'71.
McArthur,CassieEl.Jan.'73.McAuley,MargaretLEl.July'70.
McAuliffe,MargaretFEl.Jan.'83.McBride,MaryEAd.July'70,
El.July'71.McBride,RuthAd.July'69.McCabe,FrancesJEl.
Jan.'85.McCall,SylviaHEl.July'73.McCanna,AnnaLEl.Jan
'81.McCarthy,K'ellieAd.Jan.'85.McChesney,FrancesEl.Jan.
'79.McCleave,EstherAAd.Jan.'73.McClure,AgnesY.El.July
'78,Ad.Jan.'79.McCool,E.CeciliaEl.July'66.McCool,
JeannetteAEl.July'77,Ad.June'83.McCoy,MinnieEEl.July
'77.McCruddin,SarahAEl.Jan.'71.McCullough,BelleEl.Jan.
'79.McCumber,MarthaCEl.Feb.'67.McDonald,IsabelleICI.
July'77.McDowell,NoraEl.'65.McElroy,AliceEEl.Feb.'67,
Ad.July'67.McBntee,LucyAEl.July'78.McFarland,MaryAAd.
July'80,McFarlane,JennetteEl.Feb.'68.McGonegal.MaryAEl.
'63Mcllwaine,AnnaAEl.June'83.McKay,EstherEAd.Jan.'85.
McKee,ElmerBEl.June'82.McLean,IdaEEl.July'70.McLean,
LouisaHAd.June'83.McLeish,AnnaAd.July71.McLellan,John
WAd.July'72.McMillan,ElizabethA.El.June'83.McPeok,
SarahEl.Jan.'81.MoWeeney,MariaAEl.Jan,'78.Mead,EmmaA
El.Feb.'67.Meredith,LizzieEl,July73.223Mergler,Mary
JCI.July72.Merriam,EmilyMAd.Feb.'67.El.J[uly'67.
Merriam,EuniceJEl.July'69.Merriam,S.AgnesEl.Jan.'73.
Merrill,ElizabethRCl.July'80.Merritt,EllenJ.Ad.July
'69.Merritt,JohnWCl.Jan.'75.Messenger,FrancesEEl.Jan.
'79.Meyers,IdaGrCl.Jan.'85.Miller,AdalineBAd.July'69.
Miller,CatharineLAd.July'69.Miller,C.Lucretiaid.Jan.'72.
Miller,EleanorSEl.July,'86.MiUer,EllaEl.June'74.MUler,
IdaU..El.Jan.'73.Miller,LizzieEl.July'77.Miller,
MarthaEl.'62.Miller,MaudAELJuly'80.Miller.SaraHEl.
July'72.Miner,CarrieEEl.June'81.Monk,HarriettIEl.July
'78.MoodyJeannetteLAd.July'70.Moore,AdelaideG.El.July
'72.Moore,AgnesMEl.July'78.Moore,NancieIEl.Jan.'81.
Morden,S.ElizabethEl.June'74.More,MaryFEl.June'82.
Morey,AmeliaEl.July'69.Morey,CharlesRAd.July'70.Morey,
FannyAEl.June'79.Morey,HelenEl.July'70.Morgan,AbbieB
El.July'66.Morgan,HattieEEl.June'76.Morris,FannieMEl.
July'71.Morris,Harrieti^.El.July'67.MorrisSarahM.El.
July'71.Morris,SusanCEl.Jan.'75.Morrison,EmmaSEl.Feb.
'67.Morrison,JeannetteTAd.Jan.'73.Morrow,AlcindaLEl.
July'68.Morton,L.AnnEl.Jan.'76.Morton,LizzieHEl.
July'67.Mott,ClaraEEl.July'73.Mott,ElzinaEEl.July
'69.Mott.EmmaMEl.July'73.Mowbray,MaryECl.Jan.'83.
Moul,SophiaLEl.July'72.Moulton,KateEi.July'80.
Mullaney,MargaretEl.June'83.Mulliner,MaryLEl.Feb.'66.
Munsell,MargaretEEl.Jan.'83.Munson,HenriettaEAd.Feb.70,
El.July'70.Murdock,EdithEl.Jan.'84.214Cooper,
MatildaSEl.'62.Copley,EuphemiaDEl.'63.Corwin,CarrieM
El.June'76.Corwin,IsabellaGEl.June'79.Corwin,IsabellaG
El.July'84.Corwin,MarthaJEl.July'78.Cox,MarthaEEl.
July'80.Cozzens,LauraWAd.July'78.Crabb,EugeneMAd.July
'70.Cragin,LucyMEl'63.Craig,JosephineMEl.Jan.'73.

Crane,MariettaCCI.Jan.'82.Crawford,CharlesHCI.July'70.
Crippen,ElmaCAd.July'77.Crippen,EllaMEl.July'78.
Crockett,AliceJEl.June'79.Crooks,HelenAAd.Feb.'68.
Cross,HelenGEl.Feb.'67.Crossman,AliceLAd.June'74.
Crowe,MaryFEl.July'73.Crura,EllaJEl.Jan.'72.Crum,
MinnieHEl.June'76.Crum,TaylorAd.July'72.Cuddeback,
CharlotteBEl.June'74.Cuddeback,OliveEl.July'80.
Culkin,MaryCAd.Jan.'79.Cullen,AliceFEl.Jan.'85.
Cullinan,GeorgeWCI.Jan.'81.Cummings,Byron.CI.Jan.'85.
Cummings,EmmaEl.Feb.'86.Curry,SarahEAd.July'73.
Curtice,DeliaEl'65.Curtis,HannahAd.July'69.Cusick,Mary
Ad.Jan.'72.Cyrenius,FrankJEl.Feb.'66.Dahrymple,Harriet
AEl.July'69,Ad.July'73.Daly,LizzieMAd.June'81.
Daniels,LottieCEl.Jan.'84.Darrow,HenriettaLEl.June'74.
Darrow,MaryEEl.July71.Dashley,EmilyBCI.Jan.'84.
Dashley,MarieL...El.July'73.Davies,AdalineEEl.Feb.'67.
Davis.AdaAd.Jan.'71.Davis,AnnaE,El.Feb.67.Davis,
GeorgeHAd.June'85.Davis,HattieEAd.Jan.'71.Davis,Helen
AEL'62.Davis,KateHEl.'62.Davis,MariaEEl.July'70.
Davis,MaryEEl.'62.Davis,MaryECI.July'70,El.July'72.
Davis,MaryJanetAd.July'86./215Day,DeUaMEl.Feb.
'69.Deacon,JaneEl.July'78.Deering,HarrietAAd.July'73.
DeLano,TeenJEl.Feb.'68.Ad.July'69.Dempsey,EllaAAd.
Jan.'75.Dempsey,KittieLEl.July'69.Dennlson,WilliamAd.
July'78.Denton,SarahLAd.Feb.,'69,El.July'69.Derby,
MaryMCI.Juno'76.Dennot,SarahAEl.Jan.'83.DeShong,
HarrietEl.July'73.Dewey,LolaMAd.July'72.Deyo,MaryEl.
Jan.'83.Deyo,M.LouiseEl.Jan.'81.Dickerman,EmmaEl.July
'71.Dickinson,HelenEl.July'78.Dickeman,CharlotteNEl.
Feb.'69.Dildine,MaryEEl.July'69.Dilley,MaryLAd.Jan.
'73.Dinmore,LizzieEl.'65.Dobbie,E.LinaEl.Feb.'68.
Dobbie,LucyMEl.June'85.Dodd,HattieMEl.Jan.'85Donnan,
EmmaEl.Jan.'77.Donnolley,AliceEl.June'74.Doran,MinnieE
El.July'73.Doris,ElizabethLEl.July'68.Douglas,JuliaB
El.June'76.Douglass,HenryMCI.July'68.Dowd,HarrietEEl.
Feb.'80,Ad.Jan.'82.Downes,WilliamBAd.June'85.Downey,
M.ElizabethEl.June'85.Dowse,HattieYAd.July'70.Doyle,
CarrieCEl.July'80,Draper,MargaretAAd.Jan.'75.Drew,
JeannetteEl.Feb.'67.Dubois,EllaMEl.Jan.'77.Dugane,
SarahDEl.'64.Dunning,GeorgeAd.Feb.'68.Dunning,IdaLEl.
Feb.'80.Earley,MichaelJ'Ad.July'86.Edic,I^^abellaLEl.
June'79.Edmunds,ElizabethMEl.July'80.Edwards,AdelineS
El.July'72.Edwards,D.SophiaAd.July'72.Edwards,EllaI
El.Jan.'75.Edwards,EvaSEl.Feb.'68,Ad.Feb.'69.Edwards,
LindleyMAd.July'69.Eggleston,HenriettaMAd.July'71.
Ells,AmeUaAEl.Feb.'67.Enos,FanniePEl.July'78.Evans,
AddieFEl.June'76.Evans,EmmaLEl.June'83.220Joslin,
JennieEEl.Jan.'77.Joslin,SylviaPEl.July'69.Judson,
HattieREl.Jan.'79.Kearney,AnnaJAd.JrUy'73.Keeler,Esth
erJEl.July'69.Keeler,MarthaAEl.June'75.Kehoe,AliceM
Ad.Jan.'78.Keller,ClaraAEl.July'84.Kellogg,CharlotteE
El.June'75.Kellogg,CorralmnA,Ad.Feb.'70.Kellogg,
GertrudeAEl.June'82.Kelly,MargaretLAd.Jan.'85.Kelly,
MargaretTEl.Feb.'86.Kendall,HarrietDEl.July'69.
Kenitic,AnnaM;El.July'78.Kenific,MaggieEl.Feb.'66.
Kennedy,JuliaAEl.Jan.'74.Kent,LouiseTEl.Jan.'79.
Kenyon,NellieMAd.July'78.Kerr,KittieEl.'65.Kerr,Mary
El.Jan.'84.Kerr,SarahMEl.Jan.'79.Ketcham,AddieSEl.

June'81.Ketchum,AngelineHEl.July'67.Keyes,SarahLAd.
Feb.'67.Kilboum,HannahLEl.July'78.Kilbourn,MaryA*..
El.'62.Kimball,JessieMEl.June'83.Kimber,AnnaAAd.Jan.
^74.Kimber,FannieCEl.Feb.'70,Ad.June'74.King,Elizabeth
JAd.Jan.'76,King,GeorgiaA.El.Jan.'83.King,IdaJAd.
June'76.King,IsabellaCI.July^77.King,JeannetteCEl.July
'67.Kingsford,ElizabethEl.JulyTO.Kinkade,MaryAEl.Jan.
'71.Kirchhoff,AnnaFEl.Jan.'85.Kirkland,MinnieF.El.
June'83.Krusi,HermannCI.Jan.'78.Kuhl,LizzieHEl.July
'84.Kyle,ElizaJELJan.'76.Ladd,MyronCAd.July'78.
Lake,SarahIEl.June,'a5.Laing,MaryEEl.June'74,Ad.June
'81.Lapping,MarthaEl.'65.Lathrop,DeliaAEl.Feb.'68.
Lawrence,IsabelEl.July'73.Lawrence,MariaBEl.Feb.'68.
Lawrence,MaryLAd.July'69.Leach,SarahH.'El.Feb.'68.
Leary,JennieKEl.'65.Lee,CharlotteJ..El.Jan.'77.221
Lee,MaryVBl.'63.Lee,Kellie..EL'65.Lee,SusanCBl.
July'86.Leeds,LucyEBl.June'81,Leete,HarrietR,...
Bl.Jan.'71.LeFebvre,MinnieECI.Jan.'85.Leflto,Lizrie
El.'65.Leffin,MaryEEl.June'75Leffin,UrsulaMAd.Jan.
'78.Leichhardt,AnnaMEl.July'86.Leonard,CarrieSBl.July
'84.Leonard,EllaFBl.July'78.Leonard,KateAEl.June'77,
Ad.Jan.'81.Leonard,MaryAEl.July'67.Leroy,LydiaABl.
Feb.'86.Lester,OrdeliaAEl.July'71,Ad.July'73.Lewis,
ClaraMELJune'81.Lewis,GeorgeA01.July'77.Lewis,GraceA
Ad.Jan.'77Lewis,MaryEELJuly'71*.Lewis,MatildaEL'62.
Lindsay,RobertSELJune'85.Lines,AnnaMEl.'63.
Littlefield,AddieELJan.'84.Locke,AbbieAELFeb.'67.
Locke,HelenBELJuly'72.Locklin,NellieELJan.'8LLockwood,
CarrieLEl.Jan.'83.Loughridge,SarahFELJan.'71.
Lovecraft,MaryLELJan.'81.Lovejoy,EmmaABl.Jan.'81.
Lowell,FranklinAAd.Jan.'84,Lowry,KateEELJan.'73.Luce,
AnuieMELJuly'78.Lynch,HelenELJuly'72.Lyons,MargaretA
Ad.Jan.'73.Lytle,MarionCCI.June'74.Lytle,SarahJEl.
Jan.'74.Mace,JosephineELJune'81.Macken,ChaunceyB,Ad.
Feb.'68.MacMillan,MaryEEl.June'76.Maher,FrancesGEL
July'84.Manley,FannyNAd.Feb.'80Mann,Lucy*ELJune'76.
Manning,DeliaEL'62.Mansfield,M.EdithDBLJune'85.Manter,
PameliaHEl.June'74.Manwaring,CoraLELJan.'78.Marean,
LauraAELJuly'73.Markham,FlorenceN"El.Feb.'80.Marsden,
FrankMELJuly'69.Marsh,LauraGBl.June'81.Marsh,LillieC
ELJune'76.222Martin,FannieEEl.Feb.'68.Masters,
FannieH^El.Jnly'77.Masters,LillieBEl.Jan.'77.Mastin,
EmmaLEl.Feb.'82.Matheson,FrancesLEl.July'72.Matheson,
HelenWEl.Jan.'83.Mathews,ElizabethA,..Ad.June'81.
Mathews,H.JennieELJuly'83.Matteson,EmmaAEl.June'76.
Matthews,FrankieLEl.June'83.Mattison,KateAAd.Jan.'75.
Mattison,MaryHEl.June'81.Maxwell,EllaHEl.July'73.
Maxwell,FannyCEl.July'66.Maxwell,KateWEl.July'77.
Maybee,SarahHEl.Jan.'71.MoArthur,CassieEl.Jan.'73.
McAuley,MargaretLEl.July'70.McAuliffe,MargaretF.,El.
Jan.'83.McBride,MaryEAd.July'70,El.July'71.McBride,
RuthAd.July'69.McCabe,FrancesJEl.Jan.'85.McCall,Sylvia
HEl.July'73.McCanna,AnnaLEl.Jan'81.McCarthy,XellieAd.
Jan.'85.McChesney,FrancesEl.Jan.'79.McCleave,EstherAAd.
Jan.'73.McClure,AgnesY.El.July'78,Ad.Jan.'79.McCool,
E.CeciliaEl.July'66.McCool,JeannetteAEl.July'77,Ad.June
'83.McCoy,MinnieEEl.July'77.McCruddin,SarahAEl.Jan.
'71.McCullough,BelleEl.Jan.'79.McCumber,MarthaCEl.Feb.

'67.McDonald,IsabelleICI.July'77.McDowell,NoraEl.'65.
McElroy,AliceEEl.Feb.'67,Ad.July'67.McBntee,LucyAEl.
July'78.McFarland,MaryAAd.July'80.McFarlane,JennetteEl.
Feb.'68.McGonegal.MaryAEl.'63Mcllwaine,AnnaAEl.June
'83.McKay,EstherEAd.Jan.'85.McKee,ElmerBEl.June'82.
McLean,IdaEEl.July'70.McLean,LouisaHAd.June'83.
McLeish,AnnaAd.July'71.McLellan,JohnWAd.July'72.
McMillan,ElizabethAEl.June'83.McPeck,SarahEl.Jan.'81.
McWeeney,MariaAEl.Jan.'78.Mead,EmmaAEl.Feb.'67.
Meredith,LizzieEl.July'73.223Mergler,MaryJCI.July72.
Merriam,EmilyMAd.Feb.'67.El.J[uly'67.Merriam,EuniceJEl.
July'69.Merriam,S.AgnesEl.Jan.73.Merrill,ElizabethRCI.
July'80.Merritt,EllenJ.Ad.July'69.Merritt,JohnWCI.
Jan.'75.Messenger,FrancesEEl.Jan.'79.Meyers,IdaGCI.
Jan.'85.Miller,AdalineBAd.July'69.Miller,CatharineLAd.
July'69.Miller,C.Luoretiaid.Jan.'72.MUler,EleanorSEl.
July,'86.Miller,EllaEl.June'74.MUler,IdaUEl.Jan.'73.
Miller,LizzieEl.July77.Miller,MarthaEl.'62.Miller,Maud
AEl.July'80.Miller.SaraHEl.July'72.Miner,CarrieEEl.
June'81.Monk,HarriettIEl.July'78.MoodyJeannetteLAd.
July'70.Moore,AdelaideGEl.July'72.Moore,AgnesMEl.July
'78.Moore,NancieIEl.Jan.'81.Morden,S.ElizabethEl.June
'74.More,MaryFEl.June'82.Morey,AmeliaEl.July'69.
Morey,CharlesRAd.July'70.Morey,FannyA*...El.June'79.
Morey,HelenEl.July'70.Morgan,AbbieBEl.July'66.Morgan,
HattioEEl.June'76.Morris,FannieMEl.July'71.Morris,
Harrieti^El.July'67.MorrisSarahMEl.July'71.Morris,
SusanCEl.Jan.'75.Morrison,EmmaSEl.Feb.'67.Morrison,
JeannetteTAd.Jan.'73.Morrow,AlcindaLEl.July'68.Morton,
L.AnnEl.Jan.'76.Morton,LizzieHEl.July'67.Mott,ClaraE
El.July'73.Mott,BlzinaEEl.July'69.Mott,EmmaMEl.July
'73.Mowbray,MaryECI.Jan.'83.Moul,SophiaLEl.July'72.
Moulton,KateEl.July'80.Mullaney,MargaretEl.June'83.
Mulliner,MaryLEl.Feb.'66.Munsell,MargaretEEl.Jan.'83.
Munson,HenriettaEAd.Feb.70,El.July'70.Murdock,EdithEL
Jan.'84.224Murphy,MaryJAd.June'74.Murray,EstherA
El.Feb.70.Murray,MargaretEl.Jan.'84.Murray,M.JaneAd.
Jan.'75.Myers,AmeliaBEl.Jan.'79.Kacey,ElizaAfAd.Jan.
'79.Nash,JennieFEl.July'80.Nelon,BridgetMEl.July'70.
I^'elson,CarrieMEl.Feb.'86.Kelson,IsabellaKAd.July'78.
Kesbitt,EmmaJAd.June'81.N"esbitt,LiUieIEl.Feb.'86.
Newby,NathanAd.July'69.Newman,CarrieEEl.Jan.'85.
Newton,JennieMEl.Jan.'84.Nichols,ElizaJEl.'63.Nichols,
HelenMEl.June'75,Ad.June'79.Nicholson,Anna:El.June'81
Nitteraner,ThirzaWEl.June'85.Noble.IdaR,Ad.July'70.
Nolton,FannySAd.July'77.Norman,LouiseEl.'62.North,OUve
El.July'69.Norton,LizzieAEl.Jan.'78.O'Brien,AgnesHAd.
July'77.O'Brien,SusanMEl.Jan.'85.O'Geran,MaryLEl.Jan.
'85.O'Gorman,JamesRCI.June'79.Olds,AliceL.Ad.Jan.'74.
Oliver,CarrieMAd.Jan.'79.Ormiston,JuliaEAd.July'72.
Ormsby,CeliaLAd.Jan.'76.Orton,JuliaREl.July'73.
Osborne,AbbiePEl.June*85.Osborne,S.Katharine,El.July
'67.Otis,ClorindaEl.Jan.'73.Owen,ElizabethAAd.July'86.
Owen,JosephineEl.Jan.'81.Owens,FlorenceE.Ad.Jan.'77.
Owens,MarionIEl.June'85.Paddock.ArmadaGEl.'63.Palmer,
AltheaAAd.Jan.'71.Palmer,KateLEl..Tan.'74*Parker,
ElizabethGEl.Jan.'78.Parker,FlorenceJCI.Jan.'83.Parks,
MinnieEl.July'69.Parsels,IsabelleAd.Jan.'72.Parsons,

AliceMEl.Feb.'07.Parsons,ElizabethEl.'62.Parsons,EmmaS
.Ad.July'67,El.Feb.'68.Parsons,FloraFEl.'62.Parsons,
JennieAEl.Feb.'68.Parsons,JohnCAdJune83.225
Parsons,LauraS*,El.')2.Parsons,MaryAEl.'62.Parsons,
MaryGEl.Feb.'86.Partridge,JosephineAd.Jnne'82.Pateman,
EdnaEl.June'81.Payne,AngustaFAd.July'72.Payne,Emeretta
FEl.Jan.'71.Peacock,AnnaBEl.July'67.Peake,MaryEEl.
Jan.'83.Pearce.C.EUaEl.Jan.'85.Pearce,OtisE4.Ad.July
'80.Pease,'AnnaAAd.June'74.Pease,FannyWEl.'62.
Pease,JennieSAd.Feb.'86.Pease,i^ellieMEl.July'78,
Peebles,MarySEl.June'85,Peene,LauraKEl.Feb.'80.
Pendleton,MariaEl.June'76.Penfield,PhilomelaEl.'65.
Perkins,AnnaH:El.July'68.Perkins,iJlmaEEl.Feb.'80.
Perkins,EmilyH;El.'65.Perkins,MaryEEl.'65.Perley,
MelissaSEl.June'76.Perry,AliceEEl.Jan.'75.Perry,F.
EllaEl.July'73.Perry,MaryEEl.July'80.Perry,SarahLEl.
Feb.'70.Perry,S.EllaEl.July'77.Petrie,FlorenceAEl.
July'78.Pettigrew,MarthaAEl.Jan.'78.Phair,MaryAEl.
July'72.Phillips,AnnaEl.July'80.Phillips,EmilyEEl.July
'69.Phillips,HattieAEl.June'76.Phillips,JaneE.El.July
'80.Phillips,JuliaEAd.June'85.Pierce,JuliaAEl.June
'79.Pierce,RuthAEl.Feb.'69.Piersall,JosephineMAd.July
'72.Pike,AnnaLEl.Feb.'66.Pitman,MaryREl.Feb.'68.
Place,MarciaAEl.July'78.Plumb,LouisaCEl.'62.Pond,
OliveAEl.Feb.'69.Pool,MaryEEl.June'79.Pope,MarthaA
El.July'73.Porter,IdaMEl.July'84.Porter,LucretiaEl.
July'66.Potter,HarrietAEl.Feb.'67.Poucher,FlorenceMAd.
July'69.Poucher,KateMAd.July'84.Poucher,LucyAAd.June
'85.226Poucher,W,AllenCI.June'79.Powers,LouisaAEl.
'64.Preston,KateLEl.July'ttO,Ad.June'81.Pretlow,
IsabellaAd.July'86.Price,JennieEl.Jan.'78.Prichard,John
SEl.July'77.Pride,MarthaAEl.Feb.'66.Pulver,ElnoraEl.
Feb.'86.Pulver,LucyCEl.June'85.Purcell,SarahHAd.Jan.
'77.Pyne,SarahJEl.July'70.Quackenbush,A.Cordelia,El.
'64.Quigg,AddieMEl.June'79.Quigg,FannieMEl.July'78.
Radcliff,MargaretCEl.Jan.'84.Radcliffe,AnnaLEl.June'85.
Radcliffe,EmilyHEl.June'85.Radley,NellieMEl.June'82.
Randolph,HarrietCI.Jan.'85.Ranger,SarahA.El.'65.
Ransom,GeorgeBAd.July'69.Rappleye,"WalkerGAd.June'75.
Reardon,EllaMEl.June'75.Reed,SarahAEl.Feb.'80.Reese,
LizzieAEl.June'74.Regan,AliceAEl.Jan.'85.Regan,1311a
L:.El.July'78.Remington,IdaLEl.Jan.'85.Rennie,Julia
EEl.July'86.Reynolds,EllenAd.July'69.Reynolds,FrankCI.
Jan.'79.Reynolds,MyraMEl.Jan.'7*2.Rhoads,MaryGEl.July
'80.Rice,AnnaAAd.Jan.'72.Rice,BelleAd.Feb.'70,EI.
July'70.Rice,EmilyJEl.Jan.'72.Rice,KittieBAd.July
'84.Rice,LucyKEl.June'74.Rice,R.ElizabethEl.June'74.
Rice,SarahEEl.July70.Richards,CharlesWAd.July'69.
Richardson,AlfredWCI.June'79.Richardson,EvalineEEl.July
'80.Richardson,KateGEl.Feb.'86.Richardson,MyrtisJAd.
July'84.Rider.LucyAd.Feb.'70.Riggs,MaryEAd.Feb.'68,
El.July'68.Riggs,MatthewBAd.July'69.Riggs,NellyA.*
El.July'73.Riley,MaryAEl.Jan.'71.Roat,MaryBEl.Jan.
'85.Robb,JeannetteAEl.Feb.'69.Robbins,DeliaEl.Feb.'66.
227Robbins,JennieC.Ad.Jan.'77.Roberts,AmyJAd.Jan.
72.Robertson,ElizabethEL'65.Robinson,CarolineEEl.Jan.
'78.Robinson,LncyMEl.Feb.'80,Ad.July'80.Robinson,
MarianMAd.June'76.Robinson,MyraLEl.July'77.Rockwell,

AdalineBCI.July'86.Rodie,AnnaCEl.July'78.Rodie,NenaM
El.June'81,Ad.June'82.Roe,MarthaEl.'62.Rogers,AliceB
El.July'84.Rogers,AntoinetteC\;Ad.July '86. Rogers, Lizzie

H El. Feb. '86. Rogers, Lucy T Ad. June '83. Rollinson, Elizabeth G
El. July '72. RoUinson, Sarah M El. June '75. Romans, Mary A El.
July '68. Root, Emma L El. Feb. '67. Root, Martha J El. July '68.
Rope, Kate E El. July '67. Ross, Marguerite S El. July '78. Ross,
Minnie A El. July '68. Row, Sarah M El. July '86. Rowell, Harriet L El.
June '75. Rowler, Burdett D Ad. July '71. Royall, Mary E El. Feb. '80.
Royce, Millicent A Ad. July '72. Roys, Addie E El. Juno '79. Rulison,
ISTellie S El. Jan. '85. Russell, Calvin L .*T Ad. July '77. Russell,
Lizzie B El. July '78. Russell, N". Jennie El. Jan. '73. Safford, Louise
M El Feb. '67. Salisbury, Clara A El. June '81. Salmon, Carrie B El.
July '86. Salmon, Lizzie Ad. Feb. '70, El. July '70. Salmon, Mary J El.
Feb. '66. Sanford, Emily S El. Feb. '70. Santley, Elizabeth D El.
June '82. Satterlee, Ophelia El. Jan. '78. Savage, Anna El. Jan. '77.
Sawdey, Myrtis El. July '86. Sawyer, Laura A Ad. July '68. Sayre,
Harmie J El. July '67. Schofield, Elizabeth H Ad. June '83. Scott,
Emma C Ad. June '79. Scott, Mary E El. '65. Scott, Tillie A El. '64.
Scrlbner, Ernest E Ad. June '82. Seaman, Anna A El. July '73.
Seaman, Kate Q El. July '78. Seamans, Nellie C El. Jan. '75.
228
Seaver, Ellen El. '6:?. Seeber, Marthu A El. '62. Sewell, Anna M El.
July 84. Sexton, Ellen Ad. July '70. Shaw, Amy R El. Jan. '82.
Sheak, Elizabeth El. Jan. 72. Sheldon, Anna B Ad. June '81.
Sheldon, Charles S CI. June '75. Sheldon, Edward A El. '62.
Sheldon, Ella D El. July '78. Sheldon, F. Elizabeth CI. June '75.
Sheldon, Mary D CI. Julv '68, Ad. Feb. '69. Sheldon, Phinie C '. El.
Feb. '69. Shepard, Abbie L El. June '85. Sheridan, Catherine E El.
June '81. Sherman, Auronett M El. July '71. Sherman, Fannie B El.
June '76. Sherman, Josephine I Ad. July '70. Sherman, Moses H Ad.
July '73. Sherwood, Henry W CI. Feb. '70, Ad. July '70. Sherwood,
Yiola Ad. July .'73. Shippey, Seville B Ad. July '70, CI. July '77.
Shore, M. Yictoria El. June '81. Short, Abbie, L El. June '83. Sibbitt,
Anna E El. Jan. '82, Ad. Jan. '83. Sikes, Almira E Bl. Jan. '72. Sikes,
Yiletta G El. July '72. Simmons, M. Elizabeth ^ El. July '71.
Sinnamon, Eliza W El. Julv '77. Sisson, Emma D El. July '72. Sisson,
Eugene P Ad. July '68. Skidmore, Emma W El. July '86. Skinner, E.
Avaline Ad. July '70. Slater, Lois S El. Jan. '73. Slater, Louise El.
'63. Slattery, Mary A El. June '79, Ad. July '80. Sloan, Helen L El.
Jan. '78. Smith, Alice J El. Jan. '79. Smith, Alice Y El. June '83.
Smith, Anna E El. Jan. '84. Smith, Cora A Ad. July '72. Smith,
Cynthia R El. Jan. '71. Smith, Elizabeth S El. July '80. Smith, Ella L
El. June '81. Smith, Fannie G El. June '75. Smith, Florence M El.
Feb. '86. Smith, Hannah M Ad. July '70. Smith, Helen C El. June
'74. Smith, Helen M El. July '69. Smith, Ida B El. July '66. Smith,
Lena M El. July '72. Smith, Margaret K CI. Jan. '83. Smith, Mary E
El. Feb. '67.
229 Smith, Mary Howe El. '63. Smith, Khoda R El.
'65. Smith, Rose M El. Jiily '73. Smith, Sarah B Ad. June '75.
Smith, William A Ad. July '70, CI. July '71. Smith, Winfield S .01. Jan.
'77. Snell, Bertha Anna El. Jan. '85, Snell, Ida May El. June '85.

