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Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Izmir Institute of Technology

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

1 / 64

Compensators

We have seen how to draw a root locus when there is a variable gain

K for a given plant dynamics.

Q. What if the desired pole locations are not on this locus?

A. We need to modify the locus by adding extra dynamics (i.e., D (s)).

KD (s) G (s)

T (s) =

1 + KD (s) G (s)

and after letting G (s) , D (s) G (s), we obtain

K G (s)

.

1 + K G (s)

We need to redraw the locus and pick K in order to put the poles to

meet the design specifications.

T (s) =

Chapter 7

2 / 64

Compensators

Two main questions are:

Q. What type of compensation should we use?

Q. How do we figure out where to put the additional dynamics?

There are three classical types of controllers.

Chapter 7

3 / 64

PID control

General control setup is given as

One option is PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control.

More than 90% of all controllers are PID.

This doesnt mean that they are great, just popular.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

4 / 64

Proportional control

Proportional control is given as

u (t) = Ke (t) or D (s) = K

so, the transfer function is

T (s) =

KG (s)

.

1 + KG (s)

We have to take the root locus as given since there is no extra

dynamics to modify it.

This is usually a very limited approach, but a good place to start.

May allow nonzero steady state error.

May not be able to completely reject a constant disturbance.

For higher order systems, increasing K usually leads to instability.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

5 / 64

Proportional control

Example

1

Consider G (s) = (s+a)(s+b)

where a > b > 0.

We apply proportional control

D (s) = K .

Since G (0) =

1

ab ,

ess =

1

.

K

1 + ab

We can make ess small by making K very large, but this often leads to

poorly damped behavior and often requires excessively large actuators.

Chapter 7

6 / 64

Proportional control

For the DC motor example, consider the controller

u (t) = K (r (t) y (t)) = Ke (t) or D (s) = K .

The closedloop transfer function is

Y (s)

AK

=

.

R (s)

(1 s + 1) (2 s + 1) + AK

where the poles are the roots of (1 s + 1) (2 s + 1) + AK .

Without feedback (i.e., K = 0)

s1 = 1/1 , s2 = 1/2 .

With feedback (i.e., K > 0)

s1 , s2 =

q

(1 + 2 ) (1 + 2 )2 41 2 (1 + AK )

21 2

Chapter 7

7 / 64

Proportional control

For K >

(1 2 )2

4A1 2 ,

decreases (more transient overshoot).

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

8 / 64

Integral control

Pure integral control is given as

Zt

K

K

e ( ) d or D (s) =

u (t) =

TI

TI s

0

The transfer function is found as

T (s) =

K G (s)

TI s

.

+ TKI G (s)

s

Constant disturbances can be cancelled completely.

Integral feedback can give nonzero control even if e = 0 because of

memory.

Dynamic response usually degrades.

The response may become oscillatory.

For high gains, the system may become unstable.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

9 / 64

Integral control

Substitute u (t) =

K

TI

Rt

0

K

TI

Zt

0

+ Bw (t) .

(r ( ) y ( )) d

...

AK

AK

1 2 y (t) + (1 + 2 ) y (t) + y (t) +

y (t) =

r (t) + B w (t) .

TI

TI

If r (t) and w (t) are constants (i.e., w (t) = 0), we obtain

AK

AK

yss =

rss

TI

TI

thus there is no steady state error.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

10 / 64

Integral control

We apply a step (or a ramp or a parabola) input and we would like to

know how well does our (closedloop) system track this input.

Ultimately, we would like zero error (i.e., e (t) = 0) (maybe 1%, 2%

in reality).

Recall that, for a unity feedback control system, the steady state error

to a unit step input is

ess =

1

.

1 + KD (0) G (0)

as s 0, so for systems that do not have any free integrators

1

= 0.

1+

So, by adding the integrator into the compensator, the error has been

1

reduced from 1+K

to zero for systems that do not have any free

P

integrators.

ess

Chapter 7

11 / 64

Integral control

Example

Consider G (s) =

1

(s+a)(s+b)

D (s) =

K

.

TI s

ess

1

= 0.

1+

the imaginary axis which results in oscillatory behavior.

Chapter 7

12 / 64

The performance of pure integral control can be improved by adding

proportional term to integral term

K

u (t) = Ke (t) +

TI

Zt

0

s + T1I

1

e ( ) d or D (s) = K 1 +

=K

TI s

s

Note that, combination of proportional and integral control solves

many of the problems with just integral control.

For the DC motor example, poles are the roots of

1 2 s 3 + (1 + 2 ) s 2 + (1 + AK ) s +

AK

=0

TI

and TI ).

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

13 / 64

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1

(s+a)(s+b)

Chapter 7

14 / 64

Derivative control

Pure derivative control is given as

u (t) = KTD e (t) or D (s) = KTD s

where TD is the derivative time.

Damps dynamic response.

Has a stabilizing effect.

Provides feedback that is proportional to the rate of change of e (t),

so, control response anticipates future errors.

Does nothing to reduce constant error (i.e., if e (t) = 0, then

u (t) = 0).

Does not do much to help the steady state error.

Is impractical since derivative magnifies sensor noise.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

15 / 64

Derivative control

Example

1 2 s 2 + (1 + 2 + AKTD ) s + 1 = 0.

Notice that, TD enters into which can make damping better.

Chapter 7

16 / 64

Derivative control

Example

1

Consider G (s) = (s+a)(s+b)

where a > b > 0.

We apply derivative control

D (s) = TD s.

The closedloop system is very stable and there is no ringing.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1

(s+a)(s+b)

Chapter 7

17 / 64

D (s) = K (1 + TD ) s.

Different from pure derivative feedback, there is no zero at s = 0.

Therefore, we obtain better steady state response.

Chapter 7

18 / 64

1

(s+a)(s+b)

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

19 / 64

K

u (t) = K (r (t) y (t)) +

TI

Zt

0

(r ( ) y ( )) d

or

D (s) = K

1

1+

+ TD s .

TI s

Chapter 7

20 / 64

There are some tuning rules for selecting K , TI , TD .

In general (i.e., not always),

K , TI

TD

error , stability

stability .

G (s1 ) = |G (s1 )| exp (j), we obtain

K

TD

sin ( + ) TI |s1 |

|G (s1 )| sin () [TI |s1 | + 2 cos ()]

sin ()

K

+

|s1 | |G (s1 )| sin () TI |s1 |2

error.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

21 / 64

Substituting the PID controller into the DC motor model and solving

for poles results in

1 2 TI s 3 + TI ((1 + 2 ) + AKTD ) s 2 + TI (1 + AK ) s + AK

AK

(1 + 2 ) + AKTD 2 1 + AK

s +

s+

s3 +

1 2

1 2

1 2 T I

= 0

= 0.

There are three coefficients and there are three control gains (i.e., K ,

TI , TD ).

We can put poles anywhere.

So we have complete control of dynamics in this case.

Chapter 7

22 / 64

Output to reference input transfer function is obtained as

AK (TI s + 1)

Y (s)

=

.

R (s)

1 2 TI s 3 + TI (1 + 2 ) s 2 + TI (1 + AK ) s + AK

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

23 / 64

Output to disturbance input transfer function is obtained as

TI Bs

Y (s)

=

.

W (s)

1 2 TI s 3 + TI (1 + 2 ) s 2 + TI (1 + AK ) s + AK

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

24 / 64

Suppose there is saturation in the actuator.

Error will not decrease.

Integrator will integrate a constant error and its value will blow up.

Solution is integrator antiwindup which turns off integration when

the actuator saturates.

Doing this is necessary in any practical implementation and omission

leads to bad response, or even instability.

Chapter 7

25 / 64

PI control is often approximated by lag control

D (s) =

s z0

s p0

with |p0 | < |z0 | (that is, the pole is closer to the origin than the zero).

Since |z0 | > |p0 |, the phase added to the openloop transfer function

is negative (i.e., phase lag).

Pole is often placed very close to origin (e.g., p0 0.01), and zero

is placed near the pole (e.g., z0 0.1).

Lag control does not change locus much since p0 z0 0.01.

Lag control improves the steady state error.

Chapter 7

26 / 64

Example

where

G (s) =

1

.

(s + 1) (s + 5)

Let D (s) = K = 13 and R (s) = 1/s, find the steady state error.

Chapter 7

27 / 64

Example

function as

1

K (s+1)(s+5)

Y (s)

.

=

1

R (s)

1 + K (s+1)(s+5)

The error is found as

E (s) = R (s) Y (s)

1

K (s+1)(s+5)

R (s)

= R (s)

1

1 + K (s+1)(s+5)

=

1

1

1 + K (s+1)(s+5)

R (s) .

Chapter 7

28 / 64

Example

After applying the final value theorem, the steady state error is found

as

ess

=

=

=

lim e (t)

t+

lim sE (s)

s0

5

1

= .

K

18

1+ 5

Chapter 7

29 / 64

Example

where

G (s) =

1

.

(s + 1) (s + 5)

s+c

with K = 13, c = 0.1, and d = 0.01 which is a

Let D (s) = K s+d

typical lag compensator.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

30 / 64

Example

function as

1

D (s) (s+1)(s+5)

Y (s)

.

=

1

R (s)

1 + D (s) (s+1)(s+5)

The error is found as

E (s) = R (s) Y (s)

s+c

1

K s+d

(s+1)(s+5)

R (s)

= R (s)

1

s+c

1 + K s+d

(s+1)(s+5)

=

1

1+K

1

s+0.1

s+0.01 (s+1)(s+5)

R (s) .

Chapter 7

31 / 64

Example

After applying the final value theorem, the steady state error is found

as

ess

=

=

=

lim e (t)

t+

lim sE (s)

s0

1

1

= .

0.1

27

1 + K 0.015

Recall that, for D (s) = K = 13, steady state error was ess = 5/18.

So, the steady state error is a factor of 7.5 better with

s+0.1

.

D (s) = 13 s+0.01

Chapter 7

32 / 64

Instead of D or PD control, we use lead control

D (s) =

s z0

s p0

with |z0 | < |p0 |, that is, the zero is closer to the origin than the pole.

Lead control does change the locus.

Pole and zero locations are chosen so that the locus will pass through

some desired point s = s1 .

Design may be done analytically for

D (s) =

a1 s + a0

s +a

or D (s) = K

.

b1 s + 1

s +b

Chapter 7

33 / 64

Choose a0 to get specified DC gain

a1 s + a0

= desired DC gain

G

(s)

b1 s + 1

s=0

|a0 | |G (s)|s=0 = desired DC gain

desired DC gain

|a0 | =

|G (s)|s=0

and a1 and b1 are chosen to make the locus go through some desired

point s1 by satisfying

a1 s 1 + a0

G (s1 ) = 1.

b1 s 1 + 1

Chapter 7

34 / 64

So, from magnitude and angle conditions, we have

a1 s 1 + a0

b1 s1 + 1 |G (s1 )| = 1

a1 s 1 + a0

+ G (s1 ) = 180 .

b1 s 1 + 1

From these expressions, for s1 = |s1 | exp (j) and

G (s1 ) = |G (s1 )| exp (j), we obtain

a1 =

b1 =

|s1 | |G (s1 )| sin ()

sin ( + ) + a0 |G (s1 )| sin ()

.

|s1 | sin ()

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

35 / 64

Example

with

G (s) =

1

.

s2

0

such that the root locus passes through

Find D (s) = ab11s+a

s+1

and = 0.5 sec.

Chapter 7

36 / 64

Since |G (s)|s=0 = s12 |s=0 +, we cannot compute a0 . So, we

arbitrarily choose a0 = 2.

Note that

1

1

G (s1 ) = 2 |s=22 exp(j135 ) = exp (j270 )

s

8

so, from the formula, we find

sin (135 ) + 2 18 sin (405 )

a1 =

=

2 2 81 sin (270 )

1

2

+ 2 81 12

5

1

= .

2

2 28

12 + 2 81 12

sin (135 270 ) + 2 81 sin (135 )

3

=

= .

16

2 2 sin (270 )

2 2

So, the compensator has the form

b1 =

D (s) =

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

5

2s + 2

.

3

16 s + 1

Chapter 7

37 / 64

Example

Root Locus

20

15

10

Imaginary Axis

10

15

20

6

Real Axis

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1

s2

with D (s) =

5

2 s+2

3

16 s+1

Chapter 7

38 / 64

Example

where

G (s) =

1

.

s (s + 1)

Find D (s) such that the dominant closedloop poles are at 3 3j.

Chapter 7

39 / 64

Example

function to be of the following form

1 + KG (s) = 1 + K

1

.

s (s + 1)

Root Locus

Imaginary Axis

3.5

2.5

1.5

Real Axis

0.5

0.5

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

40 / 64

Example

Consider

s +a

s +b

with b > a > 0 which is a lead compensator.

D (s) = K

1 + KD (s) G (s) = 1 + K

s +a

1

.

s + b s (s + 1)

Note that, there are three closedloop poles where two of them are at

3 3j and the third one depends on the values of a, b, K .

then the third pole should be real and it should be on the left of 3.

are the closedloop poles?

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

41 / 64

Example

K (s+a)

Y (s)

s(s+b)(s+1)

=

.

s+a

R (s)

1 + K s(s+b)(s+1)

Note that,

1+K

s +a

s (s + b) (s + 1)

|s=3+3j = 0

We will use angle condition to find a and b.

Note that, the angle condition is

s +a

|s=3+3j = 180

s (s + b) (s + 1)

where we have one equation and two unknowns (a and b).

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

42 / 64

Example

a is not unique,

If a is picked too big, b will not exist (i.e., b may become negative),

If a is picked too small, the system might not exhibit the right

dominant behavior (i.e., the third closedloop pole might dominate

the behavior of the system).

Recall that,

A

= (A) (B)

B

(AB) = (A) + (B)

1

( + j) = tan

.

Chapter 7

43 / 64

Example

Let a = 3.

After utilizing the angle condition along with the properties, we obtain

1

s +3

|s=3+3j +

|s=3+3j = 180

s (s + 1)

s +b

s (s + 1)

|s=3+3j = (s + b) |s=3+3j .

180 +

s +3

|s=3+3j = 168.69 , so

Note that, s(s+1)

s+3

3

1

(3 + b + 3j) = tan

= 11.31

b3

and after noting that tan (11.31 ) = 0.2, we obtain b = 18.

Thus, we obtain the following characteristic equation

s +3

1 + KD (s) G (s) = 1 + K

.

s (s + 18) (s + 1)

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

44 / 64

Example

Root Locus

20

15

10

Imaginary Axis

10

15

20

20

15

10

Real Axis

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1

s(s+1)

s+3

with D (s) = K s+18

Chapter 7

45 / 64

Example

s

+

3

|s=3+3j =

K

s (s + 18) (s + 1)

3j

=

K

(3 + 3j) (15 + 3j) (2 + 3j)

|3j|

=

K

|3 + 3j| |15 + 3j| |2 + 3j|

3

K

=

4.24 15.3 3.65

K

=

1

1

1

1

78.

Chapter 7

46 / 64

Example

where

G (s) =

1

.

s (s + 1)

using coefficient matching method.

Chapter 7

47 / 64

Example

Y (s)

R (s)

=

=

K (s+a)

s(s+b)(s+1)

s+a

+ K s(s+b)(s+1)

K (s + a)

s (s + b) (s + 1) + K (s + a)

where

cl

= s (s + b) (s + 1) + K (s + a)

= s 3 + (1 + b) s 2 + (b + K ) s + aK

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

48 / 64

Example

dcl

= (s + 3 3j) (s + 3 + 3j) (s + p3 )

= (s + p3 ) s 2 + 6s + 18

Equate the desired denominator to the actual denominator (i.e.,

cl = dcl ) to obtain

6 + p3 = 1 + b

18 + 6p3 = b + K

18p3 = aK .

Note that, in the above set of nonlinear equations, we have 3

equations and 4 unknowns, which thus cannot be solved.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

49 / 64

Example

6 + p3 = 1 + b

18 + 6p3 = b + K

18p3 = 3K .

From the third expression, we obtain 6p3 = K .

Substituting 6p3 = K into the second expression results in b = 18.

Substituting b = 18 into the first expression results in p3 = 13.

Finally, from the third expression, we find K = 78.

Chapter 7

50 / 64

Example

determine how big a can get.

From the first expression, we have 5 + p3 = b.

From the second expression, we have b = 18 + 6p3 K .

From the third expression, we have K = 18p3 /a.

p3

18

5 + p3 = 18 + 6p3 18

5 p3 = 13.

a

a

Since p3 should be a positive number, we obtain

18

18

5>0

> a.

a

5

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

51 / 64

Example

p3 =

18

28

18

54

13

13

>

5

>

a> .

>3

3

a

3

a

28

5

18

a

18

54

>a> .

5

28

Choosing a outside the above region may either result in b to be

negative (i.e., hence, the compensator would have an unstable pole)

or the system might not exhibit the right dominant behavior (i.e., the

third closedloop pole might dominate the behavior of the system).

Chapter 7

52 / 64

lead/lag compensator to make use of the useful properties of both

lead compensators and lag compensators:

To obtain the desired steady state error (lag compensator),

To place the poles of the closedloop system to desired locations

(lead compensator).

The general form of the lead/lag compensator is as follows

D (s) = K

s +a s +c

.

