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Marketing gericht op Azië

Inhoudsopgave

Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

Chapter 1: Consumer Behavior Across Cultures

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Chapter 2: Values and Culture

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Chapter 3: Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behavior

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Chapter 4: Consumer attributes

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Chapter 5: Social Processes

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Chapter 6: Mental Processes

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Chapter 7: Culture, Communication and Media Behaviour

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Chapter 8:Consumer Behavior Domains

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Marketing tentamenvragen

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Marketing herkansingsvragen

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Marketing gericht op Azië

Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

International Markets and Market Research, Markets and Segmentation in an International Context

Markets and Market Segments:

A market consists of people with wants and needs, money to spend, and the willingness to spend money on

those wants and needs.

  • - International markets vary due to several factors. Marketers consider these factors when developing international segmentation strategies. Market segmentation consists of identifying all potential customer groups that are viable for the purposes

of marketing products.

How does a nation’s or region’s culture, including its origins, characteristics, and values, influence the

international marketing context?

Culture:

Culture represents the beliefs, customs, and attitudes of a distinct group of people.

  • - The term “culture” can be applied to a nation, a region, a city, or a single business.

Culture, and the elements of culture, strongly influence international marketing activities.

Elements of Culture:

Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 International Markets and Market Research, Markets and

Origins of Culture:

Geography is the other primary driver of culture. Several factors related to the location and characteristics of a geographic region affect the development of culture.

  • - Topography

  • - Population density

  • - Climate

  • - Access to other nations and cultures

Origins of Culture:

Culture develops over time and various characteristics of culture have strong historical roots. History is a large driver of

culture.

Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 International Markets and Market Research, Markets and

Creating Cultural Consumption: Carnival:

Carnival represents how history and geography overlap to create culture and consumption. The celebration is Western European in origin and may even predate its Christian roots.

Carnival celebrations are common throughout Europe.

  • - The celebration in the Notting Hill area of London is one of the largest in the world.

  • - In Belgium, the celebration dates to at least 1394. Colonization spread the celebration of carnival throughout the world.

The most famous of these celebrations is probably Carnival in Brazil.

  • - Samba dances are native to Brazil but also influenced by African dancing introduced by slaves. Carnival is also observed throughout the rest of Latin America.

    • - The capital of Uruguay, Montevideo, holds a festival for more than a month.

    • - Trinidad’s event rivals Brazil’s and includes African culture and calypso and the soca dancing.

    • - The Colombian celebration includes a mix of European, African, and indigenous traditions.

Colonization eventually spread carnival to Asia.

  • - India, specifically the former Portuguese city of Goa, celebrates every year. The party includes traditional Christian elements, but also increasingly reflects India’s Hindu roots.

Marketing gericht op Azië

Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

Geert Hofstede’s Value Dimensions of Culture:

Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Geert Hofstede’s Value Dimensions of Culture: Why

Why should a marketing team examine cultural imperatives, electives, and exclusives when entering a host country?

Culture and Behaviors:

Cultural Imperatives

  • - The business customs and expectations that must be met and conformed to or avoided

Cultural Electives

  • - The business customs and expectations that cultural aliens may, but are not required to, conform to or participate in.

Cultural Exclusives

  • - Customs or behavior patterns reserved exclusively for the locals and from which the foreigner is barred

Culture and Purchasing Behavior:

Cultural influences dictate whether a given region or nation can become a viable target market.

A marketer first examines culture to determine whether products match the needs and wants of consumers. Culture affects a variety of consumption patterns and purchasing behaviors, including those affected by

aesthetics, religious practices, and dietary preferences.

Cultural Change:

Two methods may be used by a marketing department to assess and adapt to cultural change:

  • 1. Seeking cultural congruence, which means products and marketing approaches are designed to meet the needs of the current culture.

  • 2. Promoting change within the culture.

    • - Greater risk

    • - An increased chance of offending

Chapter 1: Consumer Behavior Across Cultures

Global Consumers in a Global Village?:

Do travel, global media and technology make us all the same?

Globalization:

  • - In business press “Globalization” is Americanization

  • - Globalization discourse dominated by Anglo-Saxon authors who see their own country’s brands everywhere and think it makes people the same

Global Youth Culture:

  • - Assael, 2004: Consumer behavior, a strategic approach:

  • - Teens across the world

    • Watch the same television shows and similar commercials

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  • Develop the same consumption patterns

  • Find being with friends and watching television to be the most enjoyable ways to spend time

  • - Travel and global communications have spurred the development of common norms and values

The Globalization myths in marketing:

  • - ‘Globalization of markets’ Levitt (1983) : The world’s needs and desires have homogenized

  • - (Internet) technology brings a world culture

Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Develop the same consumption patterns 
  • - Global business and global media have brought global communities

    • Youth, business people more similar to each other across countries than to other people within countries

    • similarities in media exposure bring consumers together

  • - Increased wealth makes people travel

  • - Increased travel brings universal values

  • - Result:

  • - Increased focus on similarities, not on differences

  • - An ideal world versus the real world

  • Travel and technology:

    • - In Europe, in 2001, 44% of young people had not visited another country, and 86% only one, for holidays (Eurobarometer); 31% do not speak another language

    • - Only 0.4% of Europeans work in another EU state, 0.1% work and live in another state (225,000 people).

    • - People are not becoming the same. Cultural values vary across Europe and with increased wealth people’s values become even more manifest

    • - New technology doesn’t change people; it enhances current behavior

    • - There are global products and brands, but there are no global consumers

    Globalization terms/aspects:

    • - Link with modernity and post modernity

    • - Western imperialism

    • - Global monoculture

    • - Positive or negative effects

      • Positive: Technological progress, employment, cultural exchange

      • Negative: Monoculture, low trust multinationals

    Perceptions of Globalization:

    • - EU inhabitants view globalization as positive, technological progress, health, employment

      • 66% of the Irish view Globalization as an advantage versus 33% of the Greek

    • - EU inhabitants view USA having too much influence ( 75%)

    • - Developing economies: global means new, modern, scientific

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    Technology does not unify:

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    • - Technology and media bring together, they don’t make us the same.

    • - Which technology people buy and how they use it depend on the habits of the groups to which they belong, the environment in which they live and grow up: their culture.

    • - Differences in ownership and usage of technology across nations. Examples.

    Behavior varies by national culture:

    • - The Dutch use MSN messenger more than in any other country.

    • - 80% of Dutch households have Internet access versus 44% of German households (2006).

    • - 83% of Dutch households have PC versus 57% of Belgian households (2006).

    • - In 2006 Germany was one of the most mature digital camera markets in Europe. In 1996, 10 years earlier Germans bought the most analogue film per capita.

    The technology paradox:

    • - People use new technology to do the things they used to do better, nicer, more efficiently

    • - They are extensions of human beings (McLuhan)

    • - People’s behavior is very stable, is based in history; new technology is used to reinforce existing behavior

      • The colder the climate, the more deep freezers and ice cream consumed

      • Mobile phone penetration highest where most main telephone lines

    Convergence-divergence:

    • - Human behavior stable

    • - New technology often new format of the old.

      • Deep freezers, mobile phones

    • - Not necessarily driver of new behavior

    • - No evidence of convergence.

    • - Persistent variation of consumption & consumer behavior across countries.

    • - The older the product category the stronger the influence of culture.

    Cross-border lifestyle groups:

    • - Global communities, global tribes

    • - Davos culture

    • - Yuppy internationale

    • - Global youth culture

    • - Business people

    New media:

    • - The internet amplifies and modifies existing patterns of governmental conflict and cooperation

    • - Positive democratic effects in countries that were already partially democratic

    • - In many countries access to Internet limited by filtration software

    • - People fit new technology into their existing lifestyles

    • - Companies adjust websites to local peculiarities

    • - People most easily navigate websites developed by designers of own culture

    Universalism:

    • - Conviction of “what is good for us is good for others”

      • Democracy, fast food, dashboard dining

    • - View Europe or Asia as one market

    • - Lack of geographical or historical knowledge

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    Language, literature (Baccardi)

     
    - Language, literature (Baccardi)

    -

    Assume U.S. or British theories of consumer behavior are valid elsewhere

    Global branding and advertising:

     

    -

    Markets are people

    -

    People live in the local

    -

    Going global means understanding the local

    -

    Most trusted brands are local or national

    • Renault , Volkswagen , Skoda etc

    -

    Understand consumers across cultures

    - Language, literature (Baccardi) - Assume U.S. or British theories of consumer behavior are valid elsewhere
     

    Chapter 2: Values and Culture

     

    The value concept:

     

    -

    A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally

    or socially preferable to an opposite one

     

    -

    Value system: values ordered in priority with respect to other values

     

    -

    Rokeach: Terminal (eg. comfortable life) and Instrumental values (eg. ambitious)

    -

    Values have cognitive, affective and behavioral components

     

    Preference of one state of being over another:

    Instrumental Values are different /country:

    evil

    -

    good

    ugly

    -

    US

    China

    war

    -

    peace

    beautiful

    Being Honest

    Cheerful

    unhappy -

    happy

    passive -

    active

    Ambitious

    Polite

    sick -

    healthy

    pessimist -

    optimist

    Responsible

    Independent

    dirty

    -

    clean

    traditional -

    modern

    Measuring values:

     

    -

    Questions about preferences of states of being

     
    • measure the desired

     

    -

    Questions about guiding principles in one’s life

     
    • measure the desirable

     

    -

    Values are abstract

     
    • Not all people/cultures respond to abstract questions = Western custom

    • Asians tend to respond according to social setting

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    Importance of context

    Rokeach and values:

    -

    Levels of values

     
     

    End-state of existence: terminal value

    Desirable mode of conduct: instrumental value

     

    -

    18 terminal value items

     
     

    e.g. world at peace, equality, salvation, national security

    -

    18 instrumental value items

     
     

    e.g. ambitious, honest, obedient, broad-minded

     

    -

    Instrumental values are motivators: instruments to reach end-states

    Ten of the Rokeach terminal values:

     
    • 1. Comfortable, prosperous life

     
    • 6. Happiness

    • 2. Exciting life

     
    • 7. National security

    • 3. Sense of accomplishment

     
    • 8. Salvation

    • 4. Equality

    • 9. Self-respect

    • 5. Freedom

     

    10. •Social recognition (respect, admiration)

    Ten American enduring Core Values (Yankelovich)

    • 1. Freedom, free speech and freedom from

    • 5. Achievement: 'individual effort will pay off'

    constraint to the pursuit of private happiness

    • 6. Patriotism

    • 2. Equality before the law

    • 7. Democracy

    • 3. Equality of opportunity: 'freedom & individuality

    • 8. American exceptionalism: special moral status

    in the marketplace'

     
    • 9. Religion

    • 4. Fairness: 'get what you deserve'

    10.

    Luck

    Values Belgium (Vyncke)

     
    • 1. Having your own house

    • 7. Love for children

    • 2. Thrift

    • 8. Strong family ties

    • 3. Progeny, descendants

    • 9. Self-respect, status, success

    • 4. Health, safety, security

    • 10. Being a leader, power

    • 5. Keep everything, all you have, as it is

    • 11. Freedom, independent, doing your own thing

    • 6. Romantic love, strong relationship, erotic love

    Value studies in marketing and advertising:

     
    Value studies in marketing and advertising:

    -

    Segmentation

     

    enriching segment descriptions

     

    add values to demographics

    see consumer as a whole

    -

    Differentiation

     
     

    add values to attributes and benefits

    communicate how brand delivers higher level consequences

    -

    Positioning

     

    adding values creates association network which distinguishes products

    positions a brand vs. other brands in the category

     

    Several ways to view culture:

     

    -

    Learned and shared ways of doing things and solving problems

     

    in a society (national culture) or in a company (company culture)

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    • - “How we do things here”

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    • - The glue that binds people together

    • - If there are no shared ways of doing things it is difficult to live or work together

    Comparing cultures:

    • - Culture as an onion: values and expressions of culture

    • - Convergence = mainly the expressions of culture

    • - Use interpretable dimensional scales on which cultures have different positions

    Marketing gericht op Azië - “How we do things here” Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 -

    Expressions of culture:

    • - Language / humour

    • - Signs and symbols

    • - Body language

    Facial expressions

    Gestures

    • - Thinking patterns

    • - Communication

    Personal contacts

    • - Problems:

    Interpretation

    Equivalence

    • - Individual vs. culture-level

    • - Lifestyle studies:

    Written, memos, e-mails

    Beyond the anecdotal: Understand values:

    • - Cultural values explain how people interact in business

    Meetings, dress codes, trust, relationships b/w bosses-subordinates

    Organization models

    • - Cultural values explain consumer behavior

    Influence on marketing and advertising

    Media usage, communication styles

    • - Value systems of companies and creators of advertising reflected in communications

    Measuring cultural values:

    • - Derive cultural values from cultural artifacts (fairy tales, advertising)

    • - Information about cultures derived from the study of individuals

    Results based on self reports

    Implicit comparisons with others

    Questions, language

    Associations can vary for individual and culture level

    Searching for similarities or differences:

    • - In international marketing focus is on the search for similarities, finding similar groups across countries youth, business people etc.

    • - Studies that focus on differences use dimensions or typologies

    • - Typologies describe easy-to-imagine types within countries, based on lifestyles or socio-milieus

    VALS - based on US value study

    CCA based on French value study, later extended to other countries in Europe

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    • Kompas Scandinavia

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    • - Values of culture of origin reflected in dimensions

    National cultures:

    • - Nations should not be equated with societies

    • - But, many nations are historically developed wholes even when consisting of clearly different groups

    • - United States heterogeneous nation

    • - Comparing nations

      • Differences within nations are smaller than differences across nations

    Marketing gericht op Azië  Kompas – Scandinavia Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Values of

    Classifying cultures:

    • - Classifications of culture

      • Descriptive characteristics

      • Value categories

      • Dimensions

  • - Dimensions empirically based; factor analysis of large databases

  • - Countries have a score on a scale

  • - Useful for secondary analysis of consumption data

  • Marketing gericht op Azië  Kompas – Scandinavia Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Values of

    Large-scale dimensional models:

    • - Inglehart: 2 dimensions

    • - Minkov: 3 dimensions

    • - Hofstede: 5 dimensions of national culture

    • - Schwartz: 7 value types or motivational domains

    • - GLOBE: 9 dimensions

    • - Hofstede and Schwartz most used for marketing

    Marketing gericht op Azië  Kompas – Scandinavia Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Values of

    Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture:

    • - Power Distance

    • - Individualism-Collectivism

    • - Masculinity-Femininity

    • - Uncertainty Avoidance

    • - Long-Term vs. Short-Term orientation

    • - Country scores for 66 countries and 3 regions

    • - Explain most of variation of consumer behaviour

    Ads:

    Power Distance:

    Marketing gericht op Azië  Kompas – Scandinavia Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Values of
    • - Social status: well-known brands - Pakistan’s former president shows his Nike shoes

    • - Spain: Respect for elders

    • - Int’l ad, PDI - Elders look like youngsters, Not acceptable in PDI+ cultures

    • - Korea (PDI+): need for prestige and status

    • - Dependence (Italy) Independence (Netherlands)

    Individualism-Collectivism:

    • - Denmark: privacy needs, enjoy alone

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    • - Spain: Individual choice (literal translation of int’l ad for Lucky Strike) vs. culture-fit group enjoyment for L&M

    • - Culture of country-of-origin reflected in int’l advertising

    • - Spain: Indirect way to tell - Here is a group of people with a Friday feeling

    • - Direct approach: “I”, “You”

    • - Indirect approach: symbolism, metaphors (Belgium, Int’l ad Thai airlines)

    • - Not sharing (Magnum, Netherlands) vs. sharing (Donettes, Spain) Masculinity-Femininity:

      • - Masculine cultures: biggest, the best, aggressive typology

      • - Feminine cultures: modesty, understatement

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Spain: Individual choice (literal translation of
    • - Volvo Sweden “Don’t show off”

    • - Italy: A Seat Cordoba must always be seen. Glass door in garage

    • - Netherlands: The neighbors cannot see the car, anyway, the most important part is under the bonnet, nobody can see it.

    • - Mexico, Italy - Role differentiation

    • - Netherlands, Spain - Overlapping roles

    • - Role differentiation

      • MAS: Mothers clean and look after children

      • FEM: Fathers also clean and look after children

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Spain: Individual choice (literal translation of

    Uncertainty Avoidance:

    • - Germany: Details and testimonial by a Professor Dr. M. Rimpler

    • - Germany: experts and specialists

    • - USA: Result orientation - Little information about product or details

    • - France & Spain: grooming is important, combine the right colors

    • - Norway & Australia: no attention to grooming

    • - UAI+: Process orientation, how the product works UAI-: Result orientation, the effect Long Term Orientation - Short Term Orientation

      • - Long term symbols: old trees, Continuity

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Spain: Individual choice (literal translation of

    Possible exam questions:

    The Japanese have many holidays and celebrations of seasons that can be explained by culture. Seasonal events are cherry blossom viewing (around April 1), autumn colors viewing and going out in the rainy

    season. Special holidays are “Day for the admiration of nature” (March 20), “Commune with nature and be

    grateful for its blessings” (May 4) and “Respect-for-the-aged day” (third Monday of September). Which dimensions can explain these special occasions?

    Answer: Time is circular, PDI+ and LTO+ Relationship man - nature

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    The Lego toy bricks were originally developed as “educational”. It was a Danish invention. The name was based on a contraction of leg godt, which translates as “play well.” As it was meant to be an educational toy,

    it was based on the practice of parents constructing buildings together with their children as equals. Which dimension explains the fact that Lego never sold as well in France as it did in the Nordic countries? Answer: PDI+; parents don’t play that much with children as they do in PDI- cultures

    Chapter 3: Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behaviour

    Globalization of markets:

    • - Levitt (1983):

      • “A powerful force drives the world toward a converging commonality, and that force is technology. It has proletarianized communication, transport and travel. The world’s needs and desires have irrevocably homogenized”

    • - Homogenization of needs

      • is argument for standardizing products, marketing and advertising

    Convergence:

    • - Modernization driver of convergence

    • - Economic modernization: technology, specialization of labor, interdependence of impersonal markets, large-scale financing, rising levels of material well-being

    • - Socio psychological modernization: process of change in ways of perceiving, expressing and valuing. (Inkeles and Smith, 1999) business people

    • - In marketing technology (Internet, electronic media) considered to be most important driver of convergence

    Technology does not unify:

    • - Technology and media bring together, they don’t make us the same.

    • - Which technology people buy and how they use it depend on the habits of the groups of which they are part, the environment in which they live and grow up: their culture.

    • - Differences in ownership and usage of technology across nations.

    Behavior varies by national culture:

    • - The Dutch use MSN messenger more than in any other country.

    • - 89% of the Dutch use Internet versus 46.9 % of the Germans (2006).

    • - Netherlands: 85.4 computers per 100 people; Belgium: 37.7 computers per 100 people (2006).

    • - In 2006 Germany one of the most mature digital camera markets in Europe. In 1996, 10 years earlier Germans bought most analogue film per capita.

    Technology and convergence:

    • - Human behavior stable

    • - New technology often new format of the old.

    o

    Deepfreezers, mobile phones

    • - Not necessarily driver of new behavior

    • - People adopt new technology to keep doing what they like to do most, in a nicer or more efficient way.

    • - No evidence of convergence.

    The new often a new format of the old:

    • - More deep freezers in cold climates

    • - More ice cream consumed in cold climates

    • - Fastest penetration of mobile phones where most fixed telephone lines

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    • - Access internet at home or in the public domain

    Macro-micro dichotomy:

    • - Macro information: indicators of macro-economic environment of countries: population data, GNI/capita, education levels, per capita telephone main lines, cars, PCs, TV sets

    • - Micro information: differences in consumption, attitudes, values, consumer behavior, e.g. time spent watching TV, behavior on the Internet, liters per capita mineral water consumed.

    Macro & micro level convergence-divergence:

    • - Convergence of national wealth in rich regions, not worldwide

    • - World inequality increased

    • - European Union example of convergence of GNI/capita

    • - Micro-level: with increased wealth divergence, cultural values become manifest

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Access internet at home or in
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Access internet at home or in
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Access internet at home or in
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Access internet at home or in

    Convergence-divergence:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Access internet at home or in
    • - Persistent differences in consumer behavior worldwide

    • - In economically homogeneous area, convergence at macro-level

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    • Investment type durables: convergence

    • Convergence at macro-level masks diversity at micro-level

    • - Convergence of the new, divergence of the old

      • With increased wealth, convergence turns into divergence

    • - Converging incomes: diverging behavior

    Culture, int’l marketing & advertising:

    • - Appr. 70% of variation in product ownership and usage explained by Hofstede dimensions

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Investment type durables: convergence  Convergence
    • With converging national wealth, values of national culture become manifest

    • - No global communities. Surveys show that

      • across countries young people vary as much as grown-ups

      • business people are human beings; values reflected in decision making behavior

    Other measurement variables:

    • - Household and family

    Urbanization

    -

    -

    -

    -

    Population density

    Education

    Age distribution

    -

    -

    -

    Social class

    Ethnicity

    Climate

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Investment type durables: convergence  Convergence

    Urbanization:

    • - Distinction urban-rural mainly important for developing economies

    • - Disposable income urban higher than rural

    • - Less pronounced in developed economies, where rural can be more wealthy

    • - Urban: less extended households (= people living together), but psychologically extended household still exists

    Population density:

    • - Number of people per square kilometer

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Investment type durables: convergence  Convergence
    • - Not meaningful variable for explaining differences in consumption or consumer behavior

    Education:

    • - Education levels = function of national wealth

    • - Convergence of education levels with converging wealth

    Age distribution:

    • - Age distribution related to economic development and culture

      • % under 15 = low GNI/capita

      • % over 65 = high GNI/capita

  • - Lower birthrates in LTO+ cultures

  • - Developed world: graying populations

  • Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Investment type durables: convergence  Convergence

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    Household and family:

    • - Household size variations

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    • - Age of marriage varies: lower income, earlier marriages

    • - Working women: varying reasons for work and differences in childcare

    • - Low MAS cultures: males and females share childcare; Low IDV cultures: extended family takes care of children

    Social class:

    • - Class structures and measurements vary by country

    • - Organized vs. non-organized class

    • - Organized class example Caste system India

    • - Marketing categorizes people according to income, age group, occupation etc.

    • - Definitions vary: “working class” may have different meanings across countries

    • - Categorizing by race illegal in some European countries.

    Ethnicity:

    • - Ethnic group term used for minority groups in a society

      • E.g. Native Americans, Australian aborigines. Turkish Germans

    • - Catchall collective term for race, religion, language, nationality to identity minority group

    • - Integration takes appr. three generations, depending on living conditions (mixing with population or living in “ghettos”)

    Climate:

    • - Direct and indirect influence on consumption

    • - Geographical latitude rough measure of climatic differences

    • - Direct effect: energy consumption

    • - Indirect effect: wealth

    • - Calorie intake more related to wealth and IDV than to climate

    • - Homeostatis certain stimulants (e.g. coffee) mediate effects of climate

    Rational consumer:

    • - Economists view consumer as rational decision maker (homo economicus), maximizing utility and profit

    • - Influence of income overstated

    • - Across countries many consumption differences cannot be explained by differences in national income

    • - Reverse: lower income countries spend more money on status goods

    Engel’s Law:

    • - With increasing income percentage of private consumption spent on food decreases

    • - Phenomenon on IDV cultures

    • - COL cultures: compared with IDV cultures percentage spent on food will remain larger

    Conclusion:

    • - Evidence of stability of values and behavior

    • - One of the assumed causes of convergence is modernization.

    • - Whatever convergence on a macro level takes place is rarely seen at micro level

    • - With increasing wealth value differences become manifest and consumer behavior diverges

    • - Other demographic variables can not be used as explaining variables.

    • - Cultural variables are the best variables to explain differences

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    Chapter 4: Consumer attributes

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    Consumer attributes:

    • - Concept of self

      • Self descriptions, self evaluations

      • Self enhancement, self esteem

  • - Personality

    • Implications for brand personality concept

  • - Personal traits

    • Brand personalities across cultures

  • - Identity and image

  • - Attitude

    • Relationship attitude-behavior

  • - Lifestyle

  • The self-concept:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Chapter 4: Consumer attributes Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Consumer attributes: -
    • - The self-concept plays a central role in behavior and psychological processes.

    • - The self consists of the body, family, possessions, moods, emotions, conscience, attitudes, values, traits, and social position.

    • - Major distinction between independent self and interdependent self; ‘me’ as a unique entity or ‘me’ as integrated in the social environment.

    • - Real self vs. ideal self; Identity and image

    • - Importance for consumer behavior: differentiate or conform to the behavior of others

    Self descriptions, self evaluations:

    • - Individualists describe themselves in abstract terms, collectivists describe themselves in relation to others

    • - American self descriptions contain mainly positive self-evaluations.

    • - Self criticism more found in COL cultures, but also in IDV/FEM cultures

    Discuss: Dove self esteem campaign:

    • - Would this work where relationships are more important for the real self than self-enhancement?

    • - Print ads: older women can show who they are

    • - Films

    • - Case Dove Japan

    Implications marketing, branding, advertising:

    • - Products must be compatible with ideal self

    • - Ideal self varies

      • IDV = uniqueness

      • COL = group identity and social status

  • - Brand concept typical of IDV cultures

  • - Brand identity versus Face of the brand

  • - Advertising: uniqueness versus group appeals

  • Ads:

    • - Leading products, not brands (Barcelona, Spain)

    • - Col - The right brand at the right occasion

    Marketing gericht op Azië Chapter 4: Consumer attributes Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Consumer attributes: -
    • - Ad for Japanese - bank in Newsweek, North-Atlantic edition, Group enhancement

    • - Col - Airtel, Spain, Group identity

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Personality: - Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures:

    Personality:

    • - Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures:

      • People should distinguish themselves from others

      • Cross-situational consistency

      • Personality traits are universal

  • - In collectivistic cultures

    • Person is interdependent entity

    • Individual behavior is situational

    • Characteristics vary by social role

  • Self descriptions in commercial studies:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Personality: - Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures:

    Reader’s Digest Trusted Brands (2001-2002-2003-2004) - www.rdtrustedbrands.com Examples:

    • - Passionate (UAI+)

    • - Rebel (UAI+)

    • - Optimistic (UAI-/PDI-)

    • - Impulsive (PDI-/MAS-)

    • - Cautious (UAI+)

    • - Stressed (PDI+/UAI+)

    • - Adventurous (PDI-)

    • - Stylish (PDI+/MAS+)

    Marketing metaphors:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Personality: - Basic assumptions of individualistic cultures:
    • - Personality and identity used as metaphors in marketing and branding

    • - Companies have identities (Corporate identity)

    • - Brands should have unique personalities with characteristics like people have

    • - e.g. friendly, trustworthy, aggressive .

    • - Differentiate versus the competition

    • - And positioned versus other brands of the same company and the competition

    • - Brand positions should be consistent

    • - But: consumer take-out different from company input

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Brand personalities and culture: - In individualistic
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Brand personalities and culture: - In individualistic

    Brand personalities and culture:

    • - In individualistic cultures the brand personality is a unique entity, in collectivistic cultures it is embedded in the environment, a family of brands of the company.

    • - Product brand vs. company brand ( Yaris versus Toyota)

    • - ‘Brand personality’ vs. ‘brand world’ or ‘brand face’

    • - In some cultures brands have personality traits that do not exist in others

      • e.g. Ruggedness (USA), Passion (Spain), Peacefulness (Japan) (See Aaker et al.)

    Identity and image:

    • - Identity Idea about oneself, body, values

    • - Image How others see and judge a person

    • - Identity for individualists based on individual characteristics, for collectivists defined by relationships

    • - Achieved identity (good father / student etc.) and ascribed identity (gender ,age )

    Body Image:

    • - Picture of own body that we form in our mind

    • - Desirable appearance leads to self- esteem; but, self-esteem not as important everywhere.

    • - Gap between real and ideal image largest in IDV cultures. Leads to disorders. In COL cultures external factors important

    • - Cultural groups have different definitions of physical attractiveness

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Brand personalities and culture: - In individualistic
    • - Poses in US media are defiant, reflect independence. In Asia open: dependence.

