You are on page 1of 205

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Created Annually by
San Beda College Alabang

Bedan Psychological Society


2015

ii

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

This compilation of psychological researches is in partial fulfilment of the


requirements for the course Research Report 2 for the degree Bachelor of Arts in
Psychology. The issue includes the work of thirteen undergraduate students of the
Bachelor of Arts in Psychology for the Academic Year 2014 2015. The topics
reflect the varied research interests and focus of the students and their advisers.
The articles were written following the latest APA (American Psychological
Association) format.

iii

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With our sincerest gratitude, we, the graduating students of the Psychology Department Class
2015, would like to thank the following people:
To Prof. Paul Hilario PhD, Prof. Rodelando Ocampo, Prof. Theresa Masilungan, Prof. Fatima
Bullecer, Prof. Juli-ann Alonzo, and Prof. Eva Castronuevo, for their patience and unceasing
mentorship that encouraged us to strive for excellence during the completion of our study and attain
the highest possible standards set by the department,
To all the participants who devoted their time and helped us with our data gathering,
To our families and friends, for their undying support and understanding that sustained us
throughout this challenging but fulfilling journey,
To the Bedan Community, for nurturing our work values, keeping us grounded as Christ centered
individuals and standing as a constant reminder of St. Benedicts philosophy -Ora et Labora, and last
but not the least,
To God, Our Father and Provider, who is the source of our strength and inspiration, making all
things possible not only in our college life but in all the aspects of our lives.

"O give thanks unto the LORD, for he is good: for his mercy endures forever...
Psalm 107:1

Ut In Omnibus Glorificetur Deus!

iv

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

About the Cover Page Design & Crest

The three colors of the brain represents the Id, Ego, and Superego taking
the concept from Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic school of thought.
Regarding the gradient background colour of dark to light, represents the
shadow and the realization of the shadow, taking inspiration from Carl
Jungs Analytical psychology.
Delaunay Triangulation pattern represents the complexes that envelops
ones personal consciousness. For the geometrical patterns was once
intended to signify that consciousness can be portrayed into a beautiful
geometrical illustration.
The Bedan Psychological Society crest is a combination of the Greek
alphabet, psi, which is also the first letter of the Greek word psyche,
meaning mind or soul, and The Red Lion. Combined, these two
characters form a flaming torch. It symbolizes the role of Psychology as
a profession that brings light to the ignorance of man on our own
conscious and unconscious processes.

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Concept of Resilience Towards Temptations Among


Selected Filipino Muslim Women
Tamano, Norjannah & Eva Castronuevo

Karanasan at konsepto ng PUSO sa muling


pag bangon at pagharap sa hamon ng mga taga-hanga
ng Gilas Pilipinas
Adille, Lorenzo Reni G. & Eva Castronuevo

34

Pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra sa


pamansag na Never Say Die bilang konsepto ng
pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob
Lapat, John Carlo D. & Eva Castronuevo

49

Selfie Behavior and Emotional Intelligence Among


Selected Filipino Women
Pinatacan, Steffanie P. & Eva Castronuevo

65

E-Cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation behavior of


Smokers with intention to quit
Habawel, Camille Deidre B. & Eva Castronuevo

80

Pananaw ng mga Doktor sa Evangelista Medical


Specialty Hospital Ukol sa Konsepto ng Takaw-tingin:
Isang Palarawang Pag-aaral at Pagsusuri
Martinez, Renzen Pauline B.& Eva Castronuevo

91

Romantic Comedy Themed Movies and Depression


among Individuals who recently experience breakup
Rubio, Isaiah-Girard R. & Eva Castronuevo

99

Mobile Phone Usage and Social Connectedness


Among Senior Citizens
Jovellanos, Emmanuel Josef & Eva Castronuevo

114

vi

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Pananaw ukol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang


kapalit ng mga piling kalahok sa Gawad Kalinga
Leuterio, Ma. Louise Vittoria C.& Eva Castronuevo

122

Blogging and Depression Levels among Adolescents


Ocab, Carl Niels David M. & Juli-Ann Alonso

135

Expectations and Perceptions of Psychology


Students of their Future Workplace
RaquelSantos, Alwyn & Fatima Bullecer

145

Personality Dimensions in Career Decidedness


Among Filipino College Students
RaquelSantos, Benedict & Fatima Bullecer

169

Stress Resilience and Introversion Among


Select Filipino Adolescents
Belviz, Loraine M. & Redelando Ocampo

183

vii

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

INTRODUCTION
Its been a longstanding tradition that theses of students are binded as an
individual book. With the innovative thought to collate each research
into a series of theses merged into onepaved way for the creation of
The Bedan Journal of Psychology.
Behind this idea is the vision of the Dean of the College of Arts and
Sciences, Paul V. Hilario, to raise the level and quality of theses done by
the students.
Beyond this idea lies a wealth of opportunity for researchers to expand
their avenues of exposure and even participate with local and
international conferences in furthering the body of knowledge in the
field of Psychology.
Volume IIII hosts both Quantitative and Qualitative studies; and the
order of the studies are based upon careful consideration of the theme,
creativity, motivation, depth, and organization delivered by the
researchers during the period of their defense.

viii

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Concept of Resilience Towards Temptations Among Selected Filipino Muslim


Women
Norjannah Tamano
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRACT
This study examine the concept of resilience among Filipino muslim
women. The study uses a descriptive method on the basis of Filipino
Psychology. A total of 12 participants have been interviewed. It employs
research approaches endemic to the Filipino Culture, particularly gathering
information through indigenous method such personal interviewing
(pagtatanung-tanong) and building rapport (pakikipalagayang-loob) to
scrutinize the data gathered. The result shows the concept of resilience by
turning back to their Lord, having faith and trusting that they will get
reward for the patience they have shown to bounce back from the
adversities and activities which are peculiar during their adolescent years.
They have learned that having lack or little knowledge in their religion
made it hard for them to understand and overcome those adversities during
their younger years. As time goes by, they understood the importance of
seeking knowledge about their religion as a Muslim. They are more positive
in viewing every trials, challenges and adversities that came in their life
because for them it is coming from their God to make them strong, firm and
steadfast.

"Verily, the Muslims (those who submit to Allah in Islam) men and women, the believers
men and women (who believe in Islamic Monotheism), the men and the women who are
obedient (to Allah), the men and women who are truthful (in their speech and deeds), the men
and the women who are patient (in performing all the duties which Allah has ordered and in
abstaining from all that Allah has forbidden), the men and the women who are humble (before
their Lord Allah), the men and the women who give Sadaqat (i.e. Zakat, and alms, etc.), the men
and the women who observe Saum (fast) (the obligatory fasting during the month of Ramadan,
and the optional Nawafil fasting), the men and the women who guard their chastity (from illegal
sexual acts) and the men and the women who remember Allah much with their hearts and
tongues (while sitting, standing, lying, etc. for more than 300 times extra over the remembrance
of Allah during the five compulsory congregational prayers) or praying extra additional Nawafil
prayers of night in the last part of night, etc.) Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great
reward (i.e. Paradise)." - Qur'an 33:35
To be a Filipino Muslim today is a challenging situation. The aspiration to live up to the
norms and culture of Filipino Muslims is daunting even to those whose family upbringing is
1

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

faithful to this age old tradition. Modern ways and culture that question the Muslim norms add
to the pressure experienced by Muslim Filipino adolescents. In the Muslim community, there are
incidents among adolescents where despite being raised as a muslim, occasionally engage in acts
considered wrong according to their religion. Social dilemmas proliferate the pressure on
individuals to confirm with the Islamic teachings particularly for adolescents who generally lack
stability and maturity. They are not prepared to face the challenges of life and have not yet
grasped and fully life means to them.
Being in a dominantly non-Muslim country, the many liberal and secular views
popularized by media make it difficult for Muslim teenagers to abide by the Islamic norms such
as not getting into a relationship, avoiding going out late at night or, going out with strangers or
with friends, going out with the non-Muslims, sneaking out with their opposite sex, not wearing
the proper way of dressing modestly, exposure to homosexuality and other immoral acts.
According to Bakkar (2011), Many adolescents today, though they come from pious
Muslim families, suffer from great spiritual emptiness. This comes from little communion with
Allah (swt) and the Hereafter. Besides, those adolescents have very shallow intellectual interests;
they are without aims or aspirations; they have almost no interest in the affairs of the Ummah or
their own country; they do not even notice the hardships their fathers have in earning the living
of the family. It is such vacuum that drives them to think of sexual matters or the forbidden acts
in Islam. From this it transpires that by enhancing the spiritual experience in the adolescents, and
by getting them preoccupied with the superior concerns, we may lessen the risks of our children's
contracting moral contamination. The real remedy is in the development of a social network that
involves all the well-intended - in the media, in education, and in the families; to join hands in
protecting the adolescents from the problems of sex, drugs, and intellectual perversion.
Exacerbating the difficulty of dealing with all these changes is the fact that the current
social environment, the backdrop at which most young people will be negotiating their way to
adulthood, is markedly different from the ones many adults and parents grew up in decades ago.
The guideposts that parents have used in the past to successfully navigate their way to adulthood
may not entirely work now in a virtually new world the youth are currently confronting.
This social milieu substantially altered by globalization and rapid changes in technology,
places the youth in a virtually new world that offers them little clues for effectively navigating it.
It is no wonder then why many parents and adults can easily misunderstand the youth and this is
stressful for both. In comparison with the old fashioned traditions that they tend to forget
because of the new generation trends, parents or the grandparents of the children used to
compare the norms of their generations before.

It is in this backdrop of our rapidly liberalized society and the pressures of traditional
Muslim values that the researcher explores the experiences and stories of Muslims like her. This
study would like to explore the concept of resilience among Adolescent Filipina Muslims in
relation to the stressful modern pressures on their behavior and the teachings of Islam. What are
their views, their perception and their stories related to their ability to maintain their identity
2

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

while facing the various changes during the adolescent period brought about by new challenges,
worries and threats. Adolescents are very much concerned about how people perceive and judge
them which could affect how they perceive themselves (Harter, 1999). If the student feels that
the school has a negative perception of them, then this could create a sense of shame which could
lead to a negative self-concept (Tabbah, 2011).
The study will focus on Muslim Filipino women. The aim of the study is to answer the following
research questions:
1. What are the views of the Muslim women on their adversities during adolescent stage?
2. How do the Muslim women show resilience during adversities in adolescence stage?
3. What influenced them to become resilient?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The following literature were the stimulus for the researcher in exploring the concept of
resilience among Filipino Muslim Women.
Resilience
Empirical evidence suggests that the formulation of vicarious resilience as a useful
concept in the middle school age school educational arena (Acevedo, Hernandez - Wolfe, 2014).
It addresses the question of how teachers, who work with learners and experienced dislocation
and adversity are affected by the childrens stories of resilience. It focuses on the teachers
interpretations of their learners stories, and how they make sense of the impact these stories
have had on their lives. Twenty-one teachers who work in accelerated learning programs in Cali,
Colombia, were interviewed about their perceptions of their learners overcoming of adversity.
Data were analyzed through the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) methodology to
describe the themes that speak about the effects of witnessing how learners coped constructively
with adversity. These themes are discussed to advance the concept of vicarious resilience and
how it can contribute to sustaining and empowering teachers dealing with challenging children
and trauma.

According to Allan, McKenna and Dominey (2014), the University inductees may be
increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring
psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees'
resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for
resilience were based on a validated Connor Davison Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) drawn from
1534 inductees in a single UK university. A four-stage analysis revealed that incremental
resilience was more facilitative of females' prospective academic attainment, but less functional
and more convoluted for males. This large, distinctive study has implications for student support
3

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

practices and highlights that the relationship between resilience and academic achievement
requires further consideration in HE.
As per Reid and Botterille (2013), resilience is in danger of becoming a vacuous
buzzword from overuse and ambiguity' (Rose 2007: 384). Resilience is widely used in public
policy debate in Australia in contexts as diverse as drought policy, mental fitness in the
Australian Defence Force, and in discussion around the Australian economy's performance
during the global financial crisis. The key conclusion from this research is that the term is highly
ambiguous, it is used for different purposes in different contexts and in some cases the
understandings of the term are diametrically opposed. The malleability of the term suggests that
it might be politically risky if employed in policy debate unless clearly defined in each instance.
According to Bonanno and Diminich (2012), their research on resilience in the aftermath
of potentially traumatic life events (PTE) is still evolving. For decades, researchers have
documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or
chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently, the study of resilience has migrated to the
investigation of isolated PTE in adults.
According to Klibert, Lamis, Collins, Smalley, Warren, Yancey, & Winterowd (2014),
their study examined the relations among perfectionism dimensions, resilience, and distress.
Participants were 413 undergraduate students. All 3 of Hewitt and Flett's (2004) dimensions of
perfectionism were associated with greater reports of depression and anxiety; however, only
socially prescribed perfectionism was significantly associated with resilience. Results indicated
that resilience partially mediated the relations between socially prescribed perfectionism and
distress. Implications for counselors in the prevention, assessment, and treatment of depression
and anxiety are discussed.
Muslim Women
According to the views of the Religious Authority, Fadlullah (1998), Islam makes a
person legally liable at maturity, so that he has responsibilities both in negative and in positive
conditions. This means that Islam does not treat the stage of adolescence as one where the person
lets up on responsibilities and obligations. For adolescence may persist until the last stages of
life. This implies that the workings of the instincts which influence the negative side of a person
through internal or external factors remain forever with that person-from the time of puberty to
the end of his life. We know that there are adolescents in their forties, fifties, or even sixties;
puberty is not a clearly defined age, but rather a stage, the effects of which begin at puberty and
the mental and physical influences of which continue with the progression in life of the person
who undergoes the awakening of instincts, in one form or another. when it comes to counsel and
guidance we must begin the work of spiritual, mental, and social instruction and all the other
forms before puberty, so that we could prevent the conflict which the youth faces when he is
faced with any impulse which might arise at this stage.
This nurturing must continue at every stage, and we must apply the principles of
instruction and care in such a manner that this new person does not retain the concept of the
4

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

former one with respect to the issues that will emerge later in life. We should not seek to
constrain him within a closed mind, but rather to open his "thinking and spiritual" lungs to
breathe the clear air of life.
Ahmed (2009) explored religiosity and the presence of character strength among
American Muslim youth and analyzed 174 Muslim and Comparison youth. The results indicate
that 75.5% of American Muslim youth sampled were categorized as Highly Religious,
significantly more than their peers (p = .0001). Although Muslim youth were identified as
Highly Religious, only 33.7% of the sample had previously explored their ideological beliefs and
then made a commitment to Islam. Religiosity was significantly associated with a greater number
of character strengths (p = .0002), which served as a protective factor. Finally, Highly Religious
American Muslim youth were associated with the following character strengths: kindness,
equity, leadership, self-regulation, prudence, gratitude, hope/optimism, spirituality, and
forgiveness.
Ghani et al. (2013) Findings of their research show that there is a significant relationship
between coping strategies and moral values among adolescents involved in premarital sex. The
result of this study gives the implication that the female adolescent and their parents should be
equipped with sex education as an early measure to prevent premarital sex and the diseases
related to it. The implication of this study reflects the need of prevention and also rehabilitation
programs to high risk group teenagers. Teenagers need to develop positive values toward selfrespect and self-esteem as well as coping strategy through assertive training.
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined
adolescents reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and nonMuslim majority adolescents (12 18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and
different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim participants
were less in favor of freedom of speech if it involved the offending of religious beliefs and were
more in favor of Muslim minority rights. There were also cross-group gender differences
whereby parental practices that negatively affect females were more strongly rejected by Muslim
females than by Muslim males and non-Muslim females and males. The findings are discussed
with reference to social-cognitive domain theory and intergroup theories.
Political repercussions following destructive events of September 11, 2001 have the
potential to dampen enthusiasm for the incorporation of spirituality by psychologists who see
Muslim Filipino families. Among various Muslim Filipino populations, spirituality is
fundamental. Psychologists who are conscientious would be remiss to exclude such a critical
aspect of life when it is essential. The implications of spirituality for psychology intervention
with Muslim Filipino families include the need to acknowledge and, when appropriate, apply
values, belief systems, and other culture specific criteria. To do otherwise will bias intervention
with Muslim Filipino families, rendering psychology less potent in its ability to accommodate
such families.
In accordance to the study made by Tiba (2012) The hijab (head covering) worn by Muslim
women has been defined as; a sign of liberation or a constraint, obligation to God or
5

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

submissiveness to men, equality or oppression, and freedom or objectification and degradation


by the exploitation of men. The interpretation of the hijab has generated confusion as well as
ignorance within the Western mainstream society, media and school curriculum. Previous
research suggested that negative experiences of minority groups may or may not be factors that
relate to self-concept. Thus far, no research exists on how negative experiences in school can be
related to a Muslim girls' self-concept. This research seeks to extend the limited existing research
that examines young Muslim girl's experiences in Central Ohio schools as it relates to the
wearing of clothing that identifies them as Muslim. The researcher interviewed participants as
part of a focus group to share their perspectives on the hijab and their school experiences. A
questionnaire was developed that measured religious affiliation and included demographic
information. And finally, participants were asked to complete the Harters (1988) Adolescent
Self-Perception Profile Assessment (SPPA) to measure self-concept. Results showed that
participants on average received a positive self-concept within the seven domains except the
Athletic Competence (average mean of 2.29 (out of 4) In addition, due to the small sample size
of diverse ethnicities and those reported not wearing the hijab, there were no relevant
relationships that presented significant results. Furthermore, this study indicated four common
themes (hijab as a choice, intention, experiences in school, and the pressure to be beautiful) that
were expressed in the focus groups to illustrate personal stories including exclusion in sports in
school due to wearing the hijab. This study provides personal experiences of Muslim girls who
wear or do not wear the hijab in schools, and implications for future research on the self-concept
within this population.
Adversities
Al-Hashimi (2007) states that western society destroyed women's personality when it made
women the focus of sexual attraction and material exploitation, thus denying them their true and
natural personality, which is the only thing that deserves to be recognized and honoured. The
position of the women in modern western society appears clearly in the context of beauty, where
their beauty and femininity are exploited, as in the case of models. In all these cases, women lose
their original human personality and are regarded as little more than "beautiful minds."
Western society makes women in particular feel worthless, as it prefers women to take jobs as
sales clerks, models, secretaries or cleaners rather than be a mother. This is the civilization which
declared motherhood to be slavery and promised to free women from it, and today it is proud of
the numbers of women whom it has taken away from the family and from their children, and
made them join the workforce.
According to Kittredge and McCarthy (2000) their research on peer pressure shows that:
parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no
does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure,
noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start
talking to children about tough issues.

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

SYNTHESIS:
Resilience is the ability to roll with the punches. When stress, adversity or trauma strikes,
you still experience anger, grief and pain, but you're able to keep functioning both physically
and psychologically. However, resilience isn't about toughing it out, being stoic or going it alone.
In fact, being able to reach out to others for support is a key component of being resilient.
Resilience can help protect you from various mental health conditions, such as depression
and anxiety. Resilience can also help offset factors that increase the risk of mental health
conditions, such as being bullied or previous trauma. If you have an existing mental health
condition, being resilient can improve your ability to cope.
Being resilient does not mean that a person doesn't experience difficulty or distress.
Emotional pain and sadness are common in people who have suffered major adversity or trauma
in their lives. In fact, the road to resilience is likely to involve considerable emotional distress.
Resilience is not a trait that people either have or do not have. It involves behaviors,
thoughts and actions that can be learned and developed in anyone.
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
This study uses a descriptive method on the basis of Filipino Psychology. It employs
research approaches endemic to the Filipino Culture, particularly gathering information through
personal interviewing (pagtatanung-tanong) and building rapport (pakikipalagayang-loob) with
interviewees. Through this research approaches, the researcher was able to gather attitudes and
opinions of Filipino Muslim Women toward resilience as an intervention in being steadfast and
optimistic on today's generation problems. The researcher gathered possible solution on
challenges the participants need to face with resilience and psychology that Filipino Muslim
women neglect.

Participants and Sampling


The participants of this research are the Filipino Muslim Women from Manila,
particularly the members of Mujaddidaat organization. Mujaddidaat is an all Female Youth
organization based in Manila. Composed of professionals and students from different universities
in Manila. The age range of the participants is 18 to 30. The researcher based on the muslims
who grew up in a non-muslim are and the muslims who were ignorant, meaning having lack of
knowledge, before in their religion which is Islam.
Research Instrument

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

The researcher used books and internet to widen scope of knowledge towards the topic
because of the limitations of the data presented on online resources and other reading materials.
To avoid barriers of communicating the interviewee's attitudes and opinions, the researcher
conducted an interview with guide questions and used a voice recorder with the participants.
Procedure
The procedure of collecting data is in conformance of the studies made by Gonzales
(1982). The primary step the researcher took was building rapport (pakikipalagayang-loob)
among Filipino Muslim women to eliminate any hindrances in the achieving the aim of this
research.
The building up of rapport, which is done as a pre-interview procedure, took place in a
minimum of 3 meetings with each interviewee either personally or electronically. Building
rapport through a face-to-face or personal approach is enacted through an open-end questioning
type of conversation, within a minimum 30min and maximum of 1hr.
Building rapport electronically is enacted through an one on one conversation through
chat or instant messaging between the researcher and interviewee. This is done within 3 weeks,
with a minimum conversation of 3 times a week. Part of building rapport is sending the
interviewees gifts as an appreciation for their participation.
Next, the researcher will start the pakikipagkwentuhan by asking the permission to record
the conversation by a voice recorder. After the permission is given, the researcher opened up the
interview by an introductory question.

Data Analysis
The researcher reviewed sources of information to identify recurring themes and patterns.
Areas of major concern included (a) views of the adolescent on their adversities. (b) stories of
the adolescents related to their ability to maintain their identity while facing the various changes
during the adolescent period. (c) reactions of the adolescent on their adversities. (d) the
adolescents ability to maintain their identity while facing the various changes during the
adolescent period.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Concept of Resilience Among Filipino Muslim Women
Twelve women who are living in Metro Manila were able to share their experiences during their
adolescent years. Below are the responses of twelve practising Islam women who are able to
show resilience during their ignorant years.

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

The first question is "What are the views of the muslim women on their adversities during
adolescent stage?"
Respondent #1
"Every single things is by His (Allaah) decree. Thus I am more than happy and content with His
plans. This world is but a test for all of us and we're heading to our final and eternal abode in the
life hereafter."
Respondent #2
"I always see adversities as challenges to overcome to promote growth whether to my character
or spirituality. Alhamdulillah (Praise and thanks be to Allaah) I know Allah really guides me no
matter what masasabi ko kahit paano I am graceful in dealing and facing life's challenges
despite of its difficulties. Buti kahit paano I always reflect on things happening in my life. And
kahit siguro naging matigas ulo ko noon at medyo naging pasaway napanatili ko ung values and
principles na ininstilled sakin ng mga magulang ko."
Respondent #3
"I think they're God's blessings at the same time trials to purify me so everytime i face those
kinds of problems, i try to deal with them rationally. I usually converse, educate or inform them
about what is allowed and what is not allowed and explain to them the wisdom behind our
teachings."
Respondent #4
"Ako bilang laki sa lugar na hindi islamikong impluwensya aaminin ko na minsan hindi talaga
madaling umiwas o tumanggi at magpadala sa mga gawaing ipinagbabawal sa Islam marahil na
rin sa kulang ako sa islamikong kaalaman at subrang impluwensya ng katolisismo saakin paligid
mula pagkabata. Kahit na sinubukan ko na iwasan ang mga gawaing ganun hindi pa rin sapat
na akoy humindi. Sa lahat ng mga pagsubok at gawain na hindi kaaya-aya sa paningin ng Allah
(swt) na aking nagawa at nalagpasan masasabi ko pa na napakahirap at hindi ganun kadali na
iwasang makibagay at makisalamuha sa iyong paligid at mga tao sa kadahilanang yon ang
iyong namulatan mula pagkabata. Lalo pa na wala ako kaibigang muslim na pinapraktis ang
katuruan sa islam. Masasabi ko rin hindi talaga maiiwasan na makagawa ng ganung mga
gawain dito sa maynila kung lahat ba naman ng nasa paligid mo ay hindi muslim madadala at
madadala ka na lang talaga kung anu ang uso o anu ang andyan na pwede mo gawin, siguro
tibay lang talaga ng pananampalataya ang maaari mong maging sandata para makaiwas sa
mga gawaing ipinagbabawal bilang isang muslim kaya lang hindi naman ako praktisado noong
akoy bata pa. Ang mga pagsubok na ito ay biyaya parin ng Allah (swt) para mabigyan ako ng
rason upang alamin ang aking relihiyon at pagsumikapang pag-aralan pa ang Islam at dito ko
naramdaman kung gaano ako kamahal ng Allah (swt) na kahit anong mangyari nanjan siya para
gabayan ako at matuto sa mga kamalian ko."
Respondent #5
9

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

"Yung parents ko kasi napakahigpit habang nagdadalaga ako. Bawal to bawal un, wag jan, di
pwede yan, uwi ng maaga. Kaya siguro mas lalo akong nag explore and natutong tumakas at
lalo ng mag-try ng isang bagay na curious ako. Eh ako pa naman nagiisang babae kaya
mahigpit sila. Haha modern na kasi tayo kaya feeling ko nung mga times na un nasa magkaiba
kaming mundo. On those days, I don't know the risks of my actions so I do what the other normal
students do when it comes to school. My parents would not know it by the way but now I
considered my past actions as a sin which I need to avoid from the time I learned those things
that is forbidden in Islam. I know they are Allah's challenges for me to remember that I can do
everything I want but those things will never make me happy and content without Allah swt."
Respondent #6
"I have deal with full confidence. I didnt really have to care with narrow-minded people.
Alhamdulilah, Allah made it easy for me that the teachers, professors, instructors and friends I
have been with way back in High School and College days are broad-minded people who are
sensitive when it comes to religion. All I remember was, whenever I said bawal po sa amin yan,
Muslim po ako. No more debate, reason is accepted."
Respondent #7
"My parents focused on religion to keep us grounded, choosing their priorities right, making
decisions and sacrifices throughout the process. For this I am grateful. Raising any teenager can
be tough, but raising them in a society which conformed differently or less seriously to what
Islam teaches us is, I believe, what must have been for them the ultimate challenge. It is with this
in mind that my parents encouraged us to mingle and interact with Muslims and non-Muslim
children alike on a daily basis, believing it was healthier for our growth."
Respondent #8
"In my case I never encounter such thing or umabot sa point na I need to give up my religion just
to please my teacher to give me a high grade. Kasi at first place laging kinakausap ng nanay ko
yung mga teachers and she explains to them that I am not allowed to attend some activities such
as dancing sort of. And my mother taught me not to be one of them I mean ayaw ng mother ko
yung nakikisabay sa uso like wearing skinny jeans, buying gadgets etc. Challenge ng Allah swt
ito kung ipagpapalit ko ba ang teachings sa Islam o sa makamundong bagay."
Respondent #9
"Minsan kailangan natin gawin yung mga bagay like pagsshort o sexy ang outfit nagawa ko yun
dahil sa nakikita o nakigaya ako at dahil uso pero hindi ko pa kasi alam na malaki ang
kasalanan kay Allah swt ang mga bagay na iyon. Tulad sa school kapag kailangan namin sumali
sa mga christmas party ng mga katoliko ginagawa ko parin kahit na sinasabi ng pamilya ko na
bawal saamin makisali sa gawain ng mga katoliko dahil ito masama at hindi ipinagutos ng Allah
swt ginagawa ko parin for the sake of Grade o para makisama rin sa mga kaklaseng katoliko
10

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

dahil sa nahihiya ako sakanila at dahil narin sa peer pressure kaya napipilitan ako kahit na
ayaw ng mga magulang ko pinipilit ko parin sila kahit na magalit pa sila. Ito siguro ay trials
saakin bilang muslim sa generation natin ngayon kasi napapansin ko my mga muslim na
practicing muslim nga pero jina-judge ka nila siguro kasi hindi naman kasi sila lumaki sa isang
non-muslim area katulad ko at hindi nila naiintindihan ang kinalakihan ko. Ito siguro yung way
ni Allah swt para hindi ako maging judgemental sa ibang tao instead tulungan ko sila matuto sa
Islam kaysa sa maging judgemental ako at wala akong gagawin. Ito yung challenge eh para
yung mga kabataan katulad natin hindi sila maligaw."
Respondent #10
"Oo strikto yung parents ko lalo na yung father ko. Once na gabi na specifically 8 P.M. dapat
nasa bahay na lahat kaming magkakapatid. Mostly naman kaya pinapauwi na kami ng father ko
pag gabi na is for our protection from any unwanted situations that may happen during our stay
outside the house. Hindi naman ako masyadong barkada. Ako kasi yung estudyante na after
school uwi na diretso. Kahit nung college ako na alam naman natin na jan yung peak of
adolescents which means most of teenagers nagiging palaasa sila sa peers nila. Na mas
importante yung kabarkada kesa sa ibang bagay. Since nung bata pa naman ako may mga bagay
na akong alam na bawal at hindi bawal sa Islam. Nagaaral kasi ako ng madrasah (Muslim
School) noong elementary days ko. Naimulat na saakin yung mga bagay na pwedeng gawin at
hindi pwedeng gawin ng isang babaeng Islam. kaya nga lang dahil din sa peer pressure naiiba
na yung path na dapat kong tahakin. Pabugso-bugso kasi yung pagpapractice ko ng Islam. Pero
pinipilit ko din namang iwasan at ulitin yung mga maling bagay na nagawa ko na dati pa."
Respondent #11
"I just grew into those adversities, and ever since siguro I simply find those adversities as
challenges of life, that everybody has their own dispute and these are mine. Alhamdulilah, kasi I
have a supportive, loving, sensitive pair of parent who never get tired of counseling us everytime
na malaman nila na may difficulties ako sa school or other places dahil sa religion ko. And also,
I have friends, Alhamdulillah I have been surrounded by Muslimah friends who most of the time
face the same adversities as mine thus they can easily advise me of what should react, think and
do and as I said I just live and grew with it."
Respondent #12
"Ang mga magulang ko ay hiwalay at nasa side kmi ng aking ina kung saan ang aking ina
naman ay laging nasa abroad di siya masyadong strikto kasi di nman nya nakikita ang bawat
pagkilos naming magkakapatid pero pinapayuhan nya kami palagi kung ano ang bawal at kung
ano ang mga tamang gawin. Noong ako ay wala pa masyadong kaalaman sa Islam ay okay lang
saakin na mkisali sa mga aktibidad ng skul at tlgang nakiki sali ako sa mga palahok para
makakuha ng mataas na marka ngunit ng pumasok na ang Islam sa aking puso ako ay natauhan
na mali pla ang lahat ng aking ginagawa dahil ito ay ipinagbabawal pala ng relihiyong Islam.
Nang dumating na ako sa ikaapat na baitang ng high school punong-puno ng mga activities na
kung saan hindi na ako nakisali o nakilahok ni isa sa mga activity na labag sa
11

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

pananampalatayang Islam kahit nakasasalay pa ang aking mga grado dahilan ng pagkababa ng
aking mga marka, walang wala ang aking mga grado ng fourth year ako sa third year grades ko
dati nasa top 5 ako ng klase ngunit ngayon ay naging pang-siyam na lamang Ngunit sa kabila
nito ay wala akong pinagsisisihan bakit? Kasi alam ko na sa sobrang dami ng nagawa kong
paglabag sa aking panginoon ng ako ay mangmang ay nabawi ko naman kahit papaano ang
aking pagkukulang sakaniya sa pamamaraang pagtama/pagtuwid sa mga kamaliang nagawa ko.
Ang mga paghihirap na dumating sa akin ay unang una yaong mga tao na nakasanayan nila ako
ng hindi ako naghihijjab dhil nung nakita nila ako ay pilit nila itong pinapatanggal saakin dahil
ito daw ay hindi bagay saakin kesyo hindi daw ako maganda kapag nakasuot ako ng hijab.
Marahil ang mga adversities na ito ay dahil sa peer pressure dahil sa lumaki ako sa isang nonmuslim area."
Respondent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 11 perceive and view those adversities they have
gone through as challenges and trials coming from Allah swt (God). Because they have learned
in their religion that in Islam, Allah tells them that they will be tested. He also makes it clear to
them what is expected from them when they undergo these trials and what their reward will be if
they are successful. He says: Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some
loss in goods, lives and the fruits (of your toil) but give glad tidings to those who patiently
persevere. Those who, when misfortune strikes them, say: Indeed we belong to Allah and to
Him is our return. Those are the ones upon whom are blessings and mercy from their Lord and it
is those who are rightly guided.(Srah al-Baqarah: 155). The Prophet Mohammad (peace be
upon him) said: "No fatigue, illness, anxiety, sorrow, harm or sadness afflicts any Muslim, even
to the extent of a thorn pricking him, without Allah wiping out his sins by it."(Sahh al-Bukhr
and Sahh Muslim).
The Muslim may be tested by all sorts of difficulties like sickness, lack of income, and
disobedience from his children. In fact, the many afflictions that may beset a person are
incalculable. This is the point that the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) was stressing
when he mentioned: fatigue, illness, anxiety, sorrow, harm or sadness even to the extent of a
thorn pricking him. All of these afflictions, if endured patiently by the believer, are a means of
attaining Allahs forgiveness as well as His reward. The respondents perceived that they are
being tested by Allah. He tests them all in different ways. They did not assume that the
difficulties that they face in life are punishments or are signs that Allah is displeased with them.
From the work of Utz (2011) stated that life has been determined by Allah (swt) to be an
experience of tests and tribulations, difficulty and trials. Allah (swt) actually tests us with both
good and evil. He says: Every soul will taste death. And We test you with evil and with good as
a trial; and to Us you will be returned. (Quran 21:35). Human existence is destined to be one
trials, one following the other in succession. All things on the earth, in fact, are part of the divine
test that Allah has put forth for us; hardships and ease, wealth and poverty, good and bad all
are meant to be tests. Times of crisis are particularly likely to awaken our spiritual side and to
uncover the fitrah that has been buried by false beliefs, principles, ideals and behaviours. During
these times, we are likely to call upon Allah (swt) to save us from hardship and suffering. Allah
(swt) reminds us of this fact: And when affliction touches man, he calls upon Us, whether lying
12

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

on his side or sitting or standing; but when We remove from him his affliction, he continues (in
disobedience) as if he had never called upon Us to (remove) an affliction that touched him. Thus
is made pleasing to the transgressors that which they have been doing. (Quran 10:12) It is He
who enables you to travel on land and sea until, when you are in ships and they sail with them by
a good wind and they rejoice therein, there comes a storm wind and the waves come upon them
from everywhere and they assume that they are surrounded, supplicating Allah, sincere to Him in
religion, "If You should save us from this, we will surely be among the thankful." (Quran 10:22).
But when He saves them, at once they commit injustice upon the earth without right. O
mankind, your injustice is only against yourselves, [being merely] the enjoyment of worldly life.
Then to Us is your return, and We will inform you of what you used to do." (Quran 10:23) From
the perspective of Islam, tribulations are not meant to oppress us, but instead to assist us in
realizing the truth of our existence and our potential for spiritual growth. Although on the
something good and beneficial. Our inability to understand events in the world from our limited
human perspective does not denote the absence of higher purposes and goals. Some patterns of
events are recognizable and have clear cause and effect, while other things may not to be clear.
The wisdom behind these is beyond our comprehension. Allah mentions in the Quran: ...But
perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for
you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.(Quran 2:216) This particular verse was revealed in
relation to jihad, which is something that is very difficult, even for the believers. The same verse
states: "Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you." (Quran 2:216). Events
that seem to be bad may turn out to be best for them, while events that look good on the surface,
and which they desire, may turn out to be harmful. The tremendous benefits and rewards of jihad
far outweigh the struggle that the fighter is required to engage in. Research in psychology has
revealed that religious coping is commonly used by people in times of stress; personal faith and
religious communities are the primary means by which people cope. Religious coping is
generally defined as the "Process that people engage in to attain significance and meaning in
stressful circumstances. It may give meaning to life and explain such concepts as suffering,
good versus evil, guilt and forgiveness. People are more likely to rely upon religion as the
consequences of a situation become more serious.
Utz (2011) also discussed in the Psychology from Islamic Perspective the purpose of Trials
and Tribulations. According to her research from the perspective of Islam, one of the purposes of
these tests is to distinguish those who submit from those who refuse in other words, to separate
the believers from the disbelievers. Allah (swt) mentions: Quran 29:2-3 Research in the area
of post-traumatic growth supports the reality of this Quranic verse. Exposure to trauma leads to
a change in the strength of religious faith, either by causing an individual to abandon/weaken his
faith or to embrace it even more. Through the process of struggling with adversity, changes may
occur that push the individual to a higher level of functioning that which existed before the
trauma.
Aside from that purpose of life is not for Allah (swt) to find out something that He does not
know, for Allah is All-Knowing. His knowledge encompasses everything that has happened in
the past and that will occur in the future. Allah (swt) already knows into which group each
human will fall, and thus He knows who will go to paradise and who will enter the hellfire. The
13

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

purpose of these tests is to serve as a fulfillment of Allahs complete justice and mercy on the
Day of Judgement. Some people will be sent to the hellfire due to the choices that they made in
life, while others will go to paradise due to their submission and obedience to Allah. In fact,
humans only enter paradise due to Allahs grace and mercy, not by their deeds alone.
The messenger of Allah (swt) said: The deeds of any of you will not save you (from the hellfire).
They said: Even you (will not be saved by your deeds), O Messenger of Allah? He said: No,
even i (will not be saved) unless and until Allah protects me with His grace and His mercy.
(recorded by Bukhari)
Part of Allahs mercy is to increase the reward for good deeds. In any case, no one will be
able to argue about where he or she is placed.
Any type of pain or suffering that an individual experiences in this life may also serve as
expiation for sins or lead to an increase in good deeds and rewards. In either case, there is benefit
for the one who suffers. Prophet Muhammad said : <<No Fatigue, nor disease, nor sorrow,
nor sadness, nor hurt, nor distress befalls a Muslim. even if it were the prick he receives from a
thorn, but that Allah expiates some of his sins for that>> (recorded by Bukhari and Muslim)
For those who have sinned or transgressed the limits set by Allah (swt) trials may serve
as punishment for their transgression. This is also a mercy from Allah because it provides an
opportunity for repenting and turning back to Allah. The punishment in this life is less severe
than the punishment in the hereafter. As such, the calamities of this world are meant to serve as
reminders for those who have strayed from the straight path.
Allah (swt) mentions : Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason
of] what the hands of people have earned so He [Allah] may let them taste part of [the
consequence of] what they have done, that perhaps they will return [to righteousness. (Quran
30:41) And We will surely let them taste the nearer punishment short of the greater punishment,
that perhaps they will return [repent]. (Quran 32:21)
The nearer punishment here refers to the tribulations, disasters and calamities of this life.
This is beneficial for us in terms of the hereafter, since on the Day of Judgement, we will be
judged according to our deeds. Those whose scale of good deeds is heavy will be successful,
while those whose scale is light will be in despair. Allah (swt) has a purpose or plant behind the
tribulations, which is mainly to elevate us in the hereafter, either saving us from the hellfire or
raising our status in paradise.
The general purpose of this is to assist us in purification of the soul. An analogy may be
made to the relationship between fire and gold. Fire is like the tribulation that separates our noble
spiritual qualities (the gold) from our impurities (human weaknesses, desires and sins). If the
impurities are allowed to remain, the soul will continue to be tainted and will be unable to
achieve its maximum potential in terms of spiritual growth.