Snow, Fannie El. Feb. '80. Snow, Mina F Ad. Jan. '83. Snyder,
Matilda E El. June '75. Soule, Emma El. July '73. Soule, Mary E El.
July '77. Southwell, Alfaretta Ad. Jan. '72. Southwell, Mary S. El.
July '80. Sowles, Mehetable Ad. Feb. '70. Spencer, Jane S CI. Jan.
'71. Spicer, Florence H Bl. June '76. Spicer, Lizzie S CI . June '82.
Spier, A. Louisa El. Jan. '77. Spier, Joanna R El. June '76. Sprague,
Clara Y Ad. June '75. Sprague, Sarah E El. July '73. Springstead,
Ida A El. Feb. '86. Sprott, Mary El. Feb. '70. Squier, Sarah F. . . ." El.
July '77. Staats, Margaret J El. '64. Staats, Maria A El. July '71.
Staats, Matilda C El. Feb. '67. Starr, Ellen D El. Feb. '66. Stearns,
M. Elizabeth Ad. Jan. '74. Steber, Emma A Ad. Jan. '72. Steele,
Grace A Al. July '77. Steele, M. Isabella Ad. June '75. Stephenson,
Sarah J El. July '73. Sterling, Sarah C El. '65. Stevens, Anna E El
June '76. Stevens, Florence Gr Ad. Jan. '84. Stevens, Harriet E Ad.
Julv '72. Stevens, Frances A El. Jan. '75. Stevens, M. Jeannette El.
Jan. '75. Stevenson, Agnes A CI. July '68. Stevenson, Rosanna El.
64. Stewart, Ella M Ad. July '73. Stewart, Mary C. '. Ad. July '68, El.
July '69. Stickney, Jenny H El. '63. Stiles, Mary B Ad. June '74.
Stillman, Phebe A El. June '79. Stimets, Charles C CI. July '72.
Stisser, Margaret M El. June '82. Stocking, EUen El. Feb. '70.
Stocks, Emma E Ad. June '75. Stocks, Kate S Ad. Jan. '73.
230
Stockwell, Frances C El. July 72. Stoddard, M. Louise El. Jan. 72.
Stoel, Martha W El. '65. Stone, Wesley CI. July '86. Stoneroad,
Rebecca El. Jan. '85. Storer, Charlotte A Ad. July '78. Storms,
Minnie El. July '84. Storms, Orie D El. July '80. Stowell, Alice El.
'65. Stratton, George H El. June '85. Streeter, Carrie A El. Feb '80.
Strong, Anna H El. Feb. '69. Strong, Bert
A El. June '82. Strough, Anna B El. June '82. Stymus, Mary El. June
'82. Sumner, Harriet B El. July '67. Sutcliffe, Thomas El. June '82.
Sutton, Lucia El. July '70. Sutton, Sarah M Ad. July '70. Swaim,
J^'ancy J El. Jan. '79. Swan, Mary H Ad. July '67. Swanger, Emma I
Ad. July '68. Swanger, Maria M Ad. July '68. Swartwout, Ellen . .Ad.
July '84. Taber, Ida ; El. Jan. '78. Takamine, Hideo El. July '77.
Talbot, Ada E El. July '80. Tanner, Helen M El. July '84. Taylor, Eliza
Agnes Ad. June '76. Taylor, Evalyn I El. Jan. '82. Taylor, Grace El.
June '85. Taylor, Helen M Ad. Feb. '6rt. Taylor, Margaret C El. Jan.
'75. Taylor, Sarah El. '65. Taylor, Sarah M El. June '75. Teague,
Clara M El. July '78. Teague, :N'ettie M El. Jan. '81. Teal, Wyllis J Ad.
June 'H5. Teare, Mary J Ad. Feb. '86. Tenney, Mary P El. July '86.
Terry, j^. Wesley Ad. July '70. Terry, Sarah E El. July '71. Thomas.
Margaret M Ad. June '7.5. Thompson, Emma J El. Feb. '80.
Thomson, Lizzie C '. El. June '83. Thomson, Ulric Ad. July '80.
Thurman, Gertrude El. Feb. '66. Tiffany, Dewitt C - El. July '66.
Tiffany, Helen A El. Jan. '71. Tiffany, Jane R Ad. July '71. Timerson,
Emma C El. Jan. '77, Ad. July '78. Timerson, Georgia A Ad. Jan. '74.
Titus, Mary J Ad. Feb. '70.
231 Tomm, Julia H Ad. June '75. Town,
Maggie A El. '65. Towsley, Anna L El. July '84. Tozer, Mary J Ad. Jan.
'71. Trask, Adele Ad. Jan. '72. Treadway, Kate L El. Jan. '78.
Treadway, Minerva G El. July '80. Trowbridge, Edward A Ad. Feb.

'67. Trowbridge, Mary L El. July '69. Trunk, Lena El. July 78. Tubbs,
Helen M El. '62. Tubbs, Rhoda A El. Feb. '69. Tucker, Florence E El.
Jan. '78. Turner, Louise J El. June '85. Turner, N"ellie E CI. July '86.
Tuttle, Ezra A Ad. June '75. Tuttle, Helen A El. Feb. '67. Tuttle, Mary
E El. Jan. '79. Tuttle, Susan E ; *. El. June '76. Tyler, AnnaM El. '65.
Tall, Lucia M .El. Jan. '73. Tan Cleef, Lillian M El. July '84.
Tanderbelt, Delia M El. Jan. '71. Tan Husen, l^ancy L El. July '68.
Tan Inwegen, Clarence P Ad. June '76. Tan Petten, Sarah T El. July
'78, Ad. Feb. '80. Tan Wagenen, Charlotte E El. July '68. Tan Tleck,
Icy J El. June '76. Taughn, Sena C El. July '66. Tickery, Anna J El.
Jan. '76. Tidaud, Nathalie L El. Jan. '81. Tolz, Josephine El. Jan. '81.
Tose, Charles Ad. Jan. '78. Waful, Lilian K El. June '83. Wait, Susan
A El. July '72. Waitt, Mary G ..El. Feb. '70. Waldt, Lizzie E Ad. Jan.
'81. Waldt, Mary A El. July '78. Wales, Lucretia H El. Feb. '68.
Walker, Jeannette El. Julv '84. Wallace, Inez E El. Jan. '75. Wallace,
Mary E Ad. June '85. Wallace, M. Louise El. Feb. '70. Walsh, Kate F
'. El. July '86. Walsh, Margaret L El. June '85. Walter, Sarah J El.
June '76. Waring, Georgia A El. June '83. Warner, Martha J El. June
'76. Warner, Sarah E El. June '76. Washburn, Irving El. June '81.
Washburn, Jacob El. July '77. Washburn, Morgan Ad. July '78.
Waters, Minnie E Ad. Feb. '86.
222 Martin, Fannie E El. Feb. '68.
Masters, Fannie H El. July 77. Masters, Lillie B El. Jan. 77. Mastin,
Emma L El. Feb. '82. Matheson, Frances L El. July 72. Matheson,
Helen W El. Jan. '83. Mathews, Elizabeth A Ad. June '81. Mathews,
H. Jennie El. July '83. Matteson, Emma A El. June '76. Matthews,
Frankie L El. June '83. Mattison, Kate A Ad. Jan. '75. Mattison, Mary
H El. June '81. Maxwell, Ella H El. July '73. Maxwell, Fanny C El.
July '66. MaxweU, Kate W El. July '77. Maybee, Sarah H El. Jan.
'71. McArthur, Cassie El. Jan. '73. McAuley, Margaret L El. July '70.
McAuliffe, Margaret F El. Jan. '83. McBride, Mary E Ad. July '70, El.
July '71. McBride, Ruth Ad. July '69. McCabe, Frances J El. Jan. '85.
McCall, Sylvia H El. July '73. McCanna, Anna L El. Jan '81.
McCarthy, N'ellie Ad. Jan. '85. McOhesney, Frances El. Jan. '79.
McCleave, Esther A Ad. Jan. '73. McClure, Agnes Y. . .- El. July '78,
Ad. Jan. '79. McOool, E. Cecilia El. July '66. McCool, Jeannette A El.
July '77, Ad. June '83. McCoy, Minnie E El. July '77. McCruddin,
Sarah A El. Jan. '71. McCullough, Belle El. Jan. '79. McCumber,
Martha C .El. Feb. '67. McDonald, Isabelle I CI. July '77. McDowell,
Nora El. '65. McElroy, Alice E El. Feb. '67, Ad. July '67. McBntee,
Lucy A El. July '78. McFarland, Mary A Ad. July '80. McFarlane,
Jennette El. Feb. '68. McGonegal. Mary A El. '63 Mcllwaine, Anna A
El. June '83. McKay, Esther E Ad. Jan. '85. McKee, Elmer B El. June
'82. McLean, Ida E El. July '70. McLean, Louisa H Ad. June '83.
McLeish, Anna Ad. July 71. McLellan, John W Ad. July '72. McMillan,
Elizabeth A El. June '83. McPeck, Sarah El. Jan. '81. McWeeney,
Maria A El. Jan. '78. Mead, Emma A El. Feb. '67. Meredith, Lizzie
El. July 73.
233 IVilliams, Rose B El. Jan. '72. Williams, S. Ida Ad.
Jan. 72. Wilson, A. Florence El. June 74. Wilson, Helen M El. '62
Wilson, Julia A El. Feb. '69. Wiltse, EUen Ad. July '68, El. Feb. '69.

Winans, Theodore El. July '77. Wing, Cora B El. July '77, Ad. July '78.
Witbeok, J^-ellie L El. June '81. Wood, EUen A El. July '78. Wood,
Fannie M El. Feb. '80. Wood, Hannah J El. Jan. '81. Wood, Ida H El.
July '80. Wood, JuHa El. July '84. Wood, Marthal El. July '80.
Woodford, Diana El. June '75. Woodhull, Victoria I El. Jan. '82.
Woodward, Ella P Ad. June '75. Woodward, Katharine D CI. July '80.
Woolman, Anna Ad. July '78. Woolworth, Clara N El. Feb. '70.
Wooster, Harriet A Ad. June '74. Worden, Esther A El. July '77.
Worthington, Eleanor CI. Jan. '72- Wright, Emma H El. Jan. '78.
Yarrington, Adrian M Ad. July '84. Tawger, Mary CI. June '82.
Tawger, Sarah L Ad. June '74. Tocum, Jane P El. '65. Young, Mary L
El. June '79. Young, Melinda Ad. July '70.
HISTORY OF
GRADUATES
OF
Oswego State Normal and Ti[aining School,
TO JULY 6th, 1886, INCLUSIVE.
Following each name are two
addresses, the first, the person's address on entering the school,
the second, his addressJuly,1886,orhispermanentaddress.In
somecasesthestatisticsareveryimperfect,owingtofailureto
getanswerstoletters.Inafewcasespersonsrefusedtoanswer,a
fewothersweredoubtlesscarelessaboutit,andtheaddressof
othersweareunabletoascertain.Thisisverymuchtobe
regretted,assomeoftheinformationaskedforisofthehighest
importanceinthehistoryofourwork,,andasrelatedtotheNormal
SchoolworkoftheState.FIRSTCLASSApril10,1862.Andrews,
Jane,Oswego,]J^.T.Mt.Yeraon,N.Y.Taujfhttenyearsin
Oswejfo,N.Y.,andtwentythreeyearsinNewYorkcity;hasdonea
greatdealofSundayschoolandmissionarywork.Barber,MartS.,
Oswego,N.Y.Detroit,Mich.Taughttwentyflveyears;inOswego,
InDetroitpublicschoolsandinDetroitFemaleSeminary^Barker,
Mary,Kichville,N.Y.Mrs.GardinerLord,Athol,Mass.Taught
elevenyearsinOswegopublicschools.Becker,HelenS.,Oswego,
lH.Y.Mrs.BenjaminR.Sweetland,Tucson,Arizona.MarriedIn
1862,hastwochildren;livedinSacramentoseveralyears.Black,
Jenny,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.J.N.White,Albany,N.Y.Taughtin
Albanyafewyears;hasonechild.Blood,ElizaA.,Saratoga,]J^.
Y.Mrs.C.A.Rockwell,Saratoga,N.Y.TaughtinOswegosix
monthsandinHuntington,N.Y.,thirteenyears.Brewster,Sarah
P.,Oswego,m.Y.TaughtinOswegoseveralyears;diedinJune,
1868.BruceEllenM.,Oswego,KY.HastaughtinOswegopublic
schoolsthirtytwoyears.235Case,Pamelia0.(Mrs.),Beverly,
NewJersey.Mrs.CalvinH.Hale,Olympla,Wash.Territory.Taught
InBeverlyandElizabeth,N.J.,andinOlympla,Wash.Ty.;been
SchoolSuperintendentofThurstonCo.,Wash.Ty.,fiveyears,and
memberofTerritorialBoardofEducationfiveyears;onechild.
Clapp,LeonoraT.,Lafayette,OnondagaCo.,N.T.Mrs.JamesT.
Chute,Minneapolis,Minn.WasfirstmarriedtoJohnN.Groenendyke,
whodiedin1869;onechild;taughttwelveyearsinOswego,N.Y.,
andthreeyearsinLafayette,Ind.Clark,CharlesD.,Oswego,N.Y.
Syracuse,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinBridgeton,N.J.;isauthorand
journalist.Cooper,MatildaS.,ifyack,N.Y.Oswego,N.Y.See
historyofteachers.Davis,HelenA.,Oswego,^.Y.Mrs.FrankB.
Lewis,Paxton,111.Taughtseveralyears,inOswego,N.Y.,Beverly^
N.J.,Richmond,Ind.,Lexington,Ky.,andIndianapolis,Ind.;is
nowprincipalofPaxtonpublicschools.Davis,KateH.,Oswego,if.
Y.EastSaginaw,Mich.Taughttwentyfiveyears,inOswego,N.Y.,
OakPark,111.,andEastSaginaw;hasworkedchieflyintraining

schools.Davis,MaryE.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.DavidR.Klinger,
Owensboro,Ky.TaughtinOswego,N.Y.,andAurora,111.,aboutfive
years,andinOwensboro,nineteenyears;isnowinVaughn
Seminary;onechild.Funnelle,AmandaP.,Huntington,'N.Y.
Detroit,Mich.TaughtsincegraduationinTrainingSchoolsin
IndianapolisandTerreHaute,Ind.,inAlbany? N. Y., and in Detroit,

Mich. Gilbert, Christina H., Fredonia, [N". Y. Taught two years in


Roslyn, N. Y., two years in Germantown, Pa., in Winona, Minn., eight
years, and in Macon, Ga., three years. Hanen, Mary J., Oswego N. Y.
Taught in Oswego since graduation. Jenkins, Helen M., Oswego, N.
Y. Mrs. Ulric King, Chicago, 111. Taught a few years in Oswego ;
married and lived in Milwaukee some time before removing to
Chicago ; two children. KiLBOURN, Mart A., Oneida, N. Y. Mrs. N.
Volney Burgess, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego ten years in public
schools and five years in a private school ; three children. Lewis,
Matilda, Trenton, N. J. Mrs. Robert W. Jordan, San Francisco, Cal.
Taught in Trenton, N. J., and in San Francisco Cal.; died Oct. 3, 1884.
Manning, Delia, Oswego, 1^. Y. Taught in Oswego since graduation.
Miller, Martha, Oswego, N". Y. Taught a short time in Oswego ;
married Frank Waugh ; two children ; died July 19, 1883. Norman,
H. Louise, Oswego, N. Y. Taught fifteen yeai's, in Oswego, New York
and Brooklyn, N. Y. Parsons, Elizabeth, Hannibal, N. Y. Taught in
lUon and Rochester, N. Y. ; died April 21, 1872. Parsons, Flora T.,
Hannibal, N". Y. Taught in Rochester, N. Y., and in normal school at
Shippensburg, Pa.; did considerable in- stitute work ; died June 21,
1874. Parsons, Laura, Hannibal, N. Y. Taught in Oswego, N. Y.,
Oshawa, Ont., and in New York City ; died March 5, 1881.
236
Parsons, Mary A., Hannibal, N. Y. Mrs. Daniel H. Dennlson, Oswego
Falls, N. Y. Taught twelve years before marrying Custlce C. Rice of
West Dover, Vt. ; lived five years In Baltimore, Md., w^hen Mr. Rice
died, after which Mrs. Rice taught three years; two children. Pease,
Fannie W., Oswego, ^N". Y. Taught in Oswego, in public and in
private schools, since graduation, except a short time in
Huntington, N. Y. Plumb, Louisa C, Oswego, N^. Y. Mrs. Ephraim M.
Andrews, Oswego, N. Y. Giuduated from Albany normal school in
1851 ; taught twelve years, chiefly in Oswego ; two children. Roe,
Martha, Cortland, l!^. Y. Taught in Oswego five years, in Iowa three
years, and in normal school at Cortland, N. Y., seventeen years.
Seeber, Martha A., Oswego, N. Y. Taught several years in Oswego ;
also t!aught in School for Mutes in Cleveland, O., married H. M.
Harman of Oswego ; died May 2, 1886. Sheldon, Edward A.,
Oswego, 2^. Y. See history of teachers. TuBBS, Helen M., Oswego,
N. Y. Taught in Oswego since graduation. "Weed, Eliza H., Oswego,
K Y. Taught in Osw^o several years and in Fort Wayne, Ind., one
year ; died Oct. 5, 1883. Weed, Frances E., Oswego, N". Y. Mrs. V.
C. Douglas, Oswego, N. Y. Taught several years In Oswego before
marriage ; one child ; has taught two years slncelhus- band's death.
Weller, Eugene D., Oswego, K Y. Philadelphia, Pa. Taught in Oswego
a few years ; removed to farm near Avon, N. Y., afterward to
Philadelphia, Pa.; has been agent for publishing house several

years. Whitney, Emily H., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Chas. W. Sexmlth,


Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego eight years before marriage ; one
child. Wilson, Helen M., Oswego, K y/ Mrs. Daniel L. Couch,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Osw^ego six years before marriage.
SECOND CLASS April T, 1863. Andrews. Esther A., Oswego, N. Y.
Albany, IST. Y. Taught in Albany Academy for boys, nineteen years.
Brant, Louisa H., Oswego, IN". Y. Mrs. M. E. Erwln, Dubuque, la.
Taught three and a half years in Oswego ; two children. Bunnell,
Hannah K., Oswego, 25". Y. Mrs. H. S. Watson, Ottawa, Canada.
Taught twenty-three years ; in Ogdensburg, N. Y., in Wheeling, W.
Va., in Augusta, Ga., and in Oswego. Is a graduate of Albany normal
school. Card, Florence, Oswego, X. Y. Mrs. D. H. Mann, Terre
Haute, Ind. Taught a few years in Lafayette, Ind., before marriage.
Carpenter, Sarah L., Oswego, ^N^. Y. Mrs. S. L. Davis, Philadelphia,
Pa. Taught in Clarksdale, Miss., a few^ months ; taught French,
German and music in private fam- ilies for years ; one child.
227
Robbins, Jennie C . A<1. Jan. '77. Roberts, Amy J Ad. Jan. '72.
Robertson, Elizabeth El. '65. Robinson, Caroline E El. Jan. '78.
Robinson, Lucy M El. Feb. '80, Ad. July '80. Robinson, Marian M Ad.
June '76. Robinson, Myra L El. July '77. Rockwell, Adaline B CI. July
'86. Rodie, Anna C El. July '78. Rodie, Nena M El. June '81, Ad. June
'82. Roe, Martha El. '62. Rogers, Alice B El. July '84. Rogers,
Antoinette C i i Ad. July '86. Rogers, Lizzie H El. Feb. '86. Rogers,
Lucy T Ad. June '83. Rollinson, Elizabeth G El. July '72. Rollinson,
Sarah M El. June '75. Romans, Mary A El. July '68. Root, Emma L
El. Feb. '67. Root, Martha J El. July '68. Rope, Kate E El. July '67.
Ross, Marguerite S El. July '78. Ross, Minnie A El. July '68. Row,
Sarah M El. July '86. Rowell, Harriet L El. June '75. Rowler, Burdett
D Ad. July '71. Royall, Mary E El. Feb. '80. Royce, Millicent A Ad.
July '72. Roys, Addie E El. June '79. Rulison, Nellie S. El. Jan. '85.
Russell, Calvin L .*T Ad. July '77. Russell, Lizzie B El. July '78.
Russell, N. Jennie El. Jan. '73. Safford, Louise M El Feb. '67.
Salisbury, Clara A El. June '81. Salmon, Carrie B El. July '86.
Salmon, Lizzie Ad. Feb. '70, El. July '70. Salmon, Mary J El. Feb. '66.
Sanford, EmUy S El. Feb. '70. Santley, Elizabeth D El. June '82.
Satterlee, Ophelia El. Jan. '78. Savage, Anna El. Jan. '77. Sawdey,
Myrtis El. July '86. Sawyer, Laura A Ad. July '68. Sayre, Harmie J El.
July '67. Schofield, Elizabeth H Ad. June '83. Scott, Emma C Ad.
June '79. Scott, Mary E El. '65. Scott, Tilli A El. '64. Scribner,
Ernest E Ad. June '82. Seaman, Anna A El. July '73. Seaman, Kate
Q El. July '78. Seamans, Nellie C El. Jan. '75.
238 THIRD CLASS
April, 1864. Andrews, Margaret L., Kewburyport, Mass. Mrs.
William F. Allen, MadJ^n, Wis. Taught three years in private school
In Syracuse ; three children. Burt, Margaret M., Oswego, N. T.
Taught most of time since graduation. In the public schools of
Oswego, N. Y. Clancy, Marie L., Schenectady, N. Y. Chester, Pa.
Taught in Charlton, Amsterdam, Schoharie and Poughkeepsle, N. Y.,
in New Haven, Gt., and about twenty years In Chester, Pa.
DuGANE, Sarah D., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Ira L. Jenkins, Peru, Neb.

Taught in Boston, Mass., and in Cincinnati, 0., before marriage, after


which resided in Oswego, a few years; then taught in Polytechnic
Institute, Brookl3m, N. Y. ; one child. Hamiton, Anna E., Oswego,
N". Y. Taught in Oswego, public schools twenty-two years.
Hubbard, Amelia E., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Stewart Montgomery.
Taught a few years before marriage, in Grand Rapids, Mich., where
she resided at time of death, June 1st, 1871. Powers, Louisa A.,
Watertown, K Y. Mrs. L. A. Hall, Rochester, N. Y. Taught short time
in Watertown, N. Y. ^UACKENBUSH, A. CORDELIA, OswegO, N". Y.
Mrs. William Kenyon, Butte City, Montana. Taught two years in
Oswego ; married and removed to Independence, Iowa, where she
resided several years before removing to Butte City ; three children.
Scott, Tillie A., Oswego, K. Y. Mrs. William L. Becker, Warwick, N. Y.
Taught in Oswego a few years. Staats, Margaret J., Oswego, K Y.
Taught in public schools of Oswego until her death, Feb. 4, 1883.
Stevenson, Kosanna, Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. William Gray, Oswego, N.
Y. Taught In Oswego a few years.
FOURTH CLASS. April 6, 1865.
HOND, Margaret L., Chippewa, Ont. I^ew York City. Taught twentyone years in New York city schools. Hrtan, Mart, Oswego, N. Y.
Mrs. William Parsons, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego several years
before marriage. BuRT, Kate M., Oswego, i^. Y. Taught a short
time in Oswego, before married Putnam Fields ; removed to Jersey
City, N. J. where resided until death, October 14, 1876. Chalmers,
Mart Angeline, Oswego, iS'. Y. Mrs. Chapin E. Church, Canandaigua,
N. Y. Taught in Oswego, ten years before marriage ; two children.
Chandler, Eliza, l^ew York City. Mrs. William Carlisle, Federal Point,
Fla. Taught one year in Poughkeepsle, N. Y., and eight years in
schools of Children's Aid Society, New York ; five children. Curtice,
Delia, "Webster, IS". Y. Rochester, N". Y. Taught twenty-one years in
public schools of Rochester.
239 DiNMORE, Lizzie H., Oswego,
l^.Y. Taufifht in Oswego sixteen years. Oage, Mary E., Boston,
Mass. Mrs. Peter Peterson, Chicago, ni. Hanford, Marion A.,
Honeoye Falls, i?". Y. Mrs. Napoleon Goodsell, Minneapolis, Minn.
Taught two years in Rochester, N. Y., three years in Aurora, 111., and
one year in Oak Park, 111.; four children. Harmon, Mary J.,
Oswego, N. Y. Buffalo, K. Y. Taught six years in Oswego public
schools ; since that time in Buffalo Normal school. Hyland, Eliza J.,
Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. John McKenna. Died in Grand Rapids, Mich.,
several years since. Kerr, Kittie, Oswego, ^. Y. Mrs. Ed. A. Cooke,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught several years in Oswego, before marriage.
Lapping, Martha F., Oswego, K Y. Mrs. Dewitt C. Draper, Fulton, N. Y.
Taught in Oswego four years ; five children. Leary, Jennie K.,
Oswego, K Y. Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught one year in Oswego, and
nineteen years in Brooklyn, N. Y. Lee, i^ELLiE, Oswego, N. Y. Mrs.
Nicholson C. Goble, Oswego, N. Y. Has not taught ; two children.
Leffin, Lizzie, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego a few years before
married George Goble ; died December 7, 1870. McDowell, Nora E.,
Oswego, K. Y. Mrs. Francis Heartwell, Jarvis, Ontario. Taught Ave
and one-half years before marriage ; two children. Penfield,

Philomela, Delhi, K. Y. Mrs. W. F. Wood, South Oil City, Pa. Taught


before marriage, one year in Trenton, N. J. ; one child. Perkins,
Emily H., Oswego, ]N". Y. Mrs. B. E. Wells, Syracuse, N. Y. Taught a
short time In Oswego before marriage. Perkins, May E., Oswego, K
Y. Mrs. M. D. L. Hayes, Rochester, N. Y. Critic teacher In Oswego
normal school, six years before marriage ; three children. Ranger,
Sarah A., Oswego, N. Y. Mi's. H. A. Jones, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in
Oswego seven years before marriage ; three children. Robertson,
Elizabeth, Tremont, Ind. New York City. Taught twenty-one years in
German Industrial school. New York. Is working in microscopy ; has
collected cabinet of minerals and native woods, and a herbanlum of
more than one thousand plants. ScoTT, Mary E., Oswego, N. Y.
Mrs. Mary S. Duryea, Accord, N. Y. Taught eight years in Oswego,
and a year in Accord. Smith, Rhoda R., East Kendall, N. Y. Mrs.
James Austin, East Kendall, N. Y. Taught three years In Rochester, N.
Y. ; four children. Sterling, Sarah C, Three Rivers, Mich. Taught
nine years, in Nlles, Manistee, Whitehall and South Haven, Mich. ; in
poor health. Stoel, Martha W., Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Harrisburg,
Pa., and In Oswego, twenty-one years.
240
Stowell, Alice,
Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Alice Townley, Oswego, N. Y. Taught several
years in Oswego public schools. Taylor, Sarah. No report. Town,
Margaret A., Oswego, N". T. Mrs. William Hart, Syracuse, N. Y.
Taught in Syi-acuse twelve years ; two children. Tyler, Anna M.,
Oswego, ]J^. Y. Taught In Indianapolis, Ind., until her death, August
11, 1870. YocuM, Jane P., Germanton, Pa. Taught In Norrlstown,
Pa.; died in Atlantic City, June 17, 18&4.FIFTHCLASS.February
6,1866.Barstow,Ellen,Oswego,!N".Y.Mrs.ClarenceDenton,
KansasCity,Mo.TaughtashorttimeInOswegobeforemarriage;two
children.Blackwood,Belle,Oswego,KY.Mrs.F.W.Bloomburg,
Syracuse,N.Y.TaughtInOswegobeforemarriage.Bradt,Amelia
H.,Oswego,2^.Y.Mrs.IrvingH.Palmer,Cortland,N.Y.Taught
InOswegobeforemarriage,andafterherhusband,ThomasE.Lyon''s,
death.Bryant,MarieE.,^N'ewark,WayneCounty,N".Y.Noreport.
BuRT,MarionY.,Scriba,OswegoCo.,N.Y.TaughtinOswego,N.Y.,
andPrinceton,111.Cyrenius,FrankJ.,Scriba,IN".Y.Mrs.
WilliamS.Tiuner,Oswego.TaughtinOswegothreeyears.GiBBS,
FrankM.,Oswego,KY.,Mrs.JohnW.Alvord,Oswego,N.Y.Taught
inOswegonearlyalltimesincegraduation;onechild.Gilchrist,
AugustaL.,Manilas,OnondagaCo.,X.Y.TaughtinNyack,N.Y.,
andinBayCity,Mich.,beforemarryingMr.E.Stanton;diedIn
Flint,Mich.,November23,1885.Gill,EmilyI.,Henderson,X.Y.
Mrs.W.B.Howard,FortMorgan,Col.TaughtinSackett'sHarbor,N.
Y.,oneterm.InMannsvllle,N.Y.,oneterm.InAntwerp,N.Y.one
year,andinHoimdsfleld,N.Y.,fiveyears.Hanen,Anna,Oswego,
X.Y.DiedNovember8,1867.Haskell,SarahM.,Penfield,Monroe
Co.,X.Y.Mrs.SethC.Wood,Knowlesville,N.Y.Taughtoneyear
inOswego,N.Y.,andoneyearinBrockport,N.Y.;twochildren.
KenifiC;Margaret,Oswego,N".Y.TaughtInOswegopublicschools
sincegraduation.MuLLiNER,MaryL.,Penfield,MonroeCo.,N.Y.
Mrs.AlansonHlgbie,Fairport,N.Y.TaughtoneterminOswego,N.
Y.,andayearInRochester,N.Y.PiKB,AnnaL.,Brockport,Monroe
Co.,K.Y.Mrs.J.C.Carwlle,RedBluff,Cal.Taughtfour
years,lnRochester,SpencerportandPenfield,N.Y.;marriedEllas

Wilcox;onechild.241Pride,MarthaA.,HoneoyeFalls,Monroe
Co.,'N.Y.TaughtInOsw^o,N.Y.,andinOttumwa,Iowa;married
JohnM.Purdy;diedApril11,1876.RoBBiNS,DeliaE.,Honeoye
Falls,N.Y.Mrs.DanielH.Sherman,Brooklyn,N.Y.Taughtfive
years.InHuntington,N.Y.,Flushing,N.Y.,andNewYorkcity;
threechildren.Salmon,MaryJ.,Oswego,1^.Y.TaughtinOswego
sincegraduation.Starr,EllenD.,Lenox,2^.Y.Chittenango,]J^.
Y.TaughtinIndianapolis,Ind.,oneyear,inWilkesbarre,Pa.,one
year,andinBridgeport,Conn.,oneyear;writtenTheTeacher's
GuidetotheWordCardandLetterCardMethod.Thurman,GertrtJde,
Oswego,]J^.Y.TaughtashorttimeInVevay,Ind.,diedJanuary
22,1867.Whitney,KateA.,Oswego,.Y.TaughtinOswegonine
years,inBrookl3m,N.Y.,twoyears,andInFredonia,N.Y.,three
years..SIXTHCLASS.July25,1866.Collins,HannahJ.,
Cannel,Ind.TaughtinIndianapolis,Ind.,andinMaryville,
Tenn.;diedDecember15,1875^Hopson,EdlaE.,Scriba,Oswego
Co.,JS^.Y.Mrs.BurtonRice,Atkinson,Neb.TaughtinScribaand
Volney,N.Y.,twoandahalfyears;sixchildren.Maxwell,Fanny
C,(Mrs),KennethSquare,ChesterCo.,Pa.Hasnottaughtforyears
;hasbeenpostmistress.McCool,E.Cecilia,Hannibal,OswegoCo.,
N.Y.Mrs.SilasM.Allen,Denver,Col.TaughtinNyack,N.Y.,in
Oswego,N.Y.,andinIlion,N.Y.Morgan,AbbieB.,Elmira,X.Y.
Orange,N.J.TaughtinAdelphiAcademyinBrooklyn,N.Y.,
afterwardsestablishedprivateschoolinOrange,N.J.Porter,
Lucretia,Grahamsville,SullivanCo.,]^.Y.TaughtinWilmington,
Del.,threeandahalfyears,inDeposit,N.Y.,oneyear,in
Flushing,N.Y.,eightyears,inJericho,N.Y.,threeyears.
Smith,IdaB.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.ArthurBumam,Chicago,111.
TaughtinOsw^^twoandahalfyears;onechild.Tiffany,Dewitt
C,Scriba,N.Y.St.Charles,Mich.TaughtinOswego,N.Y.,in
Bridgeport,Mich.,andinSt.Charles,Mich.,aboutelevenyears;
Isnowamerchant.Taughn,SenaC,Meridian,CayugaCo.,]J^.Y.
Mrs.MiltonClark,Wolcott,N.Y.TaughtinPortByronandAuburn,
N.Y.,threeterms,inJacksonville,111.,twoyears,andin
Lincoln,111.,oneyear.SEYENTHCLASS.February6,1867.
ELEMENTARY.Anderson,MedoraC,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.JamesMorrow,
Fulton,N.Y.TaughtinOswego,N.Y.,Nyack,N.Y.,andFulton,N.
Y.Armstrong,SarahJ.,Oswego,N.Y.Cincinnati,0.Taughtin
Oswegoafewyearsandthenestablishedaprivateschoolin
Cincinnati,Ohio.Brant,AlidaR.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswego
ashorttime;diedMarch6,1871.P242Brown,AdaB.,
Oswego,N.T.Mrs.J.Dorr,Falley,Lafayette,Ind.TaughtIn
Lafayette,Ind.,fourmonthsbeforemarriage;two.children.
Chalmers,JfliaA.,Oswego,N.Y.Elmira,IS.Y.TaughtinOswego
twoyears.InBuffalonineyears,andthenestablishedprivateschool
inElmira,N.Y.Cole,EllaJ.,Minetto,OswegoCo.,N.Y.Mrs.
MiltonS.C!oe,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinIlion,N.Y.,twoyears;
fivechildren.Cross,HelenG.,Chaumont,Jeff.Co.,N.Y.Mrs.
Fred.Noterman,Hlllsboro,111.Taughtbeforemarriage,inChaumont,
N.Y.,inBattleCreek,Mich.,andinTopeka,Kan.Davies,Adaline
E.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.JohnR.Preston,Oswego,N.Y.Taughtthree
yearsbeforemarriage,inOswego,N.Y.,andinWilkesbarre,Pa.,one
yearsincemarriage;sixdaughters.Davis,AnnaE.,Port
Jefferson,LongIsland,i^.Y.Mrs.GeorgeH.Smith,Port
Jefferson,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeinBrooklyn,N.Y.Drew
Jennette,Hammondsport,SteubenCo.,N.Y.Mrs.MarcenaH.Dildine,
Hammondsport,N.Y.TaughtinHammondsport,N.Y.,twoyears.
Ells,AmeliaA.,Oswego,K.Y.Mrs.JamesEggleston,Newton,Mass.