    Attitude:

    • - Attitude = lasting general evaluation of people, objects, advertisements or issues

    • - Basis in IDV cultures is consistency

    • - Cognitive-affective and behavioral components

    • - Assumption consistency relationship attitude-behavior

    • - Measuring advertising effectiveness: attitude towards the ad (Aad)

      • Persuasion scores measure intention to buy

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    • Assuming relationship intention and behavior

    • This relationship varies by culture

    • Gap between intention and actual buying larger in UAI+ cultures. Example environmental issues

    Attitudes toward food, health, materialism:

    • - Attitudes toward food (safety, trust = PDI-/UAI-)

    • - Attitudes toward health related to UAI

    • - Physicians, use of antibiotics = UAI+

    • - Health very good, active sports = UAI-

    • - Materialism - ingredients

    • - Meaning, Success, Happiness

    • - Strongest in IDV/MAS cultures

    Attitudes toward country-of-origin, national pride:

    • - Attitudes toward country-of-origin

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Assuming relationship intention and behavior 
    • - Prototypicality (Japanese = technologically advanced; Germany = reliable)

    • - “Way of life” (American way of living)

    • - Developed countries more favored than developing countries

    • - National pride strongest in LTO- cultures

    • - Consumer ethnocentrism related to national pride

    International Product Positioning Challenges:

    Country-of-Origin Effects

    • - The country-of-origin effect summarizes the response a consumer has to a product due to the country that is the source, in the consumer’s mind, of the product.

    • - The country-of-origin effect can drastically alter the position of the product in the minds of consumers.

    Sources of Country-of-Origin Positioning Effects:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Assuming relationship intention and behavior 

    Country Image:

    Country-of-origin effects are often based on stereotyped conceptions consumers have about countries or the country’s image. Country image consists of the attitudes and knowledge consumers

    have about a country.

    Packaging and Labels:

    A key regulatory issue is packaging and labels regulations.

    Attitudes to environment; sex and love:

    • - Environmental concern strongest in wealthy countries

    • - Associations with environment vary

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Assuming relationship intention and behavior 
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013  Assuming relationship intention and behavior 
    • - Environmentally friendly behavior varies with PDI (see also relationship attitude-behavior)

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    • - Romantic love, expressions of intimacy vary mostly with IDV/COL

    • - Distinction love and sex less rigid in FEM cultures than in MAS cultures.

    • - Nudity is not the same as sex

    Lifestyle:

    • - Lifestyle = set of values, interests, opinions and behavior of consumers

    • - All are reflection of culture

    • - Lifestyle groups like the young show similarities at the level of cultural expressions, not values

    Conclusion:

    • - Personality and traits are western concepts

    • - For marketing and branding these variations are important since its seen as methaphors for brand personality

    • - Most pronounced difference is between individualistic and collectivistic cultures .

    • - Western : self consistent and unchangeable

    • - Collectivistic : varies along the context and situations

    • - Culture related attitudes given

    • - Lifestyle : evidence that culture differences override lifestyle similarities

    What two primary elements shape a product’s positioning in the global marketplace?

    The Nature of International Product Positioning:

    • - Product position summarizes consumer opinions regarding the specific features of the product.

    • - Product position represents what currently exists.

    • - Product positioning states the goal that marketers have in mind.

      • Marketing activities can be designed to shape a product’s position over time.

    • - Two key elements of product position:

      • The way customers view the product

      • The product’s standing relative to competitors’

    What are the main approaches to international product positioning?

    Positioning Statements and Approaches:

    A one- or two-sentence summary of a company’s positioning strategy is its positioning statement.

    • - “Nike will provide authentic, innovative products that improve athletic performance.”

    How can a product’s position become an asset in an international marketing effort?

    International Positioning Objectives: Differentiation:

    • - Differentiation results from emphasizing a unique benefit or component of a product that separates it

    • - from competitors’.

    • - This represents something different from the STP process.

    • - Differentiation notes the specific benefit or attribute that makes the product unique when compared to competitors’.

      • This typically applies across various target markets.

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    International Positioning Objectives: Brand Equity:

    • - Brand equity is the unique benefits that a product enjoys due solely to its brand name.

      • The sources of brand equity are the strong, favorable, and unique associations consumers have with the brand.

    • - The benefits of brand equity include:

      • The ability to charge a higher price

      • Increased consumer loyalty

      • Higher stock price

    Chapter 5: Social Processes

    Motivation, needs, drives

    • - Motivation research seeks to find the underlying why of behavior

    • - Three main types of motivation explanations

      • Physiological: Internal or primary drives

      • Behavioral: external drives

      • Psychological: processes that steer, sustain and stop a goal-directed sequence of behavior

  • - Needs: Social or functional (bicycle USA-China)

  • - Many motives are culture-bound.

  • - Freud, Maslow, McClelland

  • Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 International Positioning Objectives: Brand Equity: - Brand
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 International Positioning Objectives: Brand Equity: - Brand

    Needs & Motives:

    • - Category and culture-bound

    • - Purity: Mineral water, processed food, detergents and UAI

    • - Status: Luxury goods and MAS

    • - Varying relationships

    • - Environmentalism: behavior vs. attitude (PDI-/FEM)

    • - Convenience (IDV/UAI-/LTO-)

    • - Hedonism (IDV)

    Different buying motives Toothpaste:

    • - French - Kills germs in the mouth

    • - Americans - well-known brand “ Brightens the teeth

    • - Brazilians - Color of toothpaste

    Category motive for Coffee conversation in the home (Germany)

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 International Positioning Objectives: Brand Equity: - Brand

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    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Emotion: - Process involving interaction cognition and

    Emotion:

    • - Process involving interaction cognition and physiology. Mind influences body, body influences mind.

    • - Emotions are affective responses that are learned.

    • - Emotions are integral wholes in which various components are linked together

    • - Experience

    • - Facial expression

    • - Physiological response

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Emotion: - Process involving interaction cognition and
    • - Mesquita & Frijda: Several elements of emotions are related to culture.

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Emotion: - Process involving interaction cognition and

    Culture and emotion:

    • - Universal basic emotions?

    • - The more abstract, the more universal

    • - Emotion and language

    • - Most languages possess sets of emotion-labeling words

    • - English: anger, fear, sadness, joy

    • - Anger is a different experience across cultures

    • - Expression of emotions

    • - Neuro physiological position: universal, distinctive movements of facial muscle for each primary affect state.

    • - Universalists: face reveals emotion in a way that is universally understood

    • - Display rules

    • - Meaning and intensity of emotions vary

    • - East Asian collectivists don’t display negative emotions (experiment Friesen)

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    Measurement of emotions & culture:

    • - Recognition and judgment of expressions of emotions

      • Measurement based on recognition of facial expressions

      • Absence of context (most measurements in laboratory situations)

      • Decoding measures vary: emotion terms used

      • IDV cultures: negative emotions better recognized

      • UAI+ cultures emotions expressed; UAI- cultures emotions less expressed, people use cues from faces.

      • Russell: Only happiness can be universally understood. Many emotions confused: disgust- contempt; sadness-contempt and; fear-surprise.

      • Cultural backgrounds of expressor and judge interfere

      • Smile universal expression of happiness?

      • Recognition of emotions: Americans focus on mouth, Japanese focus on eyes: USA: - :) & :

    (

    Japan: ^_ ^ & ;_;

    • - Emotion-eliciting events

    • IDV: being alone can cause happiness; COL: being alone can cause sadness (relationship

     

    problem)

    The use of emotions in advertising:

    • - Assumed universality of emotions: frequent use of emotional cues in international advertising (Coca-Cola and happiness)

    • - Varying use of emotions in advertising across cultures. Content and responses vary.

    • - Content: In the US persuasive advertising uses emotions as part of the argumentation

    • - European styles focus on the emotional relationship consumer-brand (bonding)

    • - Use of emotions per se, not mainly as part of the argumentation, or pure aesthetics

    • - Examples: USA (argumentation). France, Italy: (pure emotional bonding)

    Ads:

    • - Coca-Cola and happiness

    • - USA: Emotion (Disgust) part of the argument

    • - Emotional bonding: France

    • - Danish Carlsberg: group of unique individuals

    • - US Pepsi: individuals must stand out

    • - Spanish Movistar: harmony

    • - Japanese Tiovita: careful orchestration of group so no one sticks out

    Group processes:

    • - In-group and out-group

    • - Influences family members

    • - Conformity

    • - Public and private space

    • - Coffee, tea consumption, beer, soft drinks

    • - Use of Internet; Watching TV

    • - Public use vs. private use situation

    • - Appearance

    • - Uphold face

    • - Reference groups

    • - Opinion leaders

    Marketing gericht op Azië

    The individual & the group:

    Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

    • - Individualism: Individuals have unique personalities

    • - Individuals must stand out, demonstrate they are different

    • - Groups are sets of unique individuals, harmony not necessary

    • - Consumption choices to demonstrate uniqueness

    • - “Freedom of choice” and self-expression important

    • - Collectivism: The dependent self in collectivistic cultures lives in harmony with the group and the environment; does not want to stand out.

    • - Groups are sets of equal people

    • - Conformance in consumer behaviour

    Conformity:

    • - Collectivism: owning the same brands as group members, belonging

    • - Examples: use of conformity in strategy

      • Heineken

      • Unilever

    Public-Private space:

    • - Differences in appeals for public or personal products

    • - Differences in behavior public-private space PDI/COL

    • - Ownership private gardens

    • - With guests dining at home or in restaurants

    • - Spending free time in the home or outside

    • - Meeting friends at home or in bars/cafes

    • - Accessing the internet at home or in cyber café

    • - Mixing home and work life

    • - Appearance

    Opinion leaders:

    • - Diffusion of innovations: opinion leaders are informal sources of product information for a specific product category

    • - Opinion leaders get information from the media and spread by word-of-mouth

    • - This two-step-flow of communication may be specific for IDV cultures where people collect information consciously see chapter 6

    Marketing gericht op Azië The individual & the group: Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - Individualism:

    Marketing gericht op Azië

    Chapter 6: Mental Processes

    Mental processes:

    Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

    • - Cognition and Cognitive styles

    • - Attribution

    • - Learning and memory

    • - Locus of control

    • - Cognition and affect

    • - Information processing

    • - Language

    • - Involvement theory

    • - Perception

    • - Decision making

    • - The creative process

    Cognitive styles:

    • - Individual centered vs. situation centered

    • - Object focus vs. context focus

    • - Abstract (IND) vs. concrete (COL) thinking

    • - Categorization: grouping objects or people

    Learning and memory:

    • - Culture is learned behavior

    • - Education concepts and systems vary by culture

    Marketing gericht op Azië Chapter 6: Mental Processes Mental processes: Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 -
    • - Better recall of stories consistent with cultural knowledge

    • - Brands are association networks in the consumers’ minds, learned associations

    Marketing gericht op Azië Chapter 6: Mental Processes Mental processes: Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 -

    Language:

    • - Direct vs. indirect styles use different words

    • - Language reflects cultural values

    • - Expressions reflect habits

    • - Language affects mental representations

    • - Verbal vs. visual

    • - Translations of value studies problematic

    • - Foreign language speaking and understanding related to UAI

    Categorization:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Chapter 6: Mental Processes Mental processes: Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 -
    • - Object versus relationship categorization

    • - Presentation in retail

      • Relationship between product or type of product

      • Classifiers

  • - Brand extension fit less relevant for COL cultures

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    Perception:

    • - Selective perception

    • - Aesthetic experience

      • Varying conventions in art, photography

      • Painting, music

      • Product design

  • - Color perception and preferences

  • - Field dependency

    • Landscapes, portraits, photography

  • Creative process:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Perception: - Selective perception - Aesthetic experience
    • - Western creative process: uniqueness, innovation; divergent thinking

    • - Eastern creative process: re-use and re-interpretation of tradition

    • - Work processes: rules vs. originality

    • - Photojournalism differences related to education and organization

    Attribution:

    • - Events explained or predicted by internal vs. external causes

    • - External: situational

    • - Internal: ability of people

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Perception: - Selective perception - Aesthetic experience

    Information processing:

    • - Psychological approach to analyze how people acquire, organize and use information

    • - Underlying assumptions

    • - People want to solve problems & choose rationally

    • - How people acquire information

    • - PDI+/COL: Buying process not information based

    • - No conscious information gathering; automatic flow of information between people

    • - Information must be organized: schemata

    • - Processing verbally or visually

    • - Processing foreign words

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Perception: - Selective perception - Aesthetic experience

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    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Culture and How Advertising Works: - Advertising
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Culture and How Advertising Works: - Advertising

    Culture and How Advertising Works:

    -

    Advertising models / theories

    -

    Based on US information processing theories

    -

    Sequences of effects, involvement theory

    -

    Rational emotional dichotomy (USA)

    -

    Thinking vs. feeling; Informational vs. transformational

    -

    Rational = product information, attributes, argumentation

    -

    Emotional = feeling, pleasure, mood

    -

    Distinction result of focus on informed consumer

    -

    Active pursuit of information typical of IDV/PDI- cultures

    -

    Western information processing theory states that distinctive, unusual information is easier to remember than ordinary information. Be Carefull !

    -

    But, to be placed in memory, information must be encoded according to existing schemata.

    Advertising effect sequences Involvement theory:

    “learn-feel-do”

    High-involvement

    “feel-learn-do”

    Products

    “do-learn-feel”

    Low-involvement

    “do-feel-learn”

    products

    “feel-do-learn”

    Japanese model (trust, relationship comes first)

    Decision making:

    -

    General: “decisions happen” versus “decisions are made”

    -

    Internal versus external locus of control

    -

    Need for information, degree of details

    -

    Roles of influentials

     

    Children, elders, family, experts etc.

    Involvement partner, secretary in business

    -

    Source of information, credibility of source (IDV)

    -

    Task versus relationship orientation in seller-buyer relationship

    -

    Importance of trust in company

    Classic communication model:

    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Culture and How Advertising Works: - Advertising

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    Communication:

    • - How people communicate varies with IDV, PDI, UAI

    • - IDV/PDI- = Low context communication (Hall)

      • Explicit, direct, facts, data, words

    • - COL/PDI+ = High context communication

      • Implicit, indirect, visual, metaphors

      • Word-of-mouth

  • - UAI- = textual orientation (reading & writing)

  • - In interpersonal communication, advertising and website design.

  • Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Communication: - How people communicate varies with
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 Communication: - How people communicate varies with

    Communication styles:

    • - Verbal styles Verbal personal

    o

    o

    o

    ( The I form) Verbal contextual Elaborate (Arab cultures), exacting (UK, US), succinct (Japan)

    • - Nonverbal styles

    o

    o

    Unique-explicit (uniek /open) and unique-implicit ( uniek / privacy) Group-explicit and group-implicitt

    Communication and the electronic media:

    • - Usage differences of internet, e-mail, mobile phone reflect interpersonal communication styles

      • Use of voice mail, e-mail, internet

    • - Social networks for individualists = path to resources; collectivists: sharing feelings and ideas

    • - More blogging in COL cultures

    Mass communication styles:

    • - Communication styles reflected in mass communications

      • TV programs, casting, style

     Literature  Films  Advertising Culture and advertising style: - Appeal - Reflects values and
    Literature
    Films
    Advertising
    Culture and advertising style:
    -
    Appeal
    -
    Reflects values and
    motivations
    -
    Product values or added
    values
    -
    Communication style
    -
    Verbal vs. visual, direct vs.
    indirect

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    - Basic advertising form - Lecture style, demonstration - Drama, indirect approach - Pure entertainment -
    -
    Basic advertising form
    -
    Lecture style, demonstration
    -
    Drama, indirect approach
    -
    Pure entertainment
    -
    Execution
    -
    Reflection of people’s lives
    Direct-Indirect:
    -
    Explicit - Implicit
    -
    Verbal - Visual
    -
    Facts - Symbols
    -
    Lecture style – Metaphors &
    entertainment

    Indirect approach Metaphors, symbols, Visual & symbolic, Symbolism

    Direct style translated to indirect style culture

    Films:

    • - Direct: Pepsi, US; Vauxhall Corsa, UK

    • - Indirect, drama: Gran Capitan, Spain; Opel Corsa, France; Birra Moretti, Italy (theatre style)

    • - Humor: Kalle, Sweden; Braathens, Norway; Rolo, Netherlands

    • - Aesthetics: Maitre de Thé, Russia

    • - Magic: Chicklets, Thailand; Rediff, India

    The purpose of advertising:

    • - Advertising is effective if it fits its purpose

    • - The purpose of advertising varies with culture

    • - Sales (US) versus relationship / trust (Europe/Asia)

    • - US model is ‘persuasion’; Most of Europe and Asia ‘likability’

    • - Different styles relate to different purposes

    • - In the Anglo-Saxon world, Germany, advertising persuades through argumentation and direct style

    • - In most of Europe and all of Asia people are used to more indirect, complex communication styles, e.g. emotions, metaphors, art. Direct style offends.

    Logic of advertising:

    Anglo-Saxon worldand Germany

    • - Tell the audience how you or the product is different.

    • - Tell why your product is the best

    • - Consumers will want to buy since they have a clear reason for the purchase.

    • - If they like it repurchase

    Most of Europe and all of Asia

    • - Make friends with the target audience.

    • - Prove that you understand their feelings

    • - Show that you are nice

    • - Consumers will then want to buy, because they trust you and feel familiar.

    • - Afterwards consumers will find out the benefits.

    Chapter 7: Culture, Communication and Media Behaviour

    Web communication styles:

    • - IDV/Low context: more search for information, less consumer-marketer interaction

    • - COL/High context: more visuals, animation, more person-to-person interactivity

    • - Use of colors, extreme claims, authority etc. all reflection of culture, as in advertising

    Marketing gericht op Azië

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    • - People perform information seeking tasks faster when using web content created by designers from their own culture

    Culture and the media: - Media preferences: reading vs. viewing - Television - Viewing time -
    Culture and the media:
    -
    Media preferences: reading vs. viewing
    -
    Television
    -
    Viewing time
    -
    Programming, watching foreign channels
    -
    Radio
    -
    Newspapers
    -
    Readership
    -
    Magazines
    -
    The Internet
    Marketing gericht op Azië Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013 - People perform information seeking tasks faster

    Magazines:

    • - Variety of magazine types across countries

    • - Percents of advertising expenditures in magazines correlate with PDI+ and UAI+ (social status,

    people) - International becomes multi-local - Glossy magazines - Status needs: PDI+, MAS - Interest in
    people)
    -
    International becomes multi-local
    -
    Glossy magazines
    -
    Status needs: PDI+, MAS
    -
    Interest in fashion = COL, PDI+, UAI+
    -
    Covers vary
    The Internet and culture:
    -
    Access varies with uncertainty avoidance
    -
    Usage
    -
    Business = PDI-
    -
    e-mail = UAI-
    -
    Leisure = MAS-
    • - Place of access follows existing habits

    • - Website design varies with culture, as advertising does: content and style

    The Internet:

    • - Basic roles internet culture-bound

      • Information

      • Social

      • Entertainment

  • - LTO+ cultures adopt internet applications most intensively

  • Marketing gericht op Azië

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    Responses to marketing communication:

    • - Sales promotions

     

    Variety of promotional activities, culture-related

    • - Advertising

    Responses will vary with adaptation to culture-defined styles, appeals, execution

    Appeals vary with motives

    Executional styles: lesson, drama, entertainment (see advertising styles), use of celebrities

    Acceptance of advertising in general; collectivists less skeptical of advertising than

    individualists

    Brand communications across cultures:

     
    • - Means-end chains, laddering

    • - Value structure maps

    how similar product attributes can lead to various cultural end values

    Example cars

    - Sales promotions  Variety of promotional activities, culture-related - Advertising  Responses will vary with
    - Sales promotions  Variety of promotional activities, culture-related - Advertising  Responses will vary with
    - Sales promotions  Variety of promotional activities, culture-related - Advertising  Responses will vary with
    - Sales promotions  Variety of promotional activities, culture-related - Advertising  Responses will vary with

    Chapter 8:Consumer Behavior Domains

    Consumer behavior domains:

    • - Product acquisition, usage and ownership

    Food, household products, personal products, clothing & footwear, household appliances,

    consumer electronics, luxury articles, communication technology, cars, leisure, finance

    • - Shopping and buying behavior

     

    Out-of-home shopping and buying

    Marketing gericht op Azië

    • Retail design

    Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

    -

    Complaining behavior

    -

    Brand loyalty

    -

    Diffusion of innovations

    • Innovativeness

    • Acceptance of new products

    Food and beverages, cultural relationships:

    -

    Food expenditures as percent of household income: GNI/cap and IDV

    -

    Processed food: Low UA, LTO-

    -

    Soft drinks: LTO-

    -

    Mineral water: UAI

    -

    Coffee: Climate and FEM

    • Coffee has different social functions, in the home (cozy, FEM), in the public domain

    (COL/PDI+)

    -

    Alcoholic beverages: some have status value (e.g. Scotch whisky in continental Europe

    -

    Cigarettes: stress-reduction function: UAI+

    Personal care and cosmetics:

    -

    Personal care products = wealth and IDV

    -

    Color cosmetics - instrument for self-enhancement: LTO-

    -

    Deodorant usage: IDV, LTO-, UAI+

    Household appliances:

    -

    Deep freezers: cold climates

    -

    Adapt household appliances to specific usage (e.g. Kimchi refrigerator, Korea)

    -

    Collectivism: more fresh products, home-cooking, food processors

    -

    Dishwashers: convenience: LTO-

    Consumer electronics, personal computers:

    -

    Audio, video = wealth and IDV

    -

    Radios = IDV

    -

    Personal computers = wealth and UAI-

    Luxury articles:

    -

    Most found cultural relationships are with MAS (to demonstrate success) and PDI (social status)

    -

    Rolex = IDV

    Cars:

    -

    Car ownership related to wealth and individualism

    -

    Ownership of one or more cars = MAS

    -

    Knowledge engine size = MAS

    Leisure:

    -

    Leisure expenditures highest in IDV, PDI- and UAI- cultures

    -

    IDV = values of excitement and adventure

    -

    IDV = more private gardens, gardening activities and garden equipment

    -

    UAI = active versus passive; active sports vs. dining out in restaurants

    -

    Vacation expenditures: MAS/FEM

    -

    Visit museums: LTO-

    Marketing gericht op Azië

    Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

    • - Pets: More cats in IDV cultures, more dogs in PDI+ cultures. IDV cultures: one woman with one pet (Sheba, Germany); COL cultures: pets are part of family, pets with their own animal friends (Purina, Spain) or extended cat family (Maruha, Japan)