14

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Since the hereafter is the believers main goal, understanding these concepts will lead us
to be patient and even grateful to Allah (swt). Remembering the temporal nature of this world,
and the rewards that will be obtained, helps us if we are patient and demonstrate reliance upon
Allah (swt). We will have the hope of earning rewards from Allah )swt) for submitting to Him
and the events that He has planned.
As a result of a test, our faith should increase, we should be closer to Allah, and our
mental health should be stronger. We will obtain the benefits if we are patient and rely upon
Allah to ease the burden.
Allah (swt) mentions in the Quran: And We will surely test you with something of fear
and hunger and a loss of wealth and lives and fruit, but give glad tidings to the patient, who,
when disaster strikes them , say: Indeed, we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return.
Those are the ones upon whom are blessings from their Lord and mercy. And it is those who are
the [rightly ] guided.
The Prophet said <<No Muslim is struck with an affliction and then says, Truly, to
Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return. when the affliction strikes, and then says, O
Allah! Reward me for my loss and give me what is better than it, but Allah will do just that>>
(recorded by Muslim)
As-Saalih outlined five lessons that could be learned from experiencing tests in life :
1.
Increasing worship of Allah, and reliance upon Allah: A person realizes that he or she is
weak and without power or strength, other than that gives by Allah, so he or she will turn to Him
and depend upon Him. The individuals comprehension of tawheed will be enhanced, and his or
her eeman will be augmented.
2.
Understanding the reality of this life: That life is at times one of joy and amusement, yet
at other times one of toil and struggle. The tests remind us of the temporal and trivial nature of
this life, so that we do not become too attached to it.
3.
Remembering Allahs decree: Allah (swt) says: No disaster strikes upon the earth or
among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being --- indeed that, for
Allah, is easy --- In order that you not despair over what has eluded you and not exult [in pride]
over what He has given you. And Allah does not like everyone self-deluded and boastful.
(Quran 57:22-23) This verse reminds us to avoid being joyful for something to the point of pride
and arrogance or being sad to the point of despair, as everything happens by the will and decree
of Allah.
4.
Remembering shortcomings and disease: What comes to you of good is from Allah, but
what comes to you of evil [O humankind] is from yourself. And We have sent you [O
Muhammad] to the peoples as a messenger, and sufficient is Allah as a witness. (Quran 4:79)
This is important so that steps may be taken to remedy them before one is held accountable in the
15

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

hereafter. Punishment in the hereafter is more sever than the calamities and hardships of this life.
And whatever strikes you of disaster--- it is for what your hands have earned; but He pardons
much. (Quran 42:30) This verse indicates that we may repent and return to Him. And We will
surely let them taste the nearer punishment [disasters and calamities of this world] short of the
greater punishment, that perhaps they will return [repent]. (Quran 32:21)
5.
Acquiring patience: Being firm upon the truth and obedience requires patience, as does
refraining from falsehood and disobedience. But none is granted it except those who are patient,
and none is granted it except one having a great portion [of good]. (Quran 41:35)
During his or her lifetime, the believer will be either in a state of gratitude to Allah (swt)
or a state of being patient. The Prophet said: <<The affair of the believer is amazing in that
it is always good for him, and this is true only for a believer. If something joyful comes to him,
he gives thanks, and that is good for him. If something harmful comes to him, he is patient, and
that is good for him. (recorded by Muslim)
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah phrased it in this way:
There is neither strength nor power save in Allah Almighty. It is Allah we implore --- and
whose answer we wait --- watch over you in this world and the next, to shower you with His
graces, outwardly and inwardly, and to make you among those who, when blessed, give thanks;
when tried, persevere; and when sinful, seek forgiveness. For these three conditions are tokens of
the servants happiness, and the signs of his success in this world and the next. No servant is
without them, but is always shifting from one to the other.
The first condition is the blessings which come to the servant from Allah (Most High), one after
another. What secures them is gratitude (shukr), based on three supports: inward recognition of
the blessing; outward mention and thanks for it; and its use in a way that pleases the One to
whom it truly belongs and who truly bestows it. Acting thus, the servant show his gratitude for
the blessing --- however brief.
The second is the trials from Allah (Most High) which test the servant, whose duty therein is
patient perseverance (sabr) and forbearance to restrain himself from anger with what is decreed;
to restrain his tongue from complaint; to restrain his limbs from offences, such as striking ones
hair and like acts. Patience, then, rest on these three supports, and if the servant maintains them
as he should, affliction will become benefactions, trials will change to bounty and what he
disliked will become what he loves. For Allah (Exalted and Sublime) does not try the servant in
order to destroy him. Rather, He tries him to put his patience and devotion [uboodiyyah] to the
test. For the servant owes devotion to Allah in affliction as in ease. He must have as much
devotion in what he hates as in what he loves, and while most people offer devotion in what they
love, it is important to do so in the things they hate. It is by this that servants ranks are
distinguished and their stations determined.

16

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Shaykh Ibn al-Uthaymeen stated that people afflicted with calamities could be divided into
four categories in terms of their reactions to the difficult situation.
1.
Discontent (prohibited), which entails being angry with Allah and becoming upset
with the decree of Allah (invoking destruction, tearing clothes, slapping cheeks)
2.
Patience (obligatory), which means that they attempt to bear it, and although they
detest it, their faith keeps them from being in the first category of discontent.
3.
Acceptance (preferred), indicating that the presence of the tribulation is not hard
upon them, and it is the same for them whether it is present or absent.
4. Gratitude, which is the highest level of being thankful to Allah for the hardship, as they
realize the benefits that may be attained, such as removal of sins, increasing rewards, and so on.
While for Respondent 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 those adversities were coming from peer
pressure. As Muslims, peer pressure becomes more of a problem, when our moral values clash
with the behavior and actions of those young ones who live around them, and interact with the
youth. This is a social force exerted by a group or a powerful/admired individual upon youth. So
much so, that they feel compelled to adopt all those habits which will make them acceptable as
part of that group or culture. Why does Peer Pressure make normally good young ones do
inappropriate things? Young ones have the natural need to feel a sense of belonging and want to
feel as being accepted. As soon as they find someone giving them this secure feeling, they clique
to the values imparted to them (Bachchay, H. 2013). Many people face problems like Financial,
relationship troubles, sickness, studies, jobs and etc. For them to get rid of them, the first and the
foremost thing every Muslim need to do is have strong faith in Allah. Trust in Him like you
never trusted anyone before.
The second question is, "How do the muslim women show resilience during adversities?"
Respondent #1
"I have complete trust in Allah (God). And I know that He intends what is best for me, for all of
us. I keep this in mind. I remind myself of the verses of the Quran to keep me calm and on track.
I would try to apply the teachings of the Quran and Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings
Be Upon Him). As well as that of His companions (radiallaahu anhum ajmain) and the scholars
of Islam living in this world is so difficult if we don't have a guideline. Praise and thanks be to
Allah for the blessing of Islam to mankind."
Respondent #2
"This is one of the toughest realization I have ever made in my life I can say kasi kinailangan pa
mawala ng mama ko at masaktan ako ng sobra when I reached beyond my limits. I realized how
Allah swt loves me that he guided me back. I go through difficult process where I battle my
loneliness and emptiness all by myself with Allah swt with no friends I don't hangout and party
17

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

with and no dates only my family by my side and helped me uplift my spirit back to my Deen
(Religion). I've gone through the process being judge by my sincerity and even my morals have
been judge. I kept the pain in silence and every single day seek for the mercy of Allah swt to
purify my heart and my soul from all the impurities."
Respondent #3
"Yes, my parents were strict, both due to influenced ng environment and non-muslims. Masama
yung loob ko pag ganun kasi feeling ko hindi fair so sometimes i just had to follow if required
talaga sa school pero if hindi naman required like random trend lang sa society, like going to
parties or relationships, i didn't follow it. I just busy myself with religious activities."
Respondent #4
"Ang pinaka naaalala ko na nagawa ko talaga na talaga namang labag sa sa katuruan sa Islam
ay ang pagsali sa mga patimpalak nang pagsayaw at papunta sa mga okasyong christmas party
sa school dahil nirerequired kaming buong klase na makisali at pagdalow nang dalawang beses
sa kaarawan nang aking mga kaibigan na kristyano. Pero lahat nang bagay na iyon nagawa ko
lamang sa kadahilanag kulang pa ako sa kaalaman sa aking sariling relihiyon, islam. May mga
panahon din naman na napapaisip ako na kailangan ko bawas-bawasan at umiwas sa mga
ganoong tagpo, kung anu-ano na lang mga dahilan ko minsan pag inaaya ako ng aking mga
kaibigan na sumali at dumalow. Minsan nakakalusot ako pero minsan din naman na-uulit lang
ito. Kapag dumarating sa point na pinagbabawalan na talaga ako dahil nahuhuli nila ako
napapaisip na ako at nagsstart na magtiwala sa sarili na balang araw maiintindihan din nila
ako at maiintindihan ko din sila kaya nag-ssabar (nagpapasensiya) nalang ako."
Respondent #5
"I just go with the flow back then, because I don't know the complete do's and don'ts. I learned to
lie and disobey my parents. always say that I'm still young and I need to live the life I have. But
nau'dobillah (I seek refuge from Allah) I regret everything now. I now know the difference
between right and wrong. Now, Allah has lead me to the right path. Hmmm.. Ung mga tao sa
paligid ko nasanay lang. Sa pagkain, ever since elementary ako kinakausap na ng papa ko yung
may-ari ng canteen laging may naka reserved sakin na food. Elementary, hindi ko pa talaga
naiintindihan ang Islam. Ang alam ko lang nun is kelangan ko ng mag hijjab once dumating
yung period saakin haha. From grade three to six ay naasar saakin, I was five or six years old,
yung bumbay kasi akala nila mga muslim sila nung highschool na Alhamdulillah dun ko nakilala
ang mga true friends ko na nirerespeto nila ang Islam kahit di pa ako ganun na committed sa
Islam. Aaminin ko, in order na makisama sa trend ehh nakagawa ako ng mga bagay na
ipinagbabawal sa Islam. Inoobliged lang ako ng parents ko mag hijab noon pero di ko
sinusunod. I used my hijjab as a scarf lang na nakasayad lang sa balikat noong highschool
mahirap kasi ako lang ang Muslim sa batch namin. Every summer pinapasok ako ng mom ko sa
torel (paaralan ng mga muslim na magsstay ka ng ilang buwan sa paaralan na iyon para pagaralan ang Islam) para daw kahit papaano eh may natutunan ako sa Islam. Hanggang sa paggraduate ko ng high school. Noong college na with tourism course na ayaw na ayaw ng mommy
18

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ko kasi daw hindi pwede sa Islam pero pinush ko padin. After first sem nag-torel nanaman ako
and Alhamdulillah (Praise and Thanks be to Allah) doon na nagbago lahat. Siguro tawfeeq
(Guidance) lang talaga ng Allah kasi lahat na ginawa ng parents ko tapos biglang ganun. Na
realize ko lahat lahat ng sins na nagawa ko. Pinaka natutunan ko sa torel na iyon is ung love ng
parents and death. Everyday akong nag rerepent habang nasa loob ng torel, more on values ang
itinuro saakin aside from the Quran and once nag-paligo kami ng patay, dun pa nag-increase
lalo ang takot ko sa Allah (swt). Kasi nilalagay ko ung sarili ko, what if ako na iyon?Sapat na ba
ung mga nagawa kong kabutihan? or mas nangingibabaw padin ung mga kamalian?"
Respondent #6
"As far as my experience is concern, it is really hard to live in a non-Muslim community, where
misconception that Muslims are terrorists cannot be eliminated. Most of the activities that the
environment you are living are against the ruling of Islam. Haram in all aspect is in right in
front of you, even left, right and back, especially when dealing with shallow-minded people. I
have deal with full tolerance, reliance and guidance from Allah. I every time Im telling people
that Kung may masamang Kristiyano, may mabuti din naman, kagaya ng Muslim, may masama
at may mabuti, ang mahirap lang kasi pag Muslim ang gumawa ng masama ay nadadamay lahat
ng Muslim at ang Islam. I have made the non-believers that I have been with convinced that not
all the Muslims are the same and we are not terrorists, by displaying a good manners, showing
respectfulness and treating them well. It was really tough, Alhamdulilah I was able to overcome
them. Right now, I am trying my utmost to do what Islam has commanded Muslims to do to
please Allah alone, not considering what people/non-believers might think about me as long as I
am on the track of Islam and I am not hurting anyone."
Respondent #7
"Trying to explain why you pray to teachers, discrimination on wearing the veil, standing up in
class when Islam is attacked and sometimes dealing with parents who couldn't just grasp what it
was we were facing in the 'outside world' were just a few of the difficulties faced by myself and
the small number of practicing Muslim youths during my younger years. I came to realize that
Islam was never meant to be an individualistic faith, reserved for the chosen few. I learnt that
Muslims have a duty to spread the religion, and being what was categorized as a 'practicing
Muslim youth' I had a crucial role to play. I needed to read a lot and learn more, continue to
question and in short practice what I preached. There are obstacles but I believe with continued
prayers and faith with maybe a little firmness, we may be able to reach our destination. While
some in this day and age feel more of God means less of you. This outlook in itself is the
challenge."
Respondent #8
"Actually, my parents were not that strict. But I remember before that they were not allowing me
to wear some fitted shirts and jeans. And they were not allowing me to join with my friends in
some activities in school like dancin, especially sa mga boys iyong makikipag sayaw ka like
tango or cha cha. And I remember before I can say that most of my life was influenced by my
19

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

non-muslim friends. Because I learned how to celebrate christmas, New year, and Valentines.
Pero as I grow up I feel something that I need to change so step by step I've been studying what
is right. Trials naman is siguro iyong worst na talaga is yung I really need to take off my hijab at
ipartner ako sa boy and it's ramadhan that time pa. P.E. Subject kasi siya kasi mag J-JS na nun.
I really need to attend kasi yung teacher ko na yun eh head ng P.E. department siguro nachallenge siya saakin kc hindi ko talaga tina-tanggal ang hijab ko atsaka siya lang naman yung
teacher ko na laging nag-question sa religion ko. Ngayon kinausap niya ako, she told me that I
really need to attend JS kasi ito lang ang special project nya para sa lahat ng students na hawak
niya, siguro na provoke talaga siya saakin kasi may isa siyang student na maranaw na sumali
and the worst is girl pa iyon at hindi naghihijjab so para sa akin yung maranaw girl na yun yung
nakasira saakin kasi talagang hindi siya naghihijjab tapos nakiki-socialize siya sa mga nonmuslim na mga boys eh hindi ba haram sa islam iyon? So naging big deal sakin yun. Sobra!
Hindi ko sinabi sa mother ko kaya ako talaga ang nag-solve ng problem na ito. So ang ginawa
ko is hiniram ko ang class card ko tpos tinignan ko ang grades ko sa P.E. kc third grading na
noon. Then after that nagtanong ako sa ka-close ko na teacher about sa grade ko kung papasa
ba ako kung sakaling hindi ako aattend sa ball? And Alhamdulillah sabi noong teacher ko
papasa nmn daw ako kc hindi nmn ako bagsak sa 1st and 2nd grading ko in fact an taas nga
daw. So yung self-confidence ko that time eh nasa higher level talaga. Kaya talagang nag no ako
sa P.E. teacher na yun na talagang hindi ako sasali and with that I got a failure grade with an
average of 73. Pero hindi naman big deal kc nung fourth grading talagang bumawi ako. So yung
parents ko saka lang nila nalaman yung nangyare ayoko kasi na mag cause ng gulo yun kasi
yung mother ko hindi talaga makapagpigil sa mga taong ganun. Kaya Alhamdulillah nalagpasan
ko."
Respondent #9
"Para saakin napakahirap sa part ko dahil sa nagkakaroon ng doubt kung bakit ang daming
bawal na gawain pero yoon ang nakikita ko sa paligid ko tulad ng mga bagay na akala ko hindi
siya masama pero nakakaapekto pala saakin un at nakakasama sa pagiging muslim ko. Pag
dumarating sa point na my kailangan gawin ngunit alam kong ito ay mali nagkakaroon kami ng
hindi pagkakaintindihan ng mga magulang ko kaya madalas naglilihim ako sakanila at hindi ko
nalang sinasabi para hindi na kami mag-away o magtalo pa kasi kahit anong paliwanag ko
hindi rin kami magkakaintindihan hanggang sa lumayo ang loob ko sa mga magulang ko at sa
ibang muslim naming kamag-anak dahil sa mga judgements na ibinibigay nila kapag my
ginagawa akong sa tingin nila ay mali. Kaya madalas ang nahihingan ko ng tulong kapag
feeling ko down na down ako dahil sa mga judgements ng ibang tao sa mga non-muslim friends
ako humihingi ng tulong o sa mga kamag-anak kong muslim na my mas malawak na pag-intindi.
Ang ginagawa ko nagffocus nalang ako sa mga gusto kong gawin at sinabi ko sa sarili ko na
someday magiging okay din ako dahil si Allah swt nanjan siya para maging sandalan ko at
nagdarasal na sana someday maintindihan din ako ng mga tao at matanggap kung ano ako at
ano ang naging dahilan kung sumusuway ako sa mga ipinaguutos at ipinagbabawal nila saakin
bilang isang Muslim. Sabi ko someday magagawa ko rin kung ano ang tama at kayang kong
magbago para maging okay na kami ng pamilya ko. Pero salamat nagabayan ako ng Allah swt
at nabigyan ako ng liwanag ng ibigay niya saakin ang sagot kung bakit maraming
ipinagbabawal saatin bilang isang muslim at kung bakit kailangan natin ito sundin at maging
20

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

devoted sa religion sa pamamagitan mo norj dahil sayo at sa mga itinuro mo saakin tungkol sa
Islam nagkaroon ako ng liwanag at isinabmit ako ang sarili ko sa Allah swt na sana mapatawad
niya ako sa pamamagitan ng pagdarasal, sa paghingi ng tawad sa mga kasalanan ko at paghingi
ng tulong na siya lamang ang nakapagparamdam na siya laging nanjan para iguide ako sa tama
basta mag turn back ka lang sakaniya at siya lang ang dapat mong ipplease at hindi ang
kanyang creations. Alhamdulillah norj!"
Respondent #10
"Since elementary to college ako madami na akong sinful things na ginawa just for the sake of
grades. Halimbawa, yung pagiwan sa samba para lang makasama sa fieldtrip ng highschool.
Yung pagsisinungaling sa magulang para lang sa payagan ka sa events na kelangan mong
puntahan just for the sake of high grades. Ang mga naging trials sa buhay ko ang pagsusuot ng
hijjab at pagsamba. Nung estudyante pa ako hirap akong magsuot ng hijjab kasi ang feeling ko
noon I'm different from the other students. Na baka pagtawanan nila ako kasi may covered ung
buhok ko pati na rin sa pagsasamba. Mahirap magsamba pag oras ng school. Halimbawa
nalang pag tuwing duhr (12pm prayer) at asr (3:30pm prayer) yan yung mga times na nasa loob
pa tayo ng paaralan, nagkaklase at walang comfortable place na pwedeng pagsambahan.
Naging trials din sa buhay ko ang paghihiwalay ng parents ko. Nag-asawa yung father ko ng isa
pang asawa. Nagkaroon kami ng pinansyal na kakulangan dahil din sa pagkawaldas ng mga
ari-arian namin para lang may pang-suporta saaming pag-aaral ang mother ko. Mahirap yung
naging sitwasyon namin kasi against kami sa polygamy. Sa una mahirap tanggapin, mahirap
isipin na ganun yung nangyari sa family namin. Na dati anlaki at antaas ng mga pangarap nila
papa at mama para sa pagtataguyod saamin. Hate na hate ko noon si papa. As time goes by
medyo humihilom na yung sugat na ginawa ng papa ko dahil na din sa pagsasamba. Sabi nga
nila patience is virtue kaya habang lumilipas yung panahon iniisip ko na lang na yun ang plano
ng Allah swt sa family namin. Hindi man namin maintindihan yung reason or purpose ng Allah
swt sa pagkakaroon namin ng ganung mga trials, hinihingi nalang namin sa Allah swt yung mga
pagkakaroon ng sabar (patience)."
Respondent #11
"Ang mga magulang ko hindi naman sila masyadong strict, pero siguro instilled lang talaga nila
sa amin na bawal ang baboy at bawal tanggalin ang hijjab mga ganun, ung mga basics pero I
started wearing my head scarf/hijab kasi nung first year highschool pa lang and I believe malaki
ang naitulong ng hijab to regulate me nung highschool ako kasi diba my apparent appearance
pa lang reminds me that I am a Muslim and lagi sinasabi sa amin ng parents namin na anything
na gagawin namin will reflect sa kung anong ang iisipin ng mga tao about sa Islam and that
made us atleast responsible on our every act. Hmm Since start nung highschool kami never na
kami pina-attend ng parents namin sa mga Christmas party, JS Prom, at iba pang gawain ng
mga katoliko, hindi talaga pumapayag ang parents ko kahit pa bawas grade. Pero nung college
medyo naging mas maluwag sila sa amin sa mga gusto naming salihan siguro kasi may trust na
rin sila sa amin dahil they think na we can already manage our affairs and dahil din siguro
noong college hindi na kami masyadong nagpapaalam kung saan kami pupunta at anong
gagawin namin kaya siguro as I recall mas marami talaga akong nagawang hindi appropriate
21

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

noong college ako (May Allah forgive me) and that is because of my classmates and friends sa
college, I studied kasi sa isang government university and noong time ko I think ako lang ang
Muslim sa buong school or rather ako lang ang obvious na muslim sa buong university kaya
walang Muslim Student Association or even a prayer area sa university namin."
Respondent #12
"Ang mga paghihirap na dumating sa akin ay unang una yaong mga tao na nakasanayan nila
ako ng hindi ako nag hijab dhil nung nakita nila ako ay pilit nila itong pina patanggal sa akin
dahil ito daw ay hindi bagay saakin kesyo hindi daw ako maganda kapag nakasuot ako ng hijab.
Tiniis ko iyon, pinatunayan, at binigyang dangal ang aking paghihijab hindi ko sila pinakinggan
dahil sa takot ko na magalit muli ang aking panginoon na baka maligaw ako ulit, at dahil dito
ito ang nagtulak saakin na panghawakan ang paghihijjab kinalaunan ang mga taong tinutukoy
ko na dati na gustong-gusto nilang makita ang aking buhok, ngayon ay sobrang conservative na
tipong kapag may nakikita sila na kahit isa sa mukha ko na may nakalabas ng hibla ng buhok ay
lalapit pa sila upang sabihin saakin na may nakikita pala na buhok. Doon ko narealized na
kapag ang ginawa mo ang isang bagay na para sa iyong panginoon sumpa man bibigyan ka niya
ng napaka mabibiyang gantimpala ng hindi mo inaasahan. Ang aking mga kaklase ay mga nonmuslim bilang lang ang mga muslim ngunit sa gitna nito sila ay nasanay na saaking kasuotan at
nirespeto nila ako ng higit pa sa dati. Hinding hindi ko ikokompromiso ang aking relihiyon para
lang sa isang pangmundong bagay. Hindi ko gagawin ang isang bagay na ikakasira ng relihiyon
ko para lang magkaroon ng malaking grado sa pag-aaral ko. Pagsisikapan ko nalang ang mga
quizzes at exams ko para hindi ako bumagsak dahil naniniwala akong mas tutulungan ako ng
Allah sa mga gawain ko dahil iniwasan ko ang bagay na ikagagalit nya."
Respondent 1 shows that she has a full confidence through putting her trust with Allah (God), by
having faith. Faith calls upon her to bring out the best in her and in others. By seeking
knowledge through reading the Bible, called Qur'an and reading story of the Messenger of Allah
(God), Prophet Mohammad (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him) and by applying it in her daily
life to make herself on a track even after predicaments she is going through.
Respondent 2 shows that she seeks Allah's (God) presence to uplift her spirit back to his
religion. By seeking the mercy of her Lord to purify her heart and soul psychologically from
being in depression.
Respondent 3 makes herself busy in religious activities to divert her negative emotions
into positive so her spirit will become resilient and to understand more what made her parents so
strict with her and despite of that she still follows her parent's restrictions.
Respondent 4 shows that instead of being despondent she makes her self tough, patient
and aplomb in a situation, it is her way to seek comfort and resilience in despair or hopelessness.
She always find a way to be resilient through patience and hope. Patience is one of the noblest
qualities of the believers in their religion. It is the single best character trait that a person can
have for muslims. Patience is among the most serious and difficult achievements that a person
can attain in Islam. A person needs to be patient in order to achieve his goals or whatever she
22

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

desires and move through life smoothly. By doing her own ways to overcome the difficulties she
is having through on her own and having faith, firm and steadfast in her religion as a muslim
woman. A strong faith kept her focused on the fact that Allah alone ultimately controls all
destinies and has power over all things. Remembering that fact alone at the moment of affliction
can help her in conquering the pain and provide her hope and the energy to keep moving
forward. She kept moving forward by striving more and with hope to become resilient.
Respondent 6 and 9 have common experience and similarities in coping with the
adversities they have gone through.
By turning their attention to Allah swt and following his commandments, asking for
forgiveness and repentance is what makes the respondent 5 and 9 resilient. By beseech and
implore God's forgiveness and seeking repentance for the past sins from the adversities and nafs
(evil desire) she have gone through that she was not able to resist when she was still in her
ignorant years of her religion because of lack of knowledge in her religion and neglecting her
learnings in her younger years in an Islamic school.
The respondent 6 gives strength to her hope that she will repay all her bad deeds into
good deeds by being realizing her own faults, being positive and having faith in Allah (God) that
those things that forbids her is for her own sake. Understanding more of the compassion of her
parents to help her in seeking knowledge was what made her the endeavor to become a better
servant and muslimah. While resilience shown by the respondent 9 in being positive and
asserting that she can be better in other people's advice and guidance. She still focus on what
makes her happy, moving forward, trusting herself and seeking help to applaud her decisions,
she ask for counseling and comfort from those she knows well and open minded people. She was
encouraged by her pious friend who were also on the same situation before and was also able to
be resilient.
By being brilliant in challenging herself more in seeking knowledge of her religion as a
muslim and the endeavor to do, practice it and shares what respondent 7 learns showing an
astonishing resilience. By fighting for what makes her religion bad in the eyes of those nonmuslims around her in preaching what she had learned in her religion. From the normal issues
she learned how to assert herself, defend, and compromise through knowledge and sharing it
with them.
Through continues prayer and faith in Allah (swt) helped the respondent 10 to become
resilient. It shows by her patience and calmness. She seeks forbearance that though the difficult
times she is having through is not that easy and accepting what Allah (swt) has bestowed her
whether it is good or bad and having a positive affirmation towards the wisdom behind those
tough times. Same with respondent 4 she is patient and asking more to become firm in her
patience for the struggles she is having through. It was explained by Utz (2011) in her work that
patience is one of the most important characteristics for the Muslim to develop, and it is the
greatest lessons in life. Patience is actually mentioned more than ninety nine times in the Quran.
Allah (swt) says : And see help through patience and prayer, and indeed, it is difficult except for
the humbly submissive [to Allah], who are certain that they will meet their Lord and that they
23

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

will return to Him. (Quran 2:45-46) And be patience [O Muhammad], and your patience is
not but through Allah. Patience means to restrain oneself from what is harmful, and to endure
what one dislikes with a sense of acceptance and submission.
To restrain oneself from that which is harmful means to avoid approaching any acts of
disobedience to Allah (swt). If Muslims experience suffering, they endure it patiently and
respond to evil with only that which is good. They pardon and forgive those who caused harm,
remembering the reward that Allah (swt) has promised. Allah (swt) says :Say : O My servants
who have believed, fear your Lord. For those who do good in this world is good, and the earth of
Allah is spacious. Indeed, the patient will be given their reward without account [account].
(Quran 31:10) The Prophet Muhammad modeled forgiveness and patience with those who
harmed him. He humbled himself, even during adversity and when people mocked him. He
said : Charity does not decrease wealth. If one forgives, Allah increases his honour, and if one
humbles himself before Allah. Allah raises him in status. (recorded by Muslim). Allah
said Whoever refrains from asking, Allah will grant him independence, whoever seeks selfsufficiency, Allah will make him self-sufficient. Whoever tries to be patient, Allah will give him
patience; and no one is granted a gift better and more comprehensive than patience. (recorded
by Bukhari). Throughout their lifetime, the believers are either in a condition of gratitude or a
state of patience. The Prophet said How wonderful is the affair of the believer. Allah his
affairs are good, unlike anyone else. When he experiences a joyful occasion, he is grateful; and it
will be good for him. If he suffers misfortune and endures it patiently, then it will be good for
him. (recorded by Muslim)
Despite of the adversities given to the respondent 11 as a trial she still show resilience in
accepting what their parents have thought them through the teachings of Islam. She admit for the
mistakes and inappropriate things in Islam she made. She still follow and continue what their
parents told them to do and forbids by understanding that it is for her own good. She still keep
herself devoted, firm and steadfast into their religion despite of the consequences of having not
following the activities required in school and despite of the people around them because this is
somewhat peculiar in the minds of those non-muslims around her. Having a full trust and faith in
Allah (God), although she is struggling in practicing what Islam have thought the respondent 12,
by having the endeavor to continue what her Lord had commanded, having the determination
and endeavor to do her best to cope up with her situation. Islam teaches the respondent 12 to stay
in control by hanging on to the Mercy and Grace of Allah. She hopes and pray that Allah keeps
her safe, firm and steadfast from the challenges, trials and tough moments of life.
Respondent 7, 8, 11 and 12 mentions one of the obligatory duty of muslim women the
wearing of Hijab (Veil). AbdulBari (2011) In a world where the provocative display of Womens
bodies is portrayed as glamorous and progressive, the hijab, of Course, looks odd. As a result,
some people take this modest dress as a symbol of oppression. To them, the hijab is a barrier that
imprisons Women and keeps them subservient in a mans world. Why is the hijab so important
in Islam? The answer to this is simple. The command concerning the hijab is from Allah (God),
the Almighty, Who alone knows where the dignity of human beings lies. There are excellent
24

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

reasons behind His commands and they are for the benefit of all humans. Women are blessed
with physical beauty and a soft and gentle nature in contrast to the more sexually aggressive
nature of man. The hijab works to protect women from the possible lewd thoughts and glances of
men as well as protecting men from being taken in by a womans beauty.
The hijab gives dignity to every individual woman to be respected as a human being for
her talents and character rather than her looks. This reflects the high position that women enjoy
in Islam. As a human being she is an emissary of Allah on earth, as a daughter she is a blessing
for her father, as a wife she is half the deen of her husband and as a mother she has the highest
position for her children, their Paradise under her feet. In Islam, the role of men and women
Complement each other for the greater good of society, but individually each person is
accountable to Allah on his or her own merit. The fact that some Muslim societies marginalise
their women has nothing to do with Islam, but to do with ignorance arid decadence in all aspects
of their lives. Sadly for them, cultural baggage sometimes takes precedence over Islamic
guidelines. Dress, of course, is an essential ingredient of the hijab, but the spirit and attitude
behind it are fundamentally important. Merely putting on a piece of cloth to cover ones body
and hair is not the same as adopting the hijab. When the external symbol of purity and modesty
marry with internal submission to the will of Allah, the hijab elevates women to social and
spiritual heights.
After realizing the importance of Islam in their lives Hijab is one of the most important
thing to understand and practice it with the spirit and attitude behind it so they will be able to
accept and adopt until it is no longer an issue for their peers that adds to their pressures around
them.
For the third question, "What Influenced them to become resilient?" Twelve respondents
shows that the teachings in their religion influenced them a lot to become resilient.
Respondent #1
"The Islamic teachings, when I learned some of it, I got so mesmerized as I fully understood that
Islam is indeed the perfect complete comprehensive way of life. Knowledge about it with
constant learning enlightens and strengthens me because I know now why I am here and what's
the purpose of my existence."
Respondent #2
For all the wisdom I learned and learning from my deen (religion) simply makes life more easier
to deal with. With tranquility, peace of mind and joy in my heart even in a midst of adversities.
Alhamdulillah (Praise and thanks be to Allaah) It helps me have a better perspective towards
life. It even showed me my real purpose in life which is to worship Allah swt alone and believing
that every difficulties are ways and process of Allah swt in purifying our soul. Allahu Akbar!
(Allah is the greatest)
Respondent #3

25

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Mas naging madali, magaan, mas masaya. Tinuruan niya ako (Allah) ng disiplina consequently I
can carry out my responsibilities much easier. I dont stress because i know a Supreme Being
(ALLAH) is there to take care of me. Mas conscious na ko sa mga ginagawa ko because a
Supreme Being (Allah) is watching me. More hasten to do good deeds like charity, respect to
parents, learning etc kasi ung lang ang madadala ko sa grave and un lng ang titignan ng God sa
Day of Judgement. Islam reformed my personality as a consequence i have better dealings with
myself, family, and the society as a whole.
Respondent #4
Nag-umpisa ako na maging praktisadong bilang isang muslim noong akoy second year high
school pa lamang. Nagsimula ang lahat nang akoy piliin nang aking guro sa asignaturang
kasaysayan ng asya binigyan ako ng aking guro ng isang pag-uulat tungkol sa islam. Nagtaka pa
ako bakit saakin niya binigay iyon kasi alam naman ng aking guro na hindi ako ganun
karaming kaalaman sa islam. Sabi niya saakin kung ganun pala ang sitwasyon baka yon na raw
ang pagkakataon na pag aralan ko ang aking sariling relihiyon subalit hindi ko inaral ng mabuti
nag ulat lang ako sa harapan. Pagkatapos ng tagpo na iyon isa- isa ang mga kaklase ko na
sunod-sunod na nagtatanung saakin kung anu ba ang ramadan, sino si propeta Muhammad,
paano daw ba mag ayuno at bakit kailangan may hijab ang babae sa islam. Nang mga oras na
iyon hiniling ko sa lupa na bumuka at lunukin na lang ako kaysa sa mapahiya sa mga kaklase
ko. Aaminin ko na sobrang napahiya ako lalo na saaking sarili at pagsisisi kung bakit hindi ako
nag seryoso noong ako ay pinag-aaral ng aking magulang sa isang madrasah o paaralan na
nagtuturo nang kaalamang islamiko noong akoy bata pa lamang. Kaya napag isip-isip ko na
kailangan ko pag-aralan ang Islam upang hindi maging delikado ang buhay ko dito sa mundo
lalo na sa susunod na buhay. Noong una mahirap talaga mag saliksik sa islam lalo na pag
baguhan ka pa lamang pero walang imposible sa Allah (swt) ka pag siya ang magbigay ng
gabay sa kanyang alipin, pa unti-unti ang pag praktis ko sa islam. Hanggang sa naramdaman ko
ang kahalagahan ng islam saaking buhay kaya mula noon nalaman ko kung bakit bawal ang
pagkanta na my gamit na instrumento, pakikinig ng musika, pagsasayaw at kung anu-ano pa
kung kayat napagpasyahan ko na iwasan ang mga gawaing ipinagbababawal ng Allah (swt) at
masasabi ko ngayon na Alhamdulillah (Lahat ng papuri ay para sa Allah lamang) dahil akoy
ngayon ay isang praktisadong muslim at mas maayos ang lagay ko ngayon sa buhay kaysa
noong dati. At mas dumami pa ang pagsubok na dumating saaking buhay nang tuluyan kung
ipraktis ang islam maraming diskriminasyon na natatanggap ko sa aking paaralan at sa mga
tao, saaking paligid pero sa tulong ng Allah (swt) lahat nang iyon ay aking nalagpasan at
patuloy ko pa rin pag-aaralan ang islam hanggang saaking huling hiningga dito sa mundo.
Malaki at maganda ang naging epekto ng Islam sa kung anu ako ngaun. Lahat ng bagay-bagay
na hirap ako unawain, lahat nang 'iyon nabigyan ng Islam ng kasagutan. Mas at laging ko
pahahalagahan ang buhay at kung anu meron ako. Kumbaga maging mapagpasalamat at
kontento sa buhay. At mas nabigyan ako ng lakas ng loob na harapin lahat ng pagsubok na
dumarating sa buhay ng isang tao.
Respondent #5
Ang Laki-laki ng naitulong sa akin ng teachings sa Islam dahil dito nagkaroon ako ng lakas ng
loob ipakita sa mga tao na kaya ko maging mabuting tao at sundin ang mga itinuturo sa amin sa
Islam at ipractice ito. Alhamdulillah! (Praise and Thanks Be to Allah). I've become a true
26

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Muslim, the one who prays 5x a day, fasts,and believes that there is only one God and
Muhammad is his last messenger. It changed the whole meaning of life to me. That this world is
only temporary, it is only a challenge for us because the real and never-ending world is the
hereafter. This made me aware of what I'm doing, seeing, hearing, saying or eating because I
knew that my bad and good deeds are being recorded and it will be judged in the Day of
judgement. This was also the start of me having true friends or sisters in Islam. Alhamdulillah,
and lastly, it made me love my parents even more."
Respondent #6
"I realized the teachings of Islam and practice them step by step, little by little when I reached
second year High School, when I started to fast full month of Ramadhan without skip. I was 14
years old that time. 15 years old when I started to practice praying 5 times a day. When i
decided to work abroad I resided in a Muslim country, in Qatar to be specific, that is when I
started to wear hijab and decided to enrol Islamic school and still learning Islam and practicing
it as well. It changed my view in life whereas, my goal and focus is Jannah (Paradise). I became
less interested to when it comes to mundane things compared when i was less practicing Islam."
Respondent #7
"I came to realize that Islam was never meant to be an individualistic faith, reserved for the
chosen few. I learnt that Muslims have a duty to spread the religion, and being what was
categorized as a 'practicing Muslim youth' I had a crucial role to play. I needed to read a lot and
learn more, continue to question and in short practice what I preached."
Respondent #8
"I think I realize it when I was in Highschool at the age of fourteen or fifteen? Kasi I started
wearing hijab everyday sa school so the students are starting to notice me, they are making fun
of me , they used to call me nun, and the worst is in front of me they were bowing their head and
kneeling down while praising their hand you know sort of but of course it's during childhood
days and I am not that brave enough to defend Islam before. Kaya It's better to walk away from
them. Na conscious din ako sa mga questions ng mga friend ko lalo na yung teachers na
nagtatanong kung mainit daw ba or is it compulsory to wear hijab kasi may mga students and
friends sila na hindi naghihijjab. And I don't know how to deal with it kaya ang sinasabi ko na
lang is don't compare me to your friends or students kasi wala nmn taong perfect, even your
religion and the follower of your religion direct to the point and end of discussion hindi kasi ako
mahilig sa debate hindi dahil sa I'm scared to lose but because of ayoko lang na may masabi
akong against sa Islam kasi nga lack of knowledge you know silence doesn't mean that your
weak for me kasi ito na lang yung voice mo para ma-prevent yung bad things na pwedeng
mangyari. So I attended Islamic seminar to gain knowledge, pero para saakin kulang pa rin eh.
Kasi may mga Islamic seminar na ang language is maranaw so parang may barrier eh kahit
sobrang ganda ng topic hindi pa rin nag si-sink in sa isip ko kaso konti lang ang naiintindihan
ko sa maranaw. Atsaka wala akong mga friends before na maranaw meron man pero hindi yung
talagang magbobonding kayo for Islam. Ang effect ng Islamic teachings saakin sobrang laki kasi
27

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

everytime na my decision making lagi kong naiisip na everyone is scared of dying especially sa
mga taong practicing kasi napprevent natin yung mga forbidden sa Islam, yung uncertainty of
what lies beyond is frightening us, so as a follower of ALLAH swt, nagiging conscious ako sa
mga things na ginagawa ko kasi I believe that yung routine ng tao sa everyday life nya ay laging
may lies parang ang hirap na hindi mag sinungaling eh and with that dahil khit saan naman eh
bawal ang lieng, sa case ko naman as student who were living in a non muslim community I need
to practice myself not to be one of them (Non-Muslim) na mahilig sa makamundong bagay
siguro malaking challenge na yung lies sakin kc napipigilan ko siya pag iniisp ko yung karma
you know hindi ko ma-point out yung right word eh."
Respondent #9
Ako ay 25 na ngayon at natanggap ko ang gabay mula sa Allah nitong bagong taon lang ng
2015 kasi nagkaroon ang realization na bakit ganun kahit anong gawin kong pagpapakasaya sa
pamamagitan ng pagiging pasaway na muslim na ginagawa ko ang ginagawa ng mga kaibigan
kong hindi muslim tulad ng pag iinom ng alak at pag sshorts o pakikipag usap sa lalaki pero
hindi parin naging masaya. Nagkaroon ako ng realization na bakit muslim ako pero wala akong
alam sa religion ko at hindi ko ginagawa kung ano itinuturo saakin ng mga magulang ko.
Alhamdulillah kasi nanjan ka norj para gabayan ako at ituro at ipaliwanag mo saakin kung
bakit masarap pag aralan ang Islam at ipractice ito sa pang araw araw na gawain tulad ng
pagdarasal ng limang beses. Alhamdulillah! at narealize ko na masarap pala talaga maging
muslim kung pag aaralan mo ang deen (religion) mo dahil magkakaroon ng feeling mo peaceful
at kontento ka.
Respondent #10
"Nagsimula ako maging sobrang pious sa Islam noong October 2014 lang dahil sa tulong ng
mga nakakasalamuha ko ngayon na mga tulad ko na nag sseek ng knowledge sa Islam at sa
organization na nakilala ko na ang layunin ay magkalap ng kaalaman sa Islam."
Respondent #11
"I think i started analyzing my acts since nung nag-college na ung younger sister ko, sa
university kasi niya sa PNU merong Muslim organization na nakapag build ng Islamic center sa
loob, which is yung Billah Islam and by the help of that organization and Guidance of Allah
talagang nakapag practice yung kapatid ko ng mga Islamic acts nya sa loob ng school like naallow sya i-adjust yung uniform nya ng mas mahaba, na-allow din sya ma-excuse for every
prayer at iba pang mga obligation ng mga muslim and also dahil dun siya pumupunta every
vacant free time niya, naging active din siya sa dawah (preaching) and isa ako sa mga naging
main concern niya, graduating na ako nun sa college pero hindi pa rin proper yung clothing ko
although I had the head scarf pero I wore t-shirts those times, while she never wear such in her
college, and that made me ashamed sa suot ko, sa mga actions ko etc. Then Alhamdulillah Ive
been allowed to enter her university through my sister and I started attending the classes of that
Islamic center, until unti-unti nag-adjust ung damit ko, ung prayers and other acts."
Respondent #12
"Magsisixteen ako nung narealize ko yoon, noong natapos akong mag high school bali 16 ako
dun ko na napractice ang Islam, Alhamdulillah! (Praise be to Allah). Anlaki ng naitulong saakin
28

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ng Islam dahil sa nagkaroon ako ng peace of mind at tiwala sa sarili lalo na kay Allah swt na
lahat ng problema ay nanjan ang Allah swt para itayo ako ulit sa mga pinag-daanan ko at
gabayan sa tamang daan. Islam influenced me a lot so many positive ways."
Majority of the respondents were influenced by their personal eagerness to seek Allah
(God) into their lives. though strongly stirred by external factors, like mundane life
circumstances and wants, a true Muslim believer will always seek the presence and the
connection to Allah (swt). Respondents 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 learned the Islam's teachings little
by little and were, beforehand, living their lives without following the path that islam is teaching.
They were, in their early stage of puberty, enjoying doing forbidden acts in islam and repented in
the latter years of adolescents. Islam, from this point till the present time has been influencing
their lives. Islam, by itself as a means and the end, became their main stimulus that aroused their
resilience towards Harams. the greatest of the contributing factor that brought about the
resilience is the point of view or the belief that living Islam is the main purpose of their
existence.
For them islam, as a source of their lives' meaning, provides enlightenment and strength
towards life's adversities. The word Islam means voluntary Submission or Surrender to the
Will of God. It derives from the root word Salam, meaning peace. In the Quran, God defines
that the only purpose for which He created mankind is to Worship Him. Islam recognizes that
humankind has free choice in whether to obey or disobey God, but ultimately we will be held
accountable to God in the next life for the choices that we make in this life. Islam places great
importance in the belief that the soul gives life to a human body. Likewise, in its absence, the
human body dies and disintegrates.
However, the soul is eternal and will be reunited with the body on the Day of
Resurrection, when God will raise everyone to answer for their deeds on earth. Islam encourages
the individual to focus on keeping the soul healthy, through the remembrance, obedience and
worship of God. There should be a correct balance in strengthening the soul and not overindulging with the pleasures of the body. What does Islam means for them? It is a way of life.
Islam is a natural way of life that encourages one to give due attention to their relationship with
God and His creation. Islam teaches that it is through the doing of good deeds and seeking the
pleasure of God that souls find true happiness and peace. It is in this context that the word Islam
derives from the root word salam, or peace.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Majority of the respondents shows that since childhood they have a little knowledge in
their religion that made it hard for them to understand the restrictions of their parents and what
their religion forbids them. Most of the respondents were living in a non-muslim area, that's one
of the factor that make their mind confuse with what would they follow because of being
different in a place and practices. The dire consequences of the absence of Islam as the
governing system of today's society are manifesting themselves in all aspects of their lives.

29

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

The detrimental effects of not having the Islamic social system can be felt regardless of
whether we live in the Muslim lands or elsewhere. There is nothing more painful than seeing our
youth grow up amidst a non-Islamic atmosphere leading, in some cases, to Muslim youth losing
their Islamic identity, their values and even their Deen (Religion). When one examines why
some youth deviate, a simple but terrifying fact is brought to light - most of the time, the cause is
the influence of the friends that surround them.
The task of choosing the right friends and companions is essential to preserving their
identity. Befriending righteous and virtuous Muslims is one of the prerequisites for staying on
the Straight Path and pleasing Allah swt (God). Although most of them would strive to maintain
their Islamic identity within their family, they sometimes overlook who their youth are
associating with when they are outside the house or on the computer. Islam has given us a road
map to navigate through our lives in order to succeed both in Dunya (World) and Akhirah
(Hereafter). We must always abide by the hukm sharai' in all aspects of their lives and choosing
the right friends is no exception. Most of the respondents mentions that they also learned the
importance of Hijab as a Muslim Women in Islam and the modesty that they need to practice. It
is one of the reasons why it affect their lives in making the decision to turn back to their Lord
because wearing veil in a non-muslim area is aberrant and odd for their peers. It adds to the
pressure because it is unusual to most of their friends and the people around them, and they think
that they might insult them from having a cover in their head. The adversity behind the don of
Hijab is the worries of the Muslim Parents for their children girls we may find it clear the reasons
according to Al-Hashimi (2007).
The study can be further improved if a qualitative research scoping a large number of
participants will be made using the variables concerned. The study can also be further improved
if there are interviewed other filipino muslim men and women participants who were not able to
grasp their duties as a muslim during their younger years. Future studies can make use of this
current study for it provides a lot of new and necessary information muslim adolescent issues in
western society. First and foremost, it provides a background and facts about a current
phenomenon in the country which is about muslims women. This may also add to the evidences
about the filipino muslims who were residing in a non-muslim area and involving in an unislamic activities and issues. Another, is for enriching the Filipino Muslim practices; provided an
uplifting and strong filipino muslim heart and attitude. The study can be used as one of the bases
for diagnosing the problems and issues encountered by filipino muslims in a western society.
The study is an eye-opener to an issue that the world usually skips a glance on especially the
filipino muslims who were not used to the traditions and activities of other religion.

30

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

GLOSSARY
Alhamdulillah - All Praise and Thanks be to Allah
Allahu Akbar - Allah is the greatest
Astagfirullah - I seek forgiveness to Allah
Deen - Religion
Haram - Forbidden in Islam
Hijab - Head scarf used by Muslim Women, a symbol of modesty.
Hukm - Or Hekma is the rule or rulings abided in Islam
Islam - Voluntary Submission or Surrender to the Will of God.
Maranaw - One of the biggest muslim tribes in the Philippines.
Muhammad - The Prophet or the Messenger sent by Allah.
Nafs - Evil Desire
Sabr - Patience
Salam - Peace
Salla -Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam - Blessings and Peace Be Upon Him
Shariah - Law made by Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him)
Shukr - Gratitude
Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala - The Exalted
Subhanallah - Glory is to Allah
Qur'an - It is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from
God.

31

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Acevedo, V. E., & Hernandez-Wolfe, P. (2014). Vicarious Resilience: An Exploration of
Teachers and Childrens Resilience in Highly Challenging Social Contexts. Journal of
Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma Vol. 23, Issue 5, 2014, DOI:
10.1080/10926771.2014.904468
Allan, J. F., McKenna, J., & Dominey, S. (2014). Degrees of resilience: profiling psychological
resilience and prospective academic achievement in university inductees. British Journal of
Guidance & Counselling Vol. 42, Issue 1, 2014, pages 9- 25 DOI
:10.1080/03069885.2013.793784
Reid, R., & Botterill, L. C. (2013). The Multiple Meanings of 'Resilience': An Overview of the
Literature The Multiple Meanings of 'Resilience': An Overview of the Literature. Australian
Journal of Public Administration. Mar2013, Vol. 72 Issue 1, p31-40. 10p.
DOI:10.1111/1467-8500.12009
Bonanno G. A. & Diminich E. D. (2012). Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to
adversity--trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience. Journal Of
Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines [J Child Psychol Psychiatry] 2013
Apr; Vol. 54 (4), pp. 378-401. Date of Electronic Publication: 2012 Dec 07. DOI:
10.1111/jcpp.12021
Klibert, J., Lamis, D. A., Collins, W., Smalley, B. K., Warren, J. C., Yancey, T. C., &
Winterowd, C. (2014). Resilience Mediates the Relations Between Perfectionism and
College Student Distress. Journal of Counseling & Development. Jan2014, Vol. 92 Issue 1,
p75-82. 8p. DOI:
10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00132.x
Bandura, A. (2010). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning.
Volume 28, Issue 2, 1993, pages 117- 148 Published online: 08 Jun 2010. DOI:
10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3
Zimmerman, B. J., (2000). Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive to Learn. Contemporary
Educational Psychology. January 2000, Vol.25(1):8291, doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1016
Romi, S. & Leyser, Y. (2007) Exploring inclusion preservice training needs: a study of
variables associated with attitudes and selfefficacy beliefs. European Journal of Special
Needs Education. Volume 21, Issue 1, 2006, pages 85- 105 Published online: 17 Feb 2007.
DOI: 10.1080/08856250500491880
Ahmed, S. (2009). Religiosity and Presence of Character Strengths in American Muslim Youth.
Journal of Muslim Mental Health. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2009, pages 104- 123 Published
online:04 Nov 2009 DOI: 10.1080/15564900903245642

32

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Ghani, S. A, Abdullah S., Akil, S. M. S., & Nordin, N. (2013). Muslim Adolescent Moral
Values and Coping Strategies Among Muslim Female Adolescent Involved In Premarital
Sex
AbdulBari (2011). A guide to Parenting in Islam, Addressing Adolescence
Al-Hasihimi M. (2007). The Ideal Muslim Society: As defined in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Pages
376 - 377 International Islamic Publishing House (IIPH) P.O.Box 55195 Riyadh 11534,
Saudi Arabia.
As - Saalih, S., 2006, Testing, affliction, and calamities, retrieved October 26, 2010 from
http://albaseerah.org/forum/showthread.php?t=4151.
Ibn al-Uthaymeen, M. S., In Times of Calamity, People Divide into Four Levels, retrieved
October 25, 2010 from http://abdurrahmanorg.wordpress.com/2010/08/29/in-timescalamity-people-divide-into-four-levels/.
Pe-Pua, R. (1982) Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. Filipino Psychology:
Theory, Method and Application. University of Philippine Press.

33

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Karanasan at konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag bangon at pagharap sa


hamon ng mga taga-hanga ng Gilas Pilipinas
Lorenzo Reni G. Adille
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRAK
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa karanasan at konsepto ng PUSO sa
mulingpag bangon at pag-harap sa hamon ng mga taga-hanga ng Gilas
Pilipinas. Sa kabuuan, mayroong labing-tatlong taga-hanga ang
nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng mga
katutubong pamamaraan partikular ang mga pagtatanung-tanong at
pakikipagkwentuhan sapagkat ito ay naaayon sa kamalayang pilipino. Ang
resulta ng nasabing pag-aaral ay naglalaman ng halos iisang damdamin
patungkol sa pananaw nila sa konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag-bangon
at pagharap sa hamon. Hindi maikakaila na ang positibong epekto ng
konsepto ng PUSO ang namuno para sa mga kalahok. Mayroon din ibat
ibang sagot ang mga kalahok ukol sa kung paano nakaka-apekto ang
konsepto ng PUSO para sa isang taga-hanga. Nais magrekomenda ng
mananaliksik para sa susunod na pag-aaral ay gawing kalahok ang mga tao
na bumubuo sa Gilas Pilipinas Basketball Team kasama na rin ang kanilang
mga manlalaro upang maging kapanapanabik ang nasabing pag-aaral.
Upang mas makakuha ng malalim na datos, at makapag bahagi ng kanilang
sariling karanasan ang mga manlalaro ukol sa konsepto ng PUSO

Ang paglalaro ay nararanasan at mararanasan ito ng isang tao. Natural lamang sa isang
tao ang maglaro. Ito ay hindi lamang isang epektibong paraan para sa isang masayang
pampalipas oras ito rin ay nakakatulong upang maehersisyo hindi rin lamang ang ating katawan
kundi pati na rin ang ating isipan.
Ang basketball ay isa sa mga pangunahing isports dito sa Pilipinas ito ay isang uri ng
palakasan kung saan susukatin ang iyong determinasyon, motibasyon, at pisikal na kaanyuan,
bata o matanda, lalaki o babae, may trabaho man o wala ay nahihilig sa Basketball. Karaniwan
nating makikita ang mga Basketball Court dito sa Pilipinas makikita mo ito sa mga sumusunod
sa Village, Eskwelahan, o mismo sa kalsada. Ang paglalaro ng basketball ay isang tradisyon at
kultura para sa ating mga Pinoy na ating nakagawian na. Hanggang ngayon parte na ng
mamamayang pilipino ang mag-laro ng isports na ito kung minsan pa ay pagkatapos ng kanilang
trabaho, at pauwi galing paaralan. Ang basketball ay isang isports na pwedeng panlabas at
panloob na pwede ihalintulad sa volleyball, badminton, tennis, at iba pa.

34

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

May kanya-kanyang rason o dahilan ang mga tao sa paglalaro ng basketball. Ang iba ay
ito ang ginagawang libangan at ang iba naman ginagawa itong ehersisyo. Pero eto ay naka
depende pa din sa tao. Tulad ng mga manlalaro ng PBA dito sa ating bansa, sila ay naglalaro
para sa kanilang nakagisnan na kupunan upang magbigay pugay sa kanilang taga suporta.Hindi
rin naman mawawala dun ang kanilang pamilya dahil nag-lalaro sila para masustentuhan ang
araw-araw na pangangailangan nila. Ang paglalaro ng Basketball ay may kasamang kasiyahan at
kalungkutan, kasiyahan sa pagkapanalo. at kalungkutan naman sa pagkatalo. Ngunit manalo man
o matalo ang isports na ito ay pwedeng mag-silbing daan sa pagpapalawak ng pagkakaibigan at
pagkakaisa sa ating mga mamamayan.
Ang 2014 FIBA WORLD CUP ay ang pang 17th edisyon ng FIBA Basketball World
Cup. Ang Paligsahan ay kilala na dati pa dahil dito nag-lalaro ang mga batikan at beteranong
manlalaro ng NBA (National Basketball Association). Ang paligsahan ay ginanap sa Spain, at
ang nasabing paligsahan ay nagaganap lamang ng isang beses sa loob ng apat na taon. Binubuo
ito ng 24 kuponan at kada bansa ay may nag-rerepresentang kuponan, at kabilang na dito ang
Gilas Pilipinas na sumasagisag ng ating bansa. Nanalo ang Gilas Pilipinas sa pangalawang
pwesto sa nakaraang paligsahan sa 27th FIBA Asia Championship kung saan Iran ang nagkampeon at Korea ang pangatlo. Dahil dito sila ang 3 na kuponan na nagrepresinta para sa Asya
sa FIBA World Cup na ginanap sa Spain.
Kung iisipin mo ang mga manlalaro ng Gilas Pilipinas ay bago sa pagkakaroon ng
karanasan sa pakikipaglaban sa ibang bansa sa larangan ng basketball. Kilala rin ang Pilipinas
bilang isang kuponan na binubuo ng mga maliliit na manlalaro. At dahil isa sila sa pinakabagong
kuponan sa paligsahan sila ay itinuturing na Underdog o yung mga kuponan na madaling
talunin at hindi eksperyensado. Ngunit dahil sa tatag at tibay ng loob ng kuponan ng Gilas
Pilipinas ang mga bagay na ito ay hindi naging hadlang upang ipakita ang talento ng Pinoy. At
pinataunyan rin nila na walang imposible at hindi kayang gawin basta buo ang iyong loob at
tiwala sa sarili. Ang konsepto ng Gilas Pilipinas na PUSO ay talagang sumisimbolo sa
kanilang kuponan dahil naniniwala sila na kaya nilang lampasan ang hamon sa kabila ng
pagkukulang at pagiging iba.
LAYUNIN NG PAG-AARAL
Sisikapin ng mananaliksik na sagutin ang mga sumusunod na katanungan:
1. Ano ang naging Karanasan ng mga taga hanga na sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas sa
naganap na 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. At konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag
bangon at pag harap sa hamon?
2. Ano ang epekto ng konsepto ng PUSO sa isang taga-hanga?
3. Paano nakaka-apekto ang konsepto ng PUSO sa mga taga hanga?

35

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

MGA KAUGNAY NA PAGAARAL


Muling pagbangon sa kabiguan
Ang pagkapanalo ay isang hamon upang mas pag-igtingin pa ng mga manlalaro ang
kanilang talentong ipinamamalas sa labanang pampalakasan. Hamon na dapat ay paghandaan
upang madepensahan ang titulo ng pagkapanalo na kanilang tangan (Cundangan, 2012). Marahil
ay nabigo at hindi nagtagumpay ang isang manlalaro sa pagkamit ng tagumpay. Naghahangad pa
din siya na muling makabangon at makabawi. Bilang isang manlalaro, dapat maluwag mong
tatanggapin kung ano man ang magiging resulta dahil alam mo na ito ay isang patimpalak kung
saan merong mananalo at merong matatalo.
Paglaban sa Pagiging Pesimistiko
Ang unang mahalagang hakbang ay pag-aralang kilalanin ang gayong negatibong
kaisipan. Ang susunod na hakbang ay labanan ang mga ito. Humanap ng ibang makatuwirang
mga paliwanag. Kung magtutuon ka ng pansin sa espesipikong mga katotohanan, ilalantad nito
ang negatibong mga kaisipan na dulot lamang ng labis na emosyon. Talaga bang wala ka nang
kuwenta kapag hindi ka tinanggap sa isang pagkakataon, o may maiisip ka pang ibang larangan
sa iyong buhay gaya ng iyong espirituwal na mga gawain, kaugnayan sa pamilya, o
pakikipagkaibigan kung saan naging matagumpay ka naman. Pag-aralang ituring na ang pagiging
labis na negatibo lamang ang nakakakaapekto ng mga karanasan mo.
Kawalan ng Kakayahan na Tumanggap ng Pagkabigo
Ang pakikilahok daw sa isports ay makakapaghubog o makakadebelop ng magandang
karakter ng isang tao. Mayroon din nagsasabi na ang isports daw ay makakapagpakita ng
karakter o kung sino talaga ang isang tao (Sipin, 2005). Sadyang competitive ang mga tao na
nakapaligid at kalahok sa isports, sino nga ba naman ang nais matalo. Grabe ang pressures of
winning at kung mali ang kinamulatan ng iba tungkol sa pagtangap ng pagkatalo ay maraming
idududlot na negatibo ito, nandyan ng maaring sa sobrang pikon ay makasakit ng iba. Kung may
talo may panalo, kung talo tanggapin ito at magpokus na lang na mas mapagbuti ang sarili at
kung panalo naman ay tumahimik na lang at wag nang mangutya ng tinalo. Hindi lang sa mga
nananalo natin maaring makita ang pagiging the best dahil kahit na ang pokus sa isports ay sa
mga nananalo, higit na nakakapagpalabas pa rin ng magandang karakter kung paano ka nanalo,
kung matalo ka man ay kung paano mo tatangapin ang pagkatalo.

36

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Pagiging Matatag at Matibay


Ang pag-unawa sa konsepto ng Katatagang-Loob ay isang suliranin sa pagpapakahulugan
ng mga salita. Ang salitang Katatagang-Loob ay binubuo ng dalawang salita, tatag at loob. Ang
dalawa ay magkaiba ng kahulugan ngunit masasagot sa semantikong pananaliksik (Tiangco,
2013). Ang Katatagang-Loob ay iba sa kahulugan ng Lakas ng Loob ngunit may mga iskolar na
nagsasabi na ang Katatagang-Loob at Lakas ng Loob ay magkatulad lamang ng
pagpapakahulugan ngunit ang Katatagang-Loob ay hindi gumagamit ng Lakas at kapangyarihan
samakatwid ang ibig sabihin ng Katatagang-Loob sa madaling salita ay pagkamatatag, matibay,
sa lahat ng pagsubok at kasawian na hindi ginagamitan ng lakas at kapangyarihan. Ang
kabuuang kahulugan nito ay ang pagbalik sa normal, ibig sabihin sa anumang mga bagay, sa mga
nararanasang mga pagsubok ay may kakayahan na ibalik ng isang tao ang kanyang sarili sa
kabila ng nangyari, halimbawa sa pagkakamali ng isang tao, minsan ang tinitingnan lang ng tao
ay ang kamalian na kanyang nagawa at dahilan na ito ng pagsuko ngunit sa kaisipang ito ng
kaelastikuhan walang dahilan para sumuko, samakatuwid, may kakayahan ang lahat na maging
matatag at ipagpatuloy ang buhay.
SINTESIS:
Ayon sa mga nalikom na kaugnay na pag-aaral masasabi ng mananaliksik na ang buhay
ng tao ay kaakibat ng mga pangyayari at karanasang nagbibigay-kulay at kabuluhan sa kanila.
Ang mga karanasang ito, mabuti man o masama ay maaring nagpatibay o nagpahina sa kanya. At
pwede natin ito ihalintulad sa isports na basektball ang paglalaro ng basketball dito sa Pilipinas
ay parte na nang ating kultura hindi lang sa ating bansa pati na rin sa buong mundo. Malaki ang
impluwensya ng pag-lalaro ng basketball sa isang indibidwal dahil dito natututo sila maging
disiplinado at natutunan nilang tumangap ng pag katalo hindi lang sa laro ngunit pati na rin sa
kanilang buhay. At dito papasok kung pano sila babangon upang humarap ulit sa hamon. Ito ang
kabuluhan ng buhay ng mga Pilipinong manlalaro ng Gilas Pilipinas na hindi nauubusan ng
tiyaga at katatagan sa kabila ng mga paghihirap o pagsubok at ito ay dahil sa kanilang pagiging
matatag at matibay. Dahil dito nais ng mananaliksik na pag-aralan kung ano nga ba ang meron sa
konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag bangon at pag-harap sa hamon.
METODO NG PAGAARAL
Disenyo ng Pananaliksik
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay isang palarawang pag-aaral na gagamit ng maka-Pilipinong o
katutubong pananaliksik partikular ang pagtatanung-tanong at pagkikipagkuwentuhan. Sa
paggamit ng metodong ito, mabibigyan ng kakayahan ang mananaliksik na malikom ang
saloobin ng mga taga hanga na sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas sa naganap na 2014 FIBA
Basketball World Cup at konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag bangon at pag harap sa hamon.

37

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Mga Kalahok
Ang mga kalahok sa pananaliksik na ito ay mga taga-hanga ng isports na basketbol
partikular ang mga taga-suporta ng Gilas Pilipinas. Ang mga taga-suporta ay yung mga palaging
nakasubaybay sa bawat laban ng Gilas Pilipinas laban sa ibat ibang bansa. Walang espesipikong
edad ang nais maging respondante ng mananaliksik sapagkat ibabase lamang niya ito sa kanilang
pagsubaybay at pagsuporta sa Gilas Pilipinas.
Instrumento ng Pananaliksik
Ang mananaliksik ay gagamit ng rekorder at panimulang tanong upang makuha niya ang
karanasan ng mga taga hanga na sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas sa naganap na 2014 FIBA
Basketball World Cup. Ang mga impormasyong makakalap ng mananaliksik ay gagamitin niya
upang maging basehan sa panghinaharap na layunin.
Paraan ng pagkuha ng datos
Ang paksa ng pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa karanasan ng mga taga hanga na
sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas sa naganap na 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. At konsepto ng
PUSO sa muling pagbangon at pag-harap sa hamon. Ang mananaliksik ay gagamit ng makaPilipinong pamamaraan ng pananaliksik upang i-ayon sa kamalayang Pilipino at nang sa gayon
ay maiwasan ang ibang maaaring maging balakid sa pagkuha ng datos.
PRESENTASYON AT INTERPRETASYON
Ang isinagawang pag-aaral ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga taga hanga ukol sa karanasan
at konsepto ng PUSO ng mga sumubaybay ng Gilas Pilipinas at ito ay base sa maka-Pilipinong
pamamaraan na kinailangan ng maingat at masusing pag kalap ng datos. Sa kabuuan mayroong
kalahok ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ang layunin ng pag-aaral na ito ay mabigyan
kasagutan ang mga sumusunod: (1) Ano ang naging karanasan ng mga taga hanga na
sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas sa naganap na 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. At konsepto ng
PUSO sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa hamon, (2) Naging epektibo ba ang konsepto ng
PUSO sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa hamon, (3) Pano naka-apekto ang konsepto ng
PUSO sa mga taga hanga. Isang masusing pag-aanalisa at pakikinig ang isingawa ng
mananaliksik ang bawat pahayag ng kalahok patungkol sa karanasan at konsepto ng PUSO ng
mga sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas na tumugon sa mga nais mabigyan linaw na tanong sa pagaaral na ito.

38

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Karanasan ng mga taga hanga na sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas, At konsepto ng PUSO


sa muling pag bangon at pag harap sa hamon
Labing-tatlong taga-hanga ang nag-bahagi ng kanilang pananaw sa Konsepto ng PUSO
sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa hamon. Ang mga sumusunod na pahayag ay binasa at at
sinuri maigi ng manaliksik upang makalikom ng sapat na kaalaman sa bawat karanasan ng mga
taga-hanga.
Nung habang ginagawa ko na yung thesis ko tapos need ko na siya ipasa para makuha yung
certificate ko so nung pinakita ko na yung nirevise ko. May pinaedit pa sakin yung adviser ko so
hindi ako nabigyan ng certificate that day so kinabukasan naedit ko na pinasa ko ulit pero may
nakita nanaman siyang mali. Nakailang ulit akong edit. print. edit. Print. Yung nakakastress na
naiiyak na ko. I had a breakdown that night nung ineedit ko yung thesis ko. Siguro kasi patong
patong na yung nafifeel ko and naprepressure na siguro ako. Tapos kasi parang pabalik balik
ako tapos nakakawalang pagasa na bumalik sakanya kasi hindi din naman niya ko bibigyan ng
certificate. Pero i told myself na, kung gusto ko talaga makuha yung kailangan ko paghirapan
and wag ako mag give up. Inayos ko sarili ko nun tapos pinakalma ko din sarili ko tapos inedit
ko na yung pinaeedit niya. Same old scenario nung bumalik ako pero nung may nakita siya ulit
na ieedit hindi na ko nainis at na-pressure at all inisip ko nalang na after neto makukuha ko din
naman yung certificate so yun. After nung balik ko bumalik ako kinabukasan. then yun! May
Certificate na ko! dun ko nahalintulad ang sarili ko na isa ako sa mga man lalaro ng Gilas na
kahit anong hirap at pag subok ang mangyari hindi ko kailngan sumuko! PUSO LANG! -Tagahanga 1
Ang mga tagahanga ng Gilas Pilipinas ay muling namulat na kaya na pala ng Pilipinas na
lumaban sa ibang bansa. Ang PUSO ay naging isang tagapagpagana at tagapagbigay ng lakas
ng loob sa mga manlalaro at ang tiwala na ibinigay natin sa Gilas pilipinas. -Taga-hanga 2
Disappointed. di tayo umabot sa next round eh. pero it gave me hope to believe na someday
makukuha din natin yung gold. - Taga-hanga 3
Sa karanasan bilang taga-hanga, napatunayan ng mga Gilas na kahit na mas magagaling ang
kalaban pinakita nila ang puso na sa hindi pagsuko. Doon naging magaling ang pagpasok ng
konsepto ng PUSO. Ang pinoy madaling mainlab, madaling masaktan at madaling magkasakit
sa PUSO. Pero sa mga ganitong aspeto tulad ng basketball na tiyak na dugo't pawis ang
sakripisyo ng mga manlalaro, ang PUSO ay swak na swak sa kanila dahil sa katangian ng pinoy
na hindi pagsuko at patuloy ang pagharap sa mga hamon. - Taga-hanga 4
Bilang tagasubaybay at fan nadin ng philippine basketball syempre natuwa ako at na excite
kasi di ko talaga inaasahan na maachieve nila yung feat na yun yung concept naman na puso
okay yun kaso wag sana laging ganun puro puso, wala utak ika nga ng iba. Hindi man ako
naglalaro pero at the very least the way they played sa asian games didnt show the concept of
their "puso. - Taga-hanga 5

39

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Masaya naman ang karanasan dahil nirepresenta ng gilas pilipinas ang ating bansa sa fiba
world cup. Ang puso ay isang katagang nagpapahiwatig na kaya natin makagawa ng isang
bagay kung may tiwala tayo sa sarili at may puso. - Taga-hanga 6
Ang mga taga hanga na sumabaybay sa gilas pilipinas sa naganap na 2014 FIBA basketball
world cup ay naging supportive dahil sa pagkakataong ito na kita natin kung pano nag ka isa
ang bawat pilipino sa tuwing magkakaroon ng laban ang gilas pilipinas sa FIBA naging simbolo
na din ito ng ating pagkakaisa biliang isang bansa sa pamamagitan ng pag suporta sa ating
kinatawan sa FIBA basketball world cup. - Taga-hanga 7
Ang bawat laro ng Gilas Pilipinas nung nakaraang FIBA Basketball World Cup ay makapigil
hininga. Hindi maiiwasan ng kahit na sino na humanga dahil sa paglalaro nila ng buong puso.
Para saakin, ang salitang ito ang dahilan kung bakit nakuha nila ang suporta ng buong bansa
dahil ipinakita nila sa atin na hindi na mahalaga ang manalo, basta maibigay ang lahat ng kaya,
ay sapat na! - Taga-hanga 8
Naging kapana-panabik at puno ng pag-asa ang naranasan ko tulad ng iba pag nakasaksi sa
naging paglalakbay ng Gilas Pilipinas sa Fiba. Nagdulot ito ng panibagong pag-asa at naghatid
ng karangalan sa mga Pilipinong tulad ko dahil ang ipinamalas ng Gilas ay muling nagluklok sa
Pilipinas sa mapa ng mundo. - Taga-hanga 9
Lubos na humanga at nagalak ang bawat Pilipinong sumubaybay sa Gilas Pilipinas na
lumaban noong nakaraang 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Hindi lang ang mga Pilipino kung
pati ang ibang mga bansang sumubaybay sa nasabing larangan ay humanga at napabilib sa
natatagong talento ng mga pilipino. Ang konsepto ng PUSO ay ang nagbigay ng lakas ng loob
sa ating mga kalahok kahit na sila ay tinuturing mga "under dog" sa kalahok na ito. - Tagahanga 10
Bigo, na may halong tuwa at ligaya. Ito ang una kong naramdaman nong lumaban at natalo
ang Gilas Pilipinas. Bigo dahil mataas ang aking ekspektasyon sakanila, tuwa at ligaya dahil
alam kong sa susunod na kompitisyon eh may ibubuga sila sa kanilang mga makakalabang
manlalaro. - Taga-hanga 11
Ang naging karanasan nila ay masaya, ang "PUSO" ang nag silbing inspirasyon ng gilas sa
kanilang paglalaro at paraan ng mga taga subabaybay upang ipahayag ang kanilang taos
pusong suporta sa gilas. - Taga-hanga 12
Kakaibang karanasan ang ibinigay ng gilas para sa akin. Binigyan nila tayo ng pagasa na
kaya pala natin makipagsabayan sa mga de kalibreng bansa pag dating sa paglalaro ng
basketball. Pinakita nila ang quality ng mga players natin dito sa pilipinas na hindi lamang tayo
naglalaro ng pisikal kundi lumalaban din tayo ng may tapang at puso. Ang konsepto ng puso
para sakin ay simpleng simple ang pagmamahal na lamang nating mga Pilipino sa basketball ito
ang nagiging lakas natin para patuloy pang lumaban na kahit sino pa ang kalaban. - Tagahanga 13

40

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Kung titingnan mo ang mga naging sagot ng mga kalahok, makakabuo ka ng isang
malaking konsepto ukol sa kanilang karanasan sa pag suporta sa kuponan ng Gilas Pilipinas.
Maaaring ang bawat kalahok ay may karanasan sa pag-bangon at pag-harap sa hamon ng
kanilang buhay at nagsilbing insipirasyon sakanila ang konsepto ng PUSO upang malagpasan
ang hirap at ang mga nasabing pag-subok ng kanilang buhay. At dahil mga taga-hanga sila ng
kuponan ng Gilas Pilipinas naging pamansag na sa kanilang araw-araw ang PUSO na gaano pa
kahirap ang hamon ng buhay huwag susuko. At napakalaking ehemplo ng kuponan ng Gilas
Pilipinas sa pag-papakita ng konsepto ng PUSO hindi lamang sa pag-lalaro pati na din sa pagharap sa hamon ng buhay. Ibat iba man ang kanilang sagot makikita mo pa din na iisa lang ang
kanilang gustong ipahayag.

Epekto ng konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag bangon at pag harap sa hamon sa isang
taga-hanga
Ang labing-tatlong taga-hanga ay nag bahagi ng kanilang saloobin sa epekto ng konsepto
ng PUSO sa muling pag bangon at pag harap sa hamon sa isang taga hanga.
Oo. Kasi katulad ng ginawa nila every game na kahit na natatalo na sila, na kahit na ang
tatakangkad ng kalaban nila hindi sila natakot and lumaban pa din sila until the end. Ako din
hindi nag give up kahit na may reason and choice ako na wag na ituloy or gawin yon. Pero pinili
ko na hindi mag give up and bigay yung 101% percent ko don. -Taga-hanga 1
Sa aking opinyon OO ngunit sa kabila ng kanilang pagkabigo bumangon pa rin ang gilas
pilipinas at hindi nawalang ng tiwala o ang "PUSO" sa pagkamit ng kanilang minimithi.-Tagahanga 2
Hindi. hindi lang dapat puso ang ginagamit. kailangan din ng utak at diskarte. kaya naman
sana ng gilas yung mga nakalaban natin eh. kulang lang sa diskarte at experience. - Tagahanga 3
Naging epektibo siya dahil talagang napapa post ang mga tao ng kung anu-anong bagay na
may kinalaman sa puso at sa gilas sa pamamagitan ng hash tags photos na may nakalagay na
PUSO. at syempre, ung PUSO na sinasabi na tinataglay ng GILAS ay nakahawa na rin sa mga
manunood na tipong napapaiyak o napapalundag sila sa bawa't pagkapanalo at pagkatalo ng
GILAS. suporta pa rin kahit anong mangyari. - Taga-hanga 4
Oo naging effective yun kasi behind those adversities, aside from the other teams being big and
much more talented than our team di padin nagpatalo dahil nga sa concept nila na puso and sa
teamwork at pagsunod sa coach nila. - Taga-hanga 5

41

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Para sa akin oo dahil nakatulong ito ng bahagya sa mga ordinaryong pilipino na naniwala na
kaya nilang gawin ang isang bagay. - Taga-hanga 6
Oo naging epektibo ang konsepto ng "PUSO" sa muling pag bangon at pag harap sa hamon
dahil ginagamit na din itong salita na ito sa ibang larangan ng sports kagaya ng boxing,
volleyball at marami pang iba. - Taga-hanga 7
Naging epektibo ang konspeto ng PUSO kahit hindi tayo nanalo sapagkat dahil sa konseptong
ito ay naipadala nila ang mensahe hindi lang sa mga taga hanga sa ating bansa, pati na rin sa
ibang bansa. Naipakita nila sakanilang laro na ginagawa ang isang bagay ng buong PUSO.
Manalo man o matalo. - Taga-hanga 8
Masasabi kong naging epektibo ang konsepto ng PUSO dahil ipinapaalala nito na
pagpupursige at pagbibigay ng dedikasyon sa laro ang susi para magtagumpay. - Taga-hanga
9
Sa aking pananaw ay ito ay naging sobrang epektibo dahil ito ang bumuhay sa ating mga
pangarap ng bawat pilipino. - Taga-hanga 10
Sa tingin koy malaking tulong ang nagawa ng PUSO sa pag-udyok at pagbigay lakas ng
loob sa Team Gilas. Unang una, sa binibigay nitong magandang epekto sa sikolohikal na aspeto
sa bawat manlalaro ng Team Gilas. Bagamat kulang na kulang ang mga manlalaro natin
pagdating sa tangkad at athleticism, ginagamit natin ang tanging lakas ng loob at
determinasyon upang mapatunayan sa lahat ng tao sa mundo na kaya nating mapantayan at
malampasan ang mga hamon na ibinibigay sa atin. - Taga-hanga 11
Sa aking opinyon maaring nakapagbigay "morale" ito sa manlalaro ng gilas. sa aking palagay
ito ay naging epektibo.- Taga-hanga 12
Para sakin naging epektibo ito. Gawin na lang natin example ang nangyaring trahedya nung
nakaraang taon. Naging malakas at matatag ang mga Pilipino sa pagharap sa pinaka malaking
problema ng bansa. Hindi tayo nagpatalo at bagkos ay patuloy na lumaban. At sa katunayan
sumikat ang litrato ng mga pinoy na naglalaro ng basketball na taga tacloban na siyang may
pinaka nasalanta ng bagyo. Ibig sabhin nagagawa parin natin laruin ang pinakamamahal nating
laro sa kabila ng mga problemang meron tayo. - Taga-hanga 13
Lahat ng sagot ng taga-hanga ukol sa epekto ng konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag
bangon at pagharap sa hamon ay iisa halos lahat ng mga ito ay tumutukoy sa positibo na
pananaw. Ang ibang taga-hanga pa nga ay nag-bangit ng epekto nito pag-dating sa emosyon,
mental, sikolohiyal ng isang indibidwal napakalaki ng epekto nito sa isang taga-hanga dahil ang
konsepto ng PUSO para sa kanila ay isang matibay na pamansag na nag-papalakas ng kanilang
loob sa hirap at hamon ng buhay. At para naman sa mga Pilipinong sumusubaybay sa kuponan
ng Gilas Pilipinas napaka-laki ng epekto nito pag dating sa pag-kakaisa ng ating sambayanan
maaring ihalintulad sa laban ng ating pambansang kamao na si Manny Pacman Pacquiao, na sa
42

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

tuwing may laban ay halos huminto ang mundo sa pag-subaybay at pag-tutok sa bawat bitaw ng
kanyang kamao. At katulad din ito sa mga laro ng Gilas Pilipinas na kahit alam nating
Underdog tayo sa ating mga kalaban, hindi tayo sumuko at umatras bagkos sa hamon
pagdating sa tangkad at tigas ng mga kalaban sa naganap na 2014 FIBA WORLD CUP.
Sa kabila ng pagkatalo nila hindi ito naging hadlang sa kanilang sumunod na mga laro.
Pinakita ng kuponan ng Gilas Pilipinas ang tunay na pamansag ng PUSO sa pamamagitan ng
huwag pag suko at huwag pag-bitiw hangang may pag-asa pa. Ihalintulad na lang natin ito sa
bawat laro ng Gilas Pilipinas na kahit lamang at alam nating mahihirapan sila sa kanilang
kalaban, hindi ito naging hadlang sa pag-laban at pag-papakita ng talento ng Pilipino hindi lang
sa ating bansa kundi pati na rin sa buong mundo. Ganito rin ang naging epekto ng konsept ng
PUSO sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa hamon sa mga taga-hanga, sumubaybay at sa
ating mga atleta, bagkos ng kanilang pag hihirap ginagawa nilang isang motibasyon ang PUSO
sa pag-lampas at pag-tapos ng kanilang mahihirap na laro, hindi lang sa laro pati na din sa
mahirap na hamon ng kanilang buhay.
Pag-apekto ng konsepto ng PUSO sa mga taga hanga
Labing-tatlong taga hanga ang nakakwentuhan ng mananaliksik tinanong ang kanilang
bawat saloobin kung pano naka apekto sa kanila ang konsepto ng PUSO nakaka-apekto talaga
ang konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa hamon sa pamamagitan ng
motibasyon sa kanilang mga sarili.
Tinuruan nila tayo na wag mag gigive up agad tapos sa kahit na anong gagawin mo just give
your 100% then makukuha mo yung gusto mong outcome/result. -Taga-hanga 1
Nakakaapekto ang PUSO sa mga tagahanga sa pamamagitan ng pagbibigay nito ng
motibasyon sa mga tagahanga ng nasabing laro hindi lang ng basketball ngunit sa mga
maraming gawain ngunit dahil sa PUSO ang mga tagahanga Ay hindi nawawalan ng pagasa at
hindi sumusuko at higit sa lahat ang pagbibigay inspirasyon na magkaroon ng pagmamahal sa
ano mang gawain. -Taga-hanga 2
Sa opinion ko, naging maganda yung konsepto ng puso dahil dito natuto tayo maniwala at
magkaroon ng kumpiyansa sa sarili. pero mas maganda sana kung may utak at diskarte din. Taga-hanga 3
Nakaka apekto ang PUSO sa mga taga-hanga dahil lahat tayo may PUSO. Ang pagsuporta
wala naman yan kung nakapapanood ka ng live o sa tv lang. Ang pagsuporta ay kung paano
naipapakita ng isang manunood o taga-suporta ang bawa't paghiyaw at bawa't luha na
naibibigay niya para palakasin ang loob ng GILAS na kahit alam mo sa sarili mong hindi ka
naririnig ng GILAS eh nandoon pa rin ang buo at totoong pagpapahayag ng iyong suporta. Taga-hanga 4

43

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Yung concept naman ng puso naadopt nadin syempre ng mga underdog teams sa liga tulad ng
team namin although talo sa semis we showed out everything that weve got and di man sa
pangmamaliit sa sarili namin alam namin na di kami aabot kung di buo ang loob nmn at tiwala
sa teammates. - Taga-hanga 5
Katulad ng sinabi ko, nakatulong ito dahil binigyan nito ang mga pilipino ng paniniwala na
kayang gawin ang isang bagay basta kailangan lang gawin ng may paniniwala sa sarili at may
puso. - Taga-hanga 6
Ang salitang "PUSO" ay naging simbolo ng pag titiwala sa sarili sa tuwing haharap tayo sa
hamon ng buhay. Naturuan tayo nito maging matatag at malakas upang malagpasan ang ating
mga hinaharap kagaya ng ginawa ng Gilas Pilipinas sa FIBA basketball world cup. Ika nga ni
pangiligan "We may have fallen short of what we all desired to gift to our people after years of
desolation, but all of you persevered, and gave your best to the country and improved our
standing in world basketball." - Taga-hanga 7
Makikita naman kung gaano naka-apekto ang nasabing konseptong ito sa mga taga-hanga
sapagkat tumatak na ito sa mga pilipino. Dahil ang kahit na anong bagay basta may PUSO, ay
nagiging possible. - Taga-hanga 8
Malaki ang naging epekto ng konsepto ng puso dahil naging inspirasyon din ito ng mga
tagahanga upang magsilbing inspirasyon sa Gilas na ipanalo ang kanilang mga laban sa
ipinapakitang suporta ng mga tagahanga nasa court man o nanonood lamang sa telebisyon. Taga-hanga 9
Ang konsepto ang naging inpirasyon ng bawat Pilipino sa lahat ng pagsubok at problemang
hinaharap nila. maaring ang darating na pagsubok ay masyadong malaki at mahirap
masolusyunan subalit kapag binigay mo ang iyong buong loob at puso sa bawat pagsubok
kakayanin mong ito'y malampasan at makaahon mula sa pagsubok na ito. - Taga-hanga 10
Malaking tulong din ang naibigay ng PUSO sa mga taga-subaybay sa mga kadahilanang
ito. Una, ginawa itong marketing strategy ng smart gilas team upang mabigyang-pansin ng
bawat mamamayang Pilipino ang mga laban na hinarap ng Gilas Pilipinas. Dahil dito, kapag
ang isang taoy binanggit na ang salitang puso, na-aassociate na ito agad sa Gilas Pilipinas.
Pangalawa, inspirasyon para sa mga batang manlalaro sa Pilipinas. Magkakaroon sila ng
determinasyon na gagamitin nila sa paglaki na hindi dapat maging hadlang ang anumang bagay
na haharang sakanila upang maipakita nila at mapatunayan na kayang kaya abutin ang
kanilang mga pangarap basta may sipag, tiyaga, will power, at PUSO. - Taga-hanga 11
Ito ay maituturing na isang "battle cry" ng mga tagahanga ito ang simbolo na naniniwala sila
sa galing ng gilas. ito ay naging instrumento ng pagkakaisa ng mga tagahanga. ito ay nagbigay
sa kanila ng ligaya at pride na maaring makabuti sa kanilang trabaho or adikain. - Taga-hanga
12

44

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Lahat ng players ngayon sa buong pilipinas isa lang ang sinisigaw kapag medyo nadedehado
na laban. Yang Puso na yan ang lagi nating sinisigaw at pinapakita lang dito na hindi madaling
sumuko mga Pilipino na lalaban gang sa huli. - Taga-hanga 13
Base sa mga nalikom na impormasyon ng mananaliksik karamihan ng kalahok ay nagsabi na talagang naka-apekto ang konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa
hamon. Tulad na lamang ni taga-hanga 2, 4, 6 at 8 na ibinigay ang kanilang saloobin kung pano
naka-apekto ang konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pag-bangon at pag-harap sa buhay sa
pamamagitan ng hindi pag-suko at pagiging buo ang loob sa anumang problema at dagok na
kanilang haharapin sa buhay. Ayon sa taga-hanga 8, Makikita naman kung gaano naka-apekto
ang nasabing konseptong ito sa mga taga-hanga sapagkat tumatak na ito sa mga Pilipino. Dahil
ang kahit na anong bagay basta may PUSO, ay nagiging possible.
Kung titingnan mo napakalaki ng ambag ng konsepto ng PUSO sa pang araw-araw
nilang buhay dahil hindi lang ito isang pamansag na para sa kanila ito din ay isang motibasyon
upang harapin at malagpasan ang hamon ng buhay. Nakuha ang atensyon ko ang emosyonal na
sagot ni taga-hanga 4 na ayon sa kanya, Nakaka apekto ang PUSO sa mga taga-hanga dahil
lahat tayo may PUSO. Ang pagsuporta wala naman yan kung nakapapanood ka ng live o sa tv
lang. Ang pagsuporta ay kung paano naipapakita ng isang manunood o taga-suporta ang bawa't
paghiyaw at bawa't luha na naibibigay niya para palakasin ang loob ng GILAS na kahit alam
mo sa sarili mong hindi ka naririnig ng GILAS eh nandoon pa rin ang buo at totoong
pagpapahayag ng iyong suporta. Pinakita lang ng taga-hanga na ito na walang limitasyon ang
pag-suporta basta bat parehas kayo ng mithiin at hindi hadlang ang presensya sa pag-suporta.
Ngunit meron din naman na nag-sabi na hindi lang dapat konsepto ng PUSO ang pairalin
kailangan din dapat ng utak at diskarte ayon sa taga-hanga 3.

45

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

KONKLUSYON AT REKOMENDASYON
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay pag talakay sa pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Gilas Pilipinas sa
naging karanasan nila at konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pagbangon at pagharap sa hamon. Sa
kabuuan, mayroong labing-tatlong kalahok ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ayon sa nalikom
na impormasyon ng mananaliksik sa pamamagitan ng pagtatanung-tanong at pakikipag
kwentuhan, mayroong ibat ibang panananaw ang mga taga-hanga sa konsepto ng PUSO sa
muling pag bangon at pagharap sa hamon. Ibat iba ang pahayag ng mga taga-hanga pero iisa
lang naman ang kanilang gustong iparating, ang konsepto ng PUSO para sa kanila ay isang
pamansag na nakakapagpagising ng kanilang motibasyon upang harapin at tapusin ang mga
hamon ng kanilang buhay gano man ito kahirap at pagpapapakita na mayroong pag-asa basta buo
ang ating puso. May nagsabi na para sa kanya ito ay isang insipirasyon para sa mamayang
Pilipino upang bumangon at ipatuloy ang buhay sa kabila ng trahedya problema na nararanasan
sa buhay. At sa kabilang banda naman para sa taga-hanga na ito ang PUSO na pamansag ng
Gilas Pilipinas ay naging instrumento upang mag kaisa-isa ulit ang mamamayang pilipino. At sa
isang taga hanga naman na ito na lubos na nakuha ang aking atensyon na nagsasabi na walang
limistasyon ang pagsuporta basta parehas ng minimithi at buong puso tayo magbibigay ng
suporta para na din tayong naglaro kasama ang Gilas Pilipinas sa loob ng basketball court. Ibat
ibang pananaw, at ibat ibang karanasan ngunit makikita pa rin natin na iisa lang ang naging
konsepto ng PUSO sa muling pagbangon at pagharap sa hamon para sa mga taga-hanga.
Ipinapakita ng konsepto na ito ang hindi pagsuko sa hamon ng buhay sa kabila ng lahat,
hanggang may buhay may pag-asa. At kung ang buo ang puso natin sa pagharap sa mga ito, tayo
ay makakabangon at makakaranas ng ginhawa sa ating buhay.
At dumako naman tayo sa epekto ng konsepto ng PUSO sa mga taga-hanga, ayon sa
kabuuang sagot malaki ang naging epekto ng konsepto sa mga taga-hanga pagiging positibo ang
pangunahing thema at hindi pagsuko sa kabila ng problema at dagok ng buhay. Ayon pa nga sa
isang taga hanga malaking tulong ang nagawa ng PUSO sa pag-udyok at pagbigay lakas ng
loob sa Team Gilas. Unang una, sa binibigay nitong magandang epekto sa sikolohikal na aspeto
sa bawat manlalaro ng Team Gilas. Bagamat kulang na kulang ang mga manlalaro natin
pagdating sa tangkad at athleticism, ginagamit natin ang tanging lakas ng loob at
determinasyon upang mapatunayan sa lahat ng tao sa mundo na kaya nating mapantayan at
malampasan ang mga hamon na ibinibigay sa atin. At maari natin ito ihalintulad sa pang arawaraw nating buhay na may mga oras na tayo ay susuko na. Ngunit kung tayo ay may puso at buo
natin itong haharapin tiyak na ito ay ating malalampasan. Ganun ang epekto ng konsepto ng
PUSO sa mga taga-hanga na para silang mga manlalaro ng Gilas Pilipinas sa loob ng court sa
pagpapakita ng talento sa buong mundo at may malaking pusong lumalaban para sa minimithi ng
kuponan at para sa karangalan ng bayan.
Iminungkahi ng mananaliksik na higit mas mapahusay pa ang kanyang pag-aaral ukol sa
konsepto ng PUSO at lubos maunawaan ang saloobin at karanasan ng mga susunod na mga
taga-hanga at maging malalim ang bawat pananaw na makakalap upang higit na mas mapatibay
46

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ang mga datos na makukuha. Inirerekomenda din ng mananaliksik na gawing kalahok ang mga
tao na bumubuo ng Gilas Pilipinas Basketball Team kasama na ang mga manlalaro nito upang
maging maganda at kapanapanabik ang pag-aaral. Sa ganoong paraan mas makakakuha ng higit
na impormasyon ukol sa bagay na gustong malaman at paano nagsimula ang konsepto ng
PUSO sa mga manlalaro ng Gilas Pilipinas. At para sa matagumpay na pananaliksik
Inirerekomenda ng mananaliksik na gumamit ng maka-Pilipinong pananaliksik upang makakuha
ng sapat na datos at naaayon sa kultura ng mga Pilipino.

47

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

TALAAN NG SANGGUNIAN
Cundangan, E. (2012). Beavers Tanker: Bigo mang madepensahan ang titulo, hangad padin ang
pagbawi
sa
susunod
na
mga
laban.
Retrieved
from
http://elmarkadofeatures.blogspot.com/2012/03/beavers-tanker-bigo-mang-madepensahan.html
Pe-Pua, R. (1982) Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. Filipino Psychology:
Theory, Method and Application. University of Philippine Press.
Sipin,
B.
(2005)
Court
http://coachmahusay.blogspot.com/

ni

Coach.

Pikon

Talo

Retrieved

from

Tiangco, J. (2013) Ang Katatagang-Loob sa Pilosopiyang Pilipino ng Pagiging Matatag at


Matibay. Retrieved from http://mjgbasallaes.blogspot.com/2013/03/ang-katatagang-loob-sapilosopiyang.html

48

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra sa pamansag na Never


Say Die bilang konsepto ng pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob
John Carlo D. Lapat
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRAK
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga taga-hanga
ng Barangay Ginebra sa pamansag na Never Say Die bilang konsepto ng
pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob. Sa kabuuan, mayroong labing-tatlong tagahanga ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit
ng katutubong pamamaraan partikular ang pagtatanung-tanong at
pakikipagkwentuhan sapagkat ito ay naaayon sa kamalayang Pilipino. Ang
resulta ng nasabing pag-aaral ay naglalaman ng halos iisang damdamin
patungkol sa pananaw nila sa pamansag na Never Say Die. Hindi
maikakaila na ang positibong epekto ng pamansag ang namuno para sa mga
kalahok. Mayroon din ibat-ibang sagot ang mga kalahok ukol sa kung
paano nakaka-apekto ang pamansag para sa isang taga-hanga tulad na
lamang ng nabibigay nitong dahilan upang patuloy na sumuporta ang mga
taga-hanga ng kuponan dahil ito ay ang paghuhugutan nila ng lakas ng loob.
Ang pagkakaroon din ng pamansag ay pagkakaroon ng isang bagay na
paniniwalaan.

Ang palakasan o isports ay binubuo ng isang pangkaraniwang pisikal na gawain o


kasanayan na nagbuhat sa ilalim ng napagkasunduan na mga patakarang hayag at kasama ang
layuning rekreasyonal. Ito ay para sa pakikipagpaligsahan, para sa sariling kasiyahan, upang
makamtan ang manguna at para sa pagsulong ng isang kasanayan.
Isang pangunahing epekto ng palakasan ay ang libangan. Ang libangan ay isang kaaliwan
o kalibangan na binabalak upang kunin ang pansin ng mga tagapakinig o mga kalahok. Ang
libangan ay nagbibigay ng maraming oportunidad para sa mga tao upang mas higit na magamit
ang kanilang kakayahan, upang maging bahagi ng isang nakikiisang grupong nakikipagpunyagi,
upang maranasan ang tuwa, at kung minsan ang lungkot, sa pagkapanalo at pagkatalo. At
karagdagan pa, ang pakipagpaligsahan ay simpleng nakakatuwa. Ang pakikipag-paligsahan
naman ay kalakip ng palakasan. Ito ang naghahanda sa mga indibidwal na harapin ang mga
pagsubok sa buhay at upang matutong tumugon ng positibo sa pagharap sa hamon at pagbabago.
Ang ilang isports ay nangangailangan ng malakas na kalagayang pisikal, gaya ng
basketbol at balibol. Ang iba naman tulad ng bilyar at "chess" ay mas higit na mataktika. Ang
palakasan para sa mga manlalaro o kalahok ay nagbibigay ng oportunidad sa tagumpay na
makadudulot ng tiwala sa sarili. Para naman sa mga taga-hanga ng bawat manlalaro o kalahok,

49

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ito ay nagbibigay ng pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob upang patuloy na sumuporta at magbigay


dedikasyon.
Bawat indibidwal ay magkakaiba ng pag-iisip kung kaya ito rin ang dahilan kung bakit
mayroon sari-sariling pananaw ang tao sa konsepto ng pagiging isang taga-hanga. Ang iba ay
naniniwala na ang isang taga-hanga ay yung tao na alam lahat ng bagay tungkol sa kanilang
iniidolo o sinusuportahan na tao o kuponan. Ang iba naman ay yung may paniniwala na ang
isang tunay na taga-hanga ay yung handang ipagtanggol ang kanilang iniidolo laban sa mga
mapanghusgang tao. Ito ay dahil ayaw nilang nakakatangap ng paninira laban sa kanilang idolo.
Bilang isang taga-hanga, kagustuhan mo na maipagmalaki ang iyong idolo o sinusuportahang
grupo o kuponan.
Sa larangan ng palakasan o isports, bukod sa mga manlalaro o kalahok na naglalaban at
nagpapakita ng kani-kaniyang galing upang manalo ay kasabay ng mga taga-hanga na laging
nandyan upang sumubaybay at sumuporta sa kani-kanilang idolo. Talaga nga namang malaki ang
ginagampanang tauhan ng mga taga-hanga sa larangan ng palakasan o isports. Sila ang
nagbibigay ng dahilan sa mga manlalaro upang patuloy na ipakita at ipadama ang kanilang
dedikasyon sa laro upang suklian ang mainit na suporta at pagtitiwala ng kanilang mga tagahanga.
Dahil din sa mga taga-hanga ng isang manlalaro o kuponan, nabubuo ang ibat-ibang
pamansag o mas alam sa salitang islogan. Ito ay mga salita, kasabihan o motto ng isang tao,
kompanya, organisasyon at iba pang grupo na nagbibigay tatak at bansag upang mas madali
silang maalala at makilala. Sa larangan ng palakasan, partikular sa larong basketbol, maraming
taga-hanga ang bumubuo ng kani-kanilang pamansag para sa kanilang kuponan. Kagaya na
lamang ng pamansag sa kuponan ng Barangay Ginebra na Never Say Die. Ang pagbibigay na
bansag o katawagan ay isa lamang sa ibat-ibang paraan ng pagpapakita ng suporta at tiwala ng
mga taga-hanga. Sa mabilis na paglawak at pagtangkilik nating mga Pilipino sa isports ay
kasabay nito ang pagpili ng bawat isa sa atin kung sino nga ba ang nararapat para bigyan suporta
at subaybayan.

LAYUNIN NG PAG-AARAL
Sinikap ng mananaliksik na sagutin ang mga sumusunod na katanungan:
1. Anu-ano ang pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra sa pamansag na Never Say
Die bilang konsepto ng tibay ng loob?
2. Ano ang epekto ng pamansag para sa isang taga-hanga?
3. Paano naaapektuhan ng pamansag ang tiwala at tibay ng loob ng isang taga-hanga?

50

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

MGA KAUGNAY NA PAGAARAL


Ibat ibang uri ng mga taga-suporta
Hindi maaalis sa bawat taga-hanga ng isport na basketbol ang maging apektado sa bawat
pagkatalo ng kuponan na kanilang sinusuportahan. Sabi nga nila, kung sports fan ka, iba ka
dahil puso ang puhunan sa ibat ibang emosyon na iyong pinakakawalan sa bawat laban (Cabal,
2012). Ngunit ganito man ang iniisip ng ilan, pare-pareho lang naman lahat na nananalangin na
sana manalo ang kanilang kuponan. Narito ang listahan ng ibat ibang uri ng taga-suporta ayon
kay Cabal.
BOY/GIRL SISI
Sila yung mga taga-suporta na laging inaakala na ang bawat pagkatalo ay kasalanan ng
alin man sa mga sumusunod. Mga manlalaro, coaching staff, hurado, commentators o di
kayay lahat ng ito. Minsan pa, kapag talagang lugmok na lugmok na, sinisisi na rin nila ang
kanilang mga sarili na para bang may ginawa silang mali at sila ang may kasalanan ng lahat.
Kasama din dito yung mga taga-suporta na pinagbabalingan ng sisi ang mga kaawa-awang radyo
at telebisyon na para bang naglaro din ang mga ito. Para sa kanila, lahat ng nakikita nila ay isang
dahilan na sumira ng laro ng kanilang sinusuportahanag kuponan.
THE ANALYST
Sila naman yung mga taga-suporta na all-knowing. Para sa kanila, lahat ng ginagawa ng
coach ay mali at sila lang ang tama sa mundo. Malamang may mga balak silang maging isa sa
Coaching Staff. Sila rin yung mga feeling Team Managers na kung makapuna sa mga plays at
turnovers ay akala mo sila lang ang tama at magaling.
THE WARFREAK
Nakakatakot ang mga taga-suportang ito. Sila yung mga taga-suportang hindi alam ang
salitang kalma. Tuwing matatalo ang kanilang kuponan, iwasang makihalubilo sa ganitong klase
ng mga taga-suporta dahil mapagbabalingan nila ng galit ang una nilang makakabangga. Huwag
na huwag ding aasarin at kakantiin ang ganitong mga taga-suporta tuwing talo ang kanilang
kuponan dahil tiyak madadamay ka sa init ng ulo nila.
MGA INSTANT
Sila yung mga taga-suporta na bigla-bigla nalang nagbabago tuwing natatalo ang
kanilang kuponan. May ilan ring nagiging instant fan ng kalaban ng huling team na tumalo sa
kanilang kuponan.

51

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

GAMEPLAN: ATTACK THE NEW MEDIA


Sila yung mga taga-suporta na direcho sa Twitter at Facebook pagkatapos matalo ang
kanilang kuponan. Mauubos ang buong gabi nila sa paghahasik ng kanilang galit sa kanikanilang mga accounts.
THE EMO
Sila yung mga sobrang emosyonal na taga-suporta na daig pa ang brokenhearted tuwing
natatalo ang kanilang kuponan. Hindi makakain, hindi makatulog at hindi makausap.
Nakakabagabag sila. Sila yung papasok sa klase o sa trabaho na sira ang mood o badtrip sa
susunod na limang araw o hanggang sa susunod na laban ng kanilang kuponan. Feeling nila
magugunaw na ang mundo. Sila ay madalas matulala at hindi makapagsalita at kung minsan ay
may mga umiiyak pa sa kanila.
IN DENIAL
Sila yung mga taga-suporta na hindi matanggap ang pagkatalo ng kanilang kuponan.
Kahit pang-ilang talo na yun, hindi pa rin nila kaya. Coping mechanism ng ilan sa kanila ang
pagkakaroon ng selective memory. Ang sistema, pagkagising nila sa umaga, parang normal na
araw lang at hindi na nila maalala na natalo ang kanilang kuponan noong nakaraang gabi.
DAKILANG PALUSOT
Kuwela ang mga taga-suportang ito. Sila yung mga tipo na tuwing natatalo ang kanilang
kuponan, dadaanin nalang nila sa kung anu-anong pagdadahilan.
BANDWAGON
Sila yung mga taga-suportang nandyan lang tuwing panalo ang kanilang kuponan tapos
sabay kabig ng panlalait kapag natatalo.
THE OPTIMIST
Sila yung mga sobrang isinasabuhay ang pagiging isang mabait at kalmadong tagasuporta tuwing natatalo sila. Sila rin yung mga panabla ng lahat ng iba pang uri ng taga-suporta.
Sila rin yung mga taga-suportang pilit na binubuhay ang puso at tiwala para sa kanilang
kuponan. Wala kang maririnig o mababasang kahit anong negatibo mula sa kanila. Ang tanging
hangad lang nila, bumawi ang kanilang kuponan sa susunod na laro.
Pagtitiwala sa sarili
Nakalulungkot isipin na marami sa atin ang sa unang pagsubok pa lamang ay sumusuko
na. Dahil ito sa kawalan ng tiwala sa sarili. Ano nga ba ang tiwala sa sarili o self-confidence?
Ang tiwala sa sarili ay ang paniniwala sa sariling kakayahan. Ito ay tiwala sa sariling kakayahan
na matatapos ang isang gawain na may kahusayan. Dahil sa kawalan ng kumpiyansa sa sarili ay
52

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

maraming pagkakataon o oportunidad ang pinalalampas ng marami. Dahil din dito, natutuon ang
ating pansin sa ating mga kahinaan at hindi sa ating mga kakayahan at talento.
Magkakaroon tayo ng tiwala sa ating sarili kung hindi tayo umaasa sa opinyon o
paghuhusga sa atin ng ibang tao. Nawawala ito kung wala tayong matibay na kaalaman tungkol
sa ating angking mga talento at kakayahan. Kung hindi natin kilala ang ating sarili, aasa na
lamang tayo sa sinasabi ng iba at sila ang magdidikta sa atin ng ating mga limitasyon at
kakayahan. Kung nasisiyahan sila sa ating ikinikilos, papupurihan nila tayo; kung hindi naman
ay maaring bansagan tayong mahina o walang alam. Kung hindi natin kilala ang ating sarili,
wala tayong magagawa kundi tanggapin na lamang ang kanilang mga tawag o bansag sa atin.
Bilang tao, naniniwala si Covey na likas na sa atin ang paghahangad na umunlad at
malampasan ang ating mga kahinaan. Ang pag-unlad ng mga kakayahan ay nagsisimula rin sa
ating sarili. At ang tunay na kabiguan ay ang kabiguan ng isang taong hindi kumilos upang
paunlarin ang kaniyang sarili (Covey, 1998).
Paggamit ng islogan
Ayon kay Barrera, sa pag-aanunsiyo, ang islogan ay maikling pahayag na hamon o tema
ng isang produkto. Ginagamit ito upang madaling matandaan ang pangalan ng isang produkto o
serbisyo. Sa ganitong paraan, mas naaakit ang mamimili sa isang produkto (Barrera, 2013).
Pagtitiwala sa larangan ng isports
Para kay Cayabyab, ang pagtitiwala sa lahat ng pagkakataon ay isa lamang sa mga susi sa
matagumpay na pakikipaglaban sa larangan ng isports. Una sa sarili, kung hindi ka naniniwala sa
iyong sarili at hindi kumpiyansa, papaano mo mapagtatagumpayan ang madalas na kantiyaw ng
iba tulad ng isang mahinang manlalaro sa isang isports.
Pangalawa ay ang pagtitiwala sa iyong coach na kung saan siya mismo ay ang
tumatayong ama ng iyong gawain. Kahit na sabihin pa niyang talon sa kaliwa, walang kaabogabog na tatalon ka sa kaliwa at hindi alintana kung ano ang mangyayari pagkatapos ng gayung
pagkilos. Mahalaga na ang iyong pagtitiwala sa iyong coach dahil mayroon siyang ibang
pananaw sa mabilis na pagtingin sa gayung pagkakataon (Cayabyab, 2012).
Sa larangan ng sports, hindi dapat kailanman magunaw ang pagtitiwala, dahil kapag
nawala ito, para na ring inilagay mo ang iyong sarili sa kapahamakan. Ang pabago-bago ng
desisyon, ang malayang pagdedesisyon ng walang paaalam sa nasasangkot tulad sa coach, team,
o sa kapareha man. Tandaan ang pagtitiwala ay hindi pansarili lamang, sa halip ay para sa iba,
upang sa panahon na inaasahan na ikaw ay tutupad at gagawa ng desisyon, hinding hindi mo
bibiguin ang mga nasasangkot.

53

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Wika ng Larong Basketbol


Naniniwala si Ferriols na hindi lamang libangan ang larong basketbol. Dahil para sa
kanya, isa itong pangyayari na mayaman sa pilosopikal na bagay-bagay. Marami tayong
matututunan sa nasabing laro kung atin lamang itong pagmumuni-munihan.
Unang-una, palasak na kasabihan sa larong basketbol ang bilog ang bola. Dito
masasalamin ang samut saring pagpapahalaga na nakapaloob sa kaisipang Pilipino. Sa isang
bansang tulad natin na hindi naman ganoong nakaririwasa sa larangan ng pamumuhay,
mahalaga ang konsepto ng pag-asa (Ferriols, 2014). Pangalawa, mayroon rin siguro tayong
masisilip na prinsipyo sa konsepto ng diskarte at gulang na nakaugat sa konsepto ng matalinong
pagpapasya.
SINTESIS:
Ang isports, partikular ang basketbol ay talaga nga namang minahal at tinangkilik nating
mga Pilipino. Hindi maipagkakaila na lubos tayo kung magpakita ng pagmamahal sa larangan.
Isa sa mga paraan ng pagpapakita natin ng pagmamahal ay ang patuloy na pag suporta at
pagpapakita ng interes sa mga manlalaro at kuponan. Ito rin ay kadahilanan upang mag-tagal
sila sa larangan. Talagang malaki ang epekto ng suportang natatanggap mula sa mga taga-hanga.
Sila rin ang dahilan kung bakit nagkakaroon ng bansag ang isang kuponan bilang tanda ng
pagkakakilala. Ang pamansag ay mas nakatutulong upang mas madaling malaman ang partikular
na tao o kuponan. Ito rin kung minsan ang pinaghuhugutan ng tiwala at lakas ng loob ng
kanilang taga-hanga upang mas maipakita ang kanilang suporta. Ang pamansag ay maaaring
maging simbolismo ng katatagan o katibayan ng isang kuponan kasama ang kanilang mga tagahanga sa bawat laban. Dahil dito, naisip ng mananaliksik na gumawa ng isang pag-aaral tungkol
sa pananaw ng mga taga-hanga sa pamansag bilang konsepto ng pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob.
Napili ng mananaliksik ang kuponan ng Barangay Ginebra na isang kuponan sa Philippine
Basketball Association (PBA) na may pamansag na Never Say Die.
METODO NG PAG-AARAL
Disenyo ng Pananaliksik
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay isang palarawang pag-aaral na gumamit ng makapilipinong
pananaliksik partikular ang pagtatanung-tanong at pakikipagkuwentuhan. Sa paggamit ng
metodong ito, binigyan ng kakayahan ang mananaliksik na malikom ang mga saloobin ng mga
taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra tungkol sa pamansag na Never Say Die bilang konsepto ng
pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob.
Mga Kalahok
Ang mga kalahok sa pananaliksik na ito ay mga taga-hanga ng isports na basketbol
partikular ang mga taga-suporta ng Barangay Ginebra. Ang mga taga-suporta ay yung mga
palaging nakasubaybay sa bawat laban sa liga ng nasabing kuponan. Walang espesipikong edad

54

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ang maging respondante ng mananaliksik sapagkat ibabase lamang niya ito sa kanilang
pagsubaybay at pagsuporta sa kuponan.
Instrumento ng Pananaliksik
Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng rekorder at panimulang tanong upang makuha niya ang
saloobin at pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra. Ang mga impormasyong nakalap
ng mananaliksik ay ginamit niya upang maging basehan sa layunin ng pag-aaral.
Paraan ng pagkuha ng datos
Ang paksa ng pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob ng mga tagahanga sa pamamagitan ng pamansag. Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng maka-pilipinong
pamamaraan ng pananaliksik at ito ay ang pagtatanung-tanong at pakikipagkuwentuhan. Ito ay
para mai-ayon sa kamalayang Pilipino at maiwasan ang ibang maaaring maging balakid sa
pagkuha ng datos.
PRESENTASYON AT INTERPRETASYON
Ang isinagawang pag-aaral ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay
Ginebra sa pamansag na Never Say Die bilang konsepto ng pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob at ito
ay base sa makapilipinong pamamaraan na kinailangan ng maingat at masusing pagkalap ng
datos. Sa kabuuan mayroong labing-tatlong kalahok ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ang
layunin ng pag-aaral na ito ay mabigyang kasagutan ang mga sumusunod: (1) ang pananaw ng
mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra sa pamansag na Never Say Die bilang konsepto ng tibay
ng loob, (2) epekto ng pamansag para sa isang taga-hanga at (3) pag-apekto ng pamansag sa
tiwala at tibay ng loob ng isang taga-hanga. Isang masusing pag-aanalisa at pakikinig ang
isinagawa ng mananaliksik upang mabigyang katuturan ang ginawang pag-aaral. Bilang patunay,
ihahayag ng mananaliksik ang bawat pahayag ng mga kalahok patungkol sa pamansag na
tumugon sa mga nais mabigyang linaw na tanong sa pag-aaral na ito.
Pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra sa pamansag na Never Say Die
bilang konsepto ng tibay ng loob
Labing-tatlong taga-hanga ang nagbahagi ng kanilang pananaw sa pamansag na Never Say
Die. Ang mga sumusunod na pahayag ay sinipi ng mananaliksik:
Ang aking pananaw sa pamansag ng Barangay Ginebra na Never say die ay ang kanilang
manlalaro ay may ugali na hindi umaayaw kahit na tambak na ang kanilang kuponan. Buong
puso silang lalaban at ang kapalit naman nito ay tagumpay at kahit man matalo sila, di pa rin
sila aayaw basta sa huli sila pa rin ang maging kampeonato. - Taga-hanga 1
Bilang fan ng isang legendary PBA team, ang Never Say Die nilang slogan ay
nangangahulugang kahit anong laban o pagsubok na harapin ng team ay di sila susuko
hanggang dulo. - Taga-hanga 2

55

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Naunawaan ko na hindi lamang basta tibay ng loob kundi lakas at paniniwala sa sarili na
kayang malampasan ng bawat manlalaro ang mga pagsubok at paghihirap na tatahikin patungo
sa tagumpay. Ang pamansag na Never Say Die ika nga ay maihahantulad sa pusong palaban
ng mga pinoy, walang kamatayang pakikipagdigmaan upang makamit ang pagkapanalo. Taga-hanga 3
Never Say Die, para sa ginebra team at fans, ito ay paglaban hanggang hindi natatapos ang
oras. Kahit na anong/ilang puntos pa ang lamang ng kalaban as long as hindi pa naririnig ang
final buzzer may pag-asa pa. - Taga-hanga 4
Ang Never Say Die ay hindi pagsuko sa laban hanggat may oras pang natitira. - Taga-hanga
5
Ito ay ang hindi pagsuko hanggang sa huling segundo ng laro. Kahit lamang sa laro ang
kalaban, hindi nawawalan ng pag-asa para manalo hanggang matapos ang laro. - Taga-hanga
6
Ang ibig sabihin nito sa akin ay wag sumuko sa kahit anong pagsubok dumaan sa buhay. Taga-hanga 7
Walang bibitaw, handa silang ibigay lahat para manalo sa game. At never silang nag iisip na
bumitaw or sumuko sa game matalo man atlis ginawa nila yung best nila. - Taga-hanga 8
Ibig sabihin kahit ano mangyare matalo man o manalo, mananatili kang nasa kuponan nila.
Mag iba man ng manlalaro, Ginebra paren! - Taga-hanga 9
Ito ay paniniwala na kahit anong laki ng lamang o standing nila ay hindi pa rin sila susuko.
Binibigay nila ang lahat ng makakaya nila hanggang mapatunayan nilang lumaban sila
hanggang dulo. - Taga-hanga 10
Ito ay mga katagang pinanghahawakan ng mga manlalaro sa kuponan ng Ginebra. Bawat
players ay naniniwala na kahit anong team ang makakalaban nila ay kayang kaya nila itong
talunin at hanggat may oras pa ay wag isusuko ang laban. Lagi nilang iniisip na mananalo sila
sa bawat laban. Ang ibig sabihin ng Never Say Die ay wag mawawalan ng pag-asa sa kahit ano
man ang kaharapin nilang laban, ano mang pagsubok ang dumating ay kakayanin. - Tagahanga 11
Wag susuko sa lahat ng pagsubok, mahirap man o madali kailangan ipagpatuloy lang. Dehado
man o liyamado sa loob ng court dapat pa din lumaban at ibigay ang lahat ng makakaya. Taga-hanga 12
Kilala kasi ang Ginebra na di umaayaw sa laban. Maraming tao ang may gusto sa team ng
Ginebra kaya kahit sino pa ang mga maging player nito, Never Say Die pa din ang mga ginebra
fans. Patuloy pa din na silang umaasa na mananalo ang Ginebra sa PBA at ganun din ang
kuponan ng Ginebra. Never Say Die pa din ang pinapakita nila sa loob ng court kahit gaano
kalakas ang kalaban nila. - Taga-hanga 13
56

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Ilan sa kapansin-pansin na papanaw ng mga kalahok tungkol sa pamansag na Never Say


Die ay ang pananaw ni taga-hanga 1 kung saan sinabi niya na Ang aking pananaw sa
pamansag ng Barangay Ginebra na Never say die ay ang kanilang manlalaro ay may ugali na
hindi umaayaw kahit na tambak na ang kanilang kuponan. Sinang-ayunan din ito ni taga-hanga
4 at 10 dahil para sa kay taga-hanga 4 Ito ay paglaban hanggang hindi natatapos ang oras.
Kahit na anong o ilang puntos pa ang lamang ng kalaban as long as hindi pa naririnig ang final
buzzer may pag-asa pa. Samantala, para naman kay taga-hanga 10 Ito ay paniniwala na kahit
anong laki ng lamang o standing nila ay hindi pa rin sila susuko. Pagpapatunay lamang na
talaga nga namang ito ay nagpapakita ng Never Say Die attitude.
Ilan pang pananaw na halos tugma sa isat-isa ay ang sagot nila taga-hanga 2, 7 at 12.
Sinabi ni taga-hanga 2 na ang slogan ay Nangangahulugang kahit anong laban o pagsubok na
harapin ng team ay di sila susuko hanggang dulo. Ganun din halos kay taga-hanga 7 na
nagsabing Wag sumuko sa kahit anong pagsubok dumaan sa buhay. At para kay taga-hanga
12 Wag susuko sa lahat ng pagsubok, mahirap man o madali kailangan ipagpatuloy lang.
Pinapakita lamang na ang kanilang mga sagot ay may pananaw tungkol sa pamansag na sa
buhay, wag kang basta-basta susuko o magpapatalo sa mga hamon, ang importante ay yung
ginawa mo lahat ng iyong makakaya upang mag-tagumpay.
Magkakaiba man tignan ang naging sagot ng mga kalahok ukol sa kani-kanilang pananaw
sa pamansag na Never Say Die, hindi pa rin maikakaila na halos iisa lamang ang nilalaman at
pinupunto nila. Kanya kanya man sila ng sagot, makikita mo pa rin na pareho lang ang gusto
nilang ipahayag. Ito ay ang pananaw nila sa pamansag na nangangahulugan na hindi pag-suko at
pag-laban hanggang huli. Para sa mga kalahok, tatak na talaga ng Barangay Ginebra ang
pagkakaroon ng Never Say Die attitude. Nagtitiwala sila sa kuponan dahil alam nila na hindi
sumusuko at lumalaban ito hanggang huli. Kung matalo man, naipakita pa din ang tunay na
kahulugan ng Never Say Die. Napagtitibay din nito ang loob ng mga taga-hanga na patuloy
sumuporta kaya kahit gaano na katagal ang kuponan, nanalo man o hindi sa mga laro, mag-iba
man ang mga manlalaro eh talagang marami pa rin silang taga-hanga na handang tumangkilik at
nagtitiwala sa kuponan.
Epekto ng pamansag para sa isang taga-hanga
Ang labing-tatlong taga-hanga ay nag-bahagi ng kanilang saloobin sa epekto ng
pamansag. Tila namuno ang positibong epekto.
Syempre positibo ang epekto dahil ang magtaglay ng Never Say Die attitude ay higit na
makakatulong sa akin bilang taga hanga ng Barangay Ginebra dahil kahit anong mangyari di
ako magsasawang suportahan sila mapa venue man o kahit sa tv lang. Ang mga laro nila ay lagi
kong susubaybayan. - Taga-hanga 1
Positibo ang epekto ng slogan sa kahit sinong fan dahil sa tuwing sinisigaw ng crowd ang
Ginebra! at tinataas ang bandera ng team, mas ginaganahan ang players maglaro at
lumaban na nagreresulta ng pagkapanalo o dikit na laban. - Taga-hanga 2

57

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Bilang taga-hanga ito ay nagbibigay sakin ng positibong pag-iisip at emosyon. Ganun din sa
mga manlalaro ng Ginebra dahil ito ay nag papalakas para sa kanila upang maglaro ng mabuti
at ipanalo ang mga laban. - Taga-hanga 3
Positibo, ito ay nagbibigay ng lakas ng loob. Ilang beses ka man madapa hanggat may buhay
may pag-asa. - Taga-hanga 4
Para sakin maganda ito dahil ang hinahangahaan kong team ay lumalaban hanggang huling
segundo ng laban. - Taga-hanga 5
Ito ay positibo kasi kahit sa labas ng court magagamit mo parin ito. Kahit pagod at struggle sa
trabaho dapat Never Say Die. Dapat hindi mawawalan ng pag-asa. Hanggat may buhay may
pag-asa. - Taga-hanga 6
Positibo. Dahil naa-apply ko ito sa buhay ko. Kagaya na lang ng pakikipaglaro ng basketball.
Pumapasok minsan sa isip ako ang slogan nila na Never Say Die - Taga-hanga 7
Positibo kasi alam mo na yung hinahangaan mo na team ay hindi bibitaw at susuko sa game.
- Taga-hanga 8
Depende yun sa tao kung ano at paano ang ibig sabihin para sa kanya ng pagiging diehard
fan. As long as wala siyang naaapektuhan at hindi siya nakakasama para sa kuponan. - Tagahanga 9
Positibo ito para sa akin, bilang isang atleta nagbibigay ito ng motivation sa akin. Kahit na
parati akong nahihirapan lalo na sa mga praktis na ginugugol ko araw-araw. Nakakatulong ito
sa akin dahil hindi araw-araw maganda ang kinalalabasan ng ginagawa ko, nagbibigay ito ng
inspirasyon na ipagpatuloy ang ginagawa ko hanggang kaya ko. - Taga-hanga 10
Ang slogan na ito ay may malaking epekto din sa buhay ko gaya ng mga problemang
pinagdadaanan ko ay nasasabi ko palaging Never Say Die, kaya ko to. Ano mang pagsubok,
alam kong kakayanin ko din basta samahan lang ng pagkapit sa panginoon. Para sa akin, ito ay
positibo dahil alam kong di ako nawawalan ng pag-asa sa anumang hamon ng buhay sa tuwing
naaalala ko ang slogan na ito. - Taga-hanga 11
Isa itong positibong mensahe sa lahat ng kanilang taga-hanga. Dahil sila ang nagiging
inspirasyon ng taombayan na kahit ano pa man ang pagdaanan malalagapasan din ito. - Tagahanga 12
Ito ay positibo para sakin. Nagbibigay ito ng lakas ng loob at dagdag tiwala na kahit na anong
laban, lalaban sila at pwedeng manalo ang Ginebra dahil nga Never say die. - Taga-hanga 13
Kung papansinin, para sa taga-hanga 4, 6, 7, 10 at 11, masasabing ang epekto ng
pamansag na "Never Say Die" ay talagang positibo. Hindi lamang para sa mga manlalaro ng
kuponan kundi para na din mismo sa kanila dahil sa kanya kanya nilang buhay ay nagagamit nila
bilang inspirasyon o bagay na pinanghuhugutan ng lakas upang ipagpatuloy ang mga bagay na
58

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

kanilang ginagawa kahit na mayroong mga pagsubok na humahadlang. Iba man ang naging sagot
ng ibang kalahok, talagang makikita na halos lahat ng epekto ng pamansag para sa kanila ay
positibo. Ang iba ay dahil mas napapalakas ng pamansag ang kanilang pagtitiwala sa kuponan,
gaya na lamang ng epekto para sa taga-hanga 2, 5 at 8. Sabi nga ni taga-hanga 2 Sa tuwing
sinisigaw ng crowd ang Ginebra! at tinataas ang bandera ng team, mas ginaganahan ang
players maglaro at lumaban na nagreresulta ng pagkapanalo o dikit na laban. Para naman kay
taga-hanga 5 at 8 ito ay maganda dahil ang hinahangahaan nilang team ay lumalaban hanggang
huling segundo ng laban at hindi bumibitaw at sumusuko sa bawat laro.
Sa tuwing mahigpit ang laban o kahit medyo tagilid ang kuponan na manalo, kumakapit
sila sa katagang Never Say Die dahil para sa kanila, hanggang may oras pang natitira ay may
pag-asa at may pagkakataon pang lumaban. Ibat-iba man ang epekto ng pamansag na Never
Say Die para sa mga kalahok, hindi naman maipagkakaila na halos positibo lahat ang ito. Para
sa ilan, ito ay nagagamit bilang pagpapakita ng suporta at tiwala sa kuponan at kung hindi ito ay
nagagamit naman nila upang gawing inspirasyon at motibasyon sa kani-kanilang sariling buhay.
Ang iba ay nagsabi na hindi lamang sa court nagiging positibo ang pamansag na Never Say
Die dahil maging sa totoong buhay ay ginagamit niya bilang inspirasyon ang pamansag na
Never Say Die.
Ito rin ay motibasyon para sa isang kalahok na atleta. Para sa kanya, kahit nahihirapan
siya sa araw-araw na pag-eensayo, hanggang kaya niya ay patuloy niya itong gagawin. Isa pang
kalahok ang nagsabi na ang pamansag ay mayroong malaking epekto sa kanya. Dahil kapag may
problema siyang pinagdadaanan ay madalas niyang sinasabi sa sarili na Never Say Die, kaya ko
to at naniniwala siya na kahit anong pagsubok ay malalampasan. Sa tuwing maaalala niya ang
pamansag, hindi siya nawawalan ng pag-asa na harapin ang kahit anong hamon ng buhay. May
nagsabi din na depende sa tao kung ano ang magiging epekto ng pamansag. Maaari itong maging
positibo at maaari din namang maging negatibo.
Pag-apekto ng pamansag sa tiwala at tibay ng loob ng isang taga-hanga
Labing-tatlong taga-hanga ang nagbahagi ng kanilang saloobin sa kung paano nakakaapekto ang pamansag sa tiwala at tibay ng loob. Hati ang saloobin ng mga kalahok. Ang iba ay
naniniwala na nakaka-apekto talaga ng tiwala at tibay ng loob ang pagkakaroon ng pamansag
ngunit may ilang kalahok din naman ang nagsasabi na hindi basehan ang pamansag upang
makakuha ka ng maraming suporta mula sa mga tao.
Lahat naman ng team sa PBA ay may pamansag ngunit Barangay Ginebra pa rin ang aking
susuportahan sapagkat meron silang Never Give Up attitude na hindi mo naman makikita sa
ibang team. Para sa akin ang pagiging taga-hanga ng Ginebra ay hindi lamang pagiging
normal na taga hanaga ngunit meron ka din passion dapat sa laro ng basketball. At kitang kita
naman na pag Ginebra ang may laro, punong puno lagi ang Araneta/MOA mapa weekday man
yan o weekend. - Taga-hanga 1

59

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Para sa akin, malaki ang tulong ng slogan sa isang team. Mas nakakakuha ng suporta ang
buong team kasama na ang mga taga hanga pag iisa ang sigaw ng lahat lalo na sa gitna ng
laban. - Taga-hanga 2
Hindi mahalaga kung meron man o walang pamansag ang isang team. Ang importante eh yung
suportang nakukuha nila sa mga tao. Ang pamansag ay nagbibigay kompiyansa at buhay sa mga
taga-hanga at ganun din sa mga miyembro ng isang team. Ang pagchi-cheer para sa iyong
paboritong team ay nagbibigay gana lalo upang mas pag butihan nila ang paglalaro.
Naniniwala din ako na mas nakakatanggap sila ng mas higit na suporta mula sa mga tagahanga sa pamamagitan ng pamansag dahil ipinapakita nila ang kanilang effort para lang
sumuporta. - Taga-hanga 3
Malaki ang epekto ng salitang NSD sa mga taga-hanga ng Ginebra, bakit? Kasi ito yung
nagbibigay ng pag-asa sa kanila para maniwala sa team. Yung tipong nasa huling standing sila
pero since hindi pa tapos ang mga laban ay umaasa ka pa rin na sila ang magwawagi. At kung
sakali man na hindi palarin, meron pa naman next time. Katulad ngayon, ilang years na walang
championship, dun pa rin kami kumakapit sa salitang NSD, umaasang darating ang panahon na
makakamit din namin at ng team ng Ginebra ang championship na matagal ng inaantay. Para sa
akin hindi naman kailangan na may pamansag o slogan para suportahan ang team. Ito ay
kusang nararamdaman. Kahit anong ganda ng pamansag at pilit mo sa sarili mo na gustuhin
yung team na yun, kung sa puso mo ay hindi mo nararamdaman, useless din. - Taga-hanga 4
Dahil sa napapanood ko sa Ginebra nagiging matibay din ako. Oo dahil hindi sila agad
sumusuko kaya dumarami ang mga sumusuporta sa kanila. - Taga-hanga 5
Kapag may pamansag o slogan ka, kilala ka na. Kaya nakakaapekto ito sa isang taga-hanga
dahil nga kilala na. Mas maraming nakukuhang suporta ang kuponan dahil din sa ginagawa
nilang effort para mapatunayang nagtataglay sila ng Never Say Die attitude. - Taga-hanga 6
Para sa akin hindi basehan ang slogan ng isang team para dumami ang taga-hanga. Naging
taga-hanga ako ng ginebra dahil sa pusong pinapakita nila sa laban. - Taga-hanga 7
Oo mas nakakalakas ng loob para sa mga taga-hanga at pati na din sa player kasi alam nila na
kailangan nilang patunayan at kailangan nilang panindigan yung slogan na ginagamit nila. Taga-hanga 8
Maaring meron itong kinalaman, maari din namang wala. Siguro talagang sadyang
hinahangaan lang talaga nila yung kuponan na yun. - Taga-hnaga 9
Malaki ang maitutulong ng pagkakaroon ng pamansag dahil magbibigay ito ng dahilan upang
patuloy na sumuporta ang mga taga-hanga ng kuponan. Ito ay ang paniniwalaan nila at
paghuhugutan ng lakas ng loob. - Taga-hanga 10
Para sa akin, malaki ang epekto ng pamansag na ito sa isang taga-hanga na habang
naniniwala siya sa slogan na Never Say Die ay hindi mawawala ang tiwala niya sa kuponan at
patuloy na aasang mananalo sa kahit anong laban. Pinagtitibay ng pamansag ang tiwala ng
60

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

mga taga-hanga na hanggat lumalaban ang Ginebra ay patuloy din ang suporta nila. Alam
kong malaki ang tulong ng pamansag para makakuha ng malaking suporta dahil ako bilang
taga-hanga ay nararanasan ko ito. - Taga-hanga 11
Siguro nga kaya sila nagkaroon ng napakaraming taga-hanga dahil sa Never Say Die nilang
attitude sa loob ng court. Laban lang kung laban. Sa ganitong pananaw maraming tao ang
nakikita ang kanilang sariling sitwayson sa buhay kaya nila ito sinusuportahan dahil sila ang
nagiging inspirasyon nila. - Taga-hanga 12
Naapektuhan nito ang aking tiwala sa ginebra na hindi nila basta basta ipapahiya ang mga
taong naniniwala sakanila. Ang slogan ay hindi basehan pero sa ibang bagay maaaring
makaapekto ito. Tulad na lamang kapag naniniwala ka sa Never Say Die na slogan, mas
mabubuo ang pagkahanga mo sa team ng Ginebra at maaaring maging fan ka na din ng team.
- Taga-hanga 13
Karamihan sa mga kalahok ay nagsabi na talagang nakaka-apekto nga sa tiwala at tibay
ng loob ang pamansag. Tulad na lamang ni taga-hanga 2, 4, 10 at 11 na nagpapahayag na dahil
sa pamansag ay mas nakaka-kuha ng higit na suporta ang isang kuponan mula sa mga taga-hanga
dahil nakakatulong ito kung iisa ang pinananiwalaan nila at yun nga ay yung pamansag o slogan
ng kuponan. Para sa tiwala sa kuponan, sabi nga ni taga-hanga 10, malaki ang maitutulong ng
pagkakaroon ng pamansag dahil magbibigay ito ng dahilan upang patuloy na sumuporta ang mga
taga-hanga ng kuponan. Ito ay ang paniniwalaan nila at paghuhugutan ng lakas ng loob.
Nakaka-apekto rin ang pamansag dahil ito ang pinaghuhugutan ng isang taga-hanga at
nagsisilbing dahilan upang patuloy na kumapit at maniwala sa kuponan. Tulad na lamang ng
pamansag na Never Say Die. Sabi ng isang kalahok ay kung nakikita mo nga na totoo ito sa
kuponan ng Barangay Ginebra, yun mga panahon na talagang masasabi mo na hindi nga sila
basta sumusuko at nawawalan ng pag-asa dahil patuloy silang lumalaban hanggang huli, kahit
hindi ka talaga fan ng kuponan, maaari kang maging isa dahil nakita mo sa kanila na totoo nga
na never say die sila sa bawat laro. Sinabi din ni taga-hanga 11 na Pinagtitibay ng pamansag
ang tiwala ng mga taga-hanga na hanggat lumalaban ang Ginebra ay patuloy din ang suporta
nila. nangangahulugan lamang ito na patuloy ang pagkakaroon ng suporta dahil nga sa
pamansag o slogan ng isang kuponan. At kapag may pamansag o slogan ang isang kuponan,
madali itong makikilala na makaka-apekto sa suportang makukuha nila mula sa mga taga-hanga.
Mayroon din naman naman nagsabi na hindi basehan ang pamansag tulad na lamang ni
taga-hanga 3 at 7. Ito ay dahil minsan, kusa mong mararamdaman ang kagustuhan mong
sumuporta at magtiwala sa isang kuponan. Kahit walang pamansag o slogan, kung talagang nasa
puso mo na itong kuponan na ito ang gusto mo, itong kuponan na ito ang bibigyan mo ng suporta
at dun ka magtitiwala.

61

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

KONKLUSYON AT REKOMENDASYON
Tinalakay ng pag-aaral na ito ang pananaw ng mga taga-hanga ng Barangay Ginebra sa
pamansag na Never Say Die bilang konsepto ng pagtitiwala at tibay ng loob. Sa kabuuan,
mayroong labing-tatlong kalahok ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ayon sa resulta ng pagaaral, mayroong iba't-ibang pananaw ang mga taga-hanga sa pamansag na "Never Say Die" ng
Barangay Ginebra. May nagsabi na para sa kanya ito ay maihahalintulad sa pusong palaban ng
mga pinoy, yung patuloy na pakikipaglaban upang makamit ang pagkapanalo.
Ang isa naman ay nagsabi na ito daw ay hindi pagsuko hanggang sa huling segundo ng
laro. Kahit anong lamang ng kalaban, patuloy lang sa paglaban at hindi nawawalan ng pag-asa
upang manalo. Para naman sa isa pang taga-hanga, ito ay hindi pagbitaw sa laban ano man ang
magyari ay patuloy mong ibibigay ang lahat ng makakaya upang manalo sa laro. At kung matalo
pa din, ayos lang kasi alam nila na ginawa nila ang lahat. Iba't-iba man ang pananaw na nakuha
ng mananaliksik, di maipagkakaila na tila iisa lang ang konsepto ng "Never Say Die" para sa
kanilang lahat. Kung gagawan ng buod ang mga nakalap na sagot mula sa mga kalahok, ang
Never Say Die ay kataga na nagpapalakas ng loob at tiwala ng tao upang patuloy na gawin ang
isang bagay kahit ano man ang mangyari at kahit ano pa ang sitwasyon. At kung hindi man
magtagumpay, ang importante ay nagawa lahat ng makakaya at hindi ka sumuko. Sa huli
nandyan pa rin ang paniniwala na makakamit ang tagumpay bastat patuloy ka lang maniniwala
at magpupursigi.
Para sa epekto ng pamansag sa mga taga-hanga, masasabi na ayon sa mga nakalap na
sagot, ang pagkakaroon ng pamansag ay may positibong epekto. Positibo dahil para sa
nakakarami, ito ay nakakapag-bigay ng lakas ng loob dahil may pinanghahawakan silang "Never
Say Die" attitude. Bukod sa mga manlalaro ng kuponan, ganun din ang epekto nito para sa mga
taga-hanga dahil nakakatulong ito upang manatili ang pagiging positibo at ang kanilang emosyon
kahit na nakikita nila na medyo hindi maganda ang nilalaro ng kuponan. Bilang iisa ang kanilang
pinaniniwalaan na pamansag at ito nga ay ang "Nevey Say Die", ang bawat isa ay patuloy na
magtitiwala at magbibigay suporta sa kuponan kung kayat masasabi talaga na positibo ang
nagiging epekto. Talagang naapektuhan nga ng pamansag ang tiwala at tibay ng loob ng isang
taga-hanga. Masasabi na ito nga ay parang isang bagay na malakas maka-impluwensya. Kung
iisipin mo bakit nga ba ang daming naniniwala at sumusuporta sa kuponan ng Barangay Ginebra
kahit hindi naman sila madalas manalo at maging kampeon ng liga. Hindi bat nakakapag-taka
nga iyon na sa tagal na ng kuponan sa liga at marami na ang bagong kuponan ang nabuo eh
patuloy pa rin silang tinatangkilik at pinipili ng mas maraming taga-hanga. Sila nga daw ang
crowd favorite ng PBA. Ito ay marahil sa nabuong pamansag ng kuponan na naka-apekto talaga
sa mga taga-hanga. Ang pamansag na Never Say Die ay talaga nga naman nakapukaw ng
damdamin ng maraming taga-hanga sa PBA at dahil dito, patuloy silang nag-titiwala at
nagpapakita ng suporta para sa kuponan ng Barangay Ginebra. Ang iba ay hindi lang basta
suporta kundi pagmamahal na din sa kuponan.
Iminungkahi ng mananaliksik na higit na mapaghusay pa ang kanyang pag-aaral ukol sa
pamansag sa kadahilanang nais pa niyang higit na maunawaan ang pinagmulan ng "Never Say
Die" at ang mga mas malalim pang bagay patungkol dito. Upang higit na mas mapagtibay ang
62

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

mga datos na nakalap, nais irekomenda ng mananaliksik na gawing kalahok ang mga tao na
nagta-trabaho sa kuponan ng Barangay Ginebra at mas magiging maganda kung pati ang mga
manlalaro ay maisasama. Sa ganoong paraan, mas makakakuha ng higit na impormasyon ukol sa
bagay na gustong malaman partikular na din ang kanilang pamansag na "Never Say Die".
Inirerekomenda din ng mananaliksik na gumamit ng katutubong pananaliksik sapagkat ito ang
naaayon sa kultura ng mga Pilipino at ng sa gayon ay malikom ang mga datos na nais makamit.

63

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

TALAAN NG SANGGUNIAN
Barrera, I. (2013) Pag-aanunsyo at epekto nito sa pagkonsumo. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/sipatzu/pag-aanunsiyo-at-epekto-nito-sa-pag-konsumo
Cabal, K. (2012) Ibat ibang uri ng mga taga-suporta. Retrieved
http://kayecabal.blogspot.com/2012/10/ibat-ibang-uri-ng-mga-tagasuporta.html

from

Cayabyab,
E.
(2012)
Tiwala
sa
isports
kailangan
ba.
Retrieved
http://caviteexpose.blogspot.com/2012/09/tiwala-sa-sports-kailangan-ba.html

from

Covey, Sean (1998), The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens. Fireside: Simon and Schuster Inc.
N.Y., Pahina 73-104
Ferriols, R. (2014) Si Roque Ferriols, Wika at ang Larong Basketbol. Retrieved from
http://www.academia.edu/6843098/Si_Roque_Ferriols_Wika_at_ang_Larong_Basketbol
Pe-Pua, R. (1982) Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. Filipino Psychology:
Theory, Method and Application. University of Philippine Press.

64

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Selfie Behavior and Emotional Intelligence Among Selected Filipino Women


Steffanie P. Pinatacan
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRACT
This study examine the levels of selfie behavior and emotional intelligence
of the respondents age group of filipino women. It also compares for
significant difference between selfie behavior and emotional intelligence
according by age. The data were collected through online from 102 female
respondents in the age of 16 to 40s. The study used a self-administered 20
item questionnaire for selfie behavior and TEIQue-SF (Trait Emotional
Intelligence-Short Form) for emotional intelligence. MANOVA and
computation of mean scores was utilized to get the results. Results of the
study showed adolescence has an average level of selfie behavior in terms
of the population gathered, while the emotional intelligence indicates that
middle adulthood have a high average level in terms of handling emotions
regarding with feedback. There was a significant difference found between
the two dependent variables according to the respondents age.

Technology has always flourished for the gain of mankind. The major achievements of
technology have left man spell-bound and every part of the world today is enjoying the comforts
provided by technology. Because of technology, all the countries are interlinked and we are now
living in a global village. From day to day, our world has been changed gradually from one
condition to another. The revolution of new ideas always comes up to the minds of every person,
especially the idea to improve technology which people need to make the living better.
Technology has improved a lot over years, and it is a great thing these days, because it
can be very helpful, especially for people with disabilities. However, people are taking advantage
of it. Every piece of technology that is being made requires little to no skill. All the machines are
so easy to operate that anyone can do it, and that keeps us from being active, developing our
brains, it is also very addicting. More and more people use today's technology because it is
convenient, however no one notices lack of activity among those people. Although being active
enough is a major concern when it comes to modern technology, there are more things to worry
about.
Selfie is a new trend in the world that Oxford officially named the word of the year 2013.
It is a self-generated self-portrait although calling them a portrait is a bit grandiose. According
to Rutledge (2013) selfies are those pictures that take of oneself with camera phones and post to
a social media websites from which they could generate a surprisingly strong reaction of
responses from friends or people in general. Selfies are beyond informal. They are not meant to
standalone as a single message or withstand the passage of time. Selfies are intimate because
65

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

they represent a personal experience that is also social, taken for the express purpose of sharing.
This gives selfies a level of self-conscious authenticity that is different from even a candid
photographthey are more raw and less perfect. This is frequently trigger perceptions of selfindulgence or attention-seeking social dependence that raises the damned-if-you-do and damnedif-you-dont specter of either narcissism or low self-esteem.
Based on the TIME Magazine report, there are two cities in the Philippines share the
distinction of being the "selfie" capital of the world, with at least 259 selfie-takers per 100,000
people (Patria, 2014). Makati and Pasig in Metro Manila produce "more selfies per capita than
any other city in the world" based on the TIME's analysis mapped of Instagram data. But Makati
and Pasig were not the only Philippine cities in the top 10. The southern city of Cebu landed 9th
on the list, with 99 selfie-takers per 100,000. More Philippine cities were also included in the
TIME list's top 100. The so-called summer capital Baguio City came in at 16th, Quezon City at
59th and Iloilo at 72nd.
According to Brackett, Mayer & Warner (2004), emotional intelligence involves the
capacity to carry out reasoning in regard to emotions, and the capacity of emotions to enhance
reasoning. More specifically, EI is said to involve the ability to perceive and accurately express
emotion, to use emotion to facilitate thought, to understand emotions, and to manage emotions
for emotional growth.
The study focuses on teenagers to middle adulthood. The aim of the study is to answer
the following research questions: 1. What is the level of selfie behavior according to age? 2.
What is the level of emotional intelligence according to age? Third, Is there a significant
differences in selfie behavior and emotional intelligence according to age?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Selfie
According to Taslim and Rezwan (2013), as this contemporary world is depending
increasingly on technology and cyberspace, selfie is becoming a very powerful and
communicative visual discourse that directly associate with one's identity within this growing
and strengthening cybercultural. This study is to analyses selfie and it's relationship with an
individual's identity and existence in both the physical cyber reality. This study also tries to
conceptualize representation of the self as well as the detached of the self and body through
selfie. This paper will critically studies every point side-by-side with theoretical justification by
using a qualitative and slightly quantitative research.
Selfie can be examined through various perspectives, from exploration of the issues of
self and identity to silent resistance to idealized body image projected by the mass media up to
narcissist expression according to Soerjoatmodjo (2013). By using self-disclosure and lookingglass self as theoretical perspective as well as adolescence developmental tasks, this preliminary
qualitative research aims to describe how students of Pembangunan Jaya University from various
study programs who take Introduction to Information and Communication Technology course
66

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

take their selfie and why. Through textual analysis on the responses provided by forty 18-20
years old students, it can be concluded that they take selfie to express themselves, to kill time
and to record memorable moments.
According to Baeks (2013) study, recent innovations made to mobile technology and the
exponential growth of social media has cultivated a unique social behavior that encourages a new
public behavior of self-expression and presentation. Social media sites (SMS) such as Facebook
and Instagram have integrated mobile technology with their social media platforms to allow
users access without a computer or Internet. Cell-phone users who have the ability to take
photographs on their device now have the opportunity to share these photographs instantaneously
to their network of followers. Among the masses of photographs uploaded on a daily basis, selfportraits, or selfies, have populated the web and affected both the photographer and the
audience of these images. These selfies have revealed new behavioral activity that is best
understood according to research by Goffman (1959) and Berger & Luckmann (1996).
The theories of social construction of reality and presentation of self have provided
insight towards analyzing how a member of social media sites can craft their identity through a
selective process and other photo posting habits. This study seeks to analyze the recent trends of
selfies empirically by an online questionnaire and personal interviews. Data from these two
methods share new findings toward this new phenomenon and the future of selfies.
Emotional Intelligence
Bastian, Burns and Nettelbeck (2005) study, emotional Intelligence (EI) is held to explain
how emotions advance life goals. While different theories of EI have been proposed there is still
controversy about how EI should be conceptualised and measured. It is agreed, however, that EIs
relevance depends on it being able to predict significant life outcomes. A study of 246
predominantly first-year tertiary students investigated relationships between EI and a number of
life skills (academic achievement, life satisfaction, anxiety, problem-solving and coping).
Correlations between EI and academic achievement were small and not statistically significant,
although higher EI was correlated with higher life satisfaction, better perceived problem-solving
and coping ability and lower anxiety. However, after controlling for the influence of personality
and cognitive abilities, shared variance between EI and life skills was 6% or less.
Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated
information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information
as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional
intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in
which some researchers focus on EI as a distinct group of mental abilities, and other researchers
instead study an eclectic mix of positive traits such as happiness, self-esteem, and optimism.
Clarifying what EI is and is not can help the field by better distinguishing research that is truly
pertinent to EI from research that is not. EIconceptualized as an abilityis an important
variable both conceptually and empirically, and it shows incremental validity for predicting
socially relevant outcomes, according to Caruso, Mayer & Salovey (2008)

67

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

In Brackett, Mayer and Warner's (2004) study, it assessed the discriminant, criterion and
incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (EI). College students
(N=330) took an ability test of EI, a measure of the Big Five personality traits, and provided
information on Life Space scales that assessed an array of self-care behaviours, leisure pursuits,
academic activities, and interpersonal relations. Women scored significantly higher in EI than
men. EI, however, was more predictive of the Life Space criteria for men than for women. Lower
EI in males, principally the inability to perceive emotions and to use emotion to facilitate
thought, was associated with negative outcomes, including illegal drug and alcohol use, deviant
behaviour, and poor relations with friends.
The findings remained significant even after statistically controlling for scores on the Big
Five and academic achievement. In this sample, EI was significantly associated with
maladjustment and negative behaviours for college-aged males, but not for females. In another
study of Brackett with the companion of Lopes, Nezlek, Salovey, Sellin,& Schtz. (2004), they
conducted two studies which has found positive relationships between the ability to manage
emotions and the quality of social interactions, supporting the predictive and incremental validity
of an ability measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional
Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In a sample of 118 American college students (Study 1), higher
scores on the managing emotions subscale of the MSCEIT were positively related to the quality
of interactions with friends, evaluated separately by participants and two friends. In a diary study
of social interaction with 103 German college students (Study 2), managing emotions scores
were positively related to the perceived quality of interactions with opposite sex individuals.
Scores on this subscale were also positively related to perceived success in impression
management in social interactions with individuals of the opposite sex. In both studies, the main
findings remained statistically significant after controlling for Big Five personality traits.
In accordance of Stella Mavroveli, Petrides, Rieffe and Bakker (2007) the trait emotional
intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) framework provides comprehensive
coverage of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In this study, we investigated the
relationship between trait EI and four distinct socioemotional criteria on a sample of Dutch
adolescents (N = 282; 136 girls, 146 boys; mean age = 13.75 years). As hypothesized, trait EI
was positively associated with adaptive coping styles and negatively associated with depressive
thoughts and frequency of somatic complaints. It was also negatively associated with
maladaptive coping styles, in boys only. Adolescents with high trait EI scores received more
nominations from their classmates for being cooperative and girls gave significantly more
nominations to classmates with high trait EI scores for having leadership qualities. The
discussion focusses on the operationalization of trait emotional self-efficacy in adolescents.
As stated in Zeidner, Matthews, and Roberts (2004), paper critically reviews
conceptualisations and empirical evidence in support of emotional intelligence (EI) and its
claimed role in the occupational environment. Consideration is given to the purported status of
EI in occupational and career assessment (with particular emphasis on personnel selection and
placement), job performance, and satisfaction. Overall, this review demonstrates that recent
research has made important strides towards understanding the usefulness of EI in the workplace.
However, the ratio of hyperbole to hard evidence is high, with over-reliance in the literature on
68

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

expert opinion, anecdote, case studies, and unpublished proprietary surveys. The review
concludes by providing a number of practical guidelines for the development and
implementation of EI measures within occupational settings.
As stated by Petrides, Pita and Kokkinaki (2007), they construct of trait emotional
intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) provides a comprehensive operationalization
of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions. In the first part of the present study (N =
274; 92 males), they performed two joint factor analyses to determine the location of trait EI in
Eysenckian and Big Five factor space. The results showed that trait EI is a compound personality
construct located at the lower levels of the two taxonomies. In the second part of the study, they
performed six two-step hierarchical regressions to investigate the incremental validity of trait EI
in predicting, over and above the Giant Three and Big Five personality dimensions, six distinct
criteria (life satisfaction, rumination, two adaptive and two maladaptive coping styles). Trait EI
incrementally predicted four criteria over the Giant Three and five criteria over the Big Five. The
discussion addresses common questions about the operationalization of emotional intelligence as
a personality trait.

SYNTHESIS:
Selfie is a self-generated, self-selected picture to communicate transitory message on a
particular moment in time taken to be immediately distributed to others, according to
Soerjoatmodjo (2013). She also added that when their social media friends respond to their
selfies, these give the individuals a positive feeling. The rapid growth of technology and
communication leads to the massive use of the word selfie throughout the social media.
According to Zeidner et al. (2004) emotional intelligence (EI) is relatively new and growing
area of behavioral research, having caught the imagination of the general public, the commercial
world, and the scientific community. The concept resonates with a current zeitgeist emphasising
the importance of self-awareness and understanding, redressing a perceived imbalance between
intellect and emotion in the life of the collective Western mind. Emotional intelligence also
connects with several cutting-edge areas of psychological science, including the neuroscience of
emotion, self-regulation theory, studies of metacognition, and the search for human cognitive
abilities beyond traditional academic intelligence.

69

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The researcher used a quantitative design through survey method and descriptive in
nature. The researcher chose this design because it is appropriate in gathering data and
measuring the significant difference between emotional intelligence and selfie behavior.
Descriptive design was used in this study to describe the population of the respondents of the
study.

Participants and Sampling


There was a total of 102 female participants in different region in the Philippines under
the age range of 16 years to 43 years old chosen by purposive sampling which is very useful for
situations where a researcher needs to reach a targeted sample quickly and which is also
according to a group of people who does not take selfies and who does take selfies. The age was
grouped based on Erik Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial development.
Instrument
The researcher used TEIQue-SF which consists of 30 items designed to measure global
trait emotional intelligence. The TEIQue-SF is derived from the full form of the TEIQue
(Petrides, 2001), which covers 15 distinct facets. The questionnaire uses a Likert-scale response
option format, ranging from 1 (Completely Disagree) to 7 (Completely Agree). The TEIQue-SF
is available, free of charge, for research purposes from www.psychometriclab.com. Cronbach
alpha reliabilities for the well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability were 0.75 (6
items), 0.66 (6 items), 0.66 (8 items), and 0.70 (6 items), respectively. Cronbachs reliability
coefficient for all 30 items was 0.88.
Selfie Survey is a self made questionnaire made by the researcher that consist of 20 items
and supported by a closed-ended questions with the choices of Yes or No. A demographic
sheet is also attached in the survey, regarding of their age.
Procedure
The survey was administered online and the researcher informed and asked for consent to
the target participants to conduct a survey by creating a good rapport with the participants
through chatting online and explain the purpose of the survey and serves as a protection for both
parties. The link to the survey will be given to the participants after the procedures have been
approved, they were instructed to respond to each of the item as honestly as a possible. The
researcher will check the results of the survey and will analyze the results.

70

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Pilot Testing
To test the reliability of the questionnaire that the researcher made to used in the study,
the researcher first piloted the survey questionnaire to 50 respondents. As for the second survey,
the researcher tested the survey to different 10 respondents for clarification and understanding of
each item questions`.
Data Analysis
The researcher used MANOVA, it analyze data that involves more than one dependent
variable at a time. The researcher wanted to determine whether there was a significant difference
between the two dependent variables between the respondents age group.This tool is often used
to detect differences in the average values of the dependent variables between the different levels
of the independent variable. The researcher was required to use software such as Microsoft Excel
and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM v.20.
RESULTS
Table 1 : Female Respondents Profile
Age

Frequency

Percentage

16

16

15.7%

17

14

13.7%

18

11

10.8%

19

21

20.6%

20

15

14.7%

21

7.84%

22

3.92%

23

5.88%

27

0.98%

32

0.98%

35

0.98%

71

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

39

0.98%

43

2.94%

TOTAL

102

100

Table 1 shows that majority of the respondents are 19 years old, which has 20.6% from
the total of the respondents whereas 15.7% of the respondents are 16 years old. 14.7% of the
respondents are 20 years old followed by 13.7% are 17 years old and 10.8% are 18 years old.
Moreover, 7.84% are 21 years old and 5.88% are 23 years old. The lowest are in the age of 22 it
has 3.92%, age 43 has 2.94%, and the rest has 0.98%.
Table 2 : Level category for Selfie Behavior

Level Scores

Levels

17 - 20

Above Average

13 - 16

High Average

9 - 12

Average

5-8

Low Average

0-4

Below Average

The table above illustrates the different levels of the selfie behavior according to group
age.
TABLE 3: Level of Selfie Behavior

72

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 3 shows the different levels of selfie behavior in a group age. It shows here that the
mean of each age group; the adolescence mean is 9.9, young adulthood have a mean of 9.5 and
middle adulthood have 11.7 are in the average level referring to the scale above.

TABLE 4: Level Category for Emotional Intelligence


Level Scores

Levels

70 - 100

High Average

30 - 70

Average

0 - 30

Below Average

Table 4 shows the level for the trait emotional intelligence that the researcher used to interpret
the levels of the mean score from the survey regarding trait emotional intelligence.

Table 4.1 shows the global trait of emotional intelligence scores in each age group which
the percentile scores; adolescence (72.86%), young adulthood (79.71%) and middle adulthood
(98.29%) all falls in above average level.

73

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 4.2 represents the levels of each group in well being factor. The age group of young
(75.14%) and middle adulthood (88.86%) both falls in above average level, while the
adolescence (65.71%) falls in the average level.

Table 4.3 illustrates the self-control factor levels in each age group. It shows that adolescence
(59.71%) and young adulthood (63.29%), both age group falls in average level, while the middle
adulthood only falls in above average which have 77.71%.

Table 4.4 data for emotionality factor shows that the adolescence (66.71%) only falls in
an average level, while the other age group; young adulthood (71.71%) and middle adulthood
(77.43%) both in the level category of above average.

74

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 4.5 shows the data for sociability factor, which represents that each age group all
falls in the same level category which is average for having 62.43% for adolescence. 62.71% for
young adulthood and 64.29% for middle adulthood.
TABLE 5: MANOVA result between two dependent variables by age

There was a significant difference between selfie behavior and emotional intelligence
when it is grouped into age, Wilk's = .581, F(24, 176) = 2.28, p = .001, partial 2 = .24.
TABLE 6: ANOVA result showing significant difference of age among variables
A separate ANOVA was conducted for each dependent variable, with each ANOVA

75

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

evaluated at an alpha level of .025. There was not a significant difference between the age on
selfie behavior, F(12,89) = .699, p = .748, partial 2 = .086. However, there was a significant
difference between the age on emotional intelligence, F(12,89) = 4.166, p = .000. partial 2 =
.360.
DISCUSSION
Selfie Behavior
Base on the data of selfie behavior (Table 3), it shows that the levels of its mean scores
are in average level which means majority of the respondents are moderately posting pictures in
social media. As it stated by Soerjoatmodjo (2013), selfie can be examined through various
perspectives, from exploration of the issues of self and identity to silent resistance to idealized
body image projected by the mass media up to narcissist expression. Though the result of selfie
behavior in each age group were in average level, this could signify that some respondents are
into taking pictures of themselves and admire themselves from the picture they took, but are
limited in posting pictures in the social media.
Overall, majority of the respondents are in the adolescence stage, its result shows that
with a larger population in the adolescence stage is more likely taking pictures often than the
other age group base on the generation today. Since, adolescence have their own self exploration
with themselves and a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control according
to Erik Eriksons psychosocial development.
Emotional Intelligence
According to Nezlek, Salovey, Sellin, & Shtz. (2004), they conducted two studies which
has found positive relationships between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social
interactions. The result of emotional intelligence in global trait EI (Table 4.1) indicates that in
each group age have the high average level which indicates that in this stage they have enhanced
their self-image and building confidence in their socio-emotional abilities.
As shown in the data of well-being (Table 4.2), in the adolescence stage it has an average
level, which indicates that in this stage they are in a level who are not ready or they tend to be
pessimistic in the future and is slowly taking pleasure in life. Most likely taking themselves a
credit for their accomplishments. While, in the group age of young and middle adulthood, they
have a high average level which reflects a generalized sense of well-being, extending from past
achievements to future expectation. With this level they would feel positive, happy and fulfilled.
For the factor of self-control (Table 4.3), in the age group of adolescence and young
adulthood have an average level, which indicates that they have a certain degree of control over
their impulses and emotional reactions, but there are times when you get unduly anxious, rash, or
angry. Although they like thinking things through, they occasionally take sudden, rushed
decisions that they later regret. They may benefit from developing new strategies to enhance
their ability to control their thoughts, actions, and feelings. While in the middle adulthood which
have a high average level, it suggests that they have a healthy degree of control over their urges
76

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

and desires. In fending off impulses, they are good at regulating external pressures and stress.
They are neither repressed nor overly expressive.
Furthermore, emotionality factor (Table 4.4) shows that in the group of adolescence age
has an average level which suggests that in this stage they might have a difficulty in perceiving
and utilize emotion-related information, but they could overcome it. They may sometimes miss
the emotional meaning in everyday situations and may interpret people's intentions, which could
harm their personal relationships and create frustration for them and to others. While in the
stages of young and middle adulthood, believe they have a wide range of emotion-related skills.
They can perceive and express emotions and use these abilities to develop and sustain close
relationships with important people.
Lastly, sociability factor (Table 4.5), in all three stages has the result of average level,
which indicates that they have good listening skills and can communicate with people but
sometimes it is clear and confidently with people from diverse backgrounds.
Further results shows a one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on table 5
was conducted to test if there is a significant difference between selfie behavior and emotional
intelligence by age group. A statistically significant MANOVA effect was obtained, Wilk's =
.581, F(24, 176) = 2.28, p = .001, partial 2 = .24, which indicates that there are significant
differences among the group of age (adolescence, young adulthood and middle adulthood) on a
linear combination of the two dependent variables.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The researcher conclude that the level of selfie behavior are in average level which they
are in the normal and moderate in terms of posting and taking of pictures. It shows in the result
(Table 3) that adolescence took selfies more often comparing with the other age group, while
trait emotional intelligence level presents that in terms of handling emotions from the response of
the society from each age group, it explains that adults can handle criticisms from other people.
In using the MANOVA, the researcher found out that there is a significant difference of
the group age between selfie behavior and trait emotional intelligence having the p = .001 with
the alpha of .05.
For future research, the researcher recommend to use a survey for adolescence of TEIQue
to measure the female and male adolescents emotional intelligence and also conduct an
effective selfie behavior survey. How will these adolescents cope with the criticisms they receive
from other peoples point of view of their photos.

77

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Baek, J (2013). The Selfie Trifecta: Cell-phones, Social media and Self. Retrieved from,
http://jonathanbaek.com/s/Baek-2013-Selfie-Trifecta_ECA-Paper.pdf
Bastian, V. A., Burns, N. R., and Nettelbeck, T. (2005). Emotional intelligence predicts life
skills, but not as well as personality and cognitive abilities. Personality and Individual
Differences 39, 1135-1145. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.04.006
Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to
everyday behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences 36 (2004) 13871402.
doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00236-8
Brackett, M. A., Lopes, P. N., Nezlek, J. B., Salovey, P., Sellin, Ina., & Schtz. A. (2004).
Emotional Intelligence and Social Interaction. PSPB, Vol. 30 No. 8, August 2004 1018-1034.
DOI: 10.1177/0146167204264762
Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2008). Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or
Electric Traits? American Psychological Association. Vol. 63, No. 6, 503517 DOI:
10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503
Gita WIdya Laksmini Soerjoatmodjo (2013). I "Selfie" Therefore I Exist: A Preliminary
Qualitative Research on Selfie as Part of Identity Formation in Adolescence. Retrieved from,
https://www.academia.edu/5914381/I_DO_SELFIE_THEREFORE_I_EXIST_2013_
(2013, 05). How Has Modern Technology Improved People's Lives. StudyMode.com. Retrieved
05, 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/How-Has-Modern-Technology-ImprovedPeople%27s-1724734.html
Patria. K. (2014). Two Philippine cities named selfie capital of the world. Retrieved from:
https://ph.news.yahoo.com/two-philippine-cities-named--selfie--capital-of-the-world085911546.html
Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in
personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology (2007), 98, 273289.
DOI:10.1348/000712606X120618
Petrides,
K.
V.
(2001).
TEIQue
Interpretation.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.psychometriclab.com/admins/files/TEIQue%20interpretations.pdf
Rutlegde, P. B. (July 6, 2013). Making Sense of Selfies. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/positively-media/201307/making-sense-selfies
Stella Mavroveli, K., V. Petrides, Carolien Rieffe and Femke Bakker. (2007). Trait emotional
intelligence, psychological well-being and peer-rated social competence in adolescence. British
Journal of Developmental Psychology (2007), 25, 263275
78

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Taslim, I. & Rezwan, Md. Z (2013). Selfie Re-de-fined: Self-(more/less). Wizcraft Journal of
Language and Literature, Vol. II, Issue IV
Thompson, T (2008). Self-Awareness: Behavior Analysis and Neuroscience. The Association
Behavior Analysis, 31(2): 137-144
Zampetakis, L., A (2011). Emotional Intelligence with TEIQue-SF: An Analysis Based on
Unfolding Item Response Theory Models. Research on Emotion in Organizations, volume 7,
289-315. DOI:10.1108/S1746-9791(2011)0000007016
Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D.(2004). Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: A
Critical Review. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, 2004, 53 (3), 371
399

79

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

E-Cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation behavior of Smokers with intention


to quit
Camille Deidre B. Habawel
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRACT
The research aims to use electronic cigarettes as a tool for smoking
cessation. The participants are smokers owning an e-cigarette and have an
intention to quit which is established by a test with a Cronbach Alpha of
.86-.91. The experimental schedule is a 7-week time phase wherein one
week each is allocated to both treatment & baseline. There are three
treatments: Nicotine level 8, level 4 and level 0. A dependent t-test is
conducted on the participants tobacco cigarette consumption and a
significant difference of cigarette consumption between the first and last
experimental phase is established. The experiment has helped 93% of the
participants to stop tobacco smoking consumption. The results of the
research along with this study provide evidence that electronic cigarettes
provide as a means of cessation in populations of people who are heavy
smokers and have struggled with quitting tobacco cigarette smoking in the
past.

Among adults 15 years and older, 28.3% are current tobacco smokers, representing 17.3
million Filipinos. Among the 28.3%, 22.5% smoke everyday, constituting 13.8 million Filipinos.
Approximately 14.6 million men and 2.8 million women currently smoke. 60.6% of 17.3 million
smoking Filipinos stated they are interested in quitting the bad habit (GATS, DOH & NSO,
2013). It is studied by the Department of Health and was stated by Secretary Ona that <6 million
people die from smoking and exposure to smoke. In a minute sense, there are 1 death every 6
seconds.
These deaths are manifested and are then developed by cancers, breathing & lung
problems, strokes and smoke-related problems. Cigarettes contain thousands of chemical agents
that are harmful to the health. One addictive agent of cigarettes is nicotine. Cigarette
manufacturers manipulate the levels of nicotine so smokers come back wanting more. The crave
starts firstly by smoking, then there is a buzz which is the feeling of satisfaction. This
satisfaction fades away and the heavy smoker leads to depression which makes him go back and
wanting more cigarettes. It is a vicious cycle. Since the body is able to build up a high tolerance
in nicotine, the smoker gradually keeps smoking to keep him in the same high.
Smoking poses a major threat to ones health. A number of cancer forms have been
directly linked to smoking. Smoking causes lung cancer in men and women. Aside from lung
cancer, cancer of the mouth, larynx and esophagus are also linked.
80

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

On 2012, a new product in the market hit smokers with an option to quit. An electronic
cigarette is a battery or USB powered device which simulates tobacco smoking. It generally uses
a heating element known as an atomizer, that vaporizes a liquid solution. In January 2013,
Maricar Limpin, executive director of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Alliance
Philippines, has expressed concern over the proliferation of e-cigarettes. Limpin warned that ecigarettes give a false sense of security because these are being marketed as something that
would help one quit smoking when, in fact, there is no evidence to prove that.
The study aims to give evidence and prove the effectivity of electronic cigarettes as a
tool for quitting tobacco cigarette smoking. Many researches uphold smoking programs as the
main tool for smoking cessation. Very little experiments have been made using electronic
cigarettes as a tool for smoking abstinence. The research aims to uphold or value e-cigarettes as
an alternative means of slowly developing the life of a smoker who wants to quit. The study
serves as a behavioral modification intervention. The study answers if there is a significant
difference in baseline performance between respondents after first week of e-cigarette
intervention, a significant difference in baseline performance between respondents after second
week of e-cigarette intervention, a significant difference in baseline performance between
respondents after third week of e-cigarette intervention and a significant difference between first
baseline and last baseline performances?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The straight adverse effects of smoking are well documented by different studies
conducted over the years. Smoking has been linked to several health related diseases such as
lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, gastric cancers, acute myeloid leukemia, oral cavity and
pharyngeal cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, bladder and kidney cancer, cervical
cancer, cardiovascular disease, and several pulmonary disorders. Smoking related diseases
presents a clear burden to the realm of public health by resulting in thousands of additional
hospital admissions each year. Smoking not only inflicts direct harm on the smoker, but also on
those exposed to second and third-hand smoke (Ayyash, 2013). The policies addressing tobacco
use stem from the addictive properties of nicotine found in tobacco. Nicotine affects the pleasure
pathways of the brain by increasing dopamine levels. The reaction between nicotine and
dopamine is thought to underlie the pleasurable sensations experienced by smokers, making the
chemical addictive. Nicotine dependence is identified as a chronic relapsing disorder with the
majority of users continuing to use tobacco for many years and cycle through periods of
remission and relapse.
Quitting Smoking had been studied by different health professionals to be potentially
successful by different interventions provided. It is estimated that 70% of current smokers want
to quit smoking (Fiore, et al, 2008). Although half of smokers attempt to quit smoking every
year, most attempts fail. Approximately 80% of smokers that try to quit without
pharmacotherapy or counseling relapse within the first month and only 3% to 5% actually remain
abstinent in six months. This is largely a result of nicotine dependence, and the behavioral and
psychological cues that trigger cravings and reinforce the smoking behavior. The interventions
used are through smoking cessation medicines and Smoking programs. The findings of Bullen,
81

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

et. al, 2009, found that the smoking cessation medicine called Ruyan V8 ENDD of 16 mg that
alleviated desire of participants to smoke after overnight abstinence, was well tolerated. In
another study conducted by Hillsbor (2011), Smoking Cessation Programs were given as
intervention to smokers for cessation. The findings show that Smoking Cessation Programs
independently help smokers to quit. There has been no scholarly study to prove that electronic
cigarettes have helped smokers from abstinence but one study by Zezima, K. (2009), reported
that People report buying e-cigarettes to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption and
to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms due to workplace smoking restrictions. The
contradiction of the proliferation of e-cigarette by Zezima rendered the fact that there is not yet
one study implicating e-cigarettes as a tool for smoking cessation. There have been internet
surveys suggesting the effectivity of e-cigarettes as an aid for smoking cessation but it has only
gotten that far. Internet surveys cannot conclude for the study.
Pharmacotherapy along with counseling has been proven to be an effective intervention
for smokers over the past few years, especially in the United States. The US Food & Drug
Administration had also approved the use of nicotine replacements like transdermal nicotine
patches, gums, inhalers, lozenges, and nasal sprays. Although these smoking cessation therapies
prove the efficacy of their goal for smoking cessation, the long term quitting has often been low.
It has been studied that these nicotine replacements go straight to the bloodstream of the human
body but slower to the brain which then fails to provide the physical and sensory stimuli
provided by a cigarette.
Electronic cigarettes resemble regular cigarettes but contain no tobacco leaves. Unlike
regular cigarettes, electronic cigarettes do not utilize combustion and instead, emit a vapor that
appears similar to cigarette smoke. These devices are usually composed of three parts: a battery,
an atomizer and a cartridge. A standard lithium ion battery powers the device. The atomizer
activated manually by a switch or automatically when the user inhales from the device. When
activated, the atomizer heats and subsequently vaporizes the liquid, called an e-liquid, found
within the cartridge. The cartridge holds the liquid that is vaporized by the atomizer and is often
easily disposable or refillable. Besides delivering nicotine, E-cigarettes may also provide a
coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with
smoking gestures (e.g. hand-to-mouth action of smoking). For this reason, E-cigarettes may help
smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or to reduce cigarette consumption. A
recent internet survey on the satisfaction of e-Cigarette use has reported that the device helped in
smoking abstinence and improved smoking-related symptoms (Etter, J. F., 2010). Although an
internet survey is not enough to establish that electronic cigarettes help smokers quit. Electronic
cigarettes could fill the void of the nicotine replacement therapies unsatisfying deliverance by
providing smokers with nicotine while simultaneously fulfilling the psychological and sensory
stimulus provided by tobacco cigarettes which gives a higher chance for smokers smoking
cessation. This research can help the attempts of smokers to quit by means of an intervention
using electronic cigarettes. By quitting, smokers can improve their lung function by 10% every
month they have abstained. After 10 years of smoking cessation, the death rate of smokers is cut
in half. (The Patient Education Institute, Inc., 2010)

82

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

SYNTHESIS:
Although evidence-based recommendations indicate that smoking cessation programs
and medicines are useful in helping smokers to quit, smoking is a very difficult addiction to
break. It has been shown that approximately 80% of smokers who attempt to quit on their own,
relapse within the first month of abstinence and only about 3-5% remain abstinent at 6 months
(DOH, 2008). Although there is little doubt that currently-marketed smoking cessation products
like electronic cigarettes which increase the chance of committed smokers to stop smoking lack
efficacy, especially in the Philippine setting. In the studies gathered about smoking cessation, the
next study recommended by the researchers is to explore new ways to aid smoking cessation.
Some studies address that their research is limited to the health risk factors thus, it shall be given
thorough research.
There are approximately 600 ingredients in cigarettes. When burned, they create more
than 4,000 chemicals. At least 50 of these chemicals are known to cause cancer, and many are
poisonous. Many of these chemicals are also found in consumer products, but these products
have warning labels. While the public is warned about the danger of the poisons in these
products, there is no such warning for the toxins in tobacco smoke. There is a misconception that
the only harmful and addictive chemical in tobacco cigarettes is nicotine, although, research says
otherwise. NIDA-funded researchers have shown that acetaldehyde, another chemical found in
tobacco smoke, only present in the plant itself, dramatically increases the reinforcing properties
of nicotine and also contributes to tobacco addiction. Nicotine itself is not enough to create great
addiction without the manifesting action of acetaldehyde. (Hammond, 2012) Acetaldehyde is not
present in e-cigarettes because it is an organic compound only present in the tobacco plant,
therefore, there is enough proof that e-cigarettes may alleviate the addiction in smoking but not
enough to prove so.
Since the only recommendation given by smoking cessation researches are programs and
medicines, its about time that technology paved way to deliver aid in behavioral modification
with this specific problem. The researcher shall attempt to provide intervention to smokers who
have intentions to quit. The intervention includes that of the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for
smoking cessation. Smoking is a habit that not only harms the person, but also the people around
him. Second-hand smoking is also a big health risk factor in the development of cancers and
diseases brought about smoking.
METHODODLOGY
Research Design
The research design is a quasi-experimental interrupted time series design which follows
a within-subjects design or a single-subject research design wherein the same participants are
given all the manipulation of levels of a single independent variable in increments. Single-case
research uses control procedures rather than control groups (Good, 2000). Each student, then,
serves as her or his own control (Gay & Airasian, 2000; Wolery & Gast, 2000) Specifically, the
83

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

experiment is concentrated on a multiple treatment design wherein it is based on a withdrawal


strategy, in that two or more independent variables or its levels are systematically introduced and
withdrawn over time, allowing for an evaluation of the relative effects of each independent
variable on a single target behavior. An A-B-A-C-A-D-A design is most suited for this
experiment. It is imperative that the original baseline performance levels be reestablished prior to
the introduction of the next intervention (Sugai & Horner, 2005).
Participants
The studys population are the residents of BF Homes Paraaque. Using a nonprobability sampling technique, the method employed is purposive sampling. The subjects of the
study are basically smokers who have an intention to quit and are already trying e-cigarettes. In
order to determine the intention of smoking abstinence, a test of their intention to quit is
conducted. The test is called the MedScape Smoking Abstinence Intention Test. The test contains
15 items which aims to identify their intention of quitting smoking. Item number 12 of the test is
in a likert scale format that ranges from 1 to 10. 1 having the lowest desire to quit smoking and
10 having the greatest desire thereof. The test provided the interpretation of the answers obtained
in item number 12 in which, participants answers that range from 1 to 5 show no intention to
quit smoking while the answers of 6 to 10 establishes otherwise. The ideal scores of the
participants for the inclusion of this research are the scores ranging from 6 to 10 which embody
that of the intention needed for the intervention to succeed. All participants having answered the
scale from 6 to 10 are part of the intervention experiment. The age range of samples is 18 and
above years old. The sample size of the experimental study is 30.
Instruments
In order to determine the experimental participants for the intervention, a test of quitting
smoking intention will be conducted. MedScapes test of Quitting Smoking Intention will be
given to the respondents. From the samples taken from purposive sampling, the experimental
participants will be taken if intention to quit smoking is established by the test. The test was
created by MedScape on 2005. It is a 15 item test which contains a checklist and one likert scale.
It has a Cronbach Alpha of .86-.91 which renders high internal consistency. This test is used for
counseling on smoking adolescents and adults. Item number 12 of the test is a likert scale which
seeks to be the center of the test. The scale determines the intention of the respondent to quit
smoking. The score interpretation is if the respondent answers 1-5, intention is not established. If
the respondent answers 6-10, intention is established. The test is attached in Appendix A.
Procedures
The multi-treatment design of within-subjects experiment is conducted on a sample of 30
participants. The treatment given is an electronic cigarette intervention wherein the researcher
manipulates the levels of nicotine during the e-cigarette intervention. On the span of the
experiment, baselines are established as intervals or rest of the treatment manipulation. The order
in which the experiment is conducted is on an ABACADA formation. B, C & D being the
84

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

treatments (intervention) and A being the baseline (control). No manipulation whatsoever is


given during the baseline period. The baseline is the period wherein the researcher measures the
number of tobacco cigarettes that the respondents have smoked before and after the intervention
has been conducted. A written consent is given to the participants for their approval to be
included in the experiment. Ethical principles of conducting experiments will be strictly upheld
as to maximizing benefit and minimizing harm towards the participants.
The schedule of the experiment is on a 7-week time phase in which one week each is
allocated to both treatment & baseline. The formation goes:
1st week: Baseline
2nd week: Treatment A (Nicotine Level 8)
3rd week: Baseline
4th week: Treatment B (Nicotine Level 4)
5th week: Baseline
6th week: Treatment C (Nicotine Level 0)
7th week: Baseline
The baseline is measured through questionnaires and interviews in which the basis for
determining its progress or regress is through the number of tobacco cigarettes that were smoked
during the span of the weeks of baseline period. The questionnaires will be answered by the
participant themselves which will determine how many cigarettes were smoked in every period
allotted. During the experimental phase the researcher manipulates the level of nicotine in the
respondents electronic cigarettes. During the span of the experimental phase, the smoking of
tobacco cigarettes is not advised. The experimenter strongly discourages the smoking of tobacco
cigarettes during the administration of treatments and is given a dose of the electronic cigarette
liquid that they would use on their respective electronic cigarettes. The researcher makes sure
that the electronic cigarette equipments are functional.

85

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

RESULTS
Table 1 - The mean and standard deviation of the baseline phase and the intervention phases

During the first week of the experiment, the accumulated general mean is 43.13 which is
the point where all participants are not being controlled as experiment participants. The
participants are observed in their normal behavior in terms of their tobacco cigarette
consumption. The standard deviation of the baseline is 22.67 which reflects not a significantly
large amount of variation among the participants tobacco cigarette consumption behavior.
The second phase of the experiment is the experimental administration of the first
intervention which is the use of electronic cigarettes with nicotine level 8. After the intervention
phase week, all participants are then controlled to stop the use of electronic cigarettes and return
to their normal behavior of tobacco smoking for one week. It is the participants choice to
continue tobacco smoking during the baseline after the first intervention. During this baseline
week of the intervention phase, all participants continued smoking tobacco cigarettes with a
mean of 31.27 amidst intervention but in a lesser frequency as stated. The standard deviation is
20.24 which has become lesser from the standard deviation in the first baseline.The standard
deviation significantly denotes that the data is becoming more concentrated in terms of the
participants tobacco smoking in regression.
The third phase of the experiment is the experimental administration of the second
intervention which is the use of electronic cigarettes with nicotine level 4. The mean declined to
23.6 from 31.27. The standard deviation is 12.63 which also consequently regressed from the
previous phase. The final phase which administers the use of electronic cigarette with nicotine
level 0 shows a significant decline of tobacco cigarette smoking which statistically represents
that the mean for the final experimental phase is 17.37 with a standard deviation of 8.36. The
standard deviation denotes the lesser variation of data and a more concentrated deviation
compared to the previous phases.

86

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

DATA ANALYSIS
Fig 1 The decline of tobacco cigarette smoking among participants compared to their regular
consumption if intervention was not administered

The figure above represents the statistical means (averages) taken from the tobacco
cigarette consumption before and after the administration of the interventions of the experiment.
The stagnant line represents the regular consumption of all participants prior the experiment. The
chart above shows the decline of all participants in the consumption of tobacco cigarette after
every intervention. As aforementioned, the mean of the first baseline period is 43 then declined
to 31 during the second baseline period after the administration of Treatment A wherein the
researcher manipulated the nicotine level of the electronic cigarettes to nicotine level 8 - the
highest of which given on the duration of the entire experiment. On the third baseline period, the
statistical mean declined from 31 to 24. The numerical value 24 is taken after the administration
of Treatment B where the nicotine level of the electronic cigarette is 4. On the last baseline
period, the mean computed is 17 in which Treatment C with nicotine level 0 is administered,

There is an obvious decline of cigarette consumption as represented on the chart above.

87

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 2 Paired T-Test of first baseline and final baseline with a 95% confidence interval

A paired t-test was run on the 30 participants of the experiment and there was a
statistically significant mean difference between the first baseline of the experiment and the last
intervention phase when participants were administered the treatment of electronic cigarettes
with nicotine level 0. The mean of the first baseline accumulated 43.13 with a standard deviation
of 22.67 as opposed to the mean of the last intervention phase with a 17.37 score and a standard
deviation of 8.36; a statistically significant decrease of 5.3 in mean and a 95% Confidence
interval of the Difference, t(29) =8.096, p = .000 and p < .05. The p-value obtained is .000 which
is lesser than .005. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis
accepted. In the same premise therefore as aforementioned, there is a significant difference
between the cigarette consumption of all participants before and after experimental condition.
Participants have reduced tobacco cigarette consumption Electronic cigarette is an effective tool
for smoking cessation.
If all participants retain their cigarette consumption without electronic cigarette
intervention or any tool for smoking cessation, the summated mean of the first baseline would
approximately have been stagnant with the following weeks that would have passed. From the
numerical data from the general overview of the summation of the participants statistical means
from their performance, if we compare the results of the first baseline and the last baseline, there
is a 59.74% decline of all participants in smoking tobacco cigarettes as a general overview,
considering that the first baseline is their regular consumption of tobacco cigarette.
DISCUSSION
In relation to related literature on this thesis, Caponnetto (2011) also provides qualitative
data supporting electronic cigarettes as a smoking cessation device in special populations
through case reports. The aim of these reports was to provide objective measures of smoking
cessation in smokers with histories of relapse that have experimented with electronic cigarettes.
The first is a case of three heavy smokers with a history of relapse. These patients had all been
managed for nicotine dependence in the past using first line treatments. All 3 patients were able
to use electronic cigarettes to maintain abstinence from smoking regular cigarettes for six months
or longer. The second case study describes two patients with documented depression and history
of relapse with tobacco cigarettes. After using electronic cigarettes, both patients were able to
remain abstinent for at least 6 months. This is the first report of heavy smokers with depression
who were able to quit smoking using an electronic cigarette when they couldnt with other
smoking programs. Both of these pieces of literature provide evidence to the fact that electronic
cigarettes may provide as a means of cessation in populations of people who are heavy smokers
and have struggled with quitting in the past.
E-cigarettes work as a tool for cessation in different populations of people including
smokers with a history of withdrawal then relapse, smokers with histories of depression, and
88

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

even smokers suffering from schizophrenia. Findings from the first randomized controlled trial
were released in 2013 regarding the efficacy of e-cigarettes on smoking reduction and abstinence
which found cessation rates similar to current FDA approved nicotine replacement therapies.
This study also found that the vast majority of individuals who experimented with e-cigarettes
and subsequently quit tobacco cigarettes did so by cutting out all nicotine which can be given
deliverance by electronic cigarettes which gives smokers an option to not smoke with any
nicotine at all. As a randomized clinical trial, these findings provide groundbreaking evidence
that electronic cigarettes may serve as a way to cut back or quit regular tobacco cigarettes
(Westenberger, 2009).
CONCLUSION
The experiment has helped all participants to reduce tobacco smoking consumption. The
experiment has also been proven to be effective by some studies with different research designs.
Although the research question seeks to ask whether or not electronic cigarettes can behaviorally
modify cigarette consumption for cessation, the results of the experiment have shown great
improvement as to smoking reduction rather than the latter. All participants have reduced
smoking tobacco with the help of electronic cigarettes and the researchers manipulation of the
nicotine levels. Baseline periods have shown differences from the first to the last week of
recording. It may be a possibility that the prolonged used of electronic cigarettes can help in the
complete cessation of smoking participants.
According to this evidence, electronic cigarettes are able to reduce the cigarette cravings
among former smokers and perform as well as the proposed nicotine replacement therapies in
reducing tobacco cigarette cravings. This suggests that such tools with emphasis on electronic
cigarettes could be used to prevent former smokers from relapsing back to tobacco cigarettes.

RECOMMENDATION
Experienced e-cigarette users who use their own particular brand of e-cigarette and
proposed nicotine level of their e-liquid could result to successful smoking cessation. This
finding potentially supports the idea that there is a learning curve to using electronic cigarettes
and effective nicotine dosing is reliant on overcoming this curve. Therefore, in order to adopt ecigarettes as a smoking cessation treatment, there would need to be a form of standardization
among electronic cigarette devices and liquids that could administer uniform dosages of nicotine
and cater to the needs of both beginner and experienced users.

89

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Caponnetto, P., et al., Successful smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes in smokers with a
documented history of recurring relapses: a case series. J Med Case Rep, 2011. 5(1): p. 585.
Caponnetto P., et al., Smoking Cessation with E-Cigarettes in Smokers with a Documented
History of Depression and Recurring Relapses. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2011.
2(3): p. 281-284.
Etter, J.F.: Electronic cigarettes: A survey of users. Volume 10. BMC Public Health; 2010:231
Etter, J.-F., The Electronic Cigarette: An Alternative to Tobacco? 2012, Geneva, Switzerland:
Jean-Franois Etter.
Foulds, J., S. Veldheer, and A. Berg, Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and
clinical/public health perspectives. Int J Clin Pract, 2011. 65(10): p. 1037-42.
Hammond, G. T., Smoking Addiction Albeit Programs. NIDA Publications; 2012.
Hughes JR, Keely J, Naud S: Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among
untreated smokers. Addiction 2004, 99(1):29-38.
Limpin, M.: The Hype Of Electronic Cigarettes. Inquirer, 2010
Strecher : Tobacco and Public Health: Science and Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press;
2004.
Westenberger, B.J., Evaluation of e-cigarettes. 2009, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Zezima K: Cigarettes without smoke or regulation. New York Times. New York; 2009.
NIDA, Tobacco Addiction, in National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series. 2012.

90

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Pananaw ng mga Doktor sa Evangelista Medical Specialty Hospital


Ukol sa Konsepto ng Takaw-tingin: Isang Palarawang
Pag-aaral at Pagsusuri
Renzen Pauline B. Martinez
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRAK
Ang pagaaral na ito ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga doktor sa Evangelista
Medical Specialty Hospital ukol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin. Sa kabuuan
ang pagaaral ay mayroong labing-limang kalahok na nakapanayam ng
mananaliksik. Ang resulta, siyam lamang sa mga kalahok ang may
konkretong ideya kung ano ang takaw-tingin at ang natitira ay alam ito
ngunit hindi alam ang tawag dito. Mayroon ang konseptong ito sa kulturang
Pilipino at lumabas sa resulta na hindi ito masasabing isang eating disorder.
Mayroon din itong ibat-ibang epekto sa bawat indibidwal na nakararanas
nito tulad ng pagkakaroon ng unbalaced diet at obesity.

Ang mga Pilipino ay sadyang mahilig magpista, mapa-pangsanto man ito o


pangbarangay. At dahil may okasyon, hindi mawawala ang salu-salo (Romulo, 2013). Ang mga
Pilipino, may okasyon man o wala, ay laging may pagkain sa hapag-kainan, kahit prutas o
tinapay man lang. Nasa kultura ng mga Pilipino na maghanda ng lubusan tuwing araw ng
kapistahan. Pagdating sa handaan at kainan, ang mga Pilipino ay maituturing na mabubuting
bisita dahil sa gana nilang kumain. Ugali na ng mga Pilipino ang kumukuha ng pagkaing sobra
na nagiging dahilan upang ito ay hindi maubos. Dito pumapasok ang terminolohiyang "takawtingin," na ang ibig sabihin ay pagkuha ng madaming pagkain na hindi naman kayang ubusin.
Moderno na ang panahon ngayon. Lahat ng bagay ay nangyayari ng mabilisan; pawang
tayo mismo ang humahabol sa oras upang magawa ang ating mga responsibilidad. Dahil rito, ang
oras natin sa pagkain ay nawawala na rin. Tuwing tayo ay nagkakaroon ng oras para bumili ng
ating pagkaing inaasam, binibili natin ito kahit sa katotohanan ay hindi naman lahat kaya nating
ubusin.
Sa bilis ng takbo ng oras, piling tao na lamang ang may panahon para makakain ng
maayos. Mapa may trabaho pa man o estudyante, lahat ay sadyang abala sa kani-kanilang
gawain. Lalo na ang mga taong responsibilidad ay ang magligtas ng buhay, tulad na lamang ng
mga doktor.
Sa panahon ngayon ang mga doktor ay hindi laging nababakante, lalo na pagdating sa
sunud-sunod na pagkonsulta ng kanilang mga pasiyente. Umaabot ito sa puntong nauubusan na
rin sila ng oras para sa kanilang mga sarili. Ang payo lagi ng mga doktor sa kanilang mga
pasiyente ay huwag magpapalipas ng gutom dahil masama ito para sa kanilang kalusugan.
Ngunit sinusunod rin kaya nila ito? Nakakakain pa rin ba sila nang maayos at sa tamang oras?
Dahil lagi silang kailangan bente-kwatro oras, nakukuha pa kaya ng mga doktor na ito na

91

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

kumain? Kung nakakuha man sila ay bibili kaya sila ng pagkaing akala nila ay kaya nilang
ubusin kahit hindi naman?
Ang layunin ng kasalukuyang pag-aaral ay malaman ang pananaw ng mga doktor
tungkol sa konseptong takaw-tingin. Layunin din ng pag-aaral na itong mapatunayan kung
mayroon nga bang kultura ang mga Pilipino na takaw-tingin. At ang panghuli ay malaman ang
epekto ng konsepto ng takaw-tingin sa kanilang mga buhay.
MGA KAUGNAY NA PAG-AARAL
Ayon sa pagaaral nina Herman C.P., Polivy J., Lank C.N. at Heatherton T.F. (1987) na
ang epekto ng pagkabahala sa kinakain ay nakadepende sa tipo ng tao. Ayon sa pag-aaral nina
Herman, Polivy, Lank, at Heathertom (1987), sa mga nondieters, ang anxiety ay nagreresulta ng
pagkawalan ng gana, ngunit ito ay hindi naaangkop kung hindi nakakaramdam ng gutom. Para
naman sa mga dieters, ang anxiety ay nagreresultat ng pagkagana sa pagkain at ito ay kung
nakakaramdam lamang sila ng gutom. Sa kaparehong pag-aaral, ayon kay OConnor, Jones,
McMillan at Eamonn (2008) ang pagkaranas ng madalas na paghihirap at pagod ay nagreresulta
ng malakas na pagkain ng mga matatamis at pagkabawas naman sa masusustansyang pagkain.
Samantala ang ego threatening o pagbabanta sa sarili, interpersonal at hirap sa trabaho ay may
kaugnayan sa pagdami ng pagkain at physical stressor naman ay nagreresulta ng pagkawalan ng
gana.
Sa pananaliksik na ginawa nina Epel, Lapidus, McEwen at Brownell (2000) ang mga tao
mataas ang reaksyon sa istress ay mas mataas ang level ng calories samantalang ang mababa ang
reaksyon sa istress ay mababa din ang bilang ng calories. Nabanggit din sa kanilang pag-aaral na
madalas na matatamis ang pinipiling kainin ng matataas ang reaksyon sa istress. Ang pagtaas sa
negatibong nararamdaman sa istress ay may kaugnayan din sa dami ng nakakain. Ibig lamang
sabihin nito na may kaugnayan ang reaksyon natin sa istress at sa dami ng pagkaing nakakain.
Ayon sa pag-aaral nina Scachte at Gross (1968) ang mga taong obese di umano ay mas
marami ang nakakain kapag nalaman nila na hindi sila kumain sa tamang oras, habang
kabaligtaran ito na kapag akala nila na sila ay kumain ng mas maaga kumpara sa regular na oras
ng kanilang pagkain.
Ang pumapagitnang impluwensiya ng pagpapahalaga sa sarili sa pagkawala ng gana sa
pagkain ay sinuri sa kontrolado at hindi kontroladong mga paksa. Ang pagpapahalaga sa sarili ay
walang kaugnayan sa pag-uugali sa pagkain ng hindi kontroladong paksa, ngunit ito ay ay may
katamtamang epekto sa kontroladong mga paksa. Sa partikular, tanging mga kontroladong mga
paksa na may mababang pagtingin sa sarili ang nagpakita ng pagkawala ng gana sa pagkain
pagkatapos ng isang preload, Janet Polivy, Todd F. Heatherton, and C. Peter Herman (1988).

92

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

SINTESIS:
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay hindi pa masyadong nabibigyang pansin kayat wala pa itong
mga kaugnay na pag-aaral, ngunit ang pinakamalapit na maaaring maiugnay sa konseptong ito ay
ang pag-uugali sa kinakain o eating behavior.
Ang pag-uugali sa kinakain ay nakabase sa tipo ng tao, hindi lang dahil dito kundi
marami pang sanhi tulad ng pagpapahalaga sa sarili at istress na nararanasan ng isang tao. Ang
emosyon ay isang malaking impluwensya pagdating sa paksang ito, nang dahil sa mga
nararamdam ng mga tao ay naiiba ang kanilang pag-uugali sa kinakain.
METODO NG PAGAARAL
Disenyo ng Pananaliksik
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay isang palarawang pag-aaral na gumamit ng makapilipinong
pananaliksik partikular ang pakikipagpanayam at pakikipagkwentuhan. Sa paggamit ng mga
metodong ito nabigyan ng pagkakataon ang mananaliksik ng pagkakataon na makalikom ang
opinyon ng mga doktor ukol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin ng walang balakid. Nalikom din ng
mananaliksik ang kanilang mga personal na karanasan patungkol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin at
kung paano nila ito nadiskubre.
Mga kalahok
Ang pananaliksik na ito ay may labing limang-kalahok na galing sa Evangelista Medical
Specialty Hospital, dahil unang naisipan ng mananaliksik ang pagaaral na ito sa isang doktor at
ang mga doktor ang madalas na walang oras para sa pagkain. Partikular ang mga regular na
doktor, ang mga doktor na parating nasa ospital na madalang umalis sa kanilang mga trabaho ng
dahil sa pag-oobserba sa kanilang mga pasiyente. Ang labing-limang nakapanayam ng
mananaliksik ay walang espesipikong edad sapagkat binase lamang ito ng mananaliksik sa mga
doktor na laging nasa kanilang opisina sa loob ng ospital.
Instrumento ng Pananaliksik
Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng internet upang mas maintindihan pa ang konseptong
takaw-tingin, sapagkat limitado lamang ang mga datos sa mga magasin at libro at matagal na ang
mga datos na ito. Gumami ang mananalisksik ng mga panimulang tanong katulad ng mga
pangunahing impormasyon ng kalahok at nang masimulan ang kwentuhan ay unti-unting
itatanong ang tungkol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin.

93

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Paraan ng pagkuha ng datos


Ang paksa ng pananaliksik na ito ang ukol sa pananaw ng mga doktor sa konsepto ng
takaw-tingin. Bilang ang mga kalahok sa pananaliksik na ito ay mga propesyunal na doktor,
minabuti ng mananaliksik na hindi ilagay ang kanilang mga pangalan o kahit na ang kanilang
mga pinagdalubhasaan para na rin sa kanilang kahilingan. Ang paksa ng pag-aaral na ito ay ukol
sa isang makaPilipinong konsepto kaya minabuti ng mananaliksik na gumamit din ng
makaPilipinong pamamaraan.
Ang pangunahing hakbang na ginawa ng mananaliksik ay gumawa ng sulat upang
makakuha ng pahintulot sa Evanghelista Medical Specialty Hospital at sa mga doktor na
pwedeng makapanayam. Maliban sa sulat ay personal na nagpaalam ang mananaliksik sa mga
kalahok kung sang-ayon sila na itala ang kanilang mga sagot gamit ang recorder ng cellphone.
Matapos magpaalam, gumamit ang mananaliksik ng mga panimulang tanong upang masimulan
ang pakay ng pag-aaral. Hindi nag-iisa ang mananaliksik mayroon siyang kasamang mas
nakatatanda na personal na may kakilalang doktor sa ospital. Madaling nakakalap ang
mananaliksik ng datos ang mananaliksik nang dahil na rin sa tulong ng mas nakatatandang
kasama nito na tumulong upang maging maganda at maayos na daloy ng kwentuhan.
PRESENTASYON AT INTERPRETASYON
Ang isinagawang pag-aaral ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga doktor ukol sa konsepto ng
takaw-tingin ito ay base sa makapilipinong pamamaraan na kinailangan ng maingat at masusing
pagkalap ng datos. Sa kabuuan ang pag-aaral na ito ay mayroong labing-limang kalahok na
sumagayon na makipagkwentuhan at makipagpanayam sa mananaliksik na may edad na
tatlungput pito, pataas. Ang layunin ng pag-aaral na ito ay mabigyang kasagutan ang mga
sumusunod: (1) Ano ang pananaw ng mga doktor sa konseptong takaw-tingin ng mga Pilipino?
(2) Meron nga bang takaw-tingin sa kultura ng mga Pilipino? (3) Ano ang epekto ng takawtingin sa kanilang mga buhay? Isang masusing pag-aanalisa at mabuting pakikinig ang isinagawa
ng mananaliksik upang mabigyang kahulugan ang ginawang pag-aaral. Ihahayag ng
mananaliksik ang iba't-ibang pahayag ng mga kalahok patungkol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin na
tumugon sa mga nais mabigyang linaw na tanong sa pag-aaral na ito.
Pananaw ng mga doktor ukol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin
Lahat ng kalahok ay nagbahagi ng kanilang pananaw tungkol sa konsepto ng takawtingin. Siyam sa labing-limang kalahok na doktor ay may alam at ideya patungkol sa takawtingin. Mayroong iba na nagsabing nangyayare nga ito ngunit hindi nila sigurado kung ano ang
tawag dito, mayroon din namang nagsasabing nagyayare ito at alam na hindi na ito iba sa
kaugalian ng mga Pilipino. Ibat-iba ang mga pananaw ng mga kalahok, ngunit hindi rin naman
maikakaila na kahit na mayroong pagkakaiba at di pagkakaunawaan pag dating sa paksa ay
mayroon din namang nagkakatugma sa kanilang mga pananaw. Ang mga sumusunod na pahayag
ay sinipi ng mananaliksik:

94

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Oo, eto yun effect ng pagkain sa tao, na nakakagutom pag tinignan mo. Cause to ng instinct
natin as a human, yun food as visual stimuli will trigger our hunger, kahit yun amoy pa lang ng
masarap na pagkain nakakagutom. Doktor 1
Takaw tingin is you want more than what you already have even though you dont need it. Naku
lalo na pag dating sa pagkain, dyan marami! Doktor 3
"Takaw-tingin? oo naman pag dating sa pagkain madalas ganyan ako eh, lalo na pag
nalilipasan ng gutom tapos mapapadaan ka sa food court or basta sa mga restaurants di mo
mapipigilan orderin lahat sa sobrang gutom sabay makikita mo nalang sobra sa kailangan mo
yung naorder mo." Doktor 5
Lalo na pag gabi pag walang masyadong ginagawa, yung saglit na punta sa convenient store
tumatagal ng ilang oras dahil sa daming binibili ng ibang kasama ko na kahit ilang beses mo
sila sabihan na sapat na yung nakuha nila may kukunin pa silang iba Doktor 7
Ganyan ako pag nag gogrocery kaming mag-anak. Iisipin ko yung kailangan para sa bahay,
kung kakasya na ba yun para sa mga anak ko para hindi sila magugutom pag wala ako, so I
usually buy things or food we really don't need. I end up buying too much everytime. Doktor 8
Sa labing-limang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik siyam lamang ang may alam o may
ideya kung ano ang takaw-tingin at nakapagbigay ng kanilang mga sariling karanasan ukol dito.
Ang natitirang anim ay kinailangan pa ng mga halimbawa upang masabing yoon nga ang tawag
doon at hindi pa sigurado nang una itong banggitin sakanila. Sa bawat nakapanayam ng
mananaliksik ang mga sagot ng kalahok ay laging konektado sa pagkain tulad na lamang ng
sagot ni Doktor 3, 5 at 7, ayon sa pagaaral nina Polivy, Heatherton at Herman (1988) ang
pagpapahalaga sa sarili ay isa sanhi ng sobrang pagkuha ng pagkain na nangyayare ayon na rin
sa tugon ni Doktor 5. Ang mga doktor ay nakapagbahagi rin ng kanilang sariling karanasan tulad
ni Doktor 8 na ang takaw-tingin ay nakakadulot ng pagkabagabag ng kanyang sa loobin na
nagreresulta sa pagbili ng marami na kahit hindi naman kailangan Herman, Polivy, Lank, at
Heathertom (1987) tulad nalamang din sa kanilang pagaaral.
Takaw tingin sa kultura ng mga Pilipino
Di maikakaila na mahilig tayong mga Pilipino sa pagkain na naging bahagi na ito ng
ating kultura at tradisyon (Romulo, 2013). Pagkain na rin ang nagbubuklod sa ating mga pamilya
sa bawat henerasyon, mga recipe na pinapasa mula sa matatanda hanggang sa kanilang mga apo.
Hindi maiwasan ng mga doktor na tukuyin kung ito ay isang eating disorder o hindi at kung
meron nga ba nito ang mga Pilipino. Ang mga sumusunod ay ang kanilang pananaw patungkol
kung meron at maituturing nga ba na isang eating disorder ang takaw-tingin:
This is more like a form of social phenomenon, sana hindi to mag lead sa obesity. Thanks to the
various forms of social media, like facebook, instagram. Yun mga tao na nagpopost ng pictures
ng pagkain contributes to this case of takaw-tingin. Not just social media pero television shows
95

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

also contribute to this. Para sa akin hindi siya emergency case, hindi siya nakakatakot in the
Philippines. Doktor 3
Sating mga Pilipino? tignan mo palang yung mga holidays satin masaya man o malungkot
laging present ang pagkain. Malamang sa dinami-dami ng pagkain sa mga handaan hindi na
'yun mawawala Doktor 4
Meron ata? di ko sure, di ko din namang napapansin. Basta ang alam ko lang pagdating sa
kainan game lagi tayong mga pinoy. Doktor 11
Dito siguro sa may atin kasi di ba kasi sobrang progressive na nung mga lugar dito kaya
malamang nangyayare na yun, pero sa probinsya? Malaki ang tsansa na hindi kasi alam mo
naman isang kahid isang tuka lalo na pag ikaw mismo nagaani ng kakainin mo, yun kasi ang
kinalakhan ko Doktor 15
Apat sa mga kalahok ang nagsabi at nagpaliwanag ang kanilang saloobin patungkol dito.
Ngunit hindi nila masabi na ito ay isang eating disorder dahil madaming pwedeng maging
dahilan kung bakit ito nangyayare sa isang tao tulad na lamang ng sinabi ni Doktor 3 na kahit
social media ay nakakaimpluwensya rito pati na rin ang media. Base sa kanilang mga tugon
itong konsepto ng takaw-tingin ay nagyayare sa ating mga Pilipino lalo na sa dami ng ating mga
kapistahang ipinagdiriwang hindi ito mawawal tulad ng sabi ni Doktor 4 at 11. Base sa tugon
nila Doktor 4 at 15 ang istress na maaaring kanilang nararanasan sa araw-araw ay
nakakaimpluwensya sa kanilang pagkain ayon sa pagaaral nina Epel, Lapidus. McEwen at
Brownell (2000).
Epekto ng takaw-tingin
Ang lahat ng sanhi ay mayroong bunga, ang takaw-tingin ay nangyayare, base na rin sa
mga kasagutan na nakalap ng mananaliksik sakanyang mga kalahok. Mayroon din itong epekto
sa kanila, sa kung paano man sila nabubuhay sa pang araw-araw. Ang mga sumusunod ay ang
kanilang mga karanasan at naging epekto sa kanilang buhay ng takaw-tingin:
I remember one time in highschool, I was third year and we had a birthday party. We had pizza
and ice cream, one classmate of mine literally took one box to himself and wasnt able to finish
it, he left it in the locker for the time being then forgot about it and it was a Friday. Monday
came and it was spoiled already and one of my classmate commented yan kasi, takaw tingin
ka After that I didnt really like wasting food. Doktor 1
Based from experience, sino ba naman hindi magugutom or matatakam pag nakakita ka ng
masarap na pagkain? There was a time I was walking around the mall tapos I smelled something
good, I saw it was pizza tapos nagisip ako kung bibili ba or hindi? At that time may extra money
ako na dala, so I decided buy a slice. Doktor 2
May cases din na hindi ako nag give in kasi kulang ang dalang ko perang for that day, matipid
ako ng doctor eh, hehe Doktor 6
96

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Nauubusan ako ng pera, madalas. Nang dahil lang sa pagkain. Doktor 9


Nagiging unbalaced yung diet ko, lagi ako kain ng kain ng junk food or food that has nothing to
give but sugar and fat, tignan mo ang laki ko tuloy. Doktor 13
Ang mga kalahok ay nagkaroon ng kaalaman sa kanilang mga sarili, kung paano nila
binibigyang importansya ang pagkain tulad ni Doktor 1, ang kanyang tugon ay base sa kanyang
personal na karanasan na maaaring nagbigay sa kanya ng anxiety pag dating sa pagkain ayon na
rin sa pagaaral nina Herman, Polivy, Lank, at Heathertom (1987). Ang kahalagahan ng pera tulad
nina Doktor 2, 6 at 9 pati na rin ang kahalagahan ng kalusugan pag dating sa konseptong ito.
Base sa tugon ng mga kalahok ang takaw-tingin ay nakakaapekto sa kanilang pamumuhay.
Nauubusan sila ng pera at natatakot din pag dating sa kanilang kalusugan. Katulad na lamang ng
tugon ni Doktor 13 pag dating sa kanyang pangangatawan na ayon sa pagaaral ni Scachte at
Gross (1968) nang dahil sa pagkain ng di naaayon sa oras at pati narin ng junk foods
naaapektuhan ang kanyang pangangatawan pati na rin ang kanyang kalusugan.

KONKLUSYON AT REKOMENDASYON
Tinalakay ng pagaaral na ito ang pananaw ng mga doktor sa Evangelista Medical
Specialty Hospital ukol sa konsepto ng takaw-tingin. Sa kabuuan ang pagaaral ay mayroong
labing-limang kalahok na nakapanayam at ng mananaliksik. Ang resulta siyam lamang sa mga
kalahok ang may konkretong ideya kung ano ang takaw-tingin at ang natitira ay alam ito ngunit
hindi alam ang tawag dito. Sa pagaaral na ito ang mga nakapanayam ng mananaliksik ay may
ibat-ibang opinyon kung ano ito, kung ito ba ay maituturing eating disorder o hindi. Halos lahat
ng kalahok ay nagsabing maraming dahilan kung bakit ito nangyayare ngunit hindi sila
sumangayon na ito ay isang sakit na maituturing. Ang takaw-tingin ay may epekto sa buhay ng
isang indibidwal may ideya man o wala tungkol dito, dahil ito ay naaapektuhan kung paano
makapagisip ang isang tao patungkol sa pera at kalusugan.
Nalikom ng mananaliksik ang mga datos na kinakailangan ngunit hindi maikakaila na
may limitasyon ang pag-aaral na ito. Iminungkahi ng mananaliksik na higit na mapaghusay pa
ang kanyang pag-aaral ukol sa takaw-tingin sa kadahilanang nais pa niyang higit na maunawaan
ang mga implikasyon ng takaw-tingin sa buhay ng tao. Upang mas mapagtibay ang datos na
nakalap, minumungkahi ng mananaliksik na higit sa isang araw ang ilaang oras sa
pakikipagpanayam sa mga kalahok. Mas mapapagtibay ang datos kung ang mga kalahok ay nasa
iisang grupo upang makapagpalitan ng mga iba pang kwento at karanasan ukol sa konsepto ng
takaw-tingin. Nais magrekomenda ng mananaliksik na sa susunod na pagaaral ay kunin ang
pananaw ng iba pang propesyunal upang magkaroon ng paghahalintulad. Sa paksang katulad ng
pag-aaral na ito, inirerekomenda ng mananaliksik na gumamit ng makapilipinong pananaliksik
sapagkat ito ang naaayon sa kultura ng mga Pilipino at ng sa gayon ay malikom ang mga datos
na nais makamit.

97

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

TALAAN NG SANGGUNIAN
Epel E., Lapidus R., McEwen B., Brownell K., Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a
laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior (June 2000)
Herman C.P., Polivy J., Lank C.N. at Heatherton T.F. Anxiety, Hunger, and Eating Behavior
(1987)
OConnor D.B., Jones F., Conner M., McMillan B., Ferguson E. Effects of Daily Hassles and
Eating Style on Eating Behavior (2008)
Polivy J., Heatherton T.F., Herman C.P., Self-esteem, Restraint and Eating Disorder (1988)
Romulo L. Filipino Celebrations: A treasury of feasts and festivals (2013)
Schachter S., at Gross L.P., Manipulated Time and Eating Behavior (1968)

98

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Romantic Comedy Themed Movies and Depression among Individuals who


recently experience breakup.
Isaiah-Girard R. Rubio
Eva A. Castronuevo
ABSTRACT
This study examined the effect of exposure to Romantic-comedy themed
movies and depressive levels among individuals who recently experienced
breakup from a romantic relationship. Thirty participants were randomly
divided into two groups. The design used was two group with pretest and
posttest quasi-experimental design. 20 romantic-comedy themed movies
was presented to the experimental group. The Zung Self-rating depression
scale was used to measure the level of depression of both groups in the
pretest and posttest periods. Findings suggest that the evident declination on
the level of depression of the experimental group means that the
intervention has a significant effect.

Romantic Relationships has become increasingly significant in the lives of young people.
Young people spend a great deal of time thinking about, talking about, and being in romantic
relationships (Furman, 2002). Being in a romantic relationship has become a central point in the
social life of adolescents. Three-fourths of teens age 16-18 report having had a relationship,
dated, or hooked up with someone and half of these youth have had a serious boyfriend or
girlfriend (Teenage Research Unlimited, 2006). But romance does not only bring the fleeting
sensation of joy and the butterflies in the stomach. Some romantic relationships may lead to
broken hearts. In fact a survey conducted by eNation found that nearly one-third of all
Americans have experienced a breakup in the past ten years.
Romantic breakups can be followed by symptoms of heartbreak and bereavement
(Prigerson & Jacobs, 2001; Raphael, Minkov, & Dobson, 2001; Davis, Shaver, & Vernon, 2003),
typically, these symptoms have been associated with a loss from death, although they can also
occur following other losses like divorce and romantic breakups (Prigerson & Jacobs, 2001;
Davis et al., 2003). A relationship breakup commonly known as simply breakup, is the
termination of a relationship by any means other than death. When initiated by one partner it is
sometimes referred to as "dumping someone".
Those who have experienced breakup from a relationship knows that it can cause anger,
anxiety, irritability and feelings of hopelessness which are all symptoms of depression. After a
relationship breakup a person can have a mixture of emotions that can affect his/her wellbeing
and bring psychological distress on his/her daily life. Its normal for a teenager to feel down after
being dumped but when these experiences and immense emotions becomes overwhelming that
99

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

it brings the life of the teen to a screeching halt that causes the teen to develop negative thoughts
about himself or herself, it may indicate clinical depression.
Movies have always played a big role in the lives of humans they can affect our moods,
habits, and even our beliefs. In the 21st century there have been different kinds of genres made.
Movies can be educational, dramatic, thrilling, comedic, etc. Because of the diversity of movies
many critics have pointed out that there are some movies that might embed negative influences
on viewers, especially the youth. But that assumption will also justify the fact that movies can
also have positive influences on the viewers. Humans create movies to express feelings but the
most important thing about a movie is that it can entertain and it can leave a mark or be
remembered by the viewers.
The purpose of this study is to prove that movies can have a positive influence on the
behavior of the individuals who had just experience heartbreaking instances caused by
relationship breakups. Since most research done about movies only tackles on the negative
effects it may have on a viewer, the researcher aims to change that perception by attempting to
use romantic-comedy themed movies as intervention to promote positive psychology and lessen
the level of depression among individuals who recently experienced breakups from romantic
relationships. Therefore emphasizing that the influence that movies will have on a viewer
depends on the subject matter that the movie is trying to pinpoint. The study seeks to answer the
following questions:
1. What is the level of depression of the participants in the pretest and posttest when
grouped according to:
a.
Experimental Group;
b.
Control Group
2. Is there a significant difference between the pretest and posttest on the level of depression
when grouped according to:
a.
Experimental Group;
b.
Control Group
3. Is there a significant difference between the pretest on the level of depression of the
experimental and control group?
4. Is there a significant difference between the posttest on the level of depression of the
experimental and control group?

100

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Influences of Movies
Because of the global advancement of movies, it has been the subject for study of many
researchers in the past decade. Researchers try to unravel the different effects that a movie may
have on a persons behavior. Behm-Morawitz & Mastro, (2008), used a two-part exploratory
study to investigate the influence of gender portrayals in teen movies on emerging adults'
gender-based attitudes and beliefs. First, a content analysis of gender portrayals in teen movies
was conducted, it revealed that female characters are more likely to be portrayed as socially
aggressive than male characters. Second, college students were surveyed about their teen movieviewing habits, gender-related beliefs, and attitudes.
Findings suggest that viewing teen movies is associated with negative stereotypes about
female friendships and gender roles. Charlesworth & Glantz, (2005), found out that exposure to
movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable
and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Similarly, Lochbuehler,
et. al, (2010), did research on the Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking
behavior, they found out that a significant interaction effect between movie condition and
transportation on immediate smoking behavior, indicating that smokers who were less
transported smoked significantly more cigarettes when they were exposed to smoking characters
compared with non-smoking characters. Another research that explains the effects of movies on
behavior was the study of the Association for Psychological Science. The study suggests that
suggests that exposure to sexually charged films could influence younger teens' sex-related
decisions further down the line. Researchers reviewed the content of several films deemed to be
sexually charged. They then quizzed a group of teenagers, asking each one which of these
films they had and hadnt seen. The results showed that the teens who had seen the majority of
the films on the sexually charged list were more likely to have lost their virginity, had multiple
lovers and engaged in infidelity. Similarly, on 2005, Engle, et. al, did research on the influences
of mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and
behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers.
Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive
greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in
sexual intercourse and more sexual activity.
One research tries to uncover the impact of inspirational movies on aspirations and
expectations. Tanguy Bernard, Stefan Dercon, Kate Orkin, and Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse,
(2013), conducted a study in 64 villages in rural Ethiopia. Six households in each of the 64
villages were shown four inspirational fifteen minute documentaries. These documentaries
showed success stories of people with a similar background as the audience and a crucial
element in each of these documentaries was that people made a choice that led to success. To
control for effects associated to just viewing a movie on a projector screen (and the associated

101

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

excitement), six households were shown an ordinary (less inspirational) soap instead as a placebo
treatment.
Finally, in each village six households that were not shown anything were surveyed as
well, functioning as the control group. In half of the villages, 18 extra households were selected
to watch either the inspirational video or the placebo video, to assess the effect of having a larger
group of peers that have watched the video. The results of the experiment are surprising: an
intervention that looks perhaps small and insignificant on paper, does seem to have a significant
effect on expectations, aspirations and behaviour, according to the preliminary results. On most
measures the impact of watching an inspirational movie is significant from not watching
anything. In this case we could speak of a reverse couch potato effect: watching a movie could
actually activate people. In case of savings and hypothetical demand for credit watching an
inspirational movie is also significantly different from watching a presumably less inspiring
regular soap (the placebo).
Romantic relationships
When we watch a romantic movie the couple have a love for one another that is
passionate and all-consuming. Most of us are familiar with passionate and all-consuming love,
because we have felt it ourselves. However, if we are old enough to have had some long term
relationships, we very likely have also felt this overwhelming passion fade. One might guess that
all the exposure to the perfect romance of novels and movies could influence what we think
should happen in our real-world intimate relationships. One study conducted by Susan Sprecher
& Sandra Metts, (1989), found that holding strong romantic beliefs did not predict whether a
relationship endured or broke up over a four year period. And indeed, one could argue that
romantic beliefs could in many cases contribute to the stability of a relationship, if the couple can
manage to continue to feel romantic about one another.
In the present time, a romantic relationship begins in young adults from their school days
up to working days. It is natural for the young adults to seek friendship and possibly develop it
into romantic relationship. In a study conducted by Ponti, Guarnieri, Smorti & Tani (2010), it is
stated that friendship and romantic relationships are central to individual social life. During
adolescence and early adulthood, these close relationships become increasingly significant.
Humor and Mood
In 2009, Strick, et. al, did research that aims to demonstrate that the cognitive demands
involved in human processing can attenuate negative emotions. Participants viewed neutral,
mildly negative, and strongly negative pictures, followed by either a humorous or an equally
positive non-humorous stimulus, and then rated their feelings. Participants reported less negative
feelings in both mildly and strongly negative trials with humorous positive stimuli than with nonhumorous positive stimuli. Humor did not differentially affect emotions in the neutral trials.
Stimuli that posed greater cognitive demands were more effective in regulating negative
emotions than less demanding stimuli.
102

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

A somewhat similar to this research was a review done by Marc Gelkopf in (2009), his
review is about the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness,
distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical
research reports describing humor and laughter interventions.
SYNTHESIS:
Today, movies has been a part of the lives of almost all humans. Movies can inspire,
entertain, teach, etc. It can bring laughter, sorrow, even hope. But most research done in the past
about the impacts of movies on adolescents have all been about the negative effects
(Charlesworth, et. al, 2005; Engle, et. al, 2005; Lochbuehler, et. al, 2010). If violence, sex, and
smoking in the movies can influence the youth to do the same in real life then positive themes
can also influence a person behavior to be more progressive. What previous research had failed
to do was to unveil these positive influences, most research focuses entirely on the negative
effects. Only the research on the impact of inspirational movies on aspirations and expectations
(Bernar, et. al, 2013) did research on positive effects.
Romantic relationships are central to individual social life (Ponti, Guarnieri, Smorti &
Tani, 2010). During adolescence and early adulthood, these close relationships become
significant therefore the effects of its failure must be scrutinized. Depression brought by
breakups are evident in all cultures and must be given attention.
There had been past studies that used humor as interventions (Marc Gelkopf, 2009) for
mental illnesses but there had been no research yet in using it for mood disorders. This research
will attempt to use romantic-comedy themed movies as intervention for those who recently
suffered from relationship breakups. If this study were to be successful it will be able to illustrate
positive effects of movie and use it as a behavioral modification tool in treating depression.
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Pretest/Posttest Quasi-experimental design
The pretest/posttest Quasi-experimental design model includes the basic elements of the
experimental design model an experimental group, a treatment and a posttest. In addition this
model has both a pretest and a control group. In this research the pretest and posttest was the
Zung Self-rating depression scale. While the treatment was the presentation of romantic-comedy
themed movies to the experimental group. The experiment was conducted in the span of 1 month
(excluding weekends). One day is allotted for pretest and one day for posttest and twenty days
for intervention period.
Participants
There were 30 individuals ages 18 - 26 years old chosen to participate in the experiment.
Subjects who recently experienced break up qualified in the experiment. A Survey
103

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

questionnaire comprised of demographics questions made by the researcher was given in order to
determine which sample in the population recently experience a break up from a romantic
relationship. From the sample of the population the subjects who have just experience break-up
was given a scale of depression in order to determine their depression level. The sampling
procedure used was a non-probability sampling, specifically purposive sampling. In Purposive
sampling the researcher chooses the sample based on who they think would be appropriate for
the study. This is used primarily when there is a limited number of people that have expertise in
the area being researched.
Instruments
In order to determine the participants for the experiment, a survey - questionnaire was
given to identify the subjects who have just experience breakup from a romantic relationship. For
those who qualify a scale of depression was given to assess the level of depression of each
participant.
Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was given to the respondents. From the samples
taken from Purposive sampling, the experimental participants were selected if depression is
established by the test. The test was designed by Duke University psychiatrist William W.K.
Zung to assess the level of depression. There are 20 items on the scale that rate the four common
characteristics of depression: the pervasive effect, the physiological equivalents, other
disturbances, and psychomotor activities.
It is a 20 item test which contains a checklist. Cronbach's alpha for the ZSDS was .79 .81 which renders high internal consistency. Zung has reported a split-half reliability of 0.73. An
alpha coefficient of 0.68 was obtained by DeForge and Sobal (1988), however 0.82 was reported
by DeJonghe & Baneke (1989) and Leung, Lee, Lue, & Tang (1989). The ZSDS when
correlated with the physicians global rating received a correlation of 0.69. In addition, ZSDS
has a strong correlation with the Hamiliton Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory in
assessing self-criticism, hysteria, hypochondriasis, and paranoia. The results of this study
indicate that the ZSDS is a valid and sensitive measure of clinical severity in depressed patients
and support its continued use as a research instrument.
There are ten positively worded and ten negatively worded questions. Each question is
scored on a scale of 1-4 (a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the
time).

The scores range from 25-100.


25 49

Normal Range

50 59

Mildly Depressed
104

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

60 69

Moderately Depressed

70 and above

Severely Depressed

See attached test in Appendix A


Movies
In order to reduce bias and extraneous variables the researcher chose movies that none of
the participants have watched before. Using the Internet Movie Database (IMDB) the researcher
have selected movies that are categorize under the genre comedy with a sub-genre of romance.
The movies are:
1.
500 days of summer
2.
Juno
3.
Theres something about Mary
4.
Crazy, Stupid, Love
5.
Clueless
6.
Leap Year
7.
Shes all that
8.
Sixteen Candles
9.
The holiday
10. Meet the Parents
11. How to lose a guy in 10 days
12. Serendipity
13. Cant hardly wait
14. Overboard
15. Bedazzled
16. Forgetting Sarah Marshall
17. Made of Honor
18. Better Off Dead
19. Win a Date with Tad Hamilton
20. Chalet Girl
Procedure
The researcher administered a survey in order to screen those who have recently
experienced breakups. Those who qualified were randomly divided into two groups the first
group is the experimental group where treatment was given through course of the experiment
while the second group is the control group where no treatment was given. The Zung Self-Rating
Depression Scale was given to both groups. Only the participants who scored 50 - 69 in the scale
were allowed to continue with the experiment. This was considered as the pretest phase of the
experiment. All participants were subjected to the same condition wherein they are all strictly
prohibited to watch any kind of movie during the duration of the experiment. Only the movies
that were presented as treatment to the experimental group were allowed to be watched. The
experimental group were assigned to watch 1 romantic-comedy themed movie per day for 20
days.
105

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

The experiment proceeded in the span of 1 month (excluding weekends) allotting 2 days
for pretest and posttest and 20 days for intervention. For the experimental group the experimental
schedule is as follows:
1st day: Pretest
20 days: Treatment (Movie intervention)
Last day: Posttest
For the control group the schedule is as follows:
1st day: Pretest
Last day: Posttest
The progress or regress was monitored by comparing the results of the Zung Self-Rating
Depression Scale during the pretest and posttest periods.
Data Analysis
The data from the pretest and posttest was compared to one another. Tables were used to
represent the data from the tests. T-test was used to compare the actual difference between two
means in relation to the variation in the data.
RESULTS
The result of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale is shown in the table 1, This is
considered as the Pretest of both groups. The results of this test will be compared to the results
of the same scale that the participants took on the Last day of the experiment. The participants
scored from mildly depressed to moderately depressed.
Experimental Group

Control Group

Participant

Score

Level of Depression

Participant

Score

Level of Depression

50

Mild

60

Moderate

52

Mild

51

Mild

60

Moderate

60

Moderate

60

Moderate

53

Mild

66

Moderate

63

Moderate

52

Mild

60

Moderate

106

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

63

Moderate

55

Mild

60

Moderate

56

Mild

60

Moderate

53

Mild

10

60

Moderate

10

60

Moderate

11

58

Mild

11

52

Mild

12

55

Mild

12

54

Mild

13

55

Mild

13

60

Moderate

14

64

Moderate

14

60

Moderate

15

62

Moderate

15

58

Mild

Mean

= 58.47

Mild

Mean

= 57

Mild

Table 1 Scores of Participants in the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Pretest


The recorded mean of the scores of the experimental group is 58.47 meaning that the
average depressive level of the experimental group is within the range of mildly depress. The
control group on the other hand scored 57 also within the range of mildly depress. On the 2nd
day of the experiment the intervention phase commences where the experimental participants
were presented with 1 romantic-comedy movie a day for 20 days.
On the Last day of the experiment which is the posttest, the participants of both groups
were once again given the Zung Self-rating depression Scale to see if there had been some
changes in the level of their depression. Table 2 shows the results of the posttest of the
experimental group and the control group.
Experimental Group

Control Group

Participant

Score

Level of Depression

Participant

Score

Level of Depression

40

Normal

60

Moderate

43

Normal

51

Mild

52

Mild

59

Mild

107

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

47

Normal

52

Mild

55

Mild

60

Moderate

47

Mild

59

Mild

57

Mild

57

Mild

48

Normal

57

Mild

49

Normal

55

Mild

10

45

Normal

10

60

Moderate

11

42

Normal

11

51

Mild

12

46

Mild

12

52

Mild

13

49

Mild

13

62

Moderate

14

53

Moderate

14

55

Mild

15

55

Moderate

15

57

Mild

Mean

= 48.53

Normal

Mean

= 56.47

Mild

Table 2 Scores of Participants in the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Posttest


The mean of the posttest for the experimental group is 48.53 which means that the level
of depression of the experimental group changes from mildly depress to normal. The control
group scored 56.47, since there is almost no difference between the pretest and posttest results
the control group remains in the range of mildly depress.
After gathering all data the researcher used T-test in order to justify the significance of
the differences in the means of the results. Firstly the researcher used T-test to test the difference
of the pretest and posttest of the experimental group and the control group. The researcher used
T-test for 2 dependent means.
The researcher set the alpha level at 0.05.
The result of the T-test for the pretest and posttest of the experimental group is as follows:
There was a significant difference in the scores of the experimental group pretest
(M=58.47, SD=4.7) and experimental group posttest (M=48.53, SD=5.05) conditions; t = -11.79,
108

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

p = 0.00001. This statistical data suggests that the significant difference between the pretest and
the posttest results (declination of the level of depression) may be due to the effect of the
treatment. In order to solidify this claim the results of this data must be compared to the results
of the control group.
The result of the T-test for the pretest and posttest of the control group is as follows:
There was no significant difference in the scores of the control group pretest (M=57,
SD=3.76) and control group posttest (M=56.47, SD=3.64) conditions; t = -1.074541, p =
0.150376. This statistical data means that the level of depression of the control group did not
change from pretest to posttest.
Secondly the researcher used T-test to test the difference between the pretest results of
the experimental group and the pretest results of the control group. Then the posttests results of
both groups. The researcher used T-test for 2 Independent Means.
The result of the T-test between the Pretest of the experimental group and the pretest of the
control group is as follows:
There was a no significant difference in the scores for experimental group pretest
(M=58.47, SD=4.7) and control group pretest (M=57, SD=3.8) conditions; t = 0.94, p = 0.18.
This statistical data will justify the balance between both groups and conclude that no bias
occurred in the sampling procedure. This makes both groups suitable for the experiment.

The result of the T-test between the posttest of the experimental group and the posttest of the
control group is as follows:
There was a significant difference in the scores for experimental group posttest
(M=48.53, SD=5.05) and control group posttest (M=56.47, SD=3.64) conditions; t = 4.93, p =
1.7. This statistical data validates that the intervention had an effect. The change in the posttest
results of the experimental group states that there is a clear declination in the depressive level of
the experimental group after the exposure to the treatment.
Experimental

Control

T-value

P-value

Result

Pretest

58.47

57

0.94

0.18

Not significant at p<0.05

Posttest

48.53

56.47

4.93

1.7

Significant at p<0.05

Table 3 - Significant Difference between level of depression under Experimental and Control
Group

109

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

DISCUSSION

Figure 1- Mean of both groups on the Pretest and Posttest Periods


Figure 1 shows the statistical means of the Pretest and Posttest of both groups. As shown
on the chart there is a clear declination on the level of depression of the experimental group. The
mean of the pretest results of the experimental group is 58.47 then after the administration of the
intervention it declines to 48.53. The control group on the other hand shows little to no
declination. This results may suggest that the movies that were presented to the experimental
group had a positive effect in reducing levels of depression.
Contrary with the studies found on the related literature we can see that this research had
positive effects. The study by Behm-Morawitz & Mastro showed that viewing teen movies is
associated with negative stereotypes about female friendship and gender roles. A study by
Charlesworth & Glantz found out that exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and
beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable.
Lochbuehler, et. al, also studies the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate
smoking behavior, they found out that there is significant interaction effect between movie
condition and transportation on immediate smoking behavior, indicating that smokers who were
less transported smoked significantly more cigarettes when they were exposed to smoking
characters compared with non-smoking characters. Engle, et. al, did research on the influences of
mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and
behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers.
110

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive
greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in
sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. These studies suggests negative influence of movies
or rather, specifically, the movie content. They chose to show the negative effects of negative
movie contents. This study on the other hand chose to show the positive effects of a movie
genre. Similar to the research of Bernar, T., Dercon, S., Orkin, K., & Taffesse, A., This research
unraveled positive movie effects by presenting specific movies to a specific group of people.

The results of this study suggests that movie effects can be different depending on the
genre of the movie, content of the movie, and the group of people who watches the movie,
therefore emphasizing the utmost importance of further research in order to fully understand the
concept of movie effects.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were made. There is a
significant difference between the Pretest and Posttest results of the experimental participants
this means that there is evident declination on the level of depression among the participants. The
result of the pretest and posttest of the control group on the other hand showed little to no
change. This will justify the effectiveness of the intervention since only the experimental group
was exposed to the romantic-comedy themed movies. Therefore it can be concluded that
Romantic-comedy themed movies helped reduce the level of depression of the experimental
group. The statistical data which is the result from the T-test also supports that the significant
difference between the tests justifies the effectivity of the intervention.
The researcher commends that future research should look more into the positive effects
of movies. In relation to this study further analysis should be done and it should be tried under a
different design in order to fully justify its validity and future studies should analyze more
thoroughly on what content of the movie made the greatest impact on the individual that was
able to reduce the level of their depression. Also future studies can elaborate this research more
by using specific age groups and genders.
In addition the researcher recommends that future research should get more respondents
and try different set of instruments so that result can be compared. The researcher also
recommends that future studies to focus more on the movie composition and not only in its
genre.

111

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Behm-Morawitz, E., & Mastro, D. (2008). Mean girls? the influence of gender portrayals in teen
movies on emerging adults' gender-based attitudes and beliefs mean girls? the influence of
gender portrayals in teen movies on emerging adults' gender-based attitudes and beliefs.
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. Volume 85, Number 1, 131-146
Bernar, T., Dercon, S., Orkin, K., & Taffesse, A. (2013). Learning with others: a field
experiment on the formation of aspirations in rural ethiopia.
Charlesworth, A., & Glantz, S. (2005). Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: A
Review. Pediatrics. Volume 116, 1516 1528
Davis, D., Shaver, P. R., & Vernon, M. L. (2003). Physical, emotional and behavioral reactions
to breaking up: The roles of gender, age, emotional involvement, and attachment style.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 871-884
DeForge, B. R., & Sobal, J. (1988). Self-report depression scales in the elderly: The relationship
between the CES-D and ZUNG. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. Volume 18,
325-338.
De Jonghe, J. F., & Baneke, J. J. (1989). The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale: A replication
study on reliability, validity and prediction: Psychological Reports. Volume 64, 833-834.
Engle, et. al. (2006). The mass media are an important context for adolescents sexual behavior.
Journal of Adolescent Health. Volume 38, 186 192
Furman, W. (2002). The emerging field of adolescent romantic relationships. Current Directions
in Psychological Science. 11, 177-180.
Gelkopf, M. (2009). The use of humor in serious mental illness: a review. Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2011
Leung, K.-K., Lue, B.-H., Lee, M.-B., & Tang, L.-Y. (1998). Screening of depression in patients
with chronic medical diseases in a primary care setting: Family Practice, Volume 15, 67-75.
Lochbuehler, K., Peters, M., Scholte, R., & Engels, R. (2010). Effects of smoking cues in movies
on immediate smoking behavior. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 12, Number 9, 913
918.
Most Popular Romance-Comedy Feature Films With At Least 10,000 Votes. (n.d.). Internet
Movie Database. Retrieved from
http://www.imdb.com/search/title?count=100&genres=comedy,romance&num_votes=10000,&ti
tle_type=feature

112

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Ponti, L., Guarnieri, S., Smorti, A., & Tani, F. (2010). A measure for the study of friendship and
romantic relationship quality from adolescence to early-adulthood. The Open Psychology
Journal. Volume 3, 76 87
Prigerson, H., & Jacobs, S. (2001). Traumatic grief as a distinct disorder: A rationale, consensus
criteria, and a preliminary empirical test. In M. S. Stroebe, R. O. Hansson, W. Stroebe and H.
Schut, (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement research: consequences, coping, and care. Washington,
DC: American Psychological Association, 613-645
Raphael, B., Minkov, C., & Dobson, M. (2001). Psychotherapeutic and pharmacological
intervention for bereaved persons. In M. S. Stroebe, R. O. Hansson, W. Stroebe and H. Schut,
(Eds.), Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, and care. Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association, 587-612.
Sprecher, S., & Metts, S. (1989). Development of the `romantic beliefs scale' and examination of
the effects of gender and gender-role orientation. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.
387 - 411
Strick, et. al. (2009). Finding comfort in a joke: consolatory effects of humor through
cognitive distraction. American Psychological Association. Volume 9, No. 4, 574 578
Teenage Research Unlimited (2006). Teen Relationship Abuse Survey. Liz Claiborne Inc.
Retrieved Nov 4, 2014 from
www.loveisnotabuse.com/pdf/Liz%20Claiborne%20Mar%2006%20Relationship%20Abuse%20
Hotsheet.pdf

113

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Mobile Phone Usage and Social Connectedness Among Senior Citizens


Emmanuel Jovellanos
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRACT
With the ever-growing popularity of mobile phones, citizens from all walks
of life had already begun to embrace this new culture powered by modern
technology. This study is aimed at describing the impact of this new culture
towards the elderly population. The results of the study show that of the
sample population of 109, 45 (41.3%) used Call application in their mobile
phones making it the most commonly used application in these study, 34
(31.2%) otherwise used Text, 19 (17.4%) of them used Facebook and 11
(10.1%) on the other hand, used Skype. Furthermore, the study indicated a
significant negative correlation between the participants age and the score
they obtained on the social connectedness scale and lastly, among the
aforementioned mobile applications that were intended for social use, senior
citizens who frequently used Text, Skype and Facebook displayed above
average levels of Social Connectedness while Call users displayed average
levels.

Along with the widespread adoption of mobile phones came the modern mobile phone
culture which made our world more connected today than it has ever been before. With the
advent of all the broader and newer ways of engaging in social activities made possible by
mobile technology, connecting with other people nowadays has never been easier.
On average, young adults of ages 14 to 28 exchange 1,630 text messages per month, or
an estimated 54 messages per day (NielsenWire, 2010 as cited in Harman and Sato 2011). Past
research has shown that Individuals within the age of adolescence and young adulthood have a
different perspective when it comes to mobile phone use in comparison to other older users
(Auter, 2007). They consider it as the primary means of contacting them over their homes
traditional landline phone (Auter, 2007) and greatly utilize its aesthetic and communicative
aspect for social interaction (Ling and Yrtti, 2002 as cited in Auter, 2007) and activities that
affect their social influence such as social image creation and maintenance (Henderson et al.,
2002; Ling and Yrtti, 2002 as cited in Auter, 2007). For those who are not well connected
socially, the mobile phone gives the opportunity for instant membership in a community and it
also helps the fixed telephone as a means of strengthening users family bonds, expanding their
psychological neighborhoods, and facilitating symbolic proximity to the people they call (Wei, &
Lo, 2006).

114

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Here in the Philippines, the proliferation of mobile phones has markedly increased levels
since the past years - 58 million increase in subscriptions in just a span of seven years from 2004
to 2011 (DOST, 2004-2011). The Philippines, along with Thailand and Malaysia, has more than
50 subscribers per 100 people (UNESCAP, 2007 as cited in Motlik, 2008) suggesting its
inevitable integration into the nations culture and society and ultimately, into its geriatric
population as well.
Based on the facts that mobile phone subscriptions continue to rise only further in the
Philippines and research on mobile phone use behavior among the elderly are somewhat still
lacking in some areas, the objective of this research therefore is to find out the following: (a)
which mobile phone feature is more frequently used by senior citizens for social purposes (b)
what level of social connectedness is associated with each mobile phone feature (c) what, if any,
is the relationship between a persons age and the level of social connectedness that he/she
experiences.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Mobile Phone Usage of Adolescents and Young Adults
Studies revealed that adolescents and young adults use their mobile phones differently
from their parents and other older users. They prefer to consider it as their primary phone over
their conventional landline (Auter, 2007). Additionally, the portability of the mobile phone
translates into added privacy since personal calls can be made away from authority figures.
Young adults also use mobile phones to great extent when it comes to building and maintaining
their social image and affecting their social influence (Henderson et al., 2002; Ling and Yrtti,
2002 as cited in Auter, 2007) but they have also developed many instrumental uses for the cell
phone including coordinating and scheduling with peers and interacting and keeping parents
informed (Ling and Yrtti, 2002 as cited in Auter, 2007). In Harman, & Sato, (2011) NielsenWire
(2010) who conducted an analysis of data gathered by the Nielsen Company revealed that young
adults aged 14-18 exchange an average of 1,630 text messages per month, or approximately 54
messages per day.
Senior Citizens
In a research conducted by Phang et al. (2006) aimed at exploring information system
(I.S) acceptance among the aged, they found that senior citizens usage intention of information
system is motivated by their perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the service. Also,
as cited in Phang et al. (2006) on their relevant gerontology literature, Eilers (1989) and
Timmerman (1998) states that the declining physical and cognitive capabilities experienced by
senior citizens may cause them more difficulties in using computers.
Social Effects of Mobile Phone Use
In a study conducted by Wei and Lