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Root Locus Design

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu


Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Izmir Institute of Technology

Chapter 7

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Compensators
We have seen how to draw a root locus when there is a variable gain
K for a given plant dynamics.
Q. What if the desired pole locations are not on this locus?
A. We need to modify the locus by adding extra dynamics (i.e., D (s)).

The transfer function of the system is


KD (s) G (s)
T (s) =
1 + KD (s) G (s)
and after letting G (s) , D (s) G (s), we obtain
K G (s)
.
1 + K G (s)
We need to redraw the locus and pick K in order to put the poles to
meet the design specifications.
T (s) =

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

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Chapter 7

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Compensators

Adding a compensator effectively adds dynamics to the plant.


Two main questions are:
Q. What type of compensation should we use?
Q. How do we figure out where to put the additional dynamics?
There are three classical types of controllers.

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Chapter 7

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PID control
General control setup is given as

where we need to design the controller D (s).


One option is PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control.
More than 90% of all controllers are PID.
This doesnt mean that they are great, just popular.
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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional control
Proportional control is given as
u (t) = Ke (t) or D (s) = K
so, the transfer function is
T (s) =

KG (s)
.
1 + KG (s)

The controller only consists of a gain knob.


We have to take the root locus as given since there is no extra
dynamics to modify it.
This is usually a very limited approach, but a good place to start.
May allow nonzero steady state error.
May not be able to completely reject a constant disturbance.
For higher order systems, increasing K usually leads to instability.
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional control
Example
1
Consider G (s) = (s+a)(s+b)
where a > b > 0.
We apply proportional control

D (s) = K .
Since G (0) =

1
ab ,

steady state error to a unit step input is


ess =

1
.
K
1 + ab

We can make ess small by making K very large, but this often leads to
poorly damped behavior and often requires excessively large actuators.

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional control
For the DC motor example, consider the controller
u (t) = K (r (t) y (t)) = Ke (t) or D (s) = K .
The closedloop transfer function is
Y (s)
AK
=
.
R (s)
(1 s + 1) (2 s + 1) + AK
where the poles are the roots of (1 s + 1) (2 s + 1) + AK .
Without feedback (i.e., K = 0)
s1 = 1/1 , s2 = 1/2 .
With feedback (i.e., K > 0)
s1 , s2 =

q
(1 + 2 ) (1 + 2 )2 41 2 (1 + AK )

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Chapter 7

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Proportional control

Figure: Root locus plot for the DC motor example

For K >

(1 2 )2
4A1 2 ,

poles go straight up and down.

Settling time remains the same, rise time decreases, damping


decreases (more transient overshoot).
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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Integral control
Pure integral control is given as
Zt
K
K
e ( ) d or D (s) =
u (t) =
TI
TI s
0

where TI is the integral time.


The transfer function is found as
T (s) =

K G (s)
TI s
.
+ TKI G (s)
s

Integral feedback is used to reduce/eliminate steady state error.


Constant disturbances can be cancelled completely.
Integral feedback can give nonzero control even if e = 0 because of
memory.
Dynamic response usually degrades.
The response may become oscillatory.
For high gains, the system may become unstable.
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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Integral control
Substitute u (t) =

K
TI

Rt
0

(r ( ) y ( )) d into the DC motor model

1 2 y (t) + (1 + 2 ) y (t) + y (t) = A

K
TI

Zt
0

+ Bw (t) .

(r ( ) y ( )) d

Differentiating the above expression results in


...
AK
AK
1 2 y (t) + (1 + 2 ) y (t) + y (t) +
y (t) =
r (t) + B w (t) .
TI
TI
If r (t) and w (t) are constants (i.e., w (t) = 0), we obtain
AK
AK
yss =
rss
TI
TI
thus there is no steady state error.
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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Integral control
We apply a step (or a ramp or a parabola) input and we would like to
know how well does our (closedloop) system track this input.
Ultimately, we would like zero error (i.e., e (t) = 0) (maybe 1%, 2%
in reality).
Recall that, for a unity feedback control system, the steady state error
to a unit step input is
ess =

1
.
1 + KD (0) G (0)

For integral control, we have D (s) = T1I s , which satisfies D (s)


as s 0, so for systems that do not have any free integrators

1
= 0.
1+
So, by adding the integrator into the compensator, the error has been
1
reduced from 1+K
to zero for systems that do not have any free
P
integrators.
ess

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Integral control
Example

Consider G (s) =

1
(s+a)(s+b)

where a > b > 0.

We apply integral control


D (s) =

K
.
TI s

Since D (s) as s 0, the steady state error is


ess

1
= 0.
1+

Increasing K to increase the speed of response pushes the pole toward


the imaginary axis which results in oscillatory behavior.

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional integral control


The performance of pure integral control can be improved by adding
proportional term to integral term
K
u (t) = Ke (t) +
TI

Zt
0



s + T1I
1
e ( ) d or D (s) = K 1 +
=K
TI s
s

which adds a pole and a zero to the plant dynamics.


Note that, combination of proportional and integral control solves
many of the problems with just integral control.
For the DC motor example, poles are the roots of
1 2 s 3 + (1 + 2 ) s 2 + (1 + AK ) s +

AK
=0
TI

where we have two degrees of freedom to locate the poles (i.e., K


and TI ).
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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional integral control

Figure: Root locus plot for PI control of the DC motor model

Figure: Root locus plot for PI control of G (s) =


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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

1
(s+a)(s+b)

with a > b > 0


Chapter 7

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Derivative control
Pure derivative control is given as
u (t) = KTD e (t) or D (s) = KTD s
where TD is the derivative time.
Damps dynamic response.
Has a stabilizing effect.
Provides feedback that is proportional to the rate of change of e (t),
so, control response anticipates future errors.
Does nothing to reduce constant error (i.e., if e (t) = 0, then
u (t) = 0).
Does not do much to help the steady state error.
Is impractical since derivative magnifies sensor noise.
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Derivative control
Example

Substituting u (t) = KTD e (t) into the DC motor model results in


1 2 s 2 + (1 + 2 + AKTD ) s + 1 = 0.
Notice that, TD enters into which can make damping better.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Derivative control
Example
1
Consider G (s) = (s+a)(s+b)
where a > b > 0.
We apply derivative control

D (s) = TD s.
The closedloop system is very stable and there is no ringing.

Figure: Root locus plot for D control of G (s) =


Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

1
(s+a)(s+b)

with a > b > 0


Chapter 7

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Proportional derivative control

Often, proportional control and derivative control are used together


D (s) = K (1 + TD ) s.
Different from pure derivative feedback, there is no zero at s = 0.
Therefore, we obtain better steady state response.

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional derivative control

Figure: Root locus plot for PD control of G (s) =

1
(s+a)(s+b)

with a > b > 0

Figure: Root locus plot for PD control of the DC motor example


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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional integral derivative control

PID controller is given as


K
u (t) = K (r (t) y (t)) +
TI

Zt
0

(r ( ) y ( )) d

+KTD (r (t) y (t))


or
D (s) = K


1
1+
+ TD s .
TI s

We need ways to design parameters K , TI , TD .

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional integral derivative control


There are some tuning rules for selecting K , TI , TD .
In general (i.e., not always),
K , TI
TD

error , stability
stability .

For some desired point s1 = |s1 | exp (j) and


G (s1 ) = |G (s1 )| exp (j), we obtain
K

TD

sin ( + ) TI |s1 |
|G (s1 )| sin () [TI |s1 | + 2 cos ()]
sin ()
K
+
|s1 | |G (s1 )| sin () TI |s1 |2

and TI is chosen to match some design criteria, such as steady state


error.
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional integral derivative control

Substituting the PID controller into the DC motor model and solving
for poles results in
1 2 TI s 3 + TI ((1 + 2 ) + AKTD ) s 2 + TI (1 + AK ) s + AK
AK
(1 + 2 ) + AKTD 2 1 + AK
s +
s+
s3 +
1 2
1 2
1 2 T I

= 0
= 0.

There are three coefficients and there are three control gains (i.e., K ,
TI , TD ).
We can put poles anywhere.
So we have complete control of dynamics in this case.