    Finance:

    • - Insurance = wealth and IDV

    • - LTO+ = Saving

    • - LTO- = loans and credit cards

    Shopping and buying behavior:

    • - Shopping motives and shopping activities vary

    • - Price consciousness

    • - Differences public and private consumption goods

      • COL/PDI+: social norms more important than price

    • - IDV: Fun shopping; COL: shopping social activity, meet people

    • - Shopping in mega store once a week vs. shopping every day

    • - IDV: more impulsive buying

    Out-of-home shopping and buying:

    • - Internet buying partly replacement of mail order, not replacement “mortar and brick”

    • - What people buy online, differences across cultures reflect differences buying in shop

    • - Internet buying: trust in seller important

    Retail design:

    • - Differences in retail design reflect culture

    • - Presentation of products, categorization

    • - Offer fresh food; what is considered fresh

    • - Hygiene, color of floors, cleanliness

    • - Personnel: hierarchy, personalized, names, relationship with clients, etc.

    • - Treatment of children, female/male shoppers

    Complaining behavior:

    • - IDV: more complaining

    • - COL: reluctance to complain but much negative word-of-mouth

      • China: boycott to express discontent

    • - IDV/MAS: legal action

    Brand loyalty:

    • - COL: conformity needs makes brand loyal

    • - LTO-: percentages who say they are the first to try new brands

    • - PDI+: proper place makes loyal to number one brand

    • - COL/PDI+: reputation of firm makes brand loyal

    Applications:

    • - Product-market development across cultures

    • - Stages of market development

    • - Varying levels of communication

    • - Branding strategies

    • - Segmenting international markets

    Marketing gericht op Azië

    Marketing tentamenvragen

    Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

    1.

    Verklaar waarom dat de meubel een statussymbool is geworden terwijl het als functioneel voorwerp bedoeld was. Hint: feministische cultuur.

    2.

    Als de meubel gaat exporteren naar andere landen. Op welke manier kun je het verder promoten zonder dat er extra kosten bij komen. Hint: prijs inelastisch.

    3.

    In hoeverre kunnen de VS en Japan op gelijkwaardige manier benaderd worden? Hint: PDI/MAS

    4.

    Hoe zou je in beide landen promoten?

    5.

    Op basis van duurzaamheid van het product en de imago van het bedrijf zelf. Welke land zou jij kiezen om te exporteren?

    Antwoorden:

    1.

    Zweedse mensen zijn technisch ingesteld, bekijken het als ingenieurs waardoor ze bekijken vanuit en perspectief dat alles wel goed functioneel. Nederlanders hecht veel aan uiterlijk, zijn geografisch ingesteld, kijken vanuit een grafische

    perspectief of de designs mooi zijn.

    2.

    Bij feministische cultuur is kwaliteit van het leven is van belang. De kwaliteit van het leven wordt vertoond in cultuur van status. Bij de feministische cultuur wordt status bekijken als ingenieurs waar perspectief van goederen wordt beoordeelt op zijn functionaliteit en design. De meubels van TIKRA heeft een speciale design, productkenmerken en goede kwaliteit. In de feministische cultuur het aantonen van status wordt gesymboliseerd in goederen waar de functie en design heel goed is en niet om de status van het product.

    3.

    Online promoten, online diensten, zoals social media , daarnaast meer bekendheid kijken door gratis beurzen of seminars.

    4.

    volgens het tabel scoort Japan en VS bijna gelijk op PDI. De bevolking zijn individualistisch ingesteld. De 2 landen zijn rijk en meer uit te besteden. Die landen zullen meer uitgeven aan luxe producten, veel waarde hechten aan status. Product promoten als statusproducten. Prijs hoog. Beide landen zijn ook mannelijker cultuur.

    5.

     

    Japan

    VS

    Individualistisch collectivistisch Grote machtafstand Mannelijk cultuur Hoge onzekerheidsvermijding Denken op lange termijn

    Gemiddelde machtafstand Individualistisch Mannelijke cultuur Lage en onzekerheid vermijding Denken op korte termijn

    Instrumentele waarde:

    Instrumentele waarde:

    Polite

    Being honest

    Indenpendent

    Amibitious

    Cheerful

    Responsible

    Hoe kan het product gepromoot worden in beide landen:

    Direct marketing, directe reclame met een hoge waarde van marketing en informatie. Hier kan gedaan worden door bijvoorbeeld: dat de reclame van het product wordt getoond dat het producten van TIKRA wordt gebruikt bij de White House, etc.

    6.

    Japan want. USA = denken op korte termijn, zijn op zich zelf gericht dan de maatschappij Japan = lange termijn, meer collectivistisch, denken aan maatschappij.

    Marketing gericht op Azië

    Marketing herkansingsvragen

    Tikra B.V. 2012 - 2013

    • 1. Men overweegt een Noorse werknemer aan te nemen. Zal de perceptie van deze Noorse werknemer wezenlijk anders te zijn dan die van Kees de Vries tegenover statussymbolen? Beargumenteer. Antwoord: Nee, want beide landen zijn feministische cultuur. De kenmerken van landen met een feministische cultuur zijn: -kwaliteit van het leven is van belang, streven naar consensus, werken om te leven, sympathie voor de ongelukkigen, intuitie, overlappende rollen van mannen en vrouwen.

    • 2. U ziet de mogelijkheden om dit product verder te promoten. U besluit de prijs substantieel te verhogen om op die manier extra inkomsten te genereren. Verwacht u een enorme impact op de verkoop van deze meubelen?

    • 3. Gezien het beperkte promotiebudget stelt men het volgende; Het promotie concept dat is ontwikkeld van de VS gaan we gebruiken om het product ook aan de man te brengen in Indonesië. Hierdoor besparen we op ontwikkelingskosten. Antwoord: De promotie van concept in VS kunnen niet worden toegepast in Indonesië. De factoren kunnen verdeeld worden in: Individualisme vs Collectivisme VS individualisme : Geef iemand mogelijk vrijheid en een maximum aan mogelijkheden en de kwaliteit zal toenemen. De vorm van promotie activiteiten in landen met een hoge Individualisme cultuur: zijn meestal direct gericht naar een persoon/individu (de vorm van promotie : “IK”) Indonesië collectivisme : Indonesische mensen rekening houden met kwaliteit van het leven van anderen, ook al gaat dit ten kosten van persoonlijke vrijheid en zelf ontplooiing dan het leven uiteindelijk voor iedereen beter worden. De vorm van de promotie in Indoensie moet heel anders zijn dan in VS. Het moet groepen bij betrokken worden bij de reclame/promotie. De promotie moet gericht zijn op een groep mensen. (de vorm van promotie is : “WIJ”)

    • 4. Bespreek of het zinvol is om “Global Advertising” te doen vanuit het perspectief van de klant/markt? Antwoord:

    Nee, want andere landen heeft een andere trend en cultuur van communicatie

    • 5. U overweegt om promotie te maken over uw product voor zowel uw klanten in de VS als Indonesië. Beargumenteer of dit op dezelfde manier kan. Nee, kijk vraag 3