Taughtthreeyearsbeforemarriage,inOswego,N.Y.;threechildren.
Foster,MaryF.,Oswego,IS".Y.Mrs.HenryJ.Ferguson,Akron,O.
TaughttwoyearsinOswego.Gray,LauraM.,Oswego,N^.Y.Mrs.
GeorgeW.Collins,Denver,Col.TaughtashorttimeinNyack,N.
Y.;onechild.Jenne,AmeliaH.,Oswego,I^.Y.Mrs.HoraceO.
Brown,Oswego,N.Y.TaughttwoyearsinIlllon,N.Y.;five
children.Jones,Kebecca,]S"ashua,K.H."Worcester,Mass*
TaughtashorttimeinAlbany,N.Y.,andforseventeenyearsin
NormalschoolatWorcester.Locke,AbbieA.,Buffalo,K.Y.Mrs.
JamesB.Stone,Worcester,Mass.TaughtinBuffalo,N.Y.,in
Richmond,Ind.,inNorthamptonandBoston,Mass.,andinEvans
ville,Ind.;hasgivenagreatdealofinstructiontodeafmutes;
twosons.McCumber,MarthaC,Preble,N.Y.Taughtinnormal
schoolsinOswego,N.Y.,andSt.Cloud,Minn.,beforemarriedMr.
Spencer,dledJanuary30,1880.McElroy,AliceE.,Oswego,KY.
Cincinnati,Ohio.TaughtinOswego,N.Y.,Westboro,Mass.,Sellns
Grove,Pa.,Vassar,Mich.,andCincinnati,O.Mead,EmmaA.,
Fulton,JS^.Y.Mrs.T.A.Rose,Waterloo,Iowa.Taughtbefore
marriageinNyack,N.Y.,oneterm,inMuncie,Ind.,twoyears,in
LockportN.Y.,twoyears,andinWaterloo,I.,fiveyears;two
daughters.Morrison,EmmaS.,Oswego,iST.Y.Mrs.EugeneM.
Collins,OswegoCenter,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinPhiladelphia,Pa.,
andtwoyearsinOswego,N.Y.;fourchildren.Parsons,AliceM.,
Binghamton,N.Y.Mrs.H.M.Keeler,ChenangoBridge,N.Y.Taught
inNyack,GreenwichandBinghamton,N.Y.,andinJacksonville,111.
243Potter,HarrietA.,Cooperstown,i^".Y.Mrs.William
Douglass,GrassValley,Cal.TaughtinBaldwinsville,N.T.,oneand
ahalfyears,inJerseyCity,N.J.,fourandahalfyears.InNew
Yorktwoyears,andinGrassValley,Cal.;twochildren.Root,
EmmaL.,Pulaski,N.T.Mrs.WilliamH.Sullivan,Osbom,Ohio.
TaughtfouryearsInIndianapolis,Ind.;fourchildren.Safford,
LouisaM.,Redwood,JS^.T.Mrs.GeorgeV.Webster,Bossie,St.
Law.Co.,N.Y.TaughtinLafayette,Ind.,andinRedwood,N.Y.;
sixchildren.Smith,MaryE.,Oswego,KY.Mrs.ThomasW.Morley,
Marysvllle,Pa.TaughtinOswegosixyears;fourchildren.
Staats,MatildaC,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.TheodoreD.Kellogg,Oswego,
N.Y.TaughtinOswegofifteenyears,andinFt.Dodge,la.,one
year;residedaftermarriageinMayberry,D.T.Swan,MaryH.,
Albany,N.Y.Mrs.JamesH.Smart,LaFayette,Ind.TaughtinFort
Wa3me,Ind.,andFredonla,N.Y.;twochildren.TuTTLE,HelenA.,
Oswego,N.Y.Skaneateles,N".Y.TaughtinOswegooneyear,andin
Fairport,N.Y.,tenyears.ADYANCED.Burt,KateB.,Oswego,N.
Y.Mrs.OscarR.Burchard,Denver,Colo.TaughtinOswego,andin
Normalschool,Fredonla,N.Y.Fjiench,Armina,Friendship,
AlleganyCo.,iN.Y.Mrs.A.L.Metcalf,Bradford,Pa.Taughtfour
yeais,inWellsville,WaverlyandFredonla,N.Y.;threechildren.
FuNNELLE,LenaS.,Huntington,LongIsland,if.Y.Mrs.WilliamW.
Rope,Brooklyn,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinNyack,N.Y.,andthree
yearsinFortWa3me,Ind.;fivechildren.OiBBS,M.Elizabeth,
Oswego,]^.Y.Mrs.A.A.Thresher,Englewood,111.Taughtin
Oswego,N.Y.,Philadelphia,Pa.,andChicago,111.Holbrook,Mary
M.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.ChesterW.McElroy,Oswego,N.Y.Taught
beforemarriage,oneyearinBrooklyn,N.Y.;sincemarriage,three
yearsinprivateschoolinOswego,andinnormalschoolInsametown
;twochildren.Hubbard,MariaH.,Oswego,!N".Y.Taughtashort
timeinOswegoandNyack,N.Y.Xeyes,SarahL.,Kochester,X,Y.
TaughtinRochester,andFranklinville,N.Y.,andinBridgeton,N.
J.;forthelast^IghtyearsinRochester,N.Y.Merriam,EmilyM.,

Malone,N.Y.TaughtinCincinnati,0.,untilmarriedMr.E.P.
Goodenough;diedMarch28,1882.Trowbridge,EdwardA.,
Waterburgh,N^.Y.Trumansburg,N.Y.Taughtsincegraduation,in
Keokuk,I.,inBelding,Mich.,inSlaterville,N.Y.,in
Jacksonyille,andinTrumahsburg;twochildren.244EIGHTH
CLASSJuly,10,1867.ELEMENTARY.Barlow,MaryE.,Oswego,N.Y.
Mrs.JohnA.Read,Peoria,IIIDidnotteach.Bbnbdict,Harriet
N.,Amsterdam,N.Y.TaughtinWilmington,Del.,andIndependence,
I.,beforemarriedA.P.Stevenson;diedJanuary24,1875.
Bishop,ElectaR.,Oswego,N.Y.NewYorkCity.Taughttwoyearsin
AlleghanyCity,Pa.;taughtsince1868inIndustrialSchoolsof
Children'sAidSociety,NewYorkCity.Brown,Amelia,Ticonderoga,
N.Y.Buffalo,N.Y.TaughtinEvansyille,Ind.,Plainfleld,N.J.,
St.AlbansandBurlington,Vt.,inWhitehallandTiconderoga,N.Y.,
andinChampaign,111.Carpenter,MarionN.,Ilion,N.Y.Taught
eightyearsinIlion,N.Y.Charles,LibbieS.,Batavia,N.Y.
Mrs.EdwardR.Craig,Homellsvllle,N.Y.TaughtinOswegotwo
years,Bataviatwoyears,andinprivateschoolsinHomellsvllle,N.
Y.sevenyears.Fenner,EmmaJ.,Rochester,N.Y.Mrs.EugeneM.
Wooden,Chili,N.Y.TaughtinRochester,andinHenrietta,N.Y.
FuNNELLE,LenaS.SeeAdv.,Feb.6,1867.GiBBs,M.Elizabeth.
SeeAdv.,Feb.6,1867.Hall,DefransaA.,Preble,CortlandCo.,
N".Y.Mrs.CharlesM.Swann,Mankato,Minn.TaughtinNyack,and
Oswego,beforemarriage;inMankato,Minn.,tenyearssince
marriage.Hubbard,MariaH.SeeAdv.,Feb.6,1867.Hughes,
EmilyL.,Rochester,N.Y.Mrs.GeorgeC.Hard,Plttsford,N.Y.
TaughtinRochesteraboutfiveyears,andinCincinnati,O.,three
years;twochildren.Ketcham,AngelineH.,BushneirsBasin,N.Y.
Cleveland,0.TaughtoneyearinNyack,N.Y.,threeyearsin
Oswego,N.Y.,oneyearinMankato,Minn.^andinCleveland,0.,
fiveyears.King,JeannetteC,Oswego,KY.Mrs.FreemanL.Twiss,
IIon,N.Y.TaughtinIlionafewyearsbeforemarriage;one
child.Leonard,MaryA.,Oswego,J^.Y.Taughtsincegraduation
inOswego,N.Y.Merriam,EmilyM.,SeeAdv.,Feb.6,1867.
Morris,Harriet,N".,Lebanon,0.Brooklyn,N.Y.TaughtIn
Leavenworth,Kan.,andformanyyearshasbeenprincipalofapublic
schoolinBrooklyn,N.Y.Morton,LizzieH.,Fulton,J^.Y.Mrs.
E.G.Adkins,Syracuse,N.Y.TaughtfiveyearsinOswego;one
child.Osborne,S.Katherine.Geneseo,J^.Y.Mrs.E.p.
Goodeneough,Loveland,Ohio.TaughtinLafayette,Ind.,LakeForest,
111.,Whitewater,Wis.,andCincinnati,O.(tenyears.)245Pb
ACOCK,AnnaE.,Albany,1^.Y.Dublin,Ind.TaughtAveyearsIn
YellowSprings,Ohio.Rope,KateE.,Oswego,KY.Taughtashort
timeinOswego,N.Y.Sayre,HarmieJ.,"Wadham'sCorners,Essex
Co.,N".Y.Mrs.H.H.Longsdorf,Carbondale,Pa.Taughttwoand
onehalfyearsInWllkesharre,Pa;alsothreeyearsInBinghamton,
N.Y.onechild.Sumner,HarrietB.,Oswego,KY.Mrs.Eugene
Copley,Antwerp,N.Y.Hasnevertaught.Watson,JaneS.,East
Avon,N.Y.Aurora,N.Y.TaughtfiveyearsinWilkesbarre,Pa.,
oneyearinHowardMissionSchoolinNewYork,andsevenyearsin
schoolforDeafMutes,NewYork;isteachingdeafmutesinAurora,
N.Y.ADYAJSrCED.Armstrong,SarahJ.,SeeEl.Class,Feb.G,
1867.McElroy,AliceE.,''''"''Parsons,EmmaS.,Binghamton,
N.Y.Whitney'sPoint,N.Y.Taughtfifteenyears,inLisle,
BinghamtonandFairport,N.Y.,inJacksonville,HI.,andinNew
Rochelle,N.Y.Staats,MatildaC,SeeEl.Class,Feb.6,1867.
Swan,MarfH.,''''""NINTHCLASSFebruary5,1868.
ELEMENTARY.Olapp,EvaH.,Lafayette,Onondaga,Co.,N.Y.Taught

sixteenyearsinWhitney'sPoint,N.Y.,andtwoyearsin
Washingtonville,N.Y.Clark,Hattie,Oswego,N.Y.Taughttwo
yearsinOswego,N.Y.,andinBayCity,Mich.,twelveyears.De
Lano,TeenJ.,Ticonderoga,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeinOswego,N.
Y.,andinVergennes,Yt.,beforedeath,March8,1873.DoBBiE,E.
Yalina,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.WilliamD.Allen,Oswego,N.Y.Taught
inOswegoashorttime,beforehermarriage;twochildren.
Edwards,EvaS.,Prattsburg,N.Y.Bvanston,III.TaughtinOswego
afewyears,andinEvanston,111.,untilpresenttime.Gage,L.
Jennie,Macedon,N.Y.Mrs.BenjaminLong,Avon,N.Y.Taughtin
Oswegofouryears,andinLimaoneyear;threechildren.Galloway,
F.Etjdora,Kochester,N.Y.TaughtinRochester,Minn.,four
years,inBedWing,Minn.,twoyears,andinRochester,N.Y.,until
death,Oct.24,1877.Jones,Lewis,H.,Spiceland,Ind.
Indianapolis,Ind.TaughtoneyearinJonesboro,Ind.,fouryears
inNormalSchoolatTerraHaute,Ind.,andnineyearsin
Indianapolis,Ind.;beensuperintendentofschoolsinIndianapolis
twoyears;threechildren.Jones,MirriamP.,Nashua,N.H.
Mrs.CharlesF.Mecomey,Worcester,Mass.Taughttwoandahalf
yearsinWorcester,Mass.246Lawrence,MariaE.,Fulton,25".
Y.Mrs.DavidGolladay,Holden,Mo.TauflrhtInHolden,Mo.,one
year;onechild.Lathrop,DeliaA.,BaldwinsviUe,N.Y.Mrs.
WilliamG.Williams,Delaware,Ohio.^PrincipaloftheWorcester
CityNonnalSchoolforoneandahalfyears,andprincipalofthe
CincinnatiNonnalSchoolnineyears;twosons.Leach,SarahA.,
Winfield,[N".Y.Mrs.JamesP.Tuttle,Oswego,N.Y.Taught
beforemarriage,ashorttimeinOswego.Martin,FannieE.,Dexter,
Mich.Mrs.FrankPerry,Jefferson,Texas.Taughtashorttimein
Oswego,andinRichmond,Ky.McFarlane,Jknnett,Westbrookville,
Sull.Co.,If.Y.Mrs.ThomasGait,Aurora,111.TaughtinAurora
eighteenmonthsbeforemarryingRev.T.Gait;sevenchildren.Gives
publicaddressesontemperance,andonreligioussubjects.
Parsons,PJmmaS.,SeeAdv.class,July10,1867.Parsons,Jennie
A.,Binghamton,N.Y.Mrs.GeorgeR.Seymour,Whitney'sPoint,N.
Y.Taughteighteenmonthsbeforemarriage.InWinona,Minn.,andin
Wllkesbarre,Pa.;sincethenfornearlysixyearsInWhitney's
Point,N.Y.;threechildren.Pitman,MartR.,Bufialo,N.Y.
TaughtInEmporia,Kan.,andinAlbany,N.Y.,beforemarriedThos.
Ould.;diedApril23,1875.it.Wales,LucretiaH.,Oswego,N.Y.
Mrs.JohnM.Hanley,Paxton,111.TaughtinOswegooneyear,in
Indianapolis,Ind.,fiveyears,andinGreencastle,Ind.,three
years.ADVANCED.Boyd,AndrewJ.,EastGroveland,N.Y.
Federalsburgh,Md.TaughtaboutAveyears;isnowalawyer.
Crooks,HelenA.,EastBloomiield,OntarioCo.,2^.Y.Mrs.Edward
A.Trowbddge,Trumansburg,N.Y.TaughtinKeokuk,I.,Beldlng,
Mich.,andTrumansburg;twochildren.Dunning,George,
Coopersville,ClintonCo.,N.Y.TaughtInSaranac,N.Y.,andin
Warren,O.,beforedeath,October26,1870.HicksElveniaC,
McGrawville,N.Y.TaughtInFortWayne,Ind.,andinWinona,
Minn.;manledMr.C.A.Robinson,diedJanuary3,1875.Hughes,
JennieE.,Rochester,N.Y.TaughtinRochester,N.Y.,andIn
Keokuk,I.,marriedMr.D.L.Johnson;diedMay27,1880Macken,
ChaunceyB.,Wellsville,AlleganyCo.,N.Y.Taughtsevenyearsin
Wellsville,N.Y.RiGGS,MaryE.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinNyack,
N.Y.,andInOswego,N.Y.;diedJuly23,1871.Taylor,HelenM.,
Parish,Oswego,Co.,1^^.Y.Mrs.W.M.Beckham,Petoskey,Mich.
TaughtInNapoleon,O.,fouryears.247TENTHCLASS.July8,
1868.ELEMENTARY.Armstrong,ClaraJ.,Springbrook,N.Y.

Catamarca,S.A.TaughtinOswegoandFredonla,N.T.,in
Haddonfleld,N.J.,inIndianapolis,Ind.,andinWinona,Minn.,
beforegoingtoSouthAmerica,inNormalSchoolwork.Burke,Ellen
B.,Madrid,St.LawrenceCo.,N.Y.Mrs.CharlesBurke,Malone,N.
Y.Taught,beforemarriage,inBurlington,Vt.,Fredonia,N.Y.,and
Indianapolis,Ind.Doris,ElizabethL.,Mumford,N.Y.Mrs.
ArchelausPugh,St.Paul,Minn.TaughtsixyearsinEvansYllleand
Indianapolis,Ind.,andeightyearsinChicago,111.;onechild.
Fairchild,FannyM.,Ilion,N.Y.Mrs.MillardF.Rogers,
Frankfort,N.Y.TaughtinNyack,N.Y.,threeyears;andinIlion,
N.Y.,threeyears;threechildren.Hammond,MarciaC,Dexter,K
Y.Chicago,111.TaughtinOswegooneterm,andinandnear
Shakopee,Minn.,twelveyears;haspublishedCommonSenseMethodof
TeachingElementaryReading.HenrySusanR.,Gowanda,KY.Taught
inLafayette,Ind.,LakeForestandKenwood,111.;marriedMr.J.C.
Grant;residedinChicago;diedJanuary14,1883.Morrow,
AlcindaL.,Marion,Ind.Rosario,S.A.TaughtinFortLeavenworth
eightyears,inLawrence,Kan.,threeyears,inLouisville,Ky.,one
year,inWinona,Minn.,oneyearandinRosario,ArgentineRepublic,
S.A.,threeyears.Perkins,AnnaH.,FairDale,2^.Y.Ilion,X.
Y.TaughteighteenyearsinDion,N.Y.RiGGS,MaryE.,SeeAdv.,
Feb.5,1868.Romans,MaryA.,LaPorte,Ind.Taughtin
Westville,Ind.,andAnoka,Minn.;diedFebniary9,1874.Root,
MarthaJ.,Pulaski,N.Y.Mrs.HenryM.Douglas,MiddleFalls,N.
Y.Taughtashorttimebeforemarriage,inIlion,N.Y.,andin
Champaign,111.;fourchildren.Ross,MinnieA.,Oswego,KY.
TaughtashorttimeinNyack,N.Y.,therestoftimesince
graduation,taughtinOswego.TanHusen,jS'ancyL.,Bufialo,^N".
Y.Mrs.WoodhullS.VanDoren,Brookings,Dak.Taughtthirteen
years,inLeavenworth,Kan.,Geneseo,N.Y.,Omaha,Neb.,Ferguson,
Mo.,andBrookings,Minn.;onechild.YanWagenen,CharlotteE.,
Fulton,'N.Y.,Mrs.(JeorgeF.Jenkins,Keokuk,Iowa.Taughtin
Nyack,N.Y.,ashorttime.Werner,JuliaE.,Albany,'N.Y.,
Mrs.JosephM.Lauson,Albany,N.Y.TaughtinWilkesbarre,Pa.,one
year,inFortWayne,Ind.,oneyear,andinAlbany,N.Y.twoyears.
Wheeler,SophroniaM.,Prattsburgh,N.Y.Mrs.LeonidasWalruth,
Ilion,N.Y.TaughtinDionuntilmarriage.ADVANCED.Arnold,
"Fanny,Frewsburg,N.Y.Mrs.M.H.Bliss,Pasadena,Cal.Taught
sevenmonthsinKiantone,N.Y.,oneyearinCedarFalls,la,,and
sevenyearsinFortDodge,la.;onechild.248Douglass,
HenryM.,SouthRichland,I^.Y.MiddleFalls,N.Y.Taughtashort
timeIneachofthefollowingplaces:Osw^fo,PulaskiandUnion,N.
Y.;Champaign,Oakland,EqualityandDixon,111.;ispastorof
BaptistchurchatMiddleFalls,N.Y.;fourchildren.Hbrries,
Isabella,SterlingCentre,N.Y.Mrs.JohnEdgar,SterlingValley,
N.Y.TaughtinOswegoashorttimebeforemarriage.Sawyer,Laura
A.,Lawrenceville,N.Y.Mrs.LindleyM.Edwards,Philadelphia,Pa.
TaughtinTrenton,N.J.,andinCarthage,N.Y.SissoN,EugeneP.,
Georgetown,X.Y.Hamilton,N.Y.TaughtinHamilton,N.Y.,since
graduation;isnowteachinginColgateAcademy;threechildren.
Stewart,MaryC,SterlingYalley,N.Y.Mrs.L.H.Stanton,Bay
City,Mich.TaughtsixyearsinBayCity;oneson.SwANGER,Emma
I.,Ogdensburg,J^.Y.Mrs.J.C.0.Bedington,Syracuse,N.Y.
Nottaught;foursons.SwANGER,MariaM.,Ogdensburg,KY.Mrs.
FestusDay,Fredonla,N.Y.TaughtinSyracuse,N.Y.,andinNormal
schoolinFredonia."WiLTSE,Ellen,Fentonville,N.Y.Taughtin
Fredonia,threeyears,andashorttimeinBuffalo,andin
Binghamton,N.Y.CLASSICAL.Douglas,HenryM.,SeeAd.,July8,

ISOi.Sheldon,MaryD.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.EarlH.Barnes,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOsw^onormalschoolfiveyearsandin
Wellesley,Mass.,twoandonehalfyears;residedinHoboken,N.
J.,firstyearaftermarriage;haswrittentextbooks.Stevenson,
AgnesA.,Newburgh,N.Y.TaughtinPlacerville,Cal.,before
manledCharlesE.Jaycox;diedJuly3,1876.ELEVENTHCLASS.
February3,1869.ELEMENTARY.Arnold,HelenM.,Cayuga,N.Y.
Taughtsixyears,oneyearinOswego,N.Y.,andtheremainingtime
intownsofMontezumaAurelius,inCayugaCo.,N.Y.Bettis,Addie
F.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegoashorttimebeforeherdeath,
September6,1870.Blasdel,Susan,Guilford,Ind.Mrs.William8.
Taylor,St.Louis,Mo.Hasnottaught;isinterestedinBaptist
missionarywork.Carpenter,RosamondH.,Havana,N.Y.Mrs.R.H.
Merritt,Chicago,111.TaughtashorttimeinOswego,N.Y.Day,
DeliaMay,LivoniaCenter,N.Y.Mrs.L.H.Morey,SenecaFalls,N.
Y.TaughtinOswegooneyear,inNyack,N.Y.,twoyearsandin
Geneseo,N.Y.,twoyears;fivechildren.249DiKEMAN,
CharlotteN.,EastKush,MonroeCounty,IJ".T.Mrs.JamesM.Hlmes
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtoneterminOswego,inNewOrleans,La.,two
years,andinGeneseo,N.Y.,fouryears;fourchildren.
FiTZPATRiCK,JuliaA.,Carthage,N.Y.TaughtinNyack,N.Y.,and
inCulpepper,Va.,beforemarriedJohnRogers;diedNov.,1876.
Gaylord,MargaretK.,Utica,25".Y.Mrs.WilliamH.Russell,
CooperstownN.Y.TaughteightyearsinIlionandCooperstown,N.
Y.;twochildren.B^LL,Belle,Pulaski,K".Y.Newark,N.Y.
TaughttwotermsinWatertown,N.Y.,andfivetermsinPulaskiand
vicinity;notteaching.Hunt,EmmaS.,TaughtinOswego,since
graduation.Jones,EleanorE.,Springville,N.Y.GreatValley,N.
Y.TaughtinOswegoandPotsdam,N.Y.;alsointrainingschools
inliewiston.Me.,Indiana,Pa.,andManchester,N.H.;took
KindergartencourseinOswego.Pierce,RuthA.,Marathon,N.Y.
Mrs.HiramB.Hoxie,Raymond,la.TaughtthreetermsinOswego,N.
Y.;taughtinInstitutesatSabula,WaterlooandIowaFalls,la.;
threechildren.Pond,OliveA.,NewBritain,Conn.Mrs.JosephH.
Amies,NewHaven,Conn.Beforemarriage,taughtinTarrytown,and
Yonkers,N.Y.,andinLewiston,Me.;sixchildren;editsPrimary
DepartmentofSundaySchoolHelper.HoBB,Jeannettea.,Malone,X.
Y.Mrs.GeorgeHawkins,Malone,N.Y.TaughtinMalonetwoanda
halfyears;onechild.Sheldon,PhinieC,Yersailles,N.Y.Mrs.
WillisC.Dewey,Mardin,TurkeyinAsia.Taughtaboutsixyearsin
orphanasylumforIndiansonCattarauguscountyreservation,andone
andahalfyearsinQuincy,Mass.;husbandismissionaryinTurkey;
onechild.Strong,AnnaH.,Oswego,X.Y.Taughtashorttimein
Oswegobeforedeath,January2,1880.SwANGER,MariaM.,SeeAdv.
July8,1868Tubes,RhodaA.,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.EugeneA
Taylor,Syracuse,N.Y.TaughtaboutsixyearsinOswego,before
marriage.IVhite,FrancE.,PortByron,N.Y.Mrs.EdgarR.
Beach,St.Louis,Mo.TaughttwoyearsinSt.Louis,beforemarriage
;sincethenassistedhusbandineditingapaper;fourchildren.
IViLSON,JuliaA.,Canastota,N.Y.LittleFalls,N.Y.Taughta
fewyearsinOswego;sincehasbeentelegraphoperatoratLittle
Falls,N.Y."WiLTSE,Ellen,SeeAdv.,July8,1868.ADVANCED.
Barker,HannahJ.,Clay,N^.Y.Mrs.CharlesMcKissick,Amenla,D.
T.Taughttwelveyears,inGreenPoint,Fairport,andJordan,N.Y.
Brown,ManiltT.,NorthBarton,N.Y.Davenport,I.Taughtin
Davenport,la.,threeandahalfyears;sincetheninemployofA.
J.Johnson&Co.,publishers:onechild.ard,GeorgeK.,Copake,
N.Y.Pittsford,N.Y.TaughtinUniontownandMarion,Ala.,about

eightyears;taughtafewyearsinAvonandinPittsford,N.Y.;
twochildren;isnowafarmer.250Card,MiltonH.,Watkins,
i!^.Y.PennYan,N.Y.Tauf^btfifteenmonthsinBinghamton,N.T.
;Isbookkeeper.Denton,SarahL.,Mendham,N.J.Mrs.William
H.Roddis,Milwaukee,Wis.TaugbtinNyack,N.Y.,andinMilwaukee,
Wis.,eacbtwoyears;twochildren.Edwards,EvaS.,SeeEl.
class,February5,1868.Harkness,J.Warren,Keeseville,J^.Y.
TaughtaboutfourandahalfyearsinPeru,BlackBrook,AuSableand
Cllntonville,N.Y.;twochildren;isnowafarmerandcivil
engineer.Sheldon,MaryD.,SeeClassical,July8.186'^.
TWELFTHCLASS.July*i,1869.ELEMENTARY.Alling,MaryR.,
Hunter,GreenCo.,N.Y.Mrs.WilliamM.Aber,Louisville,Ky.
Taughtaboutfourteenyears,principallyinNormalSchools,inOswego
andNyack,N.Y.,inCincinnati,0.,inEnglewood,111.,Omaha,
Neb.,inProvidence,R.I.,andinSpringfield,Mass.;.inBoston,
Mass.,inprivateschool.Aplin,K.Louise,Moscow,2>r.Y.Mrs.
CharlesE.Medlng,Paterson,N.J.TaughtinRochester,N.Y.,two
years,inBayonneN.J.,twoyears,andinPaterson,N.J.,thre&^
years;twochildren.Bailey,AliceF.,Trenton,N.J.Taughtone
yearinTrenton;marriedWilliamMatthews:livedinScrantonPa.;
diedMarch12^1886.Beaman,MaryE.,Antwerp,Jeff.Co.,KY.
Mrs.EmgeneJoralemon,Cazenovia,N.Y.TaughtinBloomsburg,Pa.,
andinBinghamtonandAntwerp,N.Y.,abouteightyears;twoboys*
Bloomer,Jennie,Horseheads,ChemungCo.,N.Y.Mrs.J.B.
Prentice,Elmira,N.Y.TaughtinWilkesbarre,Pa.,andinWhites
ComersandHoresheads,N.Y.Carpenter,MaraE.,Osceola,^.Y.
Mrs.WashingtonDutcher,Nyack,N.Y.TaughtinNyackashorttime
beforemarriage.Churchill,H.Jennie,Oswego,^.Y.Mrs.Charles
T.Croft,LittleFalls,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinOswego;onechild.
Dalrymple,HarrietA.,Oswego,KY.Mrs.HenryB.Eager,Brookllne,
Mass.TaughtinHamburgandRondout,N.Y.,andBrookllne,Mass.;
onechild.Dempsey,KittieL.,Oswego,iff.Y.*"Taughtin
OswegoatimebeforemarriedWarehamJohnson;diedApril24,1883.
Denton,SarahL.,SeeAdv.,Feb.3,1869.DiLDiNE,MaryE.,
Hammondsport,X.Y.TaughtinNewYorkandinOswego;diedJanuary
20,1875.Ferguson,SarahM.,Wright'sCorners,N.Y.Taughtin
NewYork,Oswego,andYoungstown,N.Y.,andinGrandRapids,Mich.
Gillespie,LetitiaJ.,Parish,X.Y.TaughttenyearsinBayCity,
Mich.;wasalsoassistantCityLibrarianthreeyears;diedMay23
1885.Gray,MayE.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinGowanda,N.Y.,two
yearsandinOswegofifteenyears.251Hubbard,Zilpha.S.,
Antwerp,N.Y.Peru,Neb.TaughtInBlnghamton,N.Y.,twoyeare,
inCouncilBluffs,la.,twoyears,andinNormalSchoolsatRiver
Falls,Wis.,andatPeru,threeyears.Johnson,NancyP.,Altona,
111.^Mrs.CharlesButton,Marquette,Mich.TaughtInAuroraand
Bloonrington,111.JosLiN,SylviaP.,Springville,N.Y.Taught
twotermsInschoolsamongIndians;hassincebeenunabletoteach.
Keeler,EstherJ.,Malone,N.Y.Mrs.SanfordA.Child,Malone,N.
Y.TaughttwoyearsinGrandRapids,Mich.;sixchildren.
Kendall,HarrietD.,Attica,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeinCortland,
N.Y.,diedOctober31,1870.Marsden,FrankM.,Oswego,N.Y.
Mrs.C.Fred.Belden,NewOrleans,La.TaughtinIlion,N.Y.,three
years,andinMamaroneck,N.Y.,threeyears.Merriam,EuniceJ.,
Malone,N.Y,Mrs.GeorgeL.Eastman,Potsdam,N.Y.Taughttwo
yearsinPotsdam,N.Y.,andoneyearinCincmnati,O.;four
children.Mbrbitt,EllenJ.,Potsdam,N.Y.RedOak,Iowa.Taught
twelveyears;inPotsdam,N.Y.,inPuebloandColoradoSprings,
Col.,inRedOak,la.,,andinHartford,Conn.MoRKY,Amelia,

Binghamton,N.Y.Potsdam,N.Y.'TaughtinNormalschoolat
Potsdamsincegraduation.MoTT,ElzinaE.,BluePoint,N.Y.
Patchogue,N.Y.TaughtinIlion,N.Y.,oneyear,andtenyearsin
Patchogue.North,Olive,Alexander,N.Y.Mrs.EdwardH.Putnam,
Attica,N.Y.TaughtsixyearsinHamburgh,AtticaandBatavia,N.
Y.,andoneyearinPaterson,N.J.Parks,MinnieA.,Yictor,N.Y.
Mrs.AmbroseLane,Victor,N.Y.TaughtInWllkesbarre,Pa.,one
year,andinVictorthreeyears;twochildren.Phillips,EmilyE.,
Gazenovia,N.Y.Mrs.JohnJ.Coard,Plainfleld,N.J.Taughtten
yearsInNewYorkandBrooklyn,N.Y.;fourchildren.Smith,Helev
M.(Mrs.)Attica,N.Y.PrairieCity,Oregon,TaughtInCortland,
N.Y.,oneterm,andinAttica,N.Y.,oneterm;threechildren.
Stewart,MaryC,SeeAd.,July8,1^68.Trowbridge,MaryL.,
Mexico,N.Y.Mrs.J.H.Sammis,Logansport,Ind.Taughtin
Binghamton,N.Y.,twoyears,inKenwood,111.,oneyear,andin
Logansport,Ind.sixyears.Whitney.Kose,Binghamton,N.Y.
TaughtInBinghamtonandOsw^o,sincegraduation.ADVANCED.
Beaman,MaryE.,SeeEle.,July6,ltf69.Bennett,IdaW.,Lyons,
N.Y.Hackensack,N.J.Taughtaboutthirteenyears,inIlion,
Fulton,Wolcott,NewRochelleandIrvlngton,N.Y.,andinCrawford,
MontcalmandHackensack,N.J.BuRCHARD,OscarR.,Binghamton,N.
Y.Denver,Col.TaughtinFredoniastatenormalschooltwelveyears
;isbrokerInDenver;A.B.(Yale.)Curtis,Hannah,Maine,N.Y.
Mrs.FrankL.Jones,Owego,N.Y.TaughtinOwegoashorttime.
252DbLano,TeenJ.,SeeEle.,February5,1868.Edwards,
LindleyM.,Spiceland,Ind.TaughtiuCarthage,FalrportandBondout
N.Y.;diedinAugust,1881.FuRMAN,G.Monroe,Haverstraw,N.Y.
Binghamton,If.Y.TaughtinPaintedPostandBinghamton,N.Y.
Greene,CassiusM.,Fulton,N.Y.Greene,la.TaughtinOlean,N.
Y.,oneyear,inKeokukandGreene,la.,Aveyears;editorofIowa
SchoolJournalsixyears;practicedlawsince1876;three
children.Hall,MaryF.,Spencer,N.Y.\l)ayton,Ohio.Taughtin
normalschoolsatCortland,PotsdamandBuffalo,andatDayton,Ohio.
Lawrence,MaryL.,Fulton,KY.TaughtInBinghamtonandPainted
Post,N.Y.,fouryears;inGaro,111.,twoyears,andinFulton,
N.Y.,eightyears.McBride,Ruth,Mumford,X.Y.PineBluff,Ark.
TaughtinNewHaven,Conn.,oneyear,inWilkesbarre,Pa.,twoyears,
inMiami,Mo.,oneyear.InCairo,111.,twoyears,andinPine
Bluff,Ark.,nineyears.Merritt,EllenJ.,SeeEle.,.July6,
1869.Miller,AdalineB.,Miller'sPlace,N.Y.Taughtten
years,inMiller'sPlace,Oswego,andPatchogue,N.Y.;in
BloomfleldandPlainfield,N.J.,andinOakland,Cal.Miller,
CatharineL.,Miller'sPlace,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeInOswego
andNyack,N.Y.,beforedeath,October3,1872.Newby,Nathan,
Spiceland,Ind.TerreHaute,Ind.TaughtinBinghamton,N.Y.,one
year,andinNormalschoolatTerreHauteeightyears;practiced
medicinetwoyears;publishedanarithmetic.PoucHER,FlorenceM.,
Oswego,N^.Y.Mrs.HenryA.Westcott,NewYorkCity.Taughtin
VanNormanInstitute,NewYork,twoyears;twochildren.Eansom,
GeorgeB.,Plattsburg,N.Y.Washington,D.C.TaughtinU.S.
NavalAcademy,Annapolis,Md.,sixyears;ismarineengineer.
Reynolds,Ellen,Clockville,N.Y.Mrs.ArthurM.Wright,Moravia,
N.Y.Taughtsixyears;InNorthampton,Mass.,inPittston,Pa.,
andinDeRuyter,andSkaneateles,N.Y.;threesons."*Richards,
CharlesW.,Acra,N.Y.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinHamburg,N.Y.,
threeyears;sincetheninHighschoolinOswego,N.Y.;two
children.RiGGS,MatthewB.,Amity,OrangeCo.,N.Y.Taughtin
Glenwood,N.Y.;diedSeptember26,1870.Williams,HelenM.,North

Lawrence,N".Y.Mrs.FernandoRoys,Rico.Col.Taughtin
Indianapolis,Ind.,twoyears,andinColumbus,0.,oneyear.
THIRTEENTHCLASS.February1,1870.ELEMENTARY.Bennett,IdaW,
Seeadv.July6,1869.Butler,MaryL.,Plattsburg,N.Y.Chicago,
111.TaughtinPortsvllle,N.Y.,ashorttime,foryearshas
taughtprivatepupil?andclasses;isdeeplyinterestedInSunday
schoolwork;Isteachingmusic;studiedinBerlin,Prussia.Coon,
Emily,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.253
HoDGKiNS,E.Theodosia,Carthage,KT.Mrs.H.H.Howe,SanJose,
Gal.TaughtinFredoniaNormalschoolfiveandonehalfyears;in
Antwerp,N.Y.,oneyearandInBozeman,Mont.,oneyear;one
child.Kellogg,CorralinnA.,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.H..Famham,
Syracuse,N.Y.TaughtfiveyearsinOswego;twochildren.
KiMBER,FannieC,Barrytown,N.Y.Mrs.ClarenceM.Boutelle,
Decorah,Iowa.Taughtaboutelevenyears;inNorwalk,Conn.,In
Logansport,Ind.,andinWinonaandRochester,Minn.;twochildren.
Murray,EstherA.,Saratoga,If.Y.Taughtaboutsevenyears,In
Nyack,N.Y.,oneterm,andInSaratoga,N.Y.,therestoftime.
Perry,SarahL.,Malone,N.Y.TaughtthreeyearsInBInghamton,N.
Y.,andInMalone,N.Y.,twelveyears;Issuperintendentof
schoolsInMalone.Sanford,EmilyS.,EastSetauket,N.Y.Mrs.
WilliamA.Hopkins,PortJefferson,N.Y.TaughtInGastleton,Vt.,
InBergen,N.J.,andInNyack,N.Y.,Inallabouteightyears;one
child.Sprott,MaryE.,Fortsville,N.Y.Nyack,N.Y.Taught
aboutfourteenyears;InPotsdam,IrvlngtonandNyack,N.Y.
Stocking,Ellen,HemlockLake,if.Y.Lansing,Mich.TaughtIn
Fairport,N.Y.,andinBayCityandLansing,Mich.Waitt,MaryG.,
Wakefield,Mass.TaughtinPortville,N.Y.,andInNewHaven,
Conn.;marriedWm.A.Gite;diedInJuly,1876.Wallace,Mary
Louise,Oswego,N.Y.Philadelphia,Pa.TaughtInWarrensburgand
KansasCity,Mo.,inShlppensburgandMyerstown,Pa.,andIsnowin
aprivateschoolInWestPhiladelphia,Pa.WoolWORTH,ClaraK,
PortLeyden,N.Y.Mrs.ArthurC.Fuller,Scranton,Pa.TaughtIn
Illon,N.Y.,twoyears;fourchildren.ADVANCED.Bassett,
WaylandG.S.,Yolney,N".Y.Rochester,N.Y.Taughteightyears,
inCanandalgua,Afton,Boonvllle,andNewark,N.Y.;Isnowengaged
InInsurancebusiness.Bruce,Ida,Aurora,111.Cincinnati,Ohio.
TaughtinNewYorkNormalCollegefouryears;sincethenInprivate
school,Cincinnati,Ohio.A.B.(Cornell.)France,AaronR.,
Cornwallville,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeatOakHill,N.Y.,and
Inothertowns;isafarmer.Hopkins,AmandaJ.,Westfield,i^.Y.
Mrs.JohnM.Seacord.Batavia,N.Y.TaughtfiveyearsinWestneld,
N.Y.,oneyearInRipley,N.Y.,oneyearInEastBloomfleld,N.
Y.,andsixyearsInCortlandnormalschool;twosons.Kellogg,
CorralinnA.,SeeEle.,February1,1870.MuNSON,HenriettaE.,
Salem,N.Y.TaughtInElmlraseveralyears;diedSeptember30,
1882.Rice,Belle0.,Greigsville,I^.Y.Taughtoneandahalf
yearsInNyack,N.Y.,andInYork,twoyears.Rider,Lucy,
Buffalo,N.Y.TaughtinOswego,andinCouncilBluffs,Iowa.
Salmon,Lizzie,Oswego,N".Y.TaughtInOsw^osincegraduation.
254SowLES.Mkhktable,EastDickinson,KT.Tauffhtashorttime
inOswego,N.Y.,andInFortDodgeandCherokee,Iowa.Titus,Mary
J.,Hingham,Wis.SanJose.Cal.TaughttwoandahalfyearsIn
Ogdensburg,N.Y.,sincethenInnormalschoolatSanJose,Cal.
Waughop,Maryettk0.(Mrs.),Washington,111.Mrs.M.C.Adams,
Chicago,111.TaughtinRutland.Vt.,andinChicago,111.
CLASSICAL.Sherwood,HenryW.,Apalachin,J^.Y.Syracuse,N.T.
TaughtinAppleton,Wis.,threeyears,andInNyack,N.Y.,twoyears

;graduatedfromcourseoftheologicalstudyatCrozerSeminary,
July,1878;pastoratBaptistchurchatMontrose,N.Y.,three
years,andsinceatSyracuse;fivechildren.FOURTEBJ^THCLASS.
July1.1870.ELEMENTARY.Barth,ReillaJ.,IfewAlbany.Ind.
Mrs.ClintonE.Reynolds,MinneapolisMinn.Taughtfourteenyears;
fiveyearsinNewAlbany,Ind.,andnineyearsinMinneapolis.
Davis,MariaE.,HemlockLake,N.Y.TaughtinIndianapolis,Ind.,
andOmaha,Neb.Pranks,MariaB.,JerseyCity,N.J.Bogota,S.A.
TaughtinWllkesbarre,Pa.,Nyack,N.Y.,andJerseyCity,N.J.,
beforegoingasmissionarytoBogota,S.A.Hopkins,AmandaJ.See
Adv.,February1,1870.KiNGSFORD,Elizabeth,Oswego,N.Y.Taught
inOswegosincegraduation.McAuLEY,MargaretL.,Oswego,N.Y.
Chicago,111.TaughtsixyearsinBayCity,Mich.,sincethen
taughtinschoolsinornearChicago.McLean,IdaE.,Osweiro,'N.
Y.TaughtinOswegoandNyack,N.Y.,beforemarriedJohnM.Munson
;diedNov.34,1875.MoREY,Helen,Binghamton,IN".Y.Taughtin
OswegoandBinghamton,sincegraduation.MuNSON,HenriettaE.,See
Adv.,February1,1870.J^elon,BridgetM.,Oswego,N.Y.Sioux
City,Iowa.TaughtinSiouxCitysixteenyears;hasstudiedmusic.
Pyne,SarahJ.,Hamilton,IN".Y.Mrs.DavidN.Foster,FortWayne,
Ind.TaughttwoyearsinOgdensburg,N.Y.,andsixyearnsinGrand
Rapids,Mich.;onechild.Kice,Belle0.,SeeAdv.,February1,
1870.Rice,SarahE.,Fulton,N.Y.Hoiyoke,Mass.TaughtIn
OswegoandHannibal,N.Y.,twelveyears;inAuoka,Minn.,oneyear,
andinEllzabethtown,N.Y.,oneye.ar.Salmon,Lizzie,See

Adv., February 1, 1870. Sutton, Lucia, Williston, Yt. Mrs. William D.


Chandler, Hackensack, N. J. Taught in Nyack, N. Y., a short time.
ABYANCED. AvERY, Jennie H.,TVestfield, I^. Y. Cleveland, 0. Taught
in Syracuse, N. Y., two and a half years, and in Cleveland, thirteen
years.
255 Crabb, Eugkne M., Redwood, X. Y. Clarendon, N. Y.
Tauffht for several years in Jefferson county ; Is practicing medicine ;
M. D., (Syracuse); two sons. ^ Crawford, Charles H., Owego, N. Y.
Chenango Forks, J^. Y. Taught six years in Rochester, Addison,
Ovid, and Osceola, N. Y., and In Omaha, Neb. ; is a minister.
Dowse, Hattie "V., Bridgewater, K Y. Mrs. Thomas J. Burdlck, Alfred
Centre, N. Y. Taught a short time in Leonardsvllle, N. Y., and in Alfred
Centre, N. Y. Hawkins, Hattie E., Stony Brook, N. Y. Patchogue, N. Y.
Taught in New Village, Moriches, and Patchogue, N. Y. Jones, Lewis
H., See Ele. CJass, Feb. 5, 1868. McBride, Mary E., Mumford, N. Y.
Mrs. W. J. Alexander, Mulberry, Ark. Taught in Clinton, la., in
Wilkesbarre, Pa., and in Xenia, 0. Moody, Jeannette L., South
Bangor, N. Y. Taught in Carthage and Malone a short time, and in
Cleveland, O., until death, September 30,1885. MoRET, Charles,
R., Georgetown, N. Y. Chicago, 111. Taught in Belfast, Weedsport,
and Cicero, N. Y., in Burlington, Northfleld and Burlington, la., in
Highland Park, 111., and in San Mateo, Fla.; was postmaster at San
Mateo five years ; now teaching in Chicago, 111. ; two children.
Noble, Ida R., Canton, N. Y. Taught in Normal school at Fredonia, N.
Y., until death, Aug, 34, 1877. Sexton, Ellen, Oswego, 'N. Y. Mrs. E.
S. Sahnley, Binghamton, N. Y. Taught in Oswego and Binghamton, N.
Y. Sherman, Josephine I., Fulton, N. Y. Oswego, N. Y. No report.
Sherwood, Henry W., See Classical, February 1, 1870. Shippey.
Seville B., Gowanda, N. Y. Omaha, J^eb. *, Taught in Nyack, N. Y.,

four years, in Dunkirk, N. Y., three years, and in Omaha, Neb., six
years. Skinner, E. Av aline, Oswego, N, Y, Mrs. Myron W. Chandler,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught Ave yeare in Oswego, N. Y., and in Vermont
several terms ; two children. Smith, Hannah M., Logan, N. Y.
Davenport, Iowa. Taught in Davenport, Iowa, several years. Smith,
William A., Tollesboro. Ky, Nashville, Tenn. Taught in Falrport, N. Y.,
and In Holden, Mo.; is a book agent. SuTTON, Sarah M., Williston,
Yt. Mrs. Greeley Benedict, St. George, Vt. Taught in Nyack and
Cortland, N. Y., and In Grand Rapids, Mich.; one child. Terry, N.
Wesley, Searsburg, N". Y. Johnson City, Kan. Taught in Kiddville,
Mo., and towns near, during winters of six years after graduation ;
has been carpenter and builder ; has four sons. Young, Melinda,
Upper Aquebogue, N. Y. Mrs. Harrison Howell, Baiting Hollow, N. Y.
Taught a short time in Baiting Hollow, N. Y. CLASSICAL. Crawford,
Charles H., See Adv., July 1, 1870. Davis Mary E., East Greeue, N".
Y. Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. John M. Moore, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in
Marshalltown, Iowa, one year ; in Albany, N. Y., three years, and in
Oswego nine years.
256 FIFTBEN"TH (CLASS. January 30,
1871. ELEMENTAKT. Allen, Margaret A. (Mrs.) Rochester, If. Y.
Taught one year In Rochester, N. Y. Avery, Jennie H., See Adv., July
1, 1870. Clarke, Fanny M., Rochester, N. Y. Mrs. J. C. Mllllron, North
Manchester, Ind. Taught one year In Wabash, Ind. Hall, Mary F.,
See Adv., July 6, 1869. KiNKADE, Mary A., Des Moines, Iowa. Mrs.
Charles R. Morey, Chicago, 111. Taught In Nyack, N. Y., In Des
Moines, and Burlington, la., and in Highland Park, 111.; three
children. Leete, Harriet R., Lockport, N. Y. Mrs. Edward Wilson,
Lockport, N. Y. Taught in Peterboro, Ont., a little more than three
years ; five children. LouGHRiDGE, Sarah F., Oskaloosa, la., Iowa
City, la. Taught in Iowa State University ; has been superintendent
of public schools in Iowa City. Maybee, Sarah H., East Norwich, '^.
Y. Huntington, L. I. Taught in Nyack, N. Y., one term, and in
Huntington fifteen years. Payne, Emerett^ F., Binghamton, IN". Y.
Mrs. Charles Beeman, Romulus, N. Y. Taught in Binghamton. N. Y.
Riley, Mary A., Northampton, Mass. Florence, Mass. Taught in
Westerly, R. I., three years, in Mount Vernon, N. Y., one year, in
Plattsburgh, N. Y., three years, in Rutland, Vt., one year, and in
Gloucester, Mass., one year ; now has private school in Florence,
Mass. Smith, Cynthia R., Binghamton, N. Y. Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught
one and a half years in Binghamton ; been book-keeper for several
years. Tiffany, Helen A., Mexico, N. Y. Taught in Oswego and
Hoosick Falls, N. Y., in Uackettstown, N. J., and in Manistee, Mich. ;
died September 7, 1885. TozBR, Mary J., Canandaigua, N. Y. Nyack,
N. Y. Taught in Yonkers, Victor and Nyack, N. Y. Yanderbelt, Delia
M., Geneseo, N. Y. Northfield, Minn. Taught in Greneseo Normal
school ten years ; since then in Minneapolis and Northfield, Minn.
ADYANCED. Allen, John G., Rochester, N. Y. Taught in Rochester
public schools since graduation ; is now in charge of Rochester Free
Academy; one child. Arnold, Marcia A., Foster Center, R. I. Mrs.
Walter Stone, Foster Center, R. I. Not taught. Carrier, Mary E.,

Little Falls, N. Y. Taught a short time in Oswego, and the rest of the
time since graduation, in Little Falls, N. Y. Davis, Ada, Coram, N. Y.
Taught in Fresh Pond and Stony Brook, N. Y., each one year, in
Yaphank, N. Y., and Sayvllle, N. Y., each two years, and in Center
Moriches, three years. Davis, Hattie E., Miller's Place, N. Y. Boston,
Mass. Has taught but little ; is book-keeper. FuRMAN, John W.,
Haverstraw, N. Y. Taught eleven years, in Binghamton and West
Chester, N. Y. ; is now practicing law.
257 Howard. Ellen E. (Mrs.)
Ogdensburg, N. Y. Burlington, Vt. Taught four years in Ogdensburg
and Massena, N. T. Howard James S., Ogdensburg, 1^^. Y.
Burlington, Vt. Taught eight years in Ogdensburg and four years in
Massena and Norwood, N. Y. M. D. (Burlington.) Spencer, Jane S.,
Blodgett*s Mills, N. Y. Mrs. Francis M. Taylor, Cortland, N. Y. Taught
in Oswego, N. Y., in Atlanta, Ga., an
n Charleston, 8. C; married Mr. F. Sebold of Yankton, Dak., where
she resided until his death In 1879 ; two children. Tozer, Mary J.
See Ele., January 80, 1871. CLASSICAL. Spencer, Jane S. See
Adv., Jan. 30, 1871.
SIXTEENTH CLASS. July 3, 1871.
ELEMENTARY. Beeman, H. Augusta, Clarence, Erie Co., N. Y. Mrs.
Edwin H. Nourse, Englewood, 111. Taught seven years in Lockport,
N. Y. Brennan, Kate S., Syracuse, N. Y. Cleveland, 0. Taught a short
time in Bergen and Brockport, N. Y., and since '73 In Cleveland, 0. B
RICH AM, Ely A M., Westford, Yt. Mrs. Chauncey Brownell,
Burlington, Vt. Taught in Burlington and Brandon, Vt. Champion,
Anna, Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught in Brooklyn four years and In New York
nine years. Chapin, Edward, Chapinville, N. Y. Brooklyn, N. Y.
Taught at Union Springs four years ; is practicing medicine in
Brooklyn, N. Y. Chask, Olive A., Broadalbin, N. Y. Mrs. S. M.
Burroughs, London, Eng. Taught in Potsdam and Gloversville, N. Y.,
three years ; in Kansas City, Mo., three years, and in Minneapolis,
Minn., Ave years ; one child. Cook, Juliet A., Oswego, N. Y. Taught
in Potsdam, N. Y., two years ; since, In Oswego. COOPKR, Arthur,
Woodstock, N. Y. Has taught in Eddyvllle, N. Y. Darrow, Mary E.,
West Eaton, N. Y. Mrs. John Coleman, Mitchell, Ind. Taught several
years in Mitchell, Ind. DiCKERMAN, Emma, New York City. Mrs.
Henry H. Straight, Normal Park, 111. Taught In normal schools in
Peru, Neb., In Warrenburgh, Mo., in Oswego, N. Y., and in Nor- mal
Park, 111. ; two children. Eggleston, Henrietta M., Henderson, N. Y.
Englewood, 111. Taught In Whites' Comers, N. Y., in Mackinac and
Grand Rapids, Mich., in Madison, Wis., and' in Englewood, 111.
FoRBUSH, J. EsTELLE, Gowanda, N. Y. Mrs. John N. Treadwell, St.
Peter, Minn. Taught in Gowanda, N. Y., six years, and in St. Peter,
Minn., five years. Hemenway, Jennie, DeKalb, N. Y. Mrs. William M.
Lannlng, Trenton, N. J. Taught In Hamilton, N. Y., two years, and in
Trenton normal school eight years. Q
258 Hunt, Mary W., East
Clarence, N. Y. . Mrs. Lewis P.. Stickney, East Clarence, N. Y. Taught
about ten years, In Clarence, Niagara Palls, Oswego, and Buffalo, N.
Y.; and in Mil- waukee, Wis. JoNKs, Ellen Lloyd, Piney Point, Md.
Mrs. D. C. Heath, Newtonvllle, Mass. Taught in Brockport a short

time ; married James Knox ; worked in institutes in New York State ;


has written two books on English language ; three children. Lkster,
Ordklia a., Fulton, N. Y. Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught in Hamburg, N. Y., one
year, in Oswego, nine years, and in Brooklyn in Packer Institute and
in Adelphi Academy. Lewis, Mary E., Haverford, Pa. Mrs. Levi
DeLand, Fairport, N. Y. Taught a few years in Fairport, N. Y. McBride,
Mary E., See Adv., Jnly 1, 1870. McLeish, Anna, Johnstown, N. Y.
Mrs. Eugene Moore, Johnstown, N. Y. Taught one year in
Binghamton, N. Y.; two children. Morris, Fannie M., Binghamton, N.
Y. Mrs. Eugene H. Kinney, Binghamton, N. Y. Taught eight years in
Binghamton ; one child. Morris, Sarah M., Binghamton, N. Y. Mrs.
George G. Landers. St. Louis, Mo. Taught one year in Binghamton,
N. Y. Palmer, Althea, A., Poolville, N. Y. Earlville, X. Y. Taught one
year in Oswego, and two and a half years in Mitchell, Ind., has since
been in poor health. Rowlee, BubdettD., Fulton, !N". Y. Conway
Springs, Kan. Taught in Fulton, N. Y., one year, in Titusville and
Sunville, Pa., three years. In New Orleans, La., three years, and in
New York City, one and a half years ; is now engaged in mercantile
business. Sherman, Amonett M., Greenwich, N. Y. Mrs. H. B.
Waterman, Normal, 111. Taught six years, in Moline, Chicago and
Belvidere 111. ; two children. Simmons, Mary Elizabeth, Beloit,
W^is. Taught in Lake Forest, 111., and in Logansport and Fort
Wayne, Ind.; also seveml years in pri- vate school in Beloit, Wis.
Staats, Maria A., Gowanda, N. Y. New York City. Taught in New York
thirteen years. Terry, Sarah E., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. John Cooper,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught one year in Mitchell, Ind., and eight years in
Oswego. Tiffany, Jane R., Mexico, N. Y. Mrs. John E. Jones,
Prattham, N. Y. Taught in Plattsbui^, N. Y., nearly two years ; two
children. Williams, Florinda E., Canton, N. Y. Mrs. William
Anderson, Findlay, Ohio. Taught in Burlington, Vt., and in
Indianapolis, Ind. ADYANCED. Allen, Margaret A., See Ele., January
20, 1871. Beeman, H. Augusta, See Ele., July 3, 1871. Cook, Juliet
A., See Ele., July 3, 1871. Cooper, Arthur, See Elementary, July 3,
1871. Eggleston, Henrietta M., See Elementary, July 3, 1871.
259
Ferguson, Sarah M., See Elementary, July 6, 1869. Hbmenwat,
Jennie, See Elementary, July 3, 1871. McLeish, Anna, See
Elementary, July 3, 1871. Palmer, Althea A., See Elementary, July 3,
1871. Rowlee, Bfrdett D., See Elementary, July 3, 1871. Tiffany,
Jane R., See Elementary, July 3, 1871. CLASSICAL. Cook, Juliet A.,
See Elementary, July 3, 1871. McBride, Mary E., See Advanced, July
1, 1870. Smith, William A., See Advanced, July 1, 1870.
SEVEIS^TEBNTH CLASS. January 30, 1872. ELEMENTARY. Balch,
E. Alice, Lamb's Comers, X. Y. Mrs. Edgar Zabriskle, Omaha, Neb.
Taught in Union and Binghamton, N. T., in Lombard and
BaTensWood, 111., and in Omaha, Neb.; eight years in all.
Bannister, Elvira, Geneva, N". Y. Chicago, 111. Taught in Oswego a
short time, and in Bavenswood and Chicago, 111., since that time.
Burt, Mary H., Oswego, K Y. Mrs. Frank E. Hamilton, Oswego, N. Y.
Taught in Bondout, N. Y., and in Peru, Neb.; two children. Crum,

Ellen J., Baldwinsvllle, N. Y. Mrs.. G. W. Boyden, Chicago, 111.


Taught in Oswego. N. Y., in Oak Park and Winnetka, 111., and in
Omaha, Neb. CusiCK, Mary, Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. M. Bulger, Oswego,
N. Y. Taught in Oswego several years before marriage. Ingraham,
LucretiaF., Clinton, Dutchess Co., N. Y. Hunter, N". Y. Taught seven
years in Sandwich Islands, at Honolulu and at Hilo, Hawaii. Jackson,
Margaret, Oswego, N". Y. Taught in Oswego since graduation.
Jayne, S. Augusta, East Setauket, N. Y. Kirksville, Mo. Taught in
Patchogue, Stonj Brook and Moore's Mills, N. Y., in Bloomfleld, N. J.,
and in Kirks- ville, Mo. Miller, C. Lucrktia, Plattsburgh, K Y. Chicago,
111. Taught a short time in Plattsburgh and in Albany, N. Y., and in
Chicago, twelve years. Parsels, Isabella, Owego, N". Y. New York
City. Taught in normal school at Trenton, N. J., and in New York
normal college. Reynolds, Myra M., Attica, N. Y. Ilion, N. Y. Taught
about ten years, in Illon, Fayetteville and Mohawk, N. Y. Rice, Anna
A., Bath, N. Y. Taught in Flint, Mich., St. Cloud, Minn., and Parana, S.
A., before married George Roberts ; died Jan. 34, 1881. Rice, Emily
J., Westford, Yt. Englewood, 111. Taught a short time in Johnson.
Vt.; since in normal school at Englewood. 111. Roberts, Amy J.,
Philadelphia, Pa. Germantown, Pa. Taught since graduation in
Friends' School, Germantown, Pa.
260 Shbae, Elizabeth,
Binghamton, N. Y. Mrs. E. R. Warriner, Hancock, N. Y. Taught some
time In Binghamton, N. Y. SiEES, Almira E., Antwerp, N". Y. Has
suffered with rheumatism since granduatlon, hence been unable to
teach. Southwell, Alfaretta, Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Fred B. Smith,
Fairfield, Neb. Taught about five years, in Oswego, N. Y., In St. Peter,
Minn., and In Clay Co., Neb.; four children. Steber, Emma A., Ilion,
N. Y. Mi's. Daniel D. Morgan, Ilion, N. Y. Taught in Dion three terms ;
three children. Stoddard, M. Louise, Lisle, N. Y. Mrs. George
Whitney, Binghamton, N. Y. Taught a short time in Binghamton.
Trask, Adele, Oswego, N". Y. Mrs. Clarence W. Streeter, Fulton, N. Y.
Taught in Montclair, N. J., six and a half years. Williams, Kose B.,
Bloomfield, Can. West. Mrs. Morgan S. Frost, Oswego, N. Y. Taught
nine years in Oswego, N. Y.; one child. Williams, S. Ida, Weedsport,
N". Y. ^ Taught seven years in Oswego, N. Y. WoRTHiNGTON,
ELEANOR, Chillicothe, 0. Milwaukee, Wis. Taught in normal schools
in Cincinnati, O., Philadelphia, Pa., Englewood, 111., and
Milwaukee^ Wis. ADVANCED. BuRT, Mary H., See Elementary,
January 30, 1872. CusiCK, Mary, See Elementary, January 30, 1872.
Jackson. Margaret, See Elementary, January 30, 1872. Miller, C.
Lucretia. See Elementary, January 30, 1872. Parrels, Isabella, See
Elementary, January 30, 1872. Rice, Anna A., See Elementary,
January 30, 1872. Roberts, Amy J., See Elementary, January 30,
1872. Southwell, Alfaretta, See Elementary, January 30, 1872.
Steber, Emma A., See Elementary, January 30, 1872. Trask, Adele,
See Elementary, January 30, 1872. Williams, S. Ida, See
Elementary, January 30, 1872. Worthington, Eleanor, See
Elementary, January 30, 1872. CLASSICAL. Burt, Mary H., See
Elementary, January 30, 1872. Worthington, Eleanor, See

Elementary, January 30, 1872.


EIGHTEENTH CLASS. July 2,
1872. ELEMENTARY. Adriance, Julia L., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. W. H.
Moore, Chicago, 111. Taught In Red Wing, Minn., one year, and in
Omaha, Neb., one year ; five children. Backer, Amy A., Horseheads,
N. Y. Catliii, N. Y Taught about four years, in Elmira and Catlin, N. Y.
261 Bennett, Emeline M., Cuba, 2^. Y. Taught in Bed Wing and
Rochester, Minn. Blair, Charlotte M., Oswego, N^. Y. Mrs. Henry D.
Parker, New York City. Taught in Bay City, Mich., and in Dubuque,
Iowa. Bush, Arthine A., Liberty, N. Y. Mrs. A. L. Carpenter, New
York City. Taught twelve years in New York Institution for the blind.
Butts, Melissa M., Xew Bremen, N. Y. Mrs. Dickinson C. Griffith,
Ogdensburg, N. Y. Taught two years in Ogdensburg ; three children.
Clubbs, S. Anna, Rochester, N,Y. Mrs. George H. Morley, Grand
Bapids, Mich. Taught lour years in Grand Bapids ; two children.
Davis, Mart E., See Classical, July 1, 1870. Edwards, Adeline S.,
Prattsburgh, N. Y. Columbus, Ohio. Taught in Bondout and
Uornellsvllle, N. Y., in Big Bapids, Mich., and in Columbus, Ohio, total
fourteen years. Gillespie, Mary A., Schenectady, Ii^". Y. Evanston,
111. . Taught two years in Mt. Vernon, N. Y. ; health too delicate to
teach more. Green, Ella fl., Sayville, N. Y. Taught in Catchogue and
Biverhead, N. Y. ; died May 6, 1880. Hubbard, Grace A., Phoenix,
:n^. Y. Taught in Bay City, Mich., three years. Locke, Helen E.,
Gowanda, 2^. Y. Mrs. George Stowe, Buffalo, N. Y. Taught a short
time in Bay City, Mich. Lynch, Helen, Yergennes, Yt. Mrs. H. L. Dill,
Denver, Colo. Taught in St. Albans, Vt., two years, and in Denver,
Colo., nine years. Mathkson, Frances L., Ogdensburg, N. Y. Albany,
N. Y. Taught in Ogdensburg, ten years, and in St. Agnes' school,
Albany, N. Y., four years. Miller, Sarah H., Horseheads, K Y. Mrs. D.
S. Fletcher, WolcottvUle, N. Y. Taught in Winona, eight years : two
children. Moore, Adelaide G., Brooklyn, 'N. Y. Bethlehem, Pa. Has
not taught. MouL, Sophia L., Victor, N". Y. Mrs. E. W. B. Johnson,
Oswego, N. Y. Has not taught. Phair, Mary A., Elizabethtown, N. Y.
Mrs. Charles C. Holden, Mamaroneck, N. Y. Taught in Patterson, N. J.,
three and a half years, and in Spencerport and Mamaroneck, N. Y.,
two years; two children. RoLLiNSON, Elizabeth G., Gowanda, N. Y.
Mrs. Hudson H. Parke, Buffalo, N. Y. Taught in Lebanon, O., and in
Omaha, Neb. Sikes, Yiletta G. (Mrs.), Watertown, N. Y. Mrs. A. F.
Sheffner, Pamelia, N. Y. Taught six months in Fulton, Wis. ; two
children. SissoN, Emma D., Fulton, K Y. Mrs. Henry M. Maguire,
Ogdensburg, N. Y. Taught two years in Ogdensburg ; three boys.
Smith, Lena M., Columbus, Pa. Taught in Corry, Pa., a few years.
262 Stockwell, Frances C, Meridian, ^T. Y. Taught a short time in
Meridian. "Wait, Susan A., S wanton Center, Yt. Mrs. Charles
Ellison, Le Grand, Iowa. Taught in South Boston, Mass., and in Troy,
Iowa. ADVANCED. Churchill, Octa G., Attica, N. Y. Mrs. Richard M.
Eorty, Middletown, N. Y. Taught in Paterson, N. J., one and one-half
years ; five children. Crum, Taylor, West Candor, N. Y. Fargo,
Dakota. Taught four years, in central New Yori and in Fargo ; is now
practicing law ; three sons. Dewey, Lola M., Columbus, Pa. Mrs.

Daniel O. Barto, Ithaca, N. Y. Taught in Bondout, Binghamton,


Trumansburg and Ithaca, N. Y., and Paterson, N. J. Edwards, D.
Sophia, Sayville, N, Y. Mrs. Thomas B. Skidmore, Sayville, N. Y.
Tftught seven years in Patchogue, N. Y. ; three children. Houghton,
Mary F., Holden, Mo. Mrs. Harry A. Jones, Sherman, Texas. Tauiht
four yexrs in Warrensbarg, Mo., two years in Lockport, lU^ and two
years in Lexington, Mo. ; three children. McLellan, John W., LaPorte,
Ind. Valparaiso, Ind. Taught one year in Door Village, Ind. ; followed
photography twelve years ; three children. Ormiston, Julia E.,
Gouvemeur, N. Y. Mrs. Thomas C. Warrington, Peotone, 111.
Taught in Illinois eight years, in Roscoe, Oak Park, Austin and Hyde
Park ; in Muskegon, Mich., one year ; two children. Payne, Augusta
F., Hamilton, N. Y. Mrs. Jacob L. White, Franklin, Ind. Taught in
Scranton, Pa., two years ; then in Franklin until marriage ; has one
child. Piersall, Josephine M., South Butler, N^. Y. Married Andrew
DeMott and resided in Oswego until her death. May 13, 1883.
RoYCE, MiLLiCENT A., Noiwalk, 0. Gallipolis, 0. Taught since
graduation in Grand Ripids, Mich., and in Gallipolis, O. Smith, Cora
A., Holley, iN". Y. Taught in Bergen, N. Y., in Bloomfleld, N. J., and la
Holley, N. Y. ; health not parmit teaching. Stevens, Harriet E.,
Oswego, N^. Y. Taught in Oswego since graduation. CLASSICAL.
Aber, William M., Owego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego, N. Y., in Lake
Forest, 111., In Del Norte, Col., in Atlanta, Ga., and in New York
City ; has taken course of study at Yale and received A. B. from that
college ; is now teach- ing in Louisville, Ky. Barrett, H. Elbert,
Fulton, N. Y. Syracuse, 2f. Y. Taught in Chittenango, N. Y., one year,
in Bloomsburg, Pa., four years, and since in Syracuse, N. Y.
Farnham, Leroy D., Owego, N. Y. Binghamton, X. Y. Taught six years
in Candor, N. Y. ; studied medicine in New York, Berlin and Vienna ; is
M. D. ; one child. Merolee, Marie J., Wheeling, 111. Chicago, IllTaught four years in Englewood, 111. ; is M. D. ; studied medicine in
Chicago and Zurich.
263 Stimkts, Charles C, Highgate Center, Vt.
, Jersey City, N. J. Tauf^ht matbematics four years in New Jersey
State Normal scbool at Trenton, N. J. ; since has had private school
in Jersey City with branch in New York City. Williams, M. Alios,
Weedsport, N. Y. New York City. Taught in Benton, Mich., one year,
and since in New York ; has taken classical course at Michi- gan
University ; A. B. (Michigan University.)
NINBTEBNTH CLASS
January 28, 1873. ELEMENTARY. Baenks, Sarah A., Beekman, N. Y.
Nashville, Tenn. Taught in Jefferson City, Mo., three years, in River
Falls, Wis., one year, in Ripon, Wis., one year, in Illinois three years,
and in Nashville, Tenn., three years. Craig, Josephine M., Canton,
111. Mrs. Field Parsons, Washington, D. C. Taught in Omaha, Neb.,
one year before marriage ; has since been in Post-office
Department, Washington, D. C. ; one child. Fearey, Sophia, Albany,
N. Y. Mrs. Joseph Harper, Albany, N. Y. Taught in Bay City, Mich., a
short time. Hayward, Emma J., Martville, N. Y. Mrs. E. J. Bushner,
Sterling Center, N. Y. Taught in Danville, Pa., a short time.
JOHONNOT, Marion H., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. W. E. D. Scott, Princeton,

N. J. Taught two and a half years in Warr^isburgh, Mo. LowRY, Kate


E., Shelburae, Yt. Burlington, Yt. Taught one year in normal school
at Johnson, Vt., a private school two years, four years at Shelbume,
Vt., and five years in Burlington, Vt. McARTHUR, Cassib, PlatteviUe,
Wis. Grand Rapids, Mich. Taught eleven years in Grand Rapids,
Mich. Merriam, S. Agnes, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Gloversville, N.
Y., until her death, November 10th, 1877. Miller, Ida Y., Fulton, N. Y.
Taught since graduation in schools in Fulton and Oswego Falls, N. Y.
Russell, N. Jennie, Gowanda, N. Y. Mrs. Thomas Orr, Omaha, Neb.
Taught in Buffalo, N. Y., and in Omaha. Slater, Lois S., Copenhagen,
N. Y. Mrs. L. S. Sargeant, Pine Island, Minn. Taught a short time in
Red Wing, Minn. Yail, Lucia M., Plainfield, N. J. Newark, N. J. Taught
in Christiansburg, Va., Montgomery, Ala., Raleigh, N. C, East Orange,
N. J., and Fort Wayne, Ind. Weaver, Sylvia J., Deerfield, N. Y.
Taught at Whitney's Point and Ovid, N. Y., and at Norwalk, Conn.
DIPLOMA OF DATE OF THIS CLASS GRANTED TO Otis, Clarinda,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught for twelve yeai-s in Nyack, N. Y. ADVANCED.
Aylesworth, Mary F., Oswego, N. Y. Taught one year in Carthage, N.
Y.; since then in public schools of Oswego, N. Y.
1
264 Badger,
Kate H., Kochester, N. Y. Taug^ht in Napoleon and Toledo, O., until
death, December 5, 1876. DiLLEY, Mart L., Rodman, N. Y. Denver,
Col. Taufrht in Bloomfleld, N. J., In Dobbs' Ferry, N. Y., In Kellysvllle,
Texas, and In Denver, Col, Lyons, Margaret A., Oswego, N. Y.
Taught in public schools of Oswego since graduation. McCleave,
Esther A., Oswego, N.Y. Ventura, Cal. Taught in Oswego, N. Y., in
Elkhart, Ind., and In a private school in Albany, N. Y. Morrison,
Jeannette T., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. James K. Cochran, Oswego, N. Y.
Taught in Oswego public schools about twelye years. Stocks, Kate
S., Oswego, N". Y. Wilkes Barre, Pa. Taught In Wilkes Barre, since
graduation.
TWEIs^TIETH CLASS July 1, 1873. ELEMENTARY.
Barlow, Jane, Binghamton, N. Y. Chicago, 111. Taught in
Binghamton, N. Y., one year, in New York City, one year, and in
Chicago six years. BuELL, Mary J., "Westerly, R. I. Mrs. Franklin
Clarke, Westerly, R. I. Taught two years in Westerly ; two children.
Burr, Clara A. (Mrs.), New Albany, Ind. Oswego, N. Y. Taught in
Cincinnati, O., six years, in Philadelphia normal school two years,
and in Oswego, Kindergarten, four and a half years ; two children.
BuRRiNGTON, LiLLiA E , Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Charles J, Watson,
Buffalo, N. Y. Taught a short time in Nora, 111. Carpenter, Hannah
M., Highland, N. Y. Rondout, N. Y. Taught since graduation in
Rondout and Kiagiton, N. Y. Crowe, Mary F., Oswego, N. Y. Cohoes,
N. Y. Taught in St. Louis, Mo., and in Troy, Binghamton, North Troy
and Cohoes, N. Y. ; is Sister Mary Camilla, in Convent of St. Bernard,
at Cohoes. Dashley, Marie L., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. William G.
Harvey, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Utica, N. Y., ten years ; has studied
drawing and painting ; one child. De Shong, Harriet, Ashland, Ohio.
Mrs. I. H. Good, Ashland, Ohio. Taught In Lake Forest, 111., and
Omaha, Neb.; was assistant postmaster in Ashland, two and a half
years. DORAN, Minnie E., Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego since

graduation. Ferris, Jennie M., Lawrenceville, N. Y. Mrs. Z. T.


Savage, Moreland, Cook Co., 111. Taught a year in Nicholville, N. Y.,
and a year in North Lawrence, N. Y. Gilbert, Fannie S., Oswego, N. Y.
Mrs. Henry L. Strong, Hartford, Conn. Taught three years In
Oswego ; two children. Jewett, Adelaide L., Grand Rapids, Mich.
Mrs. Lester M. Davis, Fitchburg, Mass. Taught two and a half years
in Grand Rapids, Mich.
265 Jewett, Harriet A., Grand Rapids,
Mich. Married Rev. Samuel W. Nichols, and went as missionary to
Madras, Ind., where she died, December 17, 1881. Lawrence,
Isabel, Portland Me. St. Cloud, Minn. Taught In Oswego, three years,
In Yonkers, one year, in Whitewater, Wis., one year, and In normal
school at St. Cloud, Minn., eight years. , Marean, Laura A., Maine, K
Y. St. Joseph, Mo. Taught in Newark, N. J., one year, and in St.
Joseph, Mo., twelve years; studied drawing and painting. Maxwell,
Ella H., Oswego, N. T. Taught in Oswego since graduation. McCall,
Sylvia H., Oxford, N". Y. Taught in Grand Rapids, Mich., nine years ;
has studied art two years in New York ; taught painting. Meredith,
Lizzie, Crosswicks, N". J. Cleveland, Ohio. Has taught in Cleveland,
O., since graduation. Mott, Clara B., Ohateaugay, N". Y.
Washington, D. C. Taught in New York, Malone, and Elmira, N. Y.,
and in Brookllne, Mass. ; is In Treasury De- partment at Washington.
Mott, Emma M., Chateangay, N". Y. Taught in New York, and in
Fond-du-Lac, Wis.* Orton, Julia R., Lincoln, 111. Taught two years
in Cleveland, O. Perry, F. Ella, East Palmyra, 2^. Y. Mrs. J. R.
Stephenson, Grand Rapids, Mich. Taught in Grand Rapids until
marriage. Pope, Martha A., Boston, Mass. Mrs. Henry L. Sawyer,
Boston, Mass. Taught in Brookllne, Mass., two years, and in Boston,
two years ; two children. RiGGs, Nellie A., Oswego, K Y. Taught in
Oswego until married George S. Merrlam ; died May 26, 1881.
Seaman, Anna A., Nyack, N. Y. Taught in Mamaroneck and Nyack,
N. Y. ; is now stenographer. Smith, Rose M., Franklin, Ind. Mrs. Mark
W. Harrington, Ann Arhor, Mich. Taught one year in Emporia, Kan. ;
one child. SouLE, Emma 0., Oswego, N". Y. Mrs. John D. Martin,
Penfleld, N. Y. Taught in Bay City, Mich., Franklin, Ind., and Penfleld,
N. Y. ; two children. Sprague, Sarah E., FuUerville, ^N". Y. Taught
in Grand Rapids, Mich., Emporia, Kan., Lewlston Me., Gloucester,
Mass., and Manches- ter, N. H.; is state institute conductor of
Minnesota. Stephenson, Sarah J., Osceola, ^T. Y. Mrs. Albert W.
Terry, Oberlin, O. Taught seven years in Rondout, N. Y., and a short
time in New York and in Charlotte, N. C; one child. Wealthy,
Josephine, White's Corners, ]!f. Y. Mrs. Josephine Bradshaw ;
married upon graduation. Welch, Sarah A., Oswego, N. Y. Taught
nine years in Bay City, Mich., and one year in Oswego.
ADYAN^CED. Alling, Mary R., See Ele., July 6, 1869. Burton,
Antoinette E., Rodman, N. Y. Taught in Northampton, Mass., and in
St. Joseph, Mich.
26G Calvert, Harvey J., Sterling Centre, N. Y.
Sterling, N. Y. Taught in Kingston and Accord, N. Y., in Charleston, S.
C, in Wahoo, Neb., in New Orleans, La., and in Garden City, N. Y.
CtJRRY, Sarah E. (Mrs.), Oswego, N. Y. Albany, N, Y. Taught in Albany

since graduation ; now has private school in that city ; one daughter.
Dalrymple, Harriet A., See Ele., Jnly 6, 1869. Beerino, Harriet A.,
Portland, Me. Deering Place. Taught four years in Augusta, Me. ;
and four years in normal school at Gorham, Me. Gillespie, Helen F.,
Fulton, N. Y. Mrs. W. N. Ferris, Big Rapids, Mich. Taught in Franklin,
Ind., Rock River, 111., and in Big Rapids ; one child. Haydon, Susan
M., Lysander, N. Y. Taught one year in Institution for blind. New York
; trouble with eyes has prevented her teach- ing since. Hicks,
Amanda M., Kalida, 0. Clinton, Ky. Taught one year in Paducah, Ky. ;
since then in Clinton, Ky., where she has established a college.
Kearney, Anna J., Oswego, N. Y. Hoboken, N. J. Taught in Hoboken
since graduation. Lester, Ordelia A., See Ele., Jnly 3, 1871.
Sherman, Moses H., West Rupert, Yt. Phoenix, Ariz. Taught a short
time in Hamilton, N. Y., and nine years in Prescott, Ariz., where he
was also Superintendent of public instruction ; is President of bank
in Phoenix, Ariz. Sherwood, Yiola, Binghamton, N". Y. Taught in
Binghamton nearly all lime since graduation. Stewart, Ella M.,
Berlin, Wis. Mrs. Loren W. Collins, St. Cloud, Minn. Taught in
Oswego, three years, and in St. Cloud, Minn., more than a year ;
three children. Whitney, Lucien J., Clayton, N. Y. Taught about
eight years, in Bay City, Mich., and in Chaumont and Clayton, N. y:
CLASSICAL. Chapin, Alvin p., Binghamton, N, Y. Rochester, X. Y.
Taught in Fulton, Le Roy and Warsaw, N. Y.; is editor of Educational
Gazette, Rochester, N. Y. Hill, Lena L., Isle La Motte, Yt. Mrs. Frank
H. Severance, Buffalo, N. Y. Taught in Corry, Pa., East Orange, N. J.,
Omaha, Neb., and New York City; B. S. (Cornell.)
TWENTY-FIRST
CLASS January 27, 1874. ELEMEN^TARY. Atwood, Cynthia M.,
Burlington, Yt. Mrs. James Little, Stapleton, L. Island. Taught six
months in New York City. Blasdell, Amblia, Smith's Basin, N". Y.
Ynlcan, Mich. Taught in Peterboro, Ont., in Greenville, N. Y., and in
Mousay and Vulcan, Mich. Kennedy, Julia A., Providence, Pa.
Scranton, Pa. Taught in Scranton, Pa., twelve years. Lytle, Sarah J.,
Wadsworth, 0. Laramie, Wyo. Taught in Akron, O., one year, in
Wadsworth, O., two years, in Kearney, Neb., two years, and in
Laramie, Wyo., four years.
267 Palmer, Kate L., Akron, 0. Mrs.
Marion C. Lytle, Laramie, W. T. Taught in Corry, Pa., and in Akron, O.
ADVANCED. Chisholm, Lucy, Ohazy, N. T. Taught one year in New
York, in Plattsburgh, N. Y., six years, and in Middleburgh, N. Y., one
year. KiMBEB, Anna A., Barrytown, 2^. Y, Indiana. Pa. Taught a
short time in Cleveland, O., ten years in East Orange, N. J., and since
in Indiana, Pa. Olds, Alice L., Ogdensburg, ^NT. Y. Taught in
Plattsburgh, N. Y., five years, and in Ogdensburg, five years.
Steaens, Elizabeth M., Oswego, N. Y Taught in Oswego since
graduation. TiMERsoN, Georgia A., Oswego, K Y. Taught in Oswego,
and Winona, Minn.
TWENTY-SECOND CLASS June 30, 1874.
ELEMENTARY.
Cleghom, M. Jane, Lewiston, N. Y. Cleveland 0.
Taught in Niagara Fallp one year, and eleven years in Cleveland.
Comer, Emily A., Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego since graduation.
CuDDEBACK, Chalottr B., Cuddebackville, N. Y. Paterson, N. J.

Taught in Warwick, N. Y., six years, in Logansport, Ind., one year, and
in Paterson, N. J., three years. Darrow, Henrietta L., "West Eaton,
N. Y. Mrs. Edson 8. Wood, Savannah, N. Y. Taught in Clyde, N. Y.,
three years ; two children. Donnolley, Alice, Oswego, N. Y. Taught
since graduation, in Oswego, N. Y. FicKEN, Emma C, Jericho, N. Y.
Mrs. Edward J. Brooker, Morrisville, N. Y. Taught in Lebanon, O.,
seven and a half years ; two children. Gillies, Emily A., Plainfield, N.
J. Taught in Plainfield, and in Fergus Falls. HuMPSTON, Millicknt E.,
Plainfield, N. J. Taught in Plainfield, since graduation. Johnson,
Mary L., Rome, N. Y. Mrs. Clinton P. Case, Watertown, N. Y. Taught
four years in Watertown ; one child. Laing, Mary E., North Hebron,
N. Y. Taught in Plainfield, N. J., five years, in Brooklyn, N. Y., three
years, and in St.Cloud,oneyear.Manter,PamelaH.,Grafton,0.
Cleveland,0.TaughtinCleveland,O.,sincegraduation.Miller,
Ella,PennYan,N.Y.Minneapolis,Minn.TaughtinLogansport,
Ind.,twoyears,inNyack,N.Y.,sevenyears,inCedarFalls,la.,
oneyear,andinMinneapolis,Minn.MoRDEN,S.Elizabeth,Canoga,
N.Y.Logansport,Ind.TaughtelevenyearsinLogansport,Ind.
FergusFalls,Minn.St.Cloud,Minn.268Keese,LizzieA.,
Westmoreland,N".Y.Minneapolis,Minn.TauprhtInBurlington,Vt.,
nineyears,InW.BayCity,Mich.,oneyear,andinMinneapolis,
Minn.Rice,LucyKlinck,Hamilton,N.Y.Mrs.RobertHosea,
Clifton,Cincinnati,O.TaughtashorttimeinHoosickFalls,N.Y.,
andtwoyearsinDayton,0.Rice,R.Elizabeth,Hamilton,N.Y.
Cincinnati,0.TaughtInMorristown,N.J.,fouryears,andtwo
yearsinMt.AuburnInstitute,Cincinnati,O.sincehashadprivate
schoolInCincinnati,O.Smith,HelenC,EastHampton,Mass.
TaughtashorttimeinFarmington,Me.;healthtoodelicateto
teach.Wellman,MaryE.,Osceola,K".Y.Mrs.JuniusJ.Coules,
FairHaven,N.Y.TaughtinScranton,Pa.,fouryears,andoneyear
inZanesville,O.;threechildren.Wilson,FlorenceA.,CaneHill,
Ark.Tahlequah,I.T.TaughteightyearsatTahlequah,Cherokee
Nation,I.T.,andabouttwoyearsInLittleRock,Arkansas.
ADYANCED.Crossman,AliceL.,Elton,N.Y.ButteCity,Montana.
TaughtInKeokuk,O.,twoyears,andsinceinButteCity,Montana.
Gorman,Jane,Oswego,N".Y.TaughtinOswego,sincegraduation.
Kimber,FannieC,SeeEle.,February1,1870.Murphy,MaryJ.,
Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.P.J.Cullinan,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswego
untilmarriage.Pease,AnnaA.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.C.P.Smith,
Burlington,Vt.TaughtthreeyearsinBurlingtonbeforemaiTiage;
threechildren.Stiles,MaryB.,Glensdale,N".Y.Mrs.William
G.Watson,Muskegon,Mich.TaughttwoyearsInBurlington,Vt.;
threechildren.Williams,EllaC,Watkins,N.Y.Burdett,N.Y.
TaughtinHuntington,N.Y.,oneyear,inCastleton,Vt.,oneyear,
andinRockford,JU.,twoyears;studiedinAnnArborUniversity,
InGermany,inEnglandandinBrynMaur;M.A.(AnnArbor.)
Wooster,HarrietA.,Lysander,N.Y.Mrs.H.A.VanDerveer,
Lysander,N.Y.TaughttwoyearsinOnondagaCounty,andoneyearin
Iowa;twochildren.Yawger,SarahL.,UnionSprings,N.Y.
Cincinnati,0.TaughttwoandahalfyearsinPotsdam,N.Y.;
since,inMissArmstrong'sschool,Cincinnati,O.CLASSICAL.
Lytle,MarionC,Wadsworth,Ohio.Laramie,Wy.TaughtinWadsworth,
Ohio,oneyear,intownsinIllinois,eightyears,andinLaramie,
Wy.,twoyears.TWENTYTHIRDCLASSJanuary26,1875.ELEMENTARY.
Banning,E.Adell,Poolville,N.Y.Mrs.G.S.Comstock,

Bloservllle,Pa.Didnotteach;hastwosons.Brown,HarrietJ.,
Matteawan,N.Y.Dobbs'Ferry,N.Y.TaughtinHoosickFalls,
NewburghandDobbs'Feny,N.Y.269BuRGOYNE,MartE.,Oswego,
1^.Y.Mrs.HarryA.Jones,Brooklyn,N.Y.TaughtsevenyearsIn
Oswego.Edwards,EllaI.,Northampton,Mass.TaughtfiveyearsIn
Plalnfleld,N.J.,oneyearinBloomfleld,N.J.,andoneyearin
Albany,N.Y.Hunter,Clara,Cincinnati,Ohio.TaughtinMt.
Auburn,Cincinnati,Ohio,sincegraduation.Inman,Ada,Oswego,N.
Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.Morris,SusanC,
Amityville,N".Y.TaughtHveyearsinHoosickFalls,N.Y.,and
sixyearsinAlbany,N.Y.Perry,AliceE.,Oswego,N.Y.Hasnot
taught.Seamans,NellieC,Ilion,N.Y.TaughtinUionsince
graduation.Stevens,FrancesA.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinNew
Orleansthreeyears,andashorttimeinHenderson,SandyCreekand
Oswego,N.Y.Stevens,M.Jeannette,Malone,N.Y.Jujuy,R.A.S.
A.TaughttwoyearsinMassena,N.Y.,twoyearsinMalone,N.Y.,
fiveyearsinBurlington,Vt.,andtwoyearsinnormalschoolat
Jujuy,S.A.Taylor,MargaretC,Pgrtland,Me.Taughtoneyearin
Hackettstown,N.J.,andsinceinPortland,Me.Wallace,InezE.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswego,sincegraduation.ADYANCED.
Comer,EmilyA.,SeeElementary,June30,1874.Dempsey,EllaA.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.Draper,Margaret
A.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.EdwardMcLaughlin,Oswego,N.Y.Taughta
fewyearsinOswego,N.Y.Mattison,KateA.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.
GeorgeB.Stevens,Watertown,N.Y.TaughtinOswegofourandahalf
years.Murray,M.Jennie,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.FelixRiley,Oswego,
N.Y.TaughttenandahalfyearsinOswego.CLASSICAL.Merritt,
JohnW.,Brewerton,N.Y.Jacksonville,Oregon.Taughttenyearsin
Jacksonville;onechild.TWENTYFOURTHCLASSJune29,1875.
ELEMEISTTARY.Bryce,MargaretE.,Clifton,JsT.Y.Mrs.Thomas
Gallan,Caledonia,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeinCaledonia.
Chisholm,Eunice,Chazy,N^.Y.TaughtinIthacaashorttime
beforeherdeath,July18,1878.270Fairchild,EllaA.,Ilion,
N.Y.Mrs.Wesley6.Tloe,Minneapolis,Minn.Taughtin
Jacksonville,111.,inYonkers,N.Y.,andinMinneapolis.Haskell,
AltaS.,Malone,N.Y.TaughtsixyearsinMalone.Hunt,KateE.,
Habbardsville,N".Y.Mrs.AlfredOwen,Brooklyn,N.Y.Taught
untilmarriage.InBloomfleld,N.J.Keelkr,MarthaA.,Burlington,
Yt.Mrs.JohnS.McKay,Malone,N.Y.TaughtinOswego,fouryears
;inIndiana,Pa.,fouryears,andinLockHaven,Pa.,oneyear;
onechild.Kellogg,CharlotteK.,Springville,N.Y.Taughta
yearinPortByron,andtwoyearsinAttica,N.Y.Leffin,MaryE.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOmaha,Neb.,andinOswego;diedMay21,
1883.2!^'iCHOL8,HellenM.,GranbyCenter,N.Y.Mrs.D.E.
MiUer,Bolivar,Mo.TaughttwoyearsinForestport,N.Y.,oneterm
inGranbyCentre,N.Y.,twoyearsinHenryville,L.I.,and
nearlyoneyearinAlburg,Vt.Reardon,EllaM.,Malone,N^.Y.
Mrs.JohnH.Baird,Burlington,Vt.Taughtsincegraduationin
Burlington;hadprivateschoollastfouryears.RoLLisoN,Sarah
M.,Gowanda,N".Y.TaughtashorttimeinOmaha,Neb.Bowell,
HarrietL.,Brooklyn,N^.Y.TaughtsincegraduationinBrooklyn,N.
Y.Smith,FannyG.,Cooper'sPlains,N.Y.Oakland,Cal.Taught
fouryearsinElmira,N.Y.;sinceinOakland,Cal.Snyder,Matilda
E.,Mansfield,0.TaughtnineyearsinMansfield,O.Taylor,Sarah
M.,Portland,Me.TaughtoneyearinHackettstown,N.J.;sincein
Portland,Me.Woodford,Diana,Candor,N.Y.TaughtinOswego,
threeyears,inCandor,oneyear,andinBinghamton,N.Y.,three
years.ADYAN^CED.Barrow,M.Augusta,Oswego,N.YMrs.Jesse

B.Low,NewYorkCity.TaughtoneterminIslip,N.Y.,andtwo
yearsinOswego,N.Y.;threechildren.Brown,CoraA.,Oswego,N".
Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.Burnes,TeresaE.,Oswego,
N.Y.Mrs.JohnDorsey,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOmaha,Neb.,until
marriage.Burt,JessieM.,Scriba,N.Y.Taughtforsometimein
countryschoolsnearherhome;isstenogi'apher.Farnham,AmosW.,
Fulton,N.Y.TaughtinCharleston,S.C,fouryears,InAtlanta,
Ga.,threeyears,andinWestChester,N.Y.,twoyears.Hakes,
AlbertaA.,Clay,N.Y.Mrs.H.W.Chllds,FergusFalls,Minn.Did
notteach.Hunt,MaryJ.,Oswego,KY.TaughtinOswegosince
graduation.271Rapplete,WalkerG.,Minetto,N.T.Oswego,N.
Y.TaughtInNashville,Tenn.,twoyears,InJerseyCity,oneyear,
andsinceinOswegonormalschool:B.S.(Cornell.)Smith,Sarah
B.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtInOswegosincegraduation.Sprague,
ClaraY.,FuUerville,N.Y.Yankton,Dak.TaughtinOgdensburg,N.
Y.,inPortland,Me.,andsinceinYankton,Dak.Steele,Isabella,
Shushan,W.Y.Mrs.C.N.Woodworth,Cohocton,N.Y.Taughta
shorttimeinMinneapolis,Minn.Stevens,FrancesA.,SeeEle.,
January26,1875.Stocks,EmmaE.,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.Clarence
T.Jenkins,St.Louis,Mo.TaughtinAlbanyfiveandahalfyears;
onechild.Thomas,MargaretM.,Middleville,N^.Y.Mrs.Andrew
V.V.Raymond,Plainfleld,N.J.TaughtthreeyearsInFostoria,
Ohio,inWhitewater,Wis.,andinKirksville.Mo.;twochildren.
Thomm,JuliaH.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.MyronA.Campbell,Syracuse,N.
Y.TaughtfouryearsInCanastota,N.Y.TuTTLE,EzraA.,Adams,
N.Y.NewYork.TaughttwoyearsInBayShore,N.Y.,andin
SayvlUe,N.Y.,oneyear;nowlawyerinNewYorkCity.Wilcox,E.
Random,Chazy,N.Y.NewYork.TaughtfouryearsinIslip,N.Y.,
twoyearsinBabylon,N.Y.,andtwoyearsinIrvlngton,N.Y.;
realestateagentinNewYorkCity.Wilkinson,MaryE.,Lincoln,
111.Chicago,111.TaughtinSpringfield,111.,oneyear,inSt.
Louis,Mo.,threeyears,inMadison,Wis.,andinChicago,111.
Williams,RebeccaT.,Cleveland,N.Y.NewY<rk.Nevertaught;
postmistressatClevelandtwoyears;nowtypewriterinNewYork
City.Woodward,EllaP.,NewYork.Mrs.HenryW.Foote,Helena,
Montana.TaughtoneyearinNyack,N.Y.,oneyearinInstitutefor
Blind,NewYork,andtwoyearsinMemphis,Tenn.;twochildren;is
teachinginparishschool.CLASSICAL.BiERCE,SarahC.(Mrs.),
Danby,N.Y.Mrs.W.S.Scarborough,Xenia,O.TaughtinRaleigh,
N.C,inMacon,Ga.,andinWilberforceUniversity,Xenia,O.;eight
yearsinall.Sheldon,CharlesS.,Oswego,N.Y.Kirksville,Mo.
TaughtInAlexandriaBay,N.Y.,twoyears,andsinceinKirksville,
Mo.Sheldon,P.Elizabeth,Oswego,N.Y.Omaha,Neb.Taughtin
Charleston,S.C,oneyear,inOswegotwoyears,inBostononeyear,
andsinceinOmaha;studiedInCornell,InOxford,Eng.,andin
Germany.Williams,E.Anna,Cleveland,N.Y.NewYork.Taughtin
Nyackoneterm.InPacific,Mo.,oneyear,andinOmaha,Neb.,thiee
years;isstenographer.TWENTYFIFTHCLASS.January25,1876.
ELEMENTARY.Clark,ElizabethY.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.Charles
Miller,SouthRichland,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinItaly,N.Y.;two
children.272Hawkins,CornieL.,Oswego,1^.Y.Mrs.L.
MillsPlace,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtafewtermsinNewYorkStateand
twoyearsinOxford,O.;twochildren.Kylb,ElizaJ.,Oswego,N.
Y.GlenCove,2^.Y.TaughtseveralyearsinGlenCove.Morton,
L.Ann,Groton,N.Y.Elmira.X.Y.TaughtforatimeinElmira.
YiCKKRY,AnnaJ.,Oswego,N^.Y.Mrs.EdwinM.Collins,Oswego,N.
Y.TaughtoneterminOswegoCenter;threechildren;studied
photography.ADYANCED.King,ElizabethJ.,Oswego,1^.Y.Taught

inOswegosincegraduation.MoTT,ClaraE.,SeeBlementary,July1,
1873.Ormsby,CeliaL.,Oswego,N^.Y.Mrs,SamuelG.Merriam,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtthreeandahalfyearsinOswego;onechild.
TWEN^TYSIXTflCLASSJune27,1876.ELEMENTARY.Baker,EmmaE.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegountilherdeath,February23,1884.
Bannister,CorneliaC,Oswego,KY.TaughtinEnglewood,111.,and
inGainesville,Fla.,untildeath,March24,1880.Brown,MaryJ.,
Eaton,N.Y.Mrs.GeorgeMayo,Burlington,Vt.Taughtin
Burlingtonuntilmarriage.BuRT,CarrieM.,Minetto,if.Y.Mrs.
HoraceL.Porter,Minetto,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeinMinetto.
Burt,HittieA.,Minetto,I^T.Y.Taughtinvillageschoolssince
graduation.Clark,AgnesL.,PortChester,KY.Greenwich,Conn.
TaughtinBaiUngHollow,N.Y.,oneyear,inElmira,N.Y.,four
years,andinGreenwich,Conn.,fiveyears.CoRWiN,CarrieM.,
Riverhead,If.Y.TaughtfiveyearsinRiverhead,oneyearin
Oneida,N.Y.,andtwoyearsinPortChester,N.Y.Crune,Minnie
H,,NewYorkCity.Didnotteach,diedNovember29,1883.
Douglass,JuliaB.,Oswego,N.Y.Montclair,N.J.TaughtinOswego,
sixyears,inWestChester,N.Y.,oneyear,andinMontclair,two
years.Evans,AddieF.,WestEaton,N.Y.Mrs.OrsonC.Bates,
Knoxboro,N.Y.TaughtaboutfiveyearsinPierceviile,Morrisvllle
andMunnsville,N.Y.;onechild.Fuller,ReunetteE.(Mrs.),
Syracuse,N.Y.Macon,GaTaughtoneyeaiinMcGrawville,N.Y.,
andtwoyearsinMorrisvllle,N.Y.;studiedmedicineatSyracuse
University;practicingatMacon;M.D.(Syracuse.)GOKEY,Delia,
Rondout,N.Y.JerseyCity,N".J.TaughteightyearsInKingston,
N.Y.;notteaching.273HarmAN,MaryG.,Oswego,N^.Y.
TaughtinNorwalk,Conn.,andinOswego.HoLEUR,ElizabethE.,
Oswego,N.Y.Troy,N.Y.TaughtinTroysincegraduation.HowLY,
Mary,Oswego,N^.Y.TaughtoneteimnearOswego.Jknkins,EvaE.,
Oswego,N^.Y.Mrs.C.F.Perkins,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught;two
children.Leonard,KateA.,Peru,Ind.Mrs.EdwardL.Miller,
Peru,Ind.Taughtonetermindistrictschool,andthreeyearsin
Peru.MacMillan,MaryE.(Mrs.),Malone,KY.Taughtfiveyearsin
ArgentineRupublic,S.A.Mann.Lucy,Kingston,N.Y.Hasnot
taught.Matteson,Emmaa.,Hannibal,N".Y.Mrs.H.A.McCool,
Anoka,Minn.Didnotteach;onechild.Marsh,LillieC,Oswego.N.
Y.Mrs.CharlesJ.Mattison,Oswego,N.Y.Taughtafewyearsin
Oswego.Morgan,HarrietE.,Earlville,N.Y.Taughtin
Burlington,Vt.,beforemarriedilasonM.^Benton;diedApril8,1879.
Pendleton,Maria,Brooklyn,25^.Y.TaughtinChesterHill,N.Y.,
oneyear,andinBrooklynnineyears.Perley,MelissaS.,East
Berkshire,Yt.Dayton,0.TaughtnineyearsinDayton,O.
Phillips,HattieA.,Ilion,N.Y.Mrs.H.E.Noyes,Bellport,N.Y.
TaughtinIlion,N.Y.,andinNewYork;onechild.Sherman,
FannieB.,WestRupert,Yt.Mrs.CharlesT.Drew,Meridian,N.Y.
TaughtinInstitutionforBlind,NewYork,forthi*eeyears.
Spicer,FlorenceH.,UnadillaForks,N".Y.Oneida,2^.Y.Taught
tenyearsinWatervilleandOneida,N.Y.Spier,JoannaR.,Delhi,
N^.Y.Oneonta,N".Y.TaughtinNewton,N.J.,twoyears,andin
Brandts,Pa.,twoyears.Stevens,AnnaE.,Horseheads,N.Y.
TaughtinMt.Pulaski,111.,andinElmira,N.Y.TuTTLE,SusanE.,
Adams,N".Y.Mrs.JohnE.Kingsbury,Lansing,N.Y.Hasnot
taught.YanYleck,IcyJ.,WestSchuyler,N.Y.Mrs.CharlesS.
Cobb,EatonRapids,Mich.TaughtinDeposit,N.Y.,oneyear,andin
Ithaca,N.Y.,threeyears;twochildren.Walter,SarahJ.,
Pomeroy,0.Oswego,N".Y.TaughtinOswegotenyears.Warner,
MarthaJ.,Selma,0.TaughtthreeyearsinBaltimore,Md.,andtwo

yearsinschoolnearhome.Warner,SarahE.,Selma,0.Nottaught.
Weaver,SylviaJ.,Deerfield,N".Y.Taughtashorttimein
Manhattan,Ga.R274Wheeler,SusanM.,Skaneateles,N.Y.
Mrs.RollandR.Roberts,Fresno,Cal.Taughtthreeandahalfyears
inSkaneateles;onechild.Wlcox,MyraE.,UndaclillaForks,N.
Y.Mrs.HerbertH.Bassett,Piqua,O.Taughtashorttimein
Leonardsville,andUnadillaForks,N.Y.,andfouryearsinElmira,
N.York;studieddrawing.ADVANCED.BuRHANs,CelinaM.,
Rondout,N.Y.TaughtinElmira,Aveyears,inStoneRidge,N.Y.,
twoyears,andinRondouttwoyears.Hawkins,CornieL.,SeeEle.,
January25,1876.Johnson,Littleberry,Arcana,Ind.Oswego,N.Y.
TaughtinFairmount,Ind.,oneyear,andinJonesboro,Ind.,two
years;isgardenerandspeculator.King,IdaJ.,Oswego,N.Y.
Brooklyn,N.Y.TaughtinSt.Augustine'sChapel,NewYork,seven
years,andinBrooklyn,N.Y.twoyears;isnowinPolytechnic
Institute,Brooklyn,N.Y.Robinson,MarianM.,Oswego,N.Y.
Mrs.FrederickC.Dettmers,Flatbush,N.Y.TaughtinNorwalk,
Conn.,twoyears,inRedCreek,N.Y.,oneandahalfyears,andin
Flatbushashorttime;onechild.Taylor,ElizaA.,Portland,
Me.TaughtinPortlandsincegraduation.YanInwegen,ClarenceP.,
Ouddehackville,KY.Chicago,111.TaughttwoyearsinMore's
Mills,N.Y.,oneyearinCharleston,S.C,andoneyearinChicago;
isatravelingagent.Watkin,AdelaideY.,Oswego,N".Y.Taught
inOswegosincegraduation.CLASSICAL.Derby,MaryM.,Stockholm,
N.Y.TaughtinMarlon,Ala.,andinAlbertLea,Minn.Jewett,
FranklinN..XorthBangor,X.Y.Fredonia,!N".Y.Taughtin
Theresa,N.Y.,oneyear,inLakeForest,111.,oneyear,andin
Fredonia,N.Y.,ashorttime;takencourseinRochesterUniversity
andinRochesterTheologicalSeminary.TWENTYSEYENTHCLASS.
January,1877.ELEMENTARY.BoGGS,MaryJ.,Oswego,KY.Taught
nearlytwoyearsinOswegoandFulton,N.Y.;iscompositorondaily
paper.Clary,CharlotteA.,Jamaica,N.Y.Mrs.Wm.G.Hannum,
Jamaica,N.Y.TaughtinHempsteadandinJamaica,twelveterms.
DONNAN,Emma,Indianapolis,Ind.TaughtinIndianapolissince
graduation.Dubois,EllaM.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.FrankGalloway,
Buffalo,N.Y.TaughttwelvetermsinScrlba,N.Y.Forbes,Sarah
M.,Pulaski,IS".Y.Mrs.AsahelB.Banks,WallaWalla,Washington
Territory.TaughtashorttimeinMattetuck,N.Y.,andthreeyears
inLaramieCity,Wyoming;threechildren.275Gardner,Ada
B.,Attica,If.Y.,Tekamah,Neb.Taughtthreeyearsin
Strykersville,N.Y.,twoyeardinAttica,N.Y.,andtwoyearsin
Tekamah,Neb.Graham,Anna,Wilna,KT.*Mrs.Mel25arC.Paul,
Carthage,N.Y.TaughtinCarthagethreeyears.Hawley,Emeltne
a.,Putnamville,Ind.Germantown,Pa.TaughtInNewark,N.J.,and
NorthParma,N.Y.,aboutsevenyears.JosLiN,JennieE.,(Mrs.),
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinHannibal,N.Y.,oneyear,inHartwick,N.
Y.,twoyears,andinOswegoTownsixyears;onechild.Lee,
CharlotteJ.,Laurens,l!^.Y.DavenportCenter,N.Y.Taughtin
Plymouth,N.H.,oneandahalfyears,andinLittleton,N.H.,seven
andahalfyears.Masters,LillieB.,Matteawan,N".Y.Dobbs'
Ferry,N".Y.TaughtinNewYorkashorttime,hasprivateschool
atDobbs'Ferry.McGruddin,SarahA.,Oswego,N.Y.Denver,Col.
Nottaught;beenstenographersevenyears.Savage,Anna,Oswego,
N.Y.Evanston,111.TaughtashorttimeInTheresa,N.Y.,in
Princeton,Ind.,andinEvanston,111.Speir,AmandaL.,
Ballston,!N".Y.TaughtoneterminCorinth,N.Y.,andoneterm
inBatchellerville,N.Y.,beforehealthfailed.TiMERSON,EmmaC,
Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.ClaudeC.Sears,Trumansburg,N.Y.Taughtin

Burlington,Vt.,oneyear,andinTrumansburg,N.Y.,threeyears.
ADYANCBD.Hill,Prances,Amsterdam,!S".Y.Mrs.RobertH.
Carothers,Louisville,Ky.TaughtinShippensburg,Pa.;two
children.Lewis,GraceA.,Oswego,N".Y.Taughtoneyearin
Scriba,N.Y.,andnearlytwoyearsinOswego.Owens,FlorenceE.,
Oswego,I^.Y.Mrs.Thos.E.Stevenson,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtAve
termsindistrictschoolsnearOswego;onechild.PuRCELL,Sarah
H.(Mrs.),XewYork.Washington,D.C.Taughtoneyearin
Washington,D.C.;sinceinemployofoneofthedepartmentsthere.
Bobbins,JennieC,Stittville,K.Y.TaughtinBurlington,Vt.;
marriedWilliamJones;diedOctober28,1883.CLASSICAL.Howe,
AnnaD.,Sanford,1^.Y.Dobbs'Ferry,N".Y.TaughtinMiss
Masters'schoolatDobbs'Feary,sincegraduation.Smith,Winfield
S.,Oswego,KY.Elgin,111.TaughtinNewOrleans,La.,twoyears,
inOneida,N.Y.,threeyears.InMt.Morris,N.Y.,threeyears,
andinMedina,N'.Y.;isSuperintendentofSchoolsinElgin,111.
TWENTYEIGHTHCLASSJuly3,1877.BLBMBNTAKY.Alling,Charles
H.,Hunter,N.Y.TaughtinLibertyandHannibal,N.Y.,until
death,May20,1879.Baldwin,AnnaG.,UnionSprings,N".Y.
Hampton,Ya.TaughtinWinona,Minn.,sixyears,andInHampton,
Va.,tillpresenttime.276Baldwin,FrancesA.,Oxford,N.Y.
Bainbridge,N.Y.TaurhtinDeposit,N.Y.,sevenyears,andin
Bainbridge,twoyears.BiCKPORD,MinnieA.,Rochester,J?".Y.
Mrs.LewisP.Eldridge,Denver,Col.TaughttwoyearsinRochester,
N.Y.;onechild.Blasdkll,Minnie,Smith'sBasin,N.Y.Married
B.W.Smith;diedJanuary39,1886.BuRT,Lizzie,Minetto,N.Y.
TaughtoneyearinSingSing,N.Y.Butler,AmeliaP.,Cincinnati,
0.Lexington,Ky.TaughtinNewYork,twoyears,inSwarthmore,
Pa.,fiveyears,andoneyearinPhiladelphia^Pa.;hasprivate
schoolinLexington,Ey.Byrne,MaryA.,Jamesville,i^.Y.
Washington,D.C.TaughtinSouthSyracuse,N.Y.,twoyears;
enteredCommunityofSistersofCharity,February,.1880.Collins,
EmmaM.,Oswego,N.Y.JerseyCity,N".J.TaughtinOswegoand
JerseyCity.Guernsey,AmandaJ.,Liverpool,I^.Y.Mrs.William
H.Rdfeers,BriarHill,N.Y.Taughtthreeyears,inBrewertonand
Morristown,N.Y.;onechild.HoEFLER,ElizabethC,Ilion,i^.Y.
Mrs.E.M.Draper,Ilion,N.Y.Ha8nottaught.HuNTTiNG,Caroline
C,Southold,!N^.Y.Mrs.JesseTerry,Southold,N.Y.Taughtin
Southolduntilmarriage.Irland,MaryC,iNTorthSterling.N.Y.
Mrs.RichardBlaikie,SterlingValley,N.Y.Taughtabouttwoyears
inOswegoTown;onechild.Jones,MariaL.,TJtica,KY.Mrs.A.
LamottHenry,Kingsley,O.TaughtinBigRapids,Mich.,oneterm,
andinBigBock,111.,oneyear;threechildren.Masters,Fannie
H.,Matteawan,N.Y.Mrs.Jas.F.Johnson,Osw^^),N.Y.Taught
twoyearsatDobbs'Ferry,N.Y.;onechild.Maxwell,KateW.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.McCooL,Jeannette
a.,Hannibal,KY.Winona,Minn.TaughtinIlion,N.Y.,twoyears,
andinWinona,twoyears.McCoy,MinnieE.,Chateaugay,N.Y.
Mrs.EdwardS.Clock,Bayshore,N.Y.TaughtinBayshoretwoyears,
inChateaugayfouryears,andinLeadville,Col.,threeyears.
Miller,Lizzie,Chillicothe,0.Mrs.HenryH.Howland,Newark
Valley,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinChillicothe,O.;marriedFred.L.
Todd,afterwhosedeath,taughtinChillicothe,0.,oneyear,and
inIthaca,N.Y.,oneyear.Perry,S.Ella,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.
AlfredN.Raven,Auburn,N.Y.TaughttwotermsnearOswego,andone
terminAuburn.Prichard,JohnS.,Trenton,KY.Taughtabout
threeyearsinschoolsnearTrenton;ismerchant.Robinson,Myra
L.,XewHaven,N.Y.Mrs.PhilipW.Tuthill,Mattltuck,N.Y.

TaughtinSouthold,oneyear;onechild.277SiNNAMON,Eliza
W.,Oswego,X.Y.TaughtinOswegountDbereyesightfailed.
SouLE,MaryE.,Kichland,i^.Y.Mrs.WalterL.Chappell,Gilbert's
Mills,N.Y.TaughtinOrwell,N.Y.,oneyear,inAmes,N.Y.,one
year,andoneyearinGilbert'sMills;twochildren.Squier,
SarahF.,NewHaven,Yt.Mrs.AlbertA.Bliven,Nyack,N.Y.
TaughtoneandahalfyearsinNyack;threesons.Takamine,Hideo,
Tokio,Japan.TaughtinImperialUniversity,Japan,since
graduation.Washburk,Jacob,Billings,N^.Y.NewYorkCity.
TaughtoneyearinNewYorkorphanasylum,oneyearinYonkers,and
twoyearsinHastings,N.Y.;studiedlawinColumbialawschool;
ispracticinglaw.White,EllenM.,EssexJunction,Yt.Omaha,
N'eb.TaughtinOmahasincegraduation.Wing,CoraB.,Oswego,N.
Y.Carthage,N".Y.TaughtinPrinceton,Ind.,oneyear,and
Carthage,fiveyears.Worden,EstherA.,Kinney'sFourComers,N.
Y.Mrs.C.P.Campbell,Hannibal,N.Y.Taughttwoyearsinand
nearFulton,N.Y.ADYANCED.Andrews,H.Adella,Logan,i^.Y.
Mrs.EdwardG.Fowler,Omaha,Neb.TaughtinOmahasincegraduation.
Crippen,ElmaC,Elba,N.Y.Riverhead,l!^.Y.TaughtinWinfleld,
Kan.,twoandahalfyears,andsinceinRiverhead,N.Y.NoLTON,
FannieS.,HollandPatent,I^.Y.TaughtinDeposit,N.Y.,one
year,andinComing,N.Y.,threeyears.O'Brien,AgnesH.,Oswego,
N.Y.Mrs.CorneliusC.Kelliher,Pl^Uips,Wis.Taughttwoanda
halfyearsinPhillips,andsevenmonthsinLemont,111.;assistant
postmistressatPhillips,Wis.Russell,CalvinL.,Oswego,i^.
Y.Bolivar,Mo.TaughtinBellefonte,Ark.,oneyear,andin
Bolivar,Mo.,fiveyears;islawyerinBolivar.Seamans,Nellie
C,SeeEle.,January26,1875.Steele,Grace,A.,Shushan,N.Y.
Minneapolis,Minn.TaughtinMinneapolissincegraduation.
WiNANS,Theodore,Owego,KY.Osceola,Mo.TaughtinBolivar,Mo.,
twoyears,inNichols,N.Y.,oneyear,andinOsceola,Mo.,three
years.CLASSICAL.King,Isabella,Oswego,i^.Y.Mrs.JosephV.
Downs,Illon,N.Y.TaughttwoyearsinMoore'sMills,N.Y.,and
afterthatuntilmarriage,inIlion,N.Y.Lewi8,GeorgeA.,
Brewerton,JS".Y.Morristown.N.Y.Taughtfouryearsin
Morristown,N.Y.;schoolcommissionerinSt.LawrenceCo.,N.Y.;
onechild.MacDonald,IsabelleI.,Potsdam,IS".Y.Mrs.Allen
E.Day,Plattshurgh,N.Y.TaughtayearinWilllsvilleand
Sissionville,N.Y.,ayearinBurke,N.Y.,andayearinRouse's
Point,N.Y.Shippey,SevilleB.,SeeAdvanced,July1,1870.
278TWEKTYNINTHCLASS.January29,1878.ELEMENTARY.
BiCKNELL,HelenM.,Malone,N.Y.TaughtinMalone,threeyears,in
ChateauKay,N.T.,oneyear,inBangor,N.T.,oneyear,andin
GrandHaven,Mich.,oneyear.Bishop,MaryA.(Mrs.),Granby
Centre,N.Y.TaughtAveyearsinMatteawan,N.Y.;iscanvassing
forCassel&Co.;oneson.Braugan,HarrietR.,Antwerp,N.Y.
Mrs.H.R.Gifford,Brooklyn,N.Y.TaughtinClydeandMexico,N.
Y.,untilmarriage.Brioos,IdaL.,Malone,N.Y.Minneapolis,
Minn.TaughtinMaloneandinMinneapolis,Minn.Churchill,
MarthaE.,Oswego,K.Y.Mrs.WalterB.Fisher,SanFrancisco,Cai.
TaughtInYonkers,N.Y.,andInOswego,N.Y.Hamilton,Charlotte
B.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.E.B.Underwood,Washington,D.C.Taught
onetermInOsw^^.Haskins,CarrieL.,Oswego,KY.Mrs.Clinton
J.Backus,St.Paul,Minn.TaughtinChicago,111.,sevenyears.
Manwarikg,CoraL.,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.J.C.Pitman,Bainbridge,
N.Y.TaughtashorttimeinOswego;onechild.McWeeney,Maria
A.,Malone,]N".Y.Taughtsixyearsindistrictschools,andone
yearinChateaugay,N.Y.N'orton,LizzieA.,Oswego,N".Y.Not

taught.Parker,ElizabethGr.,Oswego,KY.Mrs.WilliamJ.
Barry,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught;onechild.Pettigrew,MarthaA.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.Price,Jennie,
GrantPark,111.Hinsdale,111.TaughttwoyearsinKankakee,m.,
oneyearinGrantPark,111.,andfouryearsInHinsdale,111.
Robinson,CarolineE.,Oswego,iN".Y.Mrs.Fred.A.Atkins,
Oswego,N.Y.Nevertaught;twochildren.Satterleb,Ophelia,
Greenville,Mich.Kaltmazoo,Mich.TaughtinEastSaginaw,Mich.,
oneyear,InBigRapids,Mich.,oneyear,andinKalamazoo*Mich.,
fouryears.Sloan,HelenL.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.JohnW.
Danenhower,Annapolis,Md.Hasnottaught;onechUd.Taber,Ida,
Horseheads,N.Y.Mrs.JohnA.Lawrence,Brooklyn,N.Y.Taughtin
Klmlra,N.Y.,fouryears;twochildren.TreadWAY,KateL.,
Oswego,JS".Y.TaughtoneterminDohbs'Ferry,N.Y.,andone
terminScranton,Pa.;sincetheninOswegouTucker,FlorenceE.,
Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.JamesA.Wheeler,Oswego,N.Y.Taughtin
Paterson,N.J.,ashorttime;threechildren.Wright,EmmaH.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinlUon,N.Y.;marriedHenryHastings;
residedinOswegountildied.May25,1883.279ADYANCBD.
Kehok,AliceM.,Oswego,IS".Y.TaughtInOswegosincegraduation.
Leffin,UrsulaM.,Oswego,i^.Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.
YosE.Charles0.,Spencer,!N^.Y.Joliet,111.Taughtoneyearin
Spencer;Inrealestatebusiness.CLASSICAL.Krusi,Herman,Jr.,
Oswego,N.Y.SanFrancisco,Cal.Nottaught;civilengineer;B.
C.E.(Cornell.)THIRTIETHCLASS.July2,1878.ELEMENTARY.
Bogle,AliceI.,Mercer,Pa.Mrs.RobertA.Stewart,Mercer,Pa.
TaughtinPhiladelphia,Pa.,inSoldiers^OrphanHome,until
marriage.Brown,Josephine0.,Otto,IS".Y.Mrs.Jos.J.McKee,
Bethlehem,Pa.TaughtoneyearinWashington,la.;twochildren.
Bryan,CoralieC.,Poughkeepsie,N.Y.TaughtinPhiladelphia,Pa.,
untilhealthfailed;diedSeptember1,1883.Butts,FloraE.,
NorthGreece,N".Y.Mrs.JohnDesmond,Rochester,N.Y.Taughtin
Burlington,Vt.,twoyears:onechild.Collier,John,Allegheny
City,Pa.Mansfield,Pa.TaughtinPittsburg,Pa.,twoyears,and
inOilCity,Pa.,oneyear;inironbusinessinMansfield,Pa.
CoRWiN,MarthaJ.,Riverhead,K.Y.Summit,If.J.Taughtin
Rockville,Conn.,oneyear,andinSummitfouryears.Crippen,Ella
M.,Elba,N.Y.Mrs.FredD.Wheeler,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught;
threechildren.Deacon,Jane,"Wappinger^sFalls,N.Y.Mrs.
JamesW.ColvUle,Hilo,Hawaii,S.Islands.TaughtinIthaca,N.Y.,
oneyear,inRondoutoneyear,andinHilooneyear,Dickinson,
Helen,IfewHaven.N.Y.Gloversville,N".Y^Taughtin
Gloversville,N.Y.,sincegraduation.Enos,FannieF.,Kankaka,
111.Mrs.JohnE.Lydecker,Kingman,Kan.TaughtinLeGrange,
111.,andinOakPark,111.Eraser,JessieS.,Oswego,^.Y.Mrs.
CharlesG.Haydon,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinHannibal,N.Y.,one
term,andinSterling,N.Y.,oneterm.Hempton,JennieM.,
"Watertown,N.Y.TaughtinAdamsCentre,N.Y.Hinckley,Adeline,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegosincegraduation.Hooker,Cora,
ParkRidge,N.J.Mrs.AlbertT.Covert,NewYorkCity.Taughtin
Hackensack,N.J.,threeyears;onechild.280Howard,Lillah
B.,Mexico,N.Y.Mrs.W.WardAllen,Miller,HandCo.,Dak.
TaughtinSouthRichland,N.Y.,oneterm,andinMexico,N.Y.,two
terms;onechild.Jones,ElizaM.,Charleston,S.C.Mrs.Lawton
Graves,NewYorkCity.TaughtinHoosickFalls,N.Y.,and
Washington,D.C.Kenific,AnnaM.,Oswego,KY.TaughtinOsw^^)
untilmarriedThomasBurden;diedNovember4,1884.KiLBOURN,
HannahL.,Oswego,KY.Mrs.EbenE.Pierce,Penfleld,N.Y.

TaughtoneterminWebster,N.Y.Leonard,EllaF.,Hamiibal,N.Y.
Mrs.JudsonS.Stevenson,Hannibal,N.Y.Nottaught.Luce,Annie
M.,Aquebogue,N.Y.Riverhead,N.Y.Taughtoneyearin
Northville,N.Y.,oneyearinBaitingHollow,HarfordMillsand
Orient,N.Y.,andoneyearinOregon,N.Y.McEntbe,LucyA.,New
YorkMills,N.Y.TaughtinWaterville,N.Y.,oneterm,andinNew
YorkMills,threeyears.McClure,AgnesY.,SterlingCenter,N.Y.
Mrs.WilliamHutton,Southfleld,Mich.;onechild.Nottaught.
Monk,HarriettI.,Cohoes,KY.TaughtinCohoessincegraduation.
Moore,AgnesM.,Mohawk,N.Y.Mrs.D.C.Spencer,LakeForest,
111.TaughtinHerkimerashorttime.Pease,NellieM.,Oswego,N.
Y.Mrs.KingsleyT.Boardman,Minneapolis,Minn.TaughtinGates,
N.Y.,twoterms,andinBurlington,Yt.,threeyears;onechild.
Petrie,FlorenceA.,Canastota,N.Y.Manistee,Mich.Taughtin
WampsvilleandCanastotaashorttime,andfiveyearsInManistee,
Mich.Place,MarciaB.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.IraPease,Oswego,N.
Y.TaughtfivetermsinNorwich,N.Y.;threechildren;studied
drawingandpainting.QuiGG,FannieM.,Oswego,N.Y.Taughtin
Gloversville,N.Y.,andinBayCity,Mich.Regan,EllaL.,Oswego,
N.Y.Oskaloosa,la.TaughtinOskaloosasixyears.RoDiE,Anna
C,Rondout,N.Y.TaughtinRondout,N.Y.,Aveandahalfyears,
andinCharlotte,N.C,oneandahalfyeai's;studiedmusic.
Ross,MargueriteS.,Scipioville,N.Y.Aurora,N.Y.Taughtone
terminScipiovilleandinLedyard,N.Y.,twoyears;healthtoo
delicatetoteachmore.Russell,LizzieB.,Oswego,N.Y.Chicago,
111.TaughtatNewburgh,N.Y.,sixyears,andatChicagotwo
years.Seaman,KateQ.,Nyack,N.Y.TaughtthreeyearsinNyack,
N.Y.;isnowstenographerinNewYork.Sheldon,EllaD.,Oswego,
N.Y.TaughtabouttwoyearsinschoolsinOswegoandWayne
counties.Teague,ClaraM.,Hannibal,KY.Mrs.C.G.Rose,
Patchogue,N.Y.TaughtinPatchogueuntilmarriage.281
Trunk,Lena,Gowanda,N".Y.Mrs.EugeneM.Savage,Buffalo,N.T.
TaughtinOtto,N.Y.,ashorttime.TanPetten,SarahT.,Peoria,
111.Oswego,N".Y.TaughtInJamestown,N.Y.,twoyears,In
Wellesley,Mass.,twoyears,andinOswego,fouryears;haswritten
drawingmanuals.Waldt,MaryA.,Oswego,1^.Y.Mrs.Albert
Mitchell,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegountilmarriage.
ITTheeler,S.Adella,Fayette,N".Y.Mrs.Frank C. Howell,

Coming, N. Y. Taught in North Granby, Conn. IViLLiAMS, Cora A.,


Ilion, K Y. Frankfort, IS". Y. Taught in District schools of Herkimer
county since graduation. IVooD, Ellen A., Herkimer, N. Y. Mrs.
Charles Lawrence, Wichita, Kan. Taught in Wichita six years.
ADVANCED. ^RiCKELL, George "W., New City, N. Y. Taught in
Nyack and Mount Kisco, N. Y., untU death, December 1, 1881.
IBuRNES, Letitia H., Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego since
graduation. Cozzens, Laura W., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Harrison B.
Starr, Yonkers, N. Y. Taught In Flatbush, N. Y., until manlage.
J)enni80N, William, Owego, N. Y. Windsor, N. Y. Taught about two
and a half years, in Lisle, Bed Creek and Hannibal, N. Y.; Is traveling
sales- man for the Cobum Whip Company. Gaites, Mary E., Center
Moriches, N. Y. Taught in North Granby, Conn., and Greenport, N. Y.,
until married Frank V. Brown ; died September 28, 1881. GiLLETT,
John N., Cuddebackville, N. Y. Emporia, Kan. Taughtin Prospect Hill,
Port Jervis,. Oakland, Port Orange, Howell's Depot, Narrowsburg,
Fulton and Cutchogue, N. Y., in Milford, Pa., Omaha, Neb., Longmont,

Col., and in Burlingame and Emporia, Kansas ; is farmer. -Kenyon,


Nellie M., Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego since graduation. Ladd,
Myron C, West Schuyler, N. Y. Taught in Sterling and Mohawk, N. Y.,
and in Harbor Springs, Mich. IfELsoN, Isabella K., Oswego, N. Y.
Married James R. O'Gorman ; died July 4, 1885. Storer, Charlotte A.,
Ogdensburg, N. Y. Hoboken, N. J. Taught in Albany, N. Y., one year,
in Watertown, N. Y., two years, and in Hoboken three and a half
years. TiMERSON, Emma C, See Ele., January 30, 1877. Washburn,
Morgan, Billings, N. Y. Taughtin Hartford, Ct., one term, in Islip two
years, and in Milwaukee, Wis., one year; in office of Racine Hdw.
Man^g Co. IViLCOX, Mtra E., See Ele., June 27, 1876. IVns'G, Cora
B., See Ele , July 3, 1877. IVooLMAN, Anna, Philadelphia, Pa.
Taught in Moorestown N. J., three years, and since in Philadelphia.
282
CLASSICAL.
Bakbr, Louis W., Holland Patent, N. T. Oswego,
N. Y^ Taught in Red Creek, N. Y., Ave years, and in New Orleans,
La., one year ; practicing law In. Oswego.
THIRTY-FIKST CLASS.
January 21, 1879. ELBMEi^TARY. Blakeman, Estella J., Hamilton, N.
Y. Taught In Westmoreland, N. Y., one year. In New Hartford, N. Y.,
one year, and in Hamilton three years. Cole, Mary R., Burlington,
Yt. Taught in Burlington since graduation. Hastings, Josephine,
Oswego, N. Y. Did not teach ; married Wallace D. Lovell ; resided in
Boston, Mass., died February 27, 1886 ;; three children. Haviland,
Alice, Brooklyn, N. Y. Mrs. Ulrlc Thomson, Hoboken, N. J. Tanght in
New York ; studied nursing in N. . Hospital, Boston, Mass.; two
children. JuDSON, Hattie R., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Fred. G.
Chamberlain, Utica, N. Y. Not taught. Kerr, Sarah M., Oswego, N. Y.
Mrs. Garrett Van Slyke, Mohawk, N. Y. Taught in Herkimer, N. Y., until
marriage. Kent, Louise T., Hannibal, N". Y. Mrs. Frank J. Barnes,
Hebron, Jeff. Co., Wis. Taught in Duluth, Minn., two and a half years.
McChesney, Frances, Chicago, 111. Englewood, 111.. Taught in
Englewood since graduation. McCuLLOUGH, Belle, Minetto, I^. Y.
Mrs. William M. Kellogg, Minetto, N. Y. Taught in Volney, N. Y., three
years ; two children. Messenger, Frances E., Jericho Centre, Yt.
Burlington, Tt.. Taught In Mamaroneck, N. Y., and in Burlington, Vt.
Myers, Amelia B., Philadelphia, Pa. Oswego, N. Y. Taught in
Philadelphia one year, and in Oswego six years ; studied science
and art of expres- sion. Smith, Alice J., Oswego, K. Y. Died April 26,
1880. SwAiM, ISTancy J., LaFayette, Ind. Xewton, Kan. Taught a
year in Eugene, Ind., and six months in each of following places :
Bloomingdale,. Waterman and Rockville, Ind. TuTTLE, Mary E.,
Oswego, K. Y. Elk Grove, Cal. Taught in Sacramento, Cal., three
years, in Elk Grove, Cal., two years, and In Livermore, Cal.^ two
years. "WiLDK, Anna E., Manaynnk, Pa. Mrs. Marcus D. Ring,
Philadelphia, Pa. Taught in Philadelphia one year ; one child.
ADYAKCED. CuLKiN, Mary C, Oswego, K Y. Taught in Oswego,
GuiLFOY, Mary E., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. Thomas F. Gleason, Oswego,
N. Y. Taught in Oswego five years.
283 McClurb, Agnes Y., See
Elementary, July 2, 1878. Nacy, Eliza A., Oswego, N". Y. Mrs.
Michael Culllnan, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Oswego until marriage.

Oliver, Carrie M., Oswego, l!^. Y. Grand Rapids, Mich. Taught in


Grand Rapids, Mich., since graduation. Weeks, Esther E., Bath, N. Y.
Mrs. Frederlf-k M. Lewis, Chateaugay, N. Y. Taught In Prattsburg, N.
Y., one term, in Wheeler, N. Y., two and a half years, in Port Allegany, Pa., and in Ghateaugay, one year ; one child. CLASSICAL.
Reynolds, Frank, Greenwich, N". Y. Jersey City, if. J. Taught in
Greenwich, Wellsville, and Bolivar, each a short time, and in Jersey
City, three years ; two children.
THIRTY-SECOND CLASS. June 3,
1879. ELEMENTARY. Baldrige, Fanny,. Rupert, Tt. Mrs. Abram S.
Gould, Gharlestown, Mass. Taught in Clinton, Ky. Chisholm, Anna
B., Chazy, N. Y. Leavenworth, Kan* Taught in Charlotte, Mich., and
in Leavenworth, Kan. CoRWiN, Isabella G., Baiting Hollow, N". Y.
Died August 21, 1881. Crockett, Alice J., Sterling Yalley, N. Y.
Taught in Sterling, one year, and in Fair Haven, N. Y., two years.
Edic, Isabella L., Utica, N. Y. Mt. Union, 0. Taught in Chili, N. Y., two
and a half years, and in Mt. Union, 0., two years. Foster, H.
Franklin, Oswego, N. Y. Pnlaski, N. Y. Taught several terms in District
schools near home ; is a farmer. Griffith, Alice B., Richmond, Ind.
Fairbury, Neb. Taught in Fairbury since graduation. Griffith, Mary,
Richmond, Ind. Did not teach ; died May 14, 1881. Hart, Martha J.,
Pomeroy, 0. Did not teach ; died April 2, 1883. Hicks, Emma I.,
Belleville, N. Y. Mrs. Emma Gerry, Wausau, Mo. Taught in
Stockhridge, Wis. Hubbard, Charles F., Islip, N^. Y. Taught in Bay
Shore, N. Y.; studied law ; died October 1, 1884. MoREY, Fanny A.,
Binghamton, N. Y. Taught in Binghamton since graduation. Pierce,
Julia A., Pierce's, l!^. Y
Taught three years, in Illon and Webster, N. Y., and in Marshalltown,
la. Pool, Mary E., Cape Yincent, N". Y. Watertown, ;N'. Y. Taught five
years in Watertown. QuiGG, Addie M., Oswego, N. Y. Youngstown, 0.
Taught In Greenport, N. Y., Dryden, N. Y., Indiana, Pa., and in
Washington, D. C. Roys, Addie E., Newark Yalley, N". Y. Mrs. Arthur
Clinton, Newark Valley, N. Y.
284 Slattery, Mary A., Oswego, N. Y.
Taught in HaDOibal, N. Y., one term, and in Oswego five years.
Stillman, Phebe a., Potter's Hill, R. I. Mariner's Harbor, N". Y. Taught
in Mariner's Harbor since graduation. Young, Mary L., Upper
Aquebogue, N. Y. Riverhead, N". Y. Taught in Greenport, N. Y., one
year, in Riverhead one year, and in Baltimore, Md., four years.
ADVANCED. Baker, Lillian, Oswego, I^. Y. Mrs. Samuel H. Wright,
Volney Center, N. Y. Taught in Minetto one term, in Volney one year,
and in Volney Center four years ; one child. Oalkins, Minnie H.,
Pulaski, N. Y. Taught in Redfleld, N. Y., one year, and Ave years in
Elk Grove, Oakland, San Francisco, and Benicia, Cal. Olark, Calvin
J., Oswego, K. Y. Meridian, I^. Y. Taught in Cato, N. Y., one term, in
Marcellus, N. Y., two years, and in Syracuse, N. Y., two years ; is a
farmer ; one child. HopsoN, Mary P., Scriba, 1^1. Y. Mrs. F. M.
Hiett, Red Oak, la. Taught in Williamson, N. Y., one year, and in Red
Oak one year ; one child. :N'ichols, Hellen M., See Ele., June 29,
1875. Scott, Emma C, Oswego, N^. Y. Mrs. Wm. G. Adams,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught two years in Clayton, N. Y. ; one child.

CLASSICAL. Alling, J. Carey, Hunter, i^. Y. Chicago, 111. Taught


seven years, in Hannibal, N. Y., in Marion, Ala., in Mankato and Albert
Lea, Minn., in Jersey City, N. J., and in Oakland and Chicago, 111.
Cartwright, Yirgi'nia R., Oswego, N. Y. Mrs. William L. Welsh,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught one year in Babylon, N. Y. ; two children.
Ballock, Emma R., Riverhead, K Y. Mrs. Daniel I. Hallock, Riverhead,
N. Y. Taught in Plainfleld, N. J., one year, in Riverhead, N. Y., two
years, in Salamanca, N. Y., one term, and in Sauquoit, N. Y., two
terms. O'GoRMAN, James R., Oswego, JS". Y. studied law ; is
practicing law in Oswego. Poucher, W. Allen, Oswego, l!^. Y.
Taught a short time ; studied at Cornell ; health failed. Richardson,
Alfred W., Colosse, N^. Y. Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught about a year in
Mexico and Orwell, N. Y.; is Secretary and Treasurer of Union Publishing House, New York City.
THIRTY-THIRD CLASS. February 4,
1880. ELEMENTARY. Blanch, Cornelia F., Nyack, N". Y. Taught in
Nyack until death. May 25, 1886. DowD, Harriet E., Oswego, N. Y.
Chicago, IlL Taught in Charleston, S. C, two years, and in Oswego
five months. J>UNNiNG, Ida S., Oswego, K Y. Canajoharie, N. Y.
Taught one term in Scriba, N. Y., and three and a half years In
Canajoharie.
285 Griffin, Ida L., North Volney, N. Y. Mexico, N. Y,
Taught two terms In Parish, N. Y., two terms In Greenport, N. Y., and
four years in Mexico. Markham, Florence K, Oswego, N. Y. Utica, K Y.
Taught two terms In Lewis County, and one and a half years in
Fulton, N. Y. Mastin, Emma L., Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Virginia two
terms, in Lacona, N. Y., four years, and in Sandy Creek, N. Y., one
year. Peene, Laura K., Yonkers, N. Y. Mrs. Chas. E. Sawyer,
Yonkers, N. Y. Taught in Yonkers two years ; one child. Perkins,
Elma E., Addison Hill, N. Y. Taught in Elkland, N. Y., two years, one
term in Dakota, and one term in Addison Hill. Reed, Sarah A ,
Yonkers, N^. Y. Mrs. Clarence C. Miles, Greenport, N. Y. Taught in
Greenport three years. Robinson, Lucy M., Richfield. N. Y.
Minneapolis, Minn. Taught one year in New York Institute for blind,
one year in Richfield, three years in Char- lotte, N. C, and one in
Minneapolis. RoYALL, Mary B., Lewiston, N. Y. Chicago, III. Taught
in Tuckahoe, N. Y., in Troy, O., and in Chicago, 111. Snow, Fannie C,
Rochester, N. Y. Mexico, U. S. M. Taught one term in Hoosick Falls,
N. Y., one year in Oswego, and five years in Mexico, under the
auspices of Woman^s Boar d Foreign Missions. Streeter, Carrie A.,
Fulton, 1^. Y. Mrs. Edward C. Davies, Bement, 111. Taught in and
near Fulton, two years, and in Bement, 111., one year. Thompson,
Emma J., Oswego, X. Y. Taught in West Bay City, Mich., two and a
half years ; is operating manager of Telephone exchange. Wood,
Fannie M., Omaha, Keb. vTaught in Omaha since graduation ;
studied art in Cooper Institute, N. Y. ADYANCED. Manly, Fanny K,
Richmond, Ya. - Georgetown, Col. Taught in Mankato, Minn., one
year, and in Georgetown, Col , four years. YanPettbn, Sarah T., See
Ele., July 2, 1878.
THIRTY-FOURTH CLASS. July 6, 1880.
ELEMENTARY. Beman, Jessie B., Chateaugay, N. Y. Taught In
Chateaugay for a time ; studied elocution. Clare, Margaret J.,

Greensburgh, 0. Mrs. William Henry, South Pueblo, Col. Taught one


term near Geneva, 0., one term in Greene, O., and one year in
Williamsburg, Col. one child. Cole, Anna R., Greenwich, X. Y. Mrs.
Daniel Hill, Greenwich, N. Y. Taught in Charlotte, Mich., one year, in
Greenwich, N. Y., two years, in Cambridge, N. Y.. one year, and in
Hightstown, N. J., one year. Collins, Anna T., Manayunk, Pa. Taught
in Scarsdale, N. Y., and Manayunk ; is stenographer.
286 ox,
Martha B., Hannibal, ^N". Y. Mrs. C. E. Woodworth, S. W. Oswego,
N. Y. Taugbt in HannibaLtbree terms, In Hoosick Falls one year, and
in Mexico, N. Y., one year. OuDDEBACK, Olive, CuddebackviUe, 1^.
Y. Taught four years, in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and in Patterson, N. J.
Doyle, Carrie C, Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Ilion, N. Y., two years ;
since then has been teaching in Oswego. Edmonds, Elizabeth M.,
Mt. Yernon, 2^. Y. Taught in Mt. Vernon, four years, and in Yonkers,
N. Y., two years. Pish, Minnie Y., Maunsville, N. Y. Mrs. Alfred W.
Richardson, Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught in Freedom, 111., one term, in
Adams, N. Y., one year, and in Marseilles, 111., one term. FisK, Julia
M., Oswego, N. Y. Taught a short time in Elllsburg, N. Y. ; died July
31, isas. Oriswold, Anna S., Sycamore, 111. Rockford, 111. Taught
in Charlotte, Mich., five years. Bays, Addie L., Chateaugay, N. Y.
Malone, ^. Y. Taugbt in Shelter Island, N. Y., two years, in
Chateaugay, two years, and in Elgin, 111., one year. Herrick,
Carrie, Oswego, X. Y. Mrs. William D. Wheeler, Helena, Mont.
Taught two years In Oswego ; one child. HiCKOK, Mary Estelle,
Meridian, N. Y. Mrs. William Van Duzer, Horsehe^s, N. Y. Taught in
Aurora, N. Y., two years ; one child. Hitchcock, Katharine L.,
Oswego, N. Y. Taught in Mount Morris, N. Y., two terms, and in
Palmyra, N. Y., three years, Howell, Micah, Baiting Hollow, N. Y. Has
not been well enough to teach. Hunt, Hattie E., Bloomfield, K J.
Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught in Bloomfleld, N. J., one year, and in AdelphI
Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y., five years. Miller, Maud A., Shelburne, Yt.
Mrs. Hobart Shanley, Burlington, Vt. Taught in Burlington until
marriage. MouLTON, Kate, Cicero, ]!^. Y. Mrs. H. D. Merwin,
Cicero, N. Y. Taught three years in and near Cicero, N. Y. ]S"a8h,
Jennie F., Xew Haven Mills, Yt. Hoosick Falls, K. Y. Taught in
Greenport, N. Y., two years, and in Hoosick Falls four years. Perry,
Mary E., Oswego, i^. Y. l^ew York City. Taught a short time in
Brooklyn, N. Y. Phillips, Anna, Hughsonville, N". Y. Mrs. Alton H.
Wilcox, North Granby, Conn. Taught in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., one
year, and in North Granby one year. Phillips, Jane E., Hughsonville,
N. Y. Brooklyn, N. Y. Taught one term in Old Westbury, N. Y., and Ave
years in Brooklyn. Preston, Kate L., Yonkers, N. Y. Taught in Yonkers
since graduation. Ehoads, Mary G., Fredericksburg, Ya. St. Peter,
Minn. Taught in Bay Shore, N, Y., two years, and about three years
in St. Peter, Minn. Richardson, Evalina E., Auburn, !N^. Y. Renova,
Pa. Taught in Renova since graduation. -Smith, Elizabeth S.,
Oswego, N. Y. Janesville, Wis. Taught in Mt. Carmel, 111., Ave years.
287 Southwell, Mary S., Oswego, K Y. Taught for a short time in
Sandy Creek, N. Y. Storms, Okie D., Hannibal, I^. Y. Anoka, Minn.

Taught In Babylon, N, Y., two years, and In Ilion, N. Y., one year.
Talbot, Ada E., Berlin, Wis. Minneapolis. Minn. Taught In West Bay
City, and Bay City, about five years, and in Minneapolis, Minn., one
year. ^rkadway, Minerva G., Oswego, N". Y. Dunkirk, JS". Y.
Stenographer in Dunkirk for three years. Wilcox, Marie E., Cbazy,
1^. Y. Rutherford, X. J. Taught in Babylon, N. Y., one year, and in
Rutherford, N. J., three and a half years. WiLLKTT, Alida A.,
Bloomfield, if. J. Mrs. Frank J. Miller, New Haven, Conn. Taught in
Clinton, Ky., in Greenport, L. I., and in New Rochelle, N. Y. Wood, Ida
H., Woodville, K Y. Mrs. George E. Bullls, Manlius, N. Y. Taught in
Bay Shore, N. Y., two years, in Sandy Creek, N. Y., one year, and in
Lewiston, N. Y., two years. Wood, Martha I., Herkimer, 'N. Y. Mrs.
Frank Dale, Wichita, Kan. Taught one year near Herkimer, and three
years in Wichita. ADYANCED. Brodie, Hugh H., Woodville, N. Y.
Taught in Woodville, one year, and in Morristown, N. Y., one year ;
graduated from Cornell University. McFarland, Mary A., Oswego, X.
Y. New Haven, Conn. Has not taught ; studied in Germany, and In
Yale School of Fine Arts. Pkarce, Otis E., Hannibal, N. Y. Taught a
year In Sand Bank, N. Y., and one year in Rose, N. Y.; graduated at
Cornell ; died September 11, 1886. KoBiNSON, Lucy M., See
Elementary, February 4, 1880. Slattery, Mary A., See Elementary,
June 3, 1879. Thomson Ulric, Greenwich, N. Y. Hoboken, N. J.
Taught in Catchogue, N. Y., and in Hoboken. CLASSICAL. Habcock,
John L., Oswego, K Y. Taught In Oswego one year, in Yonkers one
year, and in Hoboken, N. J., two years; studied medicine ; M. D.
(University of City of New York.) 0LLiNS, Abigail L., Little Falls, N".
Y. Brooklyn, K. Y. Taught in Old Westbury, N. Y.; is in college

hospital,trainingnurses,inBrooklyn.ooLEY,Helen,East
Coldenham,N".Y.TaughtinMt.Carroll,111.,twoyears,andin
Farmington,Conn.,twoyears;studyingatBostonSchoolof
Technology.Merrill,ElizabethR.Portland,Me.TaughtinMt.
Morris,N.Y.,andinSanDiegoandDescanso,Cal.TYooDWARD,
KatharineD.,MountHope,N.Y.Babylon,:N^.Y.Taughtthreeyears
InBabylon.288THIRTYFIFTHCLASS.January25,1881.
BLBMEJJ^TARY.Boyd,AdaB.,Maraaroneck,KY.Taughtin
Mamaroneckoneyear,andinPortChester,N.Y.,threeyears.
BuNDY,KateY.D.,Oswego,N".Y.TaughtinOswegothreeyears;
tookkindergartencoui'se.Burt,S.Jennie,Minetto,N.Y.**
TaughtnearMlnettosixterms.Deyo,M.Louise,Rondout,N.Y.
TaughtashorttimeinNewPalz,N.Y.,andfiveyearsinRondout,N.
Y.Flynn,MaryG.,Oswego,i^.Y.EastOrange,KJ.Taughtin
Woodville,N.Y.,threeyears,andinEastOrange,N.J.,twoyears.
Hanrahan,KateF.,Lewiston,N".Y.Tonawanda,N".Y^Taughtin
Tonawandasincegraduation.HOLTON,M.Adda,Eaton,N".Y.WestNew
Brighton,X.Y.TaughtinSt.Peter,Minn.,sixmonths,inMankato,
Minn.,twoyears,andinWestNewBrighton,twoyears.LocKLiN,
l^ELLiER.,Clajton,N.Y.HoosickFalls,N".Y.TaughtinShelter
Islandoneyear,andinHoosickFallstwoyears.LovECRAFT,Mary
L.,Mt.Yemon,N".Y.i^ewYork.TaughtinOrphans'Home,NewYork,
sincegraduation.LovEJOY,EmmaA.,Earlville,X.Y.Greenport,X.
Y.TaughtinGreenportsincegraduation.McCanna,AnnaL.,
Oswego,i^.Y.Patterson,N.J.TaughtinPattersonsince
graduation.McPeck,Sarah,UnionSprings,N^.Y.Macedon,X.Y.

TaughtonetermInSclpioville,N.Y.,andfiveyearsinMacedon.
Moore,JiTANCiEI.,Grrahamsville,]N".Y.TaughtinLivingston
Manor,N.Y.,twoyears,andinGrahamsville,twoyears,Owen,
Josephine,Matteawan,iJ.Y.TaughtinMatteawan,sincegraduation.
Teague,NettieM.,Hannibal,N.Y.Patchogue,N.Y.Taughtin
Hannibal,N.Y.,oneterm,andinPatchoguefiveyears.YiDAUD,
NathalieL.,Brooklyn,N.Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.Y.,five
months,andinNewYorkthreeandahalfyears;nowhasprivate
schoolinBrooklyn.YoLz,Josephine,Westchester,N.Y.Mrs.
SamuelJ.Bergen,Westchester,N.Y.TaughtintownsofWestchester
county,fouryears.Wood,HannahJ.,Woodville,N.Y.SandyCreek,
N.Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.Y.,twoterms,inWoodville,N.Y.,
fourterms,inNewHaven,N.Y.,twoyears,inHannibal,N.Y.,one
term,andinSandyCreek,N.Y.,abouttwoyears.ADYANCED.
BuLLis,GeorgeB.,Oswego,N.Y.Manllus,N.Y.TaughtinParish,
oneterm,inWoodville,twoterms,andinLewiston,threeyears.
Leonard,KateA.,Peru,Ind.,SeeBle.,June27,1876.Waldt,
LizzieB.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinWestmoreland,N.Y.,oneyear,
inBabylon,N.Y.,oneyearandinOswegoHighSchoolthreeyears.
CLASSICAL.Bogle,EdithR.,Pittsburg,Pa.Mercer,Pa.Taughtin
Philadelphia,Pa.,twoyears,inCharlotte,N.C,oneyear,andin
Brooklyn,N.Y.,oneyear.289CuLLiNAN,GeorgeW.,Oswego,N.
Y.Buffalo,N.Y.Didnotteach;practicing;lawinBuffalo.
HUTCHESON,MaryE.,Oswego,N.Y.Mt.Carmel,111.Taughtin
Hankato,Minn.,threeyears,andinMt.Carmel,twoyears;studied
musicinLondon,Eng.,andinAmerica.THIRTYSIXTHCLASS.June
28,1881.ELEMENTARY.Andrews,ElizaE.,Sandburg,N.Y.
Ellenville,KY.TaughtinEllenvillesincegraduation.Benson,
Carrie,Nanuet,KY.Buffalo,N.Y^TaughtinMosestown,N.Y.,one
year,andinKiverVale,N.J.,twoyears.Cheyney,ElizaA.,West
Chester,Pa.TaughtinMankato,Minn.,fouryears.Clay,Caroline,
Jamaica,N".Y.TaughtinFlushing,N.Y.,fouryears.OLUTe,
Alfarata,Schenectady,N.Y.Marysville,0.TaughtinMt.Carroll,
111.,oneyear,andinMarysville,O.,fouryears.Fisher,CoraB.,
Oswego,KY.Mrs,0.A.Lamoree,Osw^o,N.Y.TaughtinSandy
Creek,N.Y.,oneyear,andinGlenCove,N.Y.,threeyears.
FoRBKS,AnnaE.,Pulaski,X.Y,Mrs.PittCovert,Cheyenne,Wy.
Ter.TaughtfouryearsinCheyenne.Gerow,Ellaa.,Plattekill,^.
Y.TaughtinNewOrleans,La.,oneyear,andinPlymouth,N.H.,
untildeath.May11,1884.Hallock,PhiladelphiaS.,Milton,liT.
Y.Pulaski,N.Y.TaughtthreeyearsinChappaqua,N.Y.,andone
yearinPulaski.Hargreaves,Jeannette,Yonkers,JiT.Y.Taughtin
Yonkerssincegraduation.HoLCOMB,EttaM.,Naples,N.Y.Mrs.A.
T.Jennings,SenecaFalls,N.Y.TaughtinSandyCreek,N.Y.,one
term,inNorthChocton,N.Y.,oneyear,andinVillisca,I.,one
year;onechild.HopsoN,KateA.,Oswego,N.Y.KedOak,I,
TaughtinMexico,N.Y.,oneyear,andinRedOak,fouryears.
HoPSON,ZoEW.,Oswego,N.Y.KedOak,I.TaughtinPulaski,one
term,inVillisca,I.,threeyears,andinRedOak,oneyear.Howe,
MaryS.,Antwerp,N".Y.Minneapolis,Minn.Taughtthreeyearsin
Mankato,Minn.,andoneyeai'inMinneapolis.HuntMaryJ.,
Frankfort,KY.TaughtthreeyearsinRiverhead,N.Y.Ketcham,
AddieS.,Islip,N.Y.Mrs.GeorgeC.Raynor,Riverhead,N.Y.
TaughtinRiverhead,N.Y.,twoandahalfyears;onechild.
Leeds,LucyE.,Yonkers,JiT.Y.Omaha,N"eb.TaughtinDobbs'
Ferryoneyear.InFlatbush,N.Y.,twoyears,andinOmaha,two
yeais.Lewis,ClaraM.,Oswego,!N^.Y.Mrs.HenryE.Lower,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughttwotermsinSandyCreek,N.Y.;onechild.

S290Mace,Josephine,Jerome,X.T.Mrs.J.HanreyNorrls,
Oswego,N.Y.Hasnottaught.Marsh,LauraG.,Kingston,N.Y.
Babylon,N.T.TaughtInBabylonsincegraduation.Mattison,Mary
H.,Oswego,N".Y.Albany,N.Y.Tookkindergartencourse;taught
InOswegosixmonths,andInAlbanytwoyears.Miner,CarrieE.,
NorthHannibal,N.Y.Bnglewood,111.TaughttwoyearsInSanta
Paula,Cal.,andtwoyearsinChicago,111.Nicholson,Anna,
Haddonfield,N.J.TaughtinMarshallton,Pa.,oneyear,andin
PassaicN.J.,oneyear.Pateman,Edna,Yonkers,N.Y.Brooklyn,N.
Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.Y.,oneyear,inYonkers,twoyears,and
inBrooklyn,N.Y.,twoyears.RoDiE,NenaM.,Rondout,N.Y.
TaughtInBayShore,N.Y.,twoyears,inCharlotte,N.C,twoyears,
andinRondoutoneyear.Salisbury,ClaraA.,SandyCreek,N.Y.
TaughtInSandyCreekoneyear.InWatklns,N.Y.,oneyear,andIn
Sayville,N.Y.,twoyears.Sheridan,CatherineE.,Oswego,N.Y^
Mrs.WilliamSullivan,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinSandyCreekoneterm,
andinOswegooneandahalfyears;onechild.Shore,M.Yictoria,
Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.M.H.Anderson,SantaPaula,Cal.Taughtin
SantaPaula,twoandahalfyears;onechild.Smith,EllaL.,
Chateaugay,N.Y.Mrs.JohnL.Bowditch,ProspectGrove,N.Y.
TaughtInChateaugayoneyear,andinShelterIsland,N.Y.,oneyear
;onechild."Washburn,Irving,Billings,N.Y.NewYorkCity.
TaughtinNewOrleansoneyeas,andinStonyPoint,N.Y.,oneyear;
isinmanufacturingbusinessinNewYork.WiTBECK,NellieL.,
Oswego,N.Y.Yonkers,N.Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.Y.,four
years,andinYonkersoneyear.ADYANCED.Bernhard,Margaret,
Saginaw,Mich.TaughtinBayShore,N.Y.,oneyear,andinSaginaw
twoyears;studiedinGermany.Butler,KachelA.,Bath,N.Y.
Mrs.JohnSuydam,EastHinsdale,N.Y.TaughtinQueensand
Greenport,N.Y.Daly,LizzieM.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.WilliamJ.
Baker,Oswego,N.Y.TaughttwoyearsinOswego;onechild.
Laing,MaryB.,SeeElementary,June30,1874.Mathews,Elizabeth
A.,.Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.William0.Dunbar,Altoona,Pa.Taughtin
Altoonauntilmarriage.Nesbitt,EmmaJ.,Oswego,N.Y.Taught
oneterminKinney'sFourComers,N.Y.,twotermsinWestmoreland,
N.Y.,oneyearinChaumont,N.Y.,andoneyearinOswego.
Preston,KateL.,SeeElementary,July6,1880.Sheldon,AnnaB.,
Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinBoston,Mass.,oneyear,andinClinton,N.
Y.,oneyear;studiedmusicinBostonandSyracuse;graduatedfrom
DepartmentofFineAits,SyracuseUniversity.291CLASSICAL.
Alden,M.Helen,Sycamore,III.Mrs.JohnQ.Brown,Longmont,Col.
TaughtinSycamore,111.,threeyears,andinNordhoff,Cal.,one
year.Bunker,JosephineC,Oswego,N.Y.Hasnottaught.
THIRTYSBYBNTHCLASS.January24,1882.ELEMENTARY.Orow,Clara
R.,Oswego,N.Y.Winona,Minn.TaughtinMinneapolis,Minn.,two
years,andinWinona,Minn.,oneyear.Shaw,AmyR.,Plattsburgh,
N.Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.T.,andinSt.Albans,Vt.;died
June16,1883.SiBBiTT,AnnaB.,Oswego,KY.TaughtinGreenport
andSandyCreek,N.Y.Taylor,EvalynI.,Fulton,!N.Y.Mrs.
GeorgeE.Gilman,SouthScriba,N.Y.Taughtabouttwoyearsin
YolneyandScriba,N.Y."Weed,FlorenceA.,Oswego,N.Y.Grand
Rapids,Mich.TaughttwoyearsinMatteawan,N.Y.,andoneyearin
GrandRapids."Whiteley,FlorenceM.,Grrahamsville,N.Y.Alamosa,
Col.TaughtoneyearinRoscoe,N.Y.,andtwoyearsinAlamosa,
Col."Woodhull,AnnaS.,PortJefferson,JiT.Y.Tarrytown,KY.
TaughtoneyearinBellport,N.Y.,andthreeyearsinTarrytown,N.
Y.ADVANCED.DowD,HarrietE.,SeeElementary,February4,1880.
CLASSICAL.Crane,MarietteC,PennYan,N.Y.Englewood,111.

TaughtinMt.Morris,N.Y.,oneyear,inMedina,N.Y.,twoyears,
andoneyearinEnglewood,111.THIRTYEIGHTHCLASS.June27,
1882.ELEMENTARY.Benton,EllaMay,Middleville,N".Y.Taught
inPatchogue,N.Y.,twoyears.Chapman,EmmaJ.,Williston,Yt.
Burlington,Yt.TaughtoneyearinDryden,N.Y.,andsincein
Burlington,Vt.Clock,MayW.,Islip,N.Y.Mrs.EugeneSmith,
Islip,N.Y.TaughttwoyearsinHampton,Va.Farrington,MaryJ.,
Fishkill,1>l.Y.Lakewood,N".J.TaughtoneyearinFishkill,N.
Y.,oneyearinMatawan,N.J.,andtwoyearsinMatteawan,N.Y.
OoODMAN,MaryB.,Omaha,Neb.TaughtinOmahasincegraduation.
Oreene,LidaL.,Fulton,N.Y.TaughtinVolney,N.Y.,twoterms,
inHannibal,N.Y.,twoterms,inGranby,N.Y.,twoterms,andin
Fulton,oneterm.292Harrington,MaryH.,Oneida,N.Y.Mrs.
JesseL.Case,Peconic,N.Y.TaughtInGreenport,N.Y.,three
years;onechild.Harris,IsabelleJ.,Antwerp,N^.Y.Yonkers,
N".Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.Y.,fouryears,andInYonkers,one
year.Hewitt,KittibI.,NewHaven,N.Y.Mexico,KY.TaughtIn
NewHavenoneyear,andInMexicothreeyears.HuBB8,Temperance
A.,CentralIslip,N.Y.Taughtaboutoneyear,inGreenportand
CentralIslip,N.Y.;healthnotpermitmoreteaching.Jagger,Ida
W.,Islip,N.Y.Patchogue,N.Y.TaughtinGreenport,N.Y.,four
years.Kellogg,GertrudeA.,Jamesville,Wis.Minneapolis,Minn.
TaughtinPhoenix,Mich.,oneyear,andinBilnneapolis,twoyears.
McKee,ElmerB.,Towanda,Pa.TaughtinSajnre,Pa.,oneyear,and
inTowanda,Pa.,oneyear;editorofTowandaReview.More,Mary
F.,Walton,N".Y.Charlotte,Mich.TaughtinCharlottesince
graduation.Radley,NellieM.,CapeYincent,N.Y.Mrs.DanielP.
Simpson,St.Paul,Minn.TaughttwoyearsinManistee,Mich.
Santley,ElizabethD.,N"ewLondon,0.TaughtinWellington,O.,
andinSavannah,Ga.,sincegraduation.Stisser,MargaretM.,
Oneida,i^.Y.TaughtoneyearinMt.Morris,N.Y.,andoneyear
inAuburn,N.Y.Strong,BerthaA.,Washingtonville,JiT.Y.
Taughtinlona,N.Y.,sixmonths,andtwoyearsinWashingtonville.
Strough,AnnaB.,Clayton,N.Y.TaughtinWatkins,N.Y.,one
year,andinHoosickFalls,N.Y.,sixmonths.Stymuh,Mary,
Bayshore,1^,Y.TaughtinBayshore,oneyear,andinIrvington,N.
Y.,threeyears.SuTCLiFFE,Thomas,Eaton,JiT.Y.Taughtin
Brewerton,N.Y.,oneyear:studiedatHarvard.Wells,IdaS.,
Peconic,N".Y.Yonkers,N".Y.TaughtinBayshore,N.Y.,two
years.Wheeler,LouiseS.,Oswego,X.Y.Mrs.EliotB.Mott,
Oswego,N.Y.Didnotteach;onechild.WiLLARD,Louise,Fnlton,
N.Y.Mrs.Ch.DudleyMiller,Oswego,N.Y.Didnotteach.
ADYAISrCED.Benson,Carrie,SeeElementary,June28,1881.Green,
CharityJiT.,Sayville,X.Y.Mrs.H.B.Knowlton,Hastings,Neb.
TaughtinMankato,Minn.,twoyears,andinW.NewBrighton,N.Y.,
oneyear.Partridge,Josephine,Nyack,N.Y.Mrs.PeterG.
McMillan,Nyack,N.Y.TaughtinFlatbush,N.Y.,oneyear,andin
Nyacktwoyears;onechild.RoDiE,NenaM.,SeeElementary,June
28,1881.ScRiBNER,ErnestE.,Scriba,N.Y.Oswego,N.Y.Taught
oneyearinAlexandriaBay;studiedatCornellUniversity.293
CLASSICAL.Anderson,AugustaB.,Oswego,N".Y.Taughtoneterm
InSalem,Va.,andoneterminFederalsburg,Md.Anderson,JohnH.,
Oswego,X.Y.TaughtsincegraduationinPhiladelphia.Howe,
GteorgeH.,Orwell,Pa.TaughtinTalladegaCollegesince
graduation.Hunt,MatthewI.,OswegoX.Y.TaughtinWoodville,
N.Y.,twoyears,andinAdams,N.Y.,oneyear.Spicer,LizzieS.,
Plattsburg,X.Y.TaughtinDobbs'Ferrythreeyears.Yawger,
Mary,UnionSprings,N.Y.Federalsburg,Md.Philadelphia,Pa.

Talladega,Ala.Madison,N.Y.Dobbs'Ferry.Taughtin
Patchogue,N.Y.,oneterm,andinUnionSpringssincethattime.
McGregor,la.Charlotte,N.C.THIRTYNI^^THCLASS.January30,
1883.BLBMEN^TARY.Brooks,MinnieL.,Forestport,^.Y.Mrs.
GeorgeP.Armstrong,Tougaloo,Miss.TaughtinManistee,Mich.,five
months,andinNewBerlintwoyears.Caulfield,MaryB.,Oswego,
N".Y.TaughtinMinneapolis,Minn.,oneyear,andinOswegoone
year.Dermot,SarahA.(Mrs.),Springfield,Mass.Taughtin
Greenport,N.Y.,oneyear,andinMcGregor,la.,twoyears.Deyo,
Mary,Rondout,N.Y.TaughtinOsceola,N.Y.,oneterm,andin
Charlottethreeyears.HovEY,H.Alwilda,Forestport,N.Y.
TaughtinBarnes'Comers,N.Y.,oneterm,andinForestport,one
year.Jagger,JessieB.,Westhampton,I^.Y.Mrs.JohnYoung,
Patchogue,N.Y.King,GeorgiaA.,Greenport,N.Y.Taughtin
Patchogue,oneyear,andinGreenport,oneyear.LocKWOOD,Carrie
L.,Melville,N^.Y.Woodhaven,N".Y.TaughtinHuntington,N.Y.,
threeyears.McAuliffe,MargaretF.,WestChester,N.Y.Taughtin
WestChestersincegraduation.Mathbson,HelenW.,Ogdensburg,]N^.
Y.NewYork.TaughtinMt.Morris,N.Y.,twoandahalfyears,and
inNewYorkCity,oneyear.MuNSELL,MargaretE.,Wolcott,N.Y.
TaughttwotermsinNewark,N.Y.Peake,MaryB.,Chateaugay,N.Y.
Mrs.AlbertBrown,St.Joseph,Mo.TaughttwotermsinManistee,
Mich.,andthreeyearsinChateaugay,N.Y."Webster,MinnieR.,
Rutland,Yt.NewHaven,Conn.TaughtinManistee,Mich.,twoterms,
andinNewHaven,Conn.,threeyears.ADYANCED.Gerow,EllaA.,
SeeElementary,June28,1881.SiBBiTT,AnnaE.,SeeElementary,
January24,1882.294Snow,MinaF.,Rochester,N".Y.
TauffhtinRochestersincegraduation.CLASSICAL.Mowbray,Mary
E.,Bayshore,KY.TaughtinBayshoretwoyears.Parker,Florbnce
J.,Geneva,N.Y.TaughtinGenevasincegraduation.Smith,
MargaretK.,Frederickton,N.B.TaughtinPeru,Neb.,oneanda
halfyears;studiedinGrermanyoneyear.Plymouth,Ind.
Deposit,N".Y.Rutland,Yt.Minneapolis,Minn.FORTIETH
CLASS.June29,1883.ELEMENTARY.Alling,HarrietS.,East
Durham,N.Y.TaughtinCharlotte,Mich.,twoyears.Anderson,
EllenS.,CallicoonDepot,N".Y.TaughthalfayearinPrinceton,
Ind.,andtwoyearsinDeposit.Arquit,Mary,Brooklyn,N".Y.
TaughtinHampton,Va.,twoyears,andinOrange,N.J.,oneyear.
Brooks,MabelE.,Forestport,N.Y.Mrs.MathewI.Hunt,Madison,
N.Y.TaughtinNewBerlin,N.Y.,twoyears.Burleson,Harriet
R.,OneidaCastle,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinOneidaCastle,andtwo
yearsinDurhamville,N.Y.Cady,LizzieP.,NorthWilliston,Yt.
TaughtinBristol,Vt.,inWestBayCity,Mich.,andinMinneapolis.
Evans,EmmaL.,Carthage,N.Y.Mrs.BenjaminF.Wood,Carthage,N.
Y.TaughttwoyearsinCarthage.Finch,AdelaideY.,Amagansett,
N.Y.TaughtinWestBayCity,Mich.,twoyears.Franklin,
ElizabethJ.,Berlin,Md.TaughtinQueens,N.Y.,twoyears.
GooDiER,LillieL.,CedarLake,N.Y.Taughtthreeyearsin
Manistee.GrOODMAN,MiNERVAA.,SpringfieldCentre,N.Y.Taught
InCharlotte,Mich.,oneyear,andinBoonshoro,Ark.,oneyear.
Grafftey,Eliza,Oswego,N.Y.S.NewBerlin,N.Y.Taughtin
Riverhead,N.Y.,oneyear,inPierrepontManorandS.NewBerlin,
N.Y.Hallock,MinnieW.,Riverhead,N.Y.TaughtinRiverhead
threeyears.Hutchinson,NellieG.,Hannibal,N.Y.Mankato,Minn.
TaughtinMankatotwoyears.Kimball,JessieM.,Fulton,N.Y.
TaughtinFultonthreeyears.Kirkland,MinnieF.,Rome,N.Y.
Manistee,Mich,TaughtinRiverhead,N.Y.,oneterm,andin
Manistee,Mich.,twoyears.Matthews,FrankieL.,Gowanda,N.Y.

TaughtinGowandathreeyears.MolLWAiNE,AnnaA.,Otego,N.Y.
Plattsburgh,N.Y.TaughtinRouse^sPoint,N.Y.,threeyears.
Greenport,N.Y.Plainfield,N.J.Manistee,Mich.295
McMillan,ElizabethA.,Salem,N.Y.TauebtinYeDtura,Cal.,one
year,andInDowney,Cal.,twoyears.MuLLANEY,Margaret,South
Addison,N.Y.TaughtinHomellsvlllethreeyears.Short,Abbik
L.,Honeoye,^.Y.TaughtInWestBayCitythreeyears.Smith,
AliceV.,Geneva,N".Y.TaughtinMarysvllle,O.,threeyears.
Thomson,LizzieC,Matteawan,KY.TaughtInFlshklll,N.Y.,three
years."Waful,LilianK.,GreatBend,N".Y.TaughtinFelt's
Mills,N.Y.,twrfterms."Waring,GeorgiaA.,Wolcott,KY.Mrs.
T.G.Henderson,Wolcott,N.Y.TaughtInCharlotte,Mich.,two
years.ADYAlSrCED.Downey,Oal.Hornellsville,N.Y."West
BayCity,Mich.Marysville,0.Fishkill,N.Y.Blanchard,
OliverR.,SpringYalley,!N^.Y.TaughtinJerseyCitythreeyears.
BoDMAN,MirandaA.,Theresa,N.Y.TaughtinRedwood,N.Y.,one
year.FiTz,GeorgeTV.,Peconic,^N^.Y.Taughtthreeyearsin
Englewood.Fogle,M.Virginia,Mt.Gilead,0.TaughtinNewHaven
threeyears.Grow,ClaraR.,SeeElementary,January24,1882.
McCooL,Jkannrttea.,SeeElementary,July3,1887.McLean,Louisa
fl.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinSandyCreek,N.Y.,andinSaratoga,
twoyears.Parsons,JohnC,Marcellus,N.Y.TaughtinJerseyCity
threeyears.Rogers,LucrT.,Sodus,X.Y.TaughtinNortbporttwo
years.ScHOFiELD,ElizabethH.,Oswego,N.Y.Taughtin
Williarastown,N.Y.,oneterm,andinOswegotwoandahalfyears.
Weed,Florencea..SeeEle.,January24,1882.CLASSICAL.
COMSTOCK,Amy,Plattsburgh,N.Y.TaughtinMedina,N.Y.,one
term,andinPlattsburghtwoandahalfyears.JerseyCity,N.J.
Englewood,III.^ewHaven,Conn.Saratoga,i^.Y.JerseyCity,
N.J.Northport,2^.Y.FORTYFIFTHCLASS.January29,1884.
ELEMENTARY.Anderson,MercyA.,Shelburne,Mass.TaughtInHohoken
sincegraduation.OoLNON,CarolineM.,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.
Daniels,LottieC,Brooklyn,N".Y.TaughtinPatchogue,N.Y.,
nearlytwoyears,andinYonkerssixmonths.Howell,EmelineC,
Riverhead,N.Y.TaughtinRiverheadsincegraduation.Hoboken,
N".J.Yonkers,N.Y.296LiTTLEFiELD,Addie,Oswego,N.
Y.Tau^btinManisteetwoyears.Murdoch,Edith,Oswego,Jf.Y.
TaughtinScribatwoterms,andinOswegoayear,Murray,Margaret,
Dobbs'Ferry,N.Y.TaughtinGreenportsincegraduation.
li^EWTON,JennieM.,BaitingHollow,X.Y.TaughtinRockyPointtwo
years.Radcliffe,MargaretC,Yonkers,1^.Y.TaughtinYonkers
sincegraduation.Smith,AnnaE.,Springfield,Mass.Taughtin
Blandford,Mass.,oneterm,andtwotermsinOurtisvllle,Mass.
Manistee,Mich.Greenport,!N^.Y.RockyPoint,N.Y.
ADYAI^CED.SandyCreek,N".Y.Clark,AliceM.,Oswego,N.Y.
TaughtinSandyCreeksincegraduation.Lowell,FranklinA.,
Savannah,N".Y.TaughtinSavannahtwoyears.Stevens,Florence
G.,Oswego,N.Y.HoosickFalls,N.Y.TaughtinWesthampton,N.
Y.,oneyear,andinHoosickFallsoneyear.Wilcox,AliceE.,
Oswego,N.Y.Gouverneur,N".Y.TaughtinWegatchie,N.Y.,two
terms,andsinceinGouverneur.CLASSICAL.DashleyEmilyB.,
Oswego,N".Y.Manlius,N".Y.TaughtinPulaski,N.Y.,oneterm,
inWoodville,N.Y.,oneyear,andinCleveland,N.Y.,twoterms.
Kerr,Mary,Gorham,N.Y.Minneapolis,Minn.TaughtinMinneapolis
sincegraduation.FORTY.SECON"DCLASS.July1,1884.
ELEMEIS^TARY.Baldwin,MariaJ.,Yolney,N.Y.TaughtinHampton,
Va.,sincegraduation.Bradley,MaryF.,Watertown,N.Y.Taught
inSandyCreek,N.Y.,oneterm,andinWatertownoneterm.

Brickkll,MaryE.,NewYorkCity,N.Y.TaughtinNyacksince
graduation.Brown,AdellaM.,Macedon,N.Y.Mrs.Arthurs.
Westfall,Walworth,N.Y.TaughtinMacedononeyear.Burns,
FannieM.,Fairmont,W.Ya.TaughtinTowandasincegraduation.
Callaghan,AnnaC,Charlton,N.Y.TaughtinNewburgsince
graduation.Cleveland,AdellaY.,Canton,Penn.TaughtinMarion,
0.,oneyear.CoRwiN,IsabellaG.,Riverhead,KY.Taughtin
Brooklyn,N.Y.,oneyear,andinYonkers,N.Y.,oneyear.
Nyack,N.Y.Towanda,Pa.Newburgh,N.Y.Brooklyn,N.Y.
297Foster,IdahoP.,Antwerp,N.Y.CottageCity,Mass.Taught
oneyearinMysticBridge,Mass.,andsinceinCottageCity.
Gardner,HelbnR.,EvansMills,N.Y.TaughtinPhiladelphia,N.Y.,
twoyears.Keller,ClaraA.,Oswego,N".Y.Charlotte,Mich.
TaughtinHoosickFalls,N.Y.,oneyear,andinCharlotteoneyear.
KuHL,LizzieH.',Lawrenoeville,Pa.TaughtayearinLindley,N.Y.
Leonard,CarrieS.,Oswego,iiT.Y.Pulaski,N".Y.Taughtin
Pulaskisincegraduation.Maher,FrancesG.,Hastings,N.Y.Has
nottaught.Porter,IdaM.,Connellsville,Pa.TaughtinGeneva,
N.Y.,oneyear;studiedinUniversityatAnnArbor,Mich.Rogers,
AliceB.,Matteawan,N".Y.TaughtinGlenham,N.Y.,twoyears.
Sewell,AnnaM.,Fishkill,X.Y.TaughtinPatchogue,N.Y.,one
term,inNorwalk,Conn.,oneyear,andsince,inFishkill.Storms,
Minnie,Nyack,N".Y.TaughtinNyacksincegraduation.Tanner,
HelenM.,Bloomfield,i?".J.Montclair,N".J.TaughtinPulaski,
N.Y.,oneyear,andinMontclair,oneyear.Towsley,AnnaL.,
Oswego,N.Y.Pulaski,N.Y.TaughtinPulaskisincegraduation.
VanCleef,LillianM.,SenecaFalls,N.Y.Lansingburg,N.Y,
TaughtinLansingburgtwoyears."Walker,Jeannette,Irvington,i^.
Y.TaughtinFlatbush.N.Y.,twoyears.Wood,Julia0.,
Woodville,N.Y.TaughtinEllisburgh,N.Y.,oneterm,andin
SouthRichland,N.Y.,twoterms.ADYAJSrCBD.Armstrong,George
P.,Speedside,P.of0.Tougaloo,Miss.TaughtoneyearinMadison,
N.Y.,andoneyearinTougaloo,Miss.Baldwin,WilliamA.,Volney,
N".Y.Philadelphia,N.Y.TaughtinPhiladelphia,N.Y.,twoyeai
s.Barnes,EarlH.,Martville,N.Y.TaughttwoyearsinHoboken,
N.J.Poucher,KateM.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.EdwardW.McColm,
Columbus,0.Rice,KittieB.,Oswego,N".Y.Taughtashorttime
inSandyCreek,N.Y.Richardson,MyrtisJ.,Colosse,X.Y.
Minneapolis,Minn.TaughtinMankato,Minn,oneyear,andin
Minneapolisoneyear.Swartwout,Ellen,Huguenot,N.Y.Taughtin
Huguenottwoyears."Whitaker,SarahE.,Frederica,Del.Taughtin
Winona,Minn.,twoyears."Williams,LouiseM.,Oswego,N.Y.
Mrs.U.IrvingTowsley,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtayearinNorth
Brookfleld,N.Y.,andayearinWoodville,N.Y.Yarrington,
AdrianM.,Sayville,N.Y.Pearsalls,N.Y.TaughtinBabylon,N.
Y.,oneyear,andinPearsallsoneyear.298CLASSICAL.Geer,
GilesA.,Stittville,N".Y.HoosickFalls,N.T.Taughttwoyears
inHoosickFalls.Mathews,JennieH.,Oswego,N.Y.Altoona,Pa.
TaughtinFulton,N.Y.oneyear.FORTYTHIRDCLASS.January20,
1885.ELEMENTARY.Bero,KateM.,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.
Bruce,Lizzie,Yonkers,N.Y.TaughtinManistee,Mich.,oneterm,
andinYonkersoneyear.Carlisle,EllorE.,Mt.Gilead,0.
TaughtinNewBritain,Conn.,oneandahalfyears.Cooper,Clara
F.,Oswego,N.Y.Omaha,Neb.TaughtinOswegooneyear,andin
Omaha,Neb.,sixmonths.Cullen,AliceF.,Oswego,N.Y.Not
taught.DODD,HattieM.,Orange,N.J.TaughtinMontclair,N.
J.,andinBloomfleld,N.J.Ferris,LauraE.,Oswego,N.Y.
TaughtassupplyinOswegosincegraduation.Ford,M.Louise,

Babylon,N.Y,TaughtoneyearinIsllp,N.Y.Hennessey,MaryE.,
Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.HiLBERT,SophieM.,Oswego,N.Y.
TaughtinOsw^ooneyear.Jones,MaryAnna,Germantown,Pa.
TaughtinWesttown,Pa.,oneterm,andinNewBritain,Conn.,one
year.Krichhoff,AnnaF.,NewRochelle,N.Y.Taughtoneyearin
NewRochelle.McCabe,FrancesJ.,PalatineBridge,N.Y.Taught
oneterminHoosickFalls,N.Y.,andoneyearinGreenport,N.Y.
Newman,CarrieE.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtoneterminOswego,N.Y.
O'Brien,SusanM.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegoone'year.
O'Geran,MaryL.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinOswegooneyear.Pearce,
C.Ella,Hannibal,N.Y.Mrs.RobertS.Lindsay,DeRuyter,N.Y.
Nottaught.Regan,AliceA.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtinLycoming,N.
Y.,oneyear.Remington,IdaL.,Omaha,Neb.TaughtinOmahasince
graduation.Roat;MaryB.,Riverhead,N.Y.TaughtinRiverhead
sincegraduation.299RuLisoN,NellieS.,Ilion,N".Y.
TaughtInIllonsincegraduation.Snell,B.Anna,PalatineBridge,
KY.TaughtinPatchoguesincegraduation.Stoneroad,Eebbgga,
MeadviUe,Pa.TaughtInStillwater,Minn.,oneterm,andIn
Washington,oneyear.Wheldon,LrahJ.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtIn
Greenport,N.Y.,oneyear.TVhitson,MaryE.,WestDeerPark,N".
Y.TaughtInPatchogueoneyear.ADYANCED.Freeston,MaryC,
Oswego,N".Y.TaughtInHomellsvlllesincegraduation.Kelly,
MargaretL.,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtInOswegooneyear.McCarthy,
Nellie,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.McKay,EstherE.,Oswego,N.Y.
TaughtInPatchoguesincegraduation.CLASSICAL.CuMMiNGS,Byron,
WestBangor,N.Y.TaughtashorttimeInGouvemeur,N.Y.,andIn
S.NewBerlin,N.Y.HoDGKiNS,AmeliaF.,Carthage,N.Y.Taught
InGrandIslandsincegraduation.LeFebvrk,MinnieE.,Oswego,N.
Y.TaughtinNewPaltz,oneterm,andInSodusPoint,N.Y.,one
year.Meyers,IdaG.,(Mrs.),Wolcott,N.Y.TaughtInWashington
sincegraduation.Randolph,Harriet,Philadelphia,Pa.studyingIn
BrynMawrCollege.Patchogue,N.Y.Washington,D.C^
Patchogue,N.Y.Homellsville,N.Y.Patchogue,N.Y.
GrandIsland,Neb.SodusPoint,N.Y,Washington,D.C.FORTY
FOURTHCLASS.June9,1885.ELEMENTARY.Barlow,DaisyD.,
Walton,N.Y.,TaughtonetermInWalton,andtwotermsInNewton,
Kan.Barrett,BellaM.,FruitYalley,N.Y.Nottaught;died
February20,1886.Barrett,Minnie,Matteawan,N.Y.Taughtone
yearInPulaski.Batchelder,F.May,Herkimer,N.Y.Taughtone
yearInGloversvllle,N.Y.Benjamin,AmeliaH.,Aquebogue,N.Y.
TaughtonetermInBuffalo,N.Y.,andtwotermsinSouthampton,N.
Y.Buckland,MarthaE.,Memphis,N.Y.TaughtoneyearInandnear
Cazenovla,N.Y.Bobbie,LucyM.,Calumet,Mich.TaughtInCalumet
oneyear.Downey,M.Elizabeth,Gouvemeur,N.Y.Taughtoneyear
InTalladega.Newton,Kan.Pulaski,N.Y.Grloversville,N.
Y.Brooklyn,N.Y.Fleming,N.Y,Talladega,Ala.300
Lake,SarahI.,Shelburne,Yt.TaughtinSuttononeyear.Lindsay,
RobertS.,!N^ewport,N.Y.TaughtinDeRujrteroneyear.
Mansfield,M.EdithD.,Morrow,0.TaughtinIndianaoneyear.
Nitterauer,ThirzaW.,FortTVashington,Pa.Nottaught.Osborne,
AbbieP.,Oswego,KY.TaughtoneyearInHoosickFalls.Owens,
MarionJ.,LocustGrove,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinPortLeyden,N.Y.
Peebles,MaryS.,Oneida,N.Y.TaughtonetermInOrwell,N.Y.
PuLVER,LucyC,Oswego,N.Y.TaughtoneyearinSandyCreek.
Hadcliff,AnnaL.,Oswego,KY.TaughtoneyearInGazenovia,N.Y.
Radcliff,EmilyH.,Oswego,J^T.Y.TaughtoneyearinHoosick
Falls,N.Y.Shepard,AbbieL.,Oswego,i^.Y.TaughtinPatchogue
oneyear.Snell,IdaMay,PalatineBridge,N".Y.Taughtin

Lansingburgoneyear.Stratton,GeorgeH.,Newport,N.Y.Taught
inNewportoneyear.Taylor,Grace,Oswego,N.Y.Taughttwoterms
inOswego.Turner,LouiseJ.,HoosickFalls,N.Y.Taughtin
Hoosicksincegraduation.Walsh,MargaretL.,Oswego,N.Y.Not
taught.ADYANCED.Adams,CorneliaC,OswegoCenter,N".Y.Not
taught.Badger,J.Ward,Havana,N.Y.Taughtoneyearin
Marcellus.Earr,WilliamJ.,Elba,N.Y.TaughtinElbasince
graduation.arr,GeorgiaA.,Yonkers,1^.Y.Taughtashorttime
inYonkers;since,inBuffalo.Davis,GeorgeH.,N^orthHannibal,
N.Y.TaughtinBayshore,N.Y.DovTNES,WilliamB.,Scriba,^.Y.
TaughtinScribaoneterm.Gregory,IdaL.(Mrs.),Ledyard,N".Y.
TaughtinGreenportoneyear.Oregory,S.Maud,Carpenter'sEddy,
N.Y.TaughtoneyearinMt.Morris.Phillips,JuliaE.,Oswego,K
Y.Nottaught.Sutton,Neb.DeRuyter,^.Y.Indiana,Pa.
HoosickFalls,I5".Y.PortLeyden,N".Y.SandyCreek,I5".Y.
Albany,NT.Y.HoosickFalls,KY.Patchogue,N.Y.
Lansingburg,N".Y.Marcellus,N.Y.Buffalo,N.Y.
Bayshore,N,Y.Greenport,N".Y.Mt.Morris,:S.Y.301
PoucHER,LucyA.,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.Teall,WyllisJ.,
Marcellus,JS".Y.TaughtatermInCollinsCenter,N.Y.;book
agent.Wallace,MaryE.,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.CLASSICAL.
Hedges,CarrieB.,Spencer,N.Y.Brooklyn,N.Y.Taughtoneyear
inAdelphiAcademy,Brooklyn.Watson,BruceM.,Onaquaga,I5".Y.
Syracuse,JiT.Y.TaughtoneterminPulaski,N.Y.,andoneterm
inSyracuse.FORTYFIFTHCLASS.February16,1886.ELEMENTARY.
Backer,StellaM.,Catlin,N".Y.Nottaught.Baker,Nellie,
Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.Baxter,J.Gertrude,Westchester,N.Y.
CuMMiNGS,Emma,WestBangor,N.Y.NewYorkCity.Taughtsixmonths
inNewYork.Gilman,BeulahJ.,Canajoharie,N.Y.Gloversville,N.
Y.TaughtsixmonthsinGreenport,N.Y.Hamilton,NellieA.,
Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.HOYT,ArthurS.,Mallory,N.Y.Not
taught.Kelly,MargaretT.,Lewiston,N.Y.Taughtonetermin
Lockport,N.Y.Leroy,Lydiaa.,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.
Nelson,CarrieM.,WaterviJle,N.Y.Taughtoneterm.Nesbitt,
LillieI.,Oswego,N.Y.Mrs.EdwinB.Harman,Ogdensburg,N.Y.
Richardson,Kate,Oswego,N.Y.Nottaught.Rogers,LizlieH.,
WestHampton,N.Y.Taughtoneterm.Smith,FlorenceM.,New
Haven,N.Y.Nottaught.Springstead,IdaA.,Geneva,N.Y.Not
taught.ADYANCED.Brown,JohnE.,NorthHebron,N.Y.Taughtone
terminMt.Pleasant,Pa.Clark,NellieE.,Oswego,N.Y.
Substituteincityschools.302Hayes,MaryA.,CastleCreek,
N.Y.Mrs.GeorgeF.Stackpole,Biverbead,N.T.Tauglitoneterm
inRiverbead.Peasb,JennieS.,Oswego,2^.Y.Taugbtonetermin
FruitValley,N.Y.Tbare,MaryJ.,Jamestown,N.Y.Nottaugbt.
"Waters,MinnieE.,Oswego,N".Y.Mrs.LorinJ.Eggleston,
Millerton,N.Y.TaughtoneterminMillerton.CLASSICAL.Oreen,
CynthiaA.,Mexico,N.Y.Charlotte,Mich.Taughtonetermin
Charlotte.Halgin,RobertJ.,Jr.,Matteawan,N.Y.Nottaught.
Johnson,CharlesS.,BrierHill,N".Y.TaughtoneterminPulaski,
N.Y.FORTYSIXTHCLASSJuly6,1886.ELEMENTARY.Oarrison,
EdithM.,Mt.Yemon,N.Y.Oriswold,JessieN".,Scriba,N.Y.
Hanrahan,EllaE.,Lewiston,N.Y.Howe,FlorenceA.,Ilion,N.Y.
Lee,SusanC,JerichoCenter,Yt.Leichhardt,AnnaM.,Afton,
Kansas.Miller,EleanorS.,SaranacLake,JiT.Y.Parsons,MaryG.,
Oswego,KY.PuLVER,Elnora,Sodus,!N^.Y.Rennie,JuliaE.,
Omaha,Neb.Row,SarahM.,Indiana,Pa.Salmon,CarrieB.,Fulton,
N.Y.Sawdey,MyrtisM.,Poolville,N.Y.Skidmore,EmmaW.,
Riverhead,KY.Tenney,MaryP.,Chelsea,Mass.Walsh,KateF.,

Lewiston,N.Y.Webster,EmmaC,PortOntario,N.Y.Welch,Mary
L.,NorthHebron,N.Y.Whitaker,HattieL.,Fulton,N.Y.Whyte,
JennieA.,Malone,N.Y.ADVANCED.Barber,LellaJane,Richville,
N.Y.Davis,MaryJanet,Oswego,N.Y.Earley,MichaelJ.,
Savannah,N.Y.303Flanagan,MartW.,Camillus,N.Y.Hoover,
JennieL.,Oswego,KY.Owen,ElizabethA.,Oswego,N.Y.Pretlow,
Isabella,Dublin,Ind.BoGERS;AntoinetteC,TVatertown,N.Y.
TVhitmore,FrancisE.,Georgetown,N".Y.CLASSICAL.Rockwell,
AdalineB.,Oneida,N.Y.Stone,WesleyC,Minetto,N.Y.Turner,
NellieE.,Oswego,N.Y.ERRATA.P.P.P.P.P.P.P.
18364449748192P.104P.120P.133P.136P.
137P.155P.156P.179P.185for**Minerology"read
Mineralogy,lastwordofsecondlinefor"this"readasmuch,for
"matured"readmastered.after"particularintention"insert
will,for"Goyot's"readGhiyot^s,for^*principals"read
principles,for**Rosseau"readRousseau,for"withold"read
withhold,for**LonDelano"readTeenDeLano,for"withsympathy
"readintosympathy,for"surprize"readsurprise,for"Francis
"readFrances,for"Superintendant"readSuperintendent,for"
refactory"readrefractory,for"heartsofstrangers*'read
breastsofstrangers.for"Herehelaythefoundations"readlaid
the