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Proportional integral derivative control


Output to reference input transfer function is obtained as
AK (TI s + 1)
Y (s)
=
.
R (s)
1 2 TI s 3 + TI (1 + 2 ) s 2 + TI (1 + AK ) s + AK

Figure: Step reference response


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Chapter 7

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Proportional integral derivative control


Output to disturbance input transfer function is obtained as
TI Bs
Y (s)
=
.
W (s)
1 2 TI s 3 + TI (1 + 2 ) s 2 + TI (1 + AK ) s + AK

Figure: Step disturbance response


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Chapter 7

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Practical problem: Integrator overload

Integrator in PI or PID control can cause problems.


Suppose there is saturation in the actuator.
Error will not decrease.
Integrator will integrate a constant error and its value will blow up.
Solution is integrator antiwindup which turns off integration when
the actuator saturates.
Doing this is necessary in any practical implementation and omission
leads to bad response, or even instability.

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


PI control is often approximated by lag control
D (s) =

s z0
s p0

with |p0 | < |z0 | (that is, the pole is closer to the origin than the zero).
Since |z0 | > |p0 |, the phase added to the openloop transfer function
is negative (i.e., phase lag).

Pole is often placed very close to origin (e.g., p0 0.01), and zero
is placed near the pole (e.g., z0 0.1).
Lag control does not change locus much since p0 z0 0.01.
Lag control improves the steady state error.

Lag control is very similar to proportional control.

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Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


Example

Consider the following system

where
G (s) =

1
.
(s + 1) (s + 5)

Let D (s) = K = 13 and R (s) = 1/s, find the steady state error.

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Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


Example

From the block diagram, we can obtain the closedloop transfer


function as
1
K (s+1)(s+5)
Y (s)
.
=
1
R (s)
1 + K (s+1)(s+5)
The error is found as
E (s) = R (s) Y (s)
1
K (s+1)(s+5)
R (s)
= R (s)
1
1 + K (s+1)(s+5)
=

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1
1
1 + K (s+1)(s+5)

R (s) .

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Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


Example

After applying the final value theorem, the steady state error is found
as
ess

=
=
=

lim e (t)

t+

lim sE (s)

s0

5
1
= .
K
18
1+ 5

So, as K goes up the steady state error goes down.

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


Example

Consider the following system

where
G (s) =

1
.
(s + 1) (s + 5)

s+c
with K = 13, c = 0.1, and d = 0.01 which is a
Let D (s) = K s+d
typical lag compensator.

Find the steady state error for R (s) = 1/s.


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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


Example

From the block diagram, we can obtain the closedloop transfer


function as
1
D (s) (s+1)(s+5)
Y (s)
.
=
1
R (s)
1 + D (s) (s+1)(s+5)
The error is found as
E (s) = R (s) Y (s)
s+c
1
K s+d
(s+1)(s+5)
R (s)
= R (s)
1
s+c
1 + K s+d
(s+1)(s+5)
=

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1
1+K

1
s+0.1
s+0.01 (s+1)(s+5)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

R (s) .

Chapter 7

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Lag compensator design


Example

After applying the final value theorem, the steady state error is found
as
ess

=
=
=

lim e (t)

t+

lim sE (s)

s0

1
1
= .
0.1
27
1 + K 0.015

Recall that, for D (s) = K = 13, steady state error was ess = 5/18.
So, the steady state error is a factor of 7.5 better with
s+0.1
.
D (s) = 13 s+0.01

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Instead of D or PD control, we use lead control
D (s) =

s z0
s p0

with |z0 | < |p0 |, that is, the zero is closer to the origin than the pole.
Lead control does change the locus.

Pole and zero locations are chosen so that the locus will pass through
some desired point s = s1 .
Design may be done analytically for
D (s) =

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

a1 s + a0
s +a
or D (s) = K
.
b1 s + 1
s +b

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Choose a0 to get specified DC gain


a1 s + a0



= desired DC gain
G
(s)
b1 s + 1

s=0
|a0 | |G (s)|s=0 = desired DC gain
desired DC gain
|a0 | =
|G (s)|s=0
and a1 and b1 are chosen to make the locus go through some desired
point s1 by satisfying
a1 s 1 + a0
G (s1 ) = 1.
b1 s 1 + 1

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


So, from magnitude and angle conditions, we have


a1 s 1 + a0


b1 s1 + 1 |G (s1 )| = 1


a1 s 1 + a0
+ G (s1 ) = 180 .

b1 s 1 + 1
From these expressions, for s1 = |s1 | exp (j) and
G (s1 ) = |G (s1 )| exp (j), we obtain
a1 =
b1 =

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

sin () + a0 |G (s1 )| sin ( )


|s1 | |G (s1 )| sin ()
sin ( + ) + a0 |G (s1 )| sin ()
.
|s1 | sin ()
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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Consider the following system

with
G (s) =

1
.
s2

0
such that the root locus passes through
Find D (s) = ab11s+a
s+1

s1 = 2 + 2j = 2 2 exp (j135 ) which is chosen to achieve = 0.707


and = 0.5 sec.

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Since |G (s)|s=0 = s12 |s=0 +, we cannot compute a0 . So, we
arbitrarily choose a0 = 2.
Note that
1
1
G (s1 ) = 2 |s=22 exp(j135 ) = exp (j270 )
s
8
so, from the formula, we find
sin (135 ) + 2 18 sin (405 )

a1 =
=
2 2 81 sin (270 )

1
2

+ 2 81 12
5
1
= .
2
2 28

From the formula, we find


12 + 2 81 12
sin (135 270 ) + 2 81 sin (135 )
3

=
= .

16
2 2 sin (270 )
2 2
So, the compensator has the form
b1 =

D (s) =
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

5
2s + 2
.
3
16 s + 1

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Root Locus
20

15

10

Imaginary Axis

10

15

20
6

Real Axis

Figure: Root locus plot for G (s) =


Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1
s2

with D (s) =

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

5
2 s+2
3
16 s+1

Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Consider the following system

where
G (s) =

1
.
s (s + 1)

Find D (s) such that the dominant closedloop poles are at 3 3j.

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

First try D (s) = K which results the denominator of the transfer


function to be of the following form
1 + KG (s) = 1 + K

1
.
s (s + 1)

The root locus is obtained as


Root Locus

Imaginary Axis

3.5

2.5

1.5
Real Axis

0.5

0.5

which does not clearly go through 3 3j.


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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Consider

s +a
s +b
with b > a > 0 which is a lead compensator.
D (s) = K

The denominator of the transfer function is now of the following form


1 + KD (s) G (s) = 1 + K

s +a
1
.
s + b s (s + 1)

Note that, there are three closedloop poles where two of them are at
3 3j and the third one depends on the values of a, b, K .

Since we are told that 3 3j are going to be the dominant poles


then the third pole should be real and it should be on the left of 3.

How do we find the values for a, b, and K which ensure that 3 3j


are the closedloop poles?
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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

From the block diagram, we can obtain the transfer function as


K (s+a)

Y (s)
s(s+b)(s+1)
=
.
s+a
R (s)
1 + K s(s+b)(s+1)
Note that,


1+K

s +a
s (s + b) (s + 1)

|s=3+3j = 0

achieves the desired result.


We will use angle condition to find a and b.
Note that, the angle condition is


s +a

|s=3+3j = 180
s (s + b) (s + 1)
where we have one equation and two unknowns (a and b).
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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

When selecting a, it should be noted that:


a is not unique,
If a is picked too big, b will not exist (i.e., b may become negative),
If a is picked too small, the system might not exhibit the right
dominant behavior (i.e., the third closedloop pole might dominate
the behavior of the system).
Recall that,
 
A
= (A) (B)
B
(AB) = (A) + (B)
 
1
( + j) = tan
.

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Let a = 3.
After utilizing the angle condition along with the properties, we obtain




1
s +3
|s=3+3j +
|s=3+3j = 180

s (s + 1)
s +b


s (s + 1)
|s=3+3j = (s + b) |s=3+3j .
180 +
s +3


|s=3+3j = 168.69 , so
Note that, s(s+1)
s+3


3
1
(3 + b + 3j) = tan
= 11.31
b3
and after noting that tan (11.31 ) = 0.2, we obtain b = 18.
Thus, we obtain the following characteristic equation
s +3
1 + KD (s) G (s) = 1 + K
.
s (s + 18) (s + 1)
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Lead compensator design


Example

Root Locus
20

15

10

Imaginary Axis

10

15

20
20

15

10

Real Axis

Figure: Root locus plot for G (s) =


Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1
s(s+1)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

s+3
with D (s) = K s+18
Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

We will now use the magnitude condition to find K






s
+
3
|s=3+3j =
K
s (s + 18) (s + 1)




3j

=
K
(3 + 3j) (15 + 3j) (2 + 3j)
|3j|
=
K
|3 + 3j| |15 + 3j| |2 + 3j|
3
K
=
4.24 15.3 3.65
K
=

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EE362 Feedback Control Systems

1
1
1
1
78.

Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Consider the following system

where
G (s) =

1
.
s (s + 1)

Find D (s) such that the dominant closedloop poles are at 3 3j


using coefficient matching method.

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Recall, the transfer function


Y (s)
R (s)

=
=

K (s+a)
s(s+b)(s+1)
s+a
+ K s(s+b)(s+1)

K (s + a)
s (s + b) (s + 1) + K (s + a)

where
cl

= s (s + b) (s + 1) + K (s + a)
= s 3 + (1 + b) s 2 + (b + K ) s + aK

is the actual closedloop denominator.


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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

While, the desired denominator is obtained as


dcl

= (s + 3 3j) (s + 3 + 3j) (s + p3 )

= (s + p3 ) s 2 + 6s + 18

= s 3 + (6 + p3 ) s 2 + (18 + 6p3 ) s + 18p3

where p3 is the third pole of the closedloop system.


Equate the desired denominator to the actual denominator (i.e.,
cl = dcl ) to obtain
6 + p3 = 1 + b
18 + 6p3 = b + K
18p3 = aK .
Note that, in the above set of nonlinear equations, we have 3
equations and 4 unknowns, which thus cannot be solved.
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Let a = 3 (for the same reason as before)


6 + p3 = 1 + b
18 + 6p3 = b + K
18p3 = 3K .
From the third expression, we obtain 6p3 = K .
Substituting 6p3 = K into the second expression results in b = 18.
Substituting b = 18 into the first expression results in p3 = 13.
Finally, from the third expression, we find K = 78.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

Interesting side note: The above equations can also be used to


determine how big a can get.
From the first expression, we have 5 + p3 = b.
From the second expression, we have b = 18 + 6p3 K .
From the third expression, we have K = 18p3 /a.

Thus, after eliminating K and b, we obtain




p3
18
5 + p3 = 18 + 6p3 18
5 p3 = 13.
a
a
Since p3 should be a positive number, we obtain
18
18
5>0
> a.
a
5
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

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Chapter 7

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Lead compensator design


Example

On the other hand, we also know that p3 > 3, so


p3 =

18
28
18
54
13
13
>
5
>
a> .
>3
3
a
3
a
28
5

18
a

Combining these results in


18
54
>a> .
5
28
Choosing a outside the above region may either result in b to be
negative (i.e., hence, the compensator would have an unstable pole)
or the system might not exhibit the right dominant behavior (i.e., the
third closedloop pole might dominate the behavior of the system).

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design

Proportional integral derivative control is often approximated by


lead/lag compensator to make use of the useful properties of both
lead compensators and lag compensators:
To obtain the desired steady state error (lag compensator),
To place the poles of the closedloop system to desired locations
(lead compensator).
The general form of the lead/lag compensator is as follows
D (s) = K

s +a s +c
.
+ b} |s +
{z d}
|s {z
Lead

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Lag

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Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

Consider the following system

where
G (s) =

1
.
(s + 1) (s + 5)

Design a lead/lag compensator that has


dominant closedloop poles are at s = 4 5j,

the steady state error is equal to 0.01 for R (s) = 1/s.


Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

To meet the design objectives, first design the lead compensator to


place the dominant closedloop poles at s = 4 5j while neglecting
the effects of the lag compensator.
Then, design the lag compensator to achieve the desired steady state
error specification.
Note that, if we do not neglect the effects of the lag compensator
during the lead compensator design, then the problem becomes fairly
difficult to solve.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

The lead/lag compensator has the form


D (s) = K

s +a s +c
s| {z
+ b} |s +
{z d}
Lead

Lag

and after neglecting the effects of the lag compensator, we will first
consider
s +a
D (s) = K
s +b
and find a, b and K .
Next, we will try to find c and d, to complete the lead/lag
compensator design.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

From the block diagram, we can obtain the closedloop transfer


function as follows
s+a
1
K s+b
Y (s)
(s+1)(s+5)
.
=
1
s+a
R (s)
1 + K s+b
(s+1)(s+5)

The denominator of the transfer function in root locus form is found


as
1
s +a
.
(s) = 1 + K
s + b (s + 1) (s + 5)
Let a = 10.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

From the angle condition, we obtain






s + 10
1

|s=4+5j +
|s=4+5j = 180 .
(s + 1) (s + 5)
s +b
From the above expression, we can obtain the following


5
1
tan
= 19.3 b = 18.
b4
Thus, for only the lead compensator, we obtain the following
characteristic equation
1 + KD (s) G (s) = 1 + K

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

s + 10
.
(s + 18) (s + 1) (s + 5)

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Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

Root Locus
50

40

30

Imaginary Axis

20

10

10

20

30

40

50
20

15

10

Real Axis

Figure: Root locus plot for G (s) =


Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1
(s+1)(s+5)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

s+10
with D (s) = K s+18
Chapter 7

59 / 64

Lead/lag compensator design


Example

We can now use the magnitude condition to find K






s
+
10
|s=4+5j
K
(s + 18) (s + 1) (s + 5)


(s + 18) (s + 1) (s + 5)

|s=4+5j K
K =

s + 10

= 1

= 56.6.

After completing the design of the lead part of the compensator, we


obtain the following lead/lag compensator
D (s) = 56.6

s + 10 s + c
.
|s +
{z18} |s +
{z d}
Lead

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Lag

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

The error is found as


E (s) = R (s) Y (s)
s+c
1
56.6 s+10
s+18 s+d (s+1)(s+5)
R (s)
= R (s)
s+c
1
1 + 56.6 s+10
s+18 s+d (s+1)(s+5)
=

1
1+

s+c
1
56.6 s+10
s+18 s+d (s+1)(s+5)

R (s) .

After applying the final value theorem, the steady state error is found
as
ess

=
=
=

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

lim e (t)

t+

lim sE (s)

s0

1
1
=
.
10 c 1
1 + 6.3 dc
1 + 56.6 18 d 15
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Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

We are asked to obtain ess = 0.01, so


1
c
= 0.01 = 15.7.
1 + 6.3 dc
d
Note that, c is typically selected to be 0.1, hence, d = 0.00625.
The final form of the lead/lag compensator is as follows
D (s) = 56.6

s + 10 s + 0.1
.
{z18} |s + 0.00625
{z
}
|s +
Lead

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Lag

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

Why can we neglect the lag compensator dynamics when we design


the lead compensator?
How close was the above calculation?
Let us reexamine the lead compensator calculation with the lag
compensator dynamics inserted.
The exact characteristic equation is


1
s + 10 s + 0.1
|s=4+5j .
cl (s) = 1 + 56.6
s + 18 s + 0.00625 (s + 1) (s + 5)
From the angle condition, we need following to be satisfied


1
s + 10 s + 0.1
|s=4+5j = 180
s + 18 s + 0.00625 (s + 1) (s + 5)
however, it is equal to 179.798 .
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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Lead/lag compensator design


Example

From the magnitude condition, we need following to be satisfied






1
|s=4+5j = 1
56.6 s + 10 s + 0.1

s + 18 s + 0.00625 (s + 1) (s + 5)
however, it is equal to 0.973.
The reason that the above calculations are still close is because


s + 0.1
|s=4+5j = 0.9819 0.66
s + 0.00625

which is very close to 10 .


Hence, by selecting the zero of the lag compensator (i.e., c) close to
the j axis and the pole of the lag compensator relatively close to the
zero of the lag compensator, we change angle and magnitude
calculation very little. Thus, the above approximation method is fairly
accurate.
Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

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