+ b} |s +

{z d}

|s {z

Lead

Lag

Chapter 7

53 / 64

Example

where

G (s) =

1

.

(s + 1) (s + 5)

dominant closedloop poles are at s = 4 5j,

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

54 / 64

Example

place the dominant closedloop poles at s = 4 5j while neglecting

the effects of the lag compensator.

Then, design the lag compensator to achieve the desired steady state

error specification.

Note that, if we do not neglect the effects of the lag compensator

during the lead compensator design, then the problem becomes fairly

difficult to solve.

Chapter 7

55 / 64

Example

D (s) = K

s +a s +c

s| {z

+ b} |s +

{z d}

Lead

Lag

and after neglecting the effects of the lag compensator, we will first

consider

s +a

D (s) = K

s +b

and find a, b and K .

Next, we will try to find c and d, to complete the lead/lag

compensator design.

Chapter 7

56 / 64

Example

function as follows

s+a

1

K s+b

Y (s)

(s+1)(s+5)

.

=

1

s+a

R (s)

1 + K s+b

(s+1)(s+5)

as

1

s +a

.

(s) = 1 + K

s + b (s + 1) (s + 5)

Let a = 10.

Chapter 7

57 / 64

Example

s + 10

1

|s=4+5j +

|s=4+5j = 180 .

(s + 1) (s + 5)

s +b

From the above expression, we can obtain the following

5

1

tan

= 19.3 b = 18.

b4

Thus, for only the lead compensator, we obtain the following

characteristic equation

1 + KD (s) G (s) = 1 + K

s + 10

.

(s + 18) (s + 1) (s + 5)

Chapter 7

58 / 64

Example

Root Locus

50

40

30

Imaginary Axis

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

20

15

10

Real Axis

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

1

(s+1)(s+5)

s+10

with D (s) = K s+18

Chapter 7

59 / 64

Example

s

+

10

|s=4+5j

K

(s + 18) (s + 1) (s + 5)

(s + 18) (s + 1) (s + 5)

|s=4+5j K

K =

s + 10

= 1

= 56.6.

obtain the following lead/lag compensator

D (s) = 56.6

s + 10 s + c

.

|s +

{z18} |s +

{z d}

Lead

Lag

Chapter 7

60 / 64

Example

E (s) = R (s) Y (s)

s+c

1

56.6 s+10

s+18 s+d (s+1)(s+5)

R (s)

= R (s)

s+c

1

1 + 56.6 s+10

s+18 s+d (s+1)(s+5)

=

1

1+

s+c

1

56.6 s+10

s+18 s+d (s+1)(s+5)

R (s) .

After applying the final value theorem, the steady state error is found

as

ess

=

=

=

lim e (t)

t+

lim sE (s)

s0

1

1

=

.

10 c 1

1 + 6.3 dc

1 + 56.6 18 d 15

EE362 Feedback Control Systems

Chapter 7

61 / 64

Example

1

c

= 0.01 = 15.7.

1 + 6.3 dc

d

Note that, c is typically selected to be 0.1, hence, d = 0.00625.

The final form of the lead/lag compensator is as follows

D (s) = 56.6

s + 10 s + 0.1

.

{z18} |s + 0.00625

{z

}

|s +

Lead

Lag

Chapter 7

62 / 64

Example

the lead compensator?

How close was the above calculation?

Let us reexamine the lead compensator calculation with the lag

compensator dynamics inserted.

The exact characteristic equation is

1

s + 10 s + 0.1

|s=4+5j .

cl (s) = 1 + 56.6

s + 18 s + 0.00625 (s + 1) (s + 5)

From the angle condition, we need following to be satisfied

1

s + 10 s + 0.1

|s=4+5j = 180

s + 18 s + 0.00625 (s + 1) (s + 5)

however, it is equal to 179.798 .

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

63 / 64

Example

1

|s=4+5j = 1

56.6 s + 10 s + 0.1

s + 18 s + 0.00625 (s + 1) (s + 5)

however, it is equal to 0.973.

The reason that the above calculations are still close is because

s + 0.1

|s=4+5j = 0.9819 0.66

s + 0.00625

Hence, by selecting the zero of the lag compensator (i.e., c) close to

the j axis and the pole of the lag compensator relatively close to the

zero of the lag compensator, we change angle and magnitude

calculation very little. Thus, the above approximation method is fairly

accurate.

Assoc. Prof. Enver Tatlicioglu (EEE@IYTE)

Chapter 7

64 / 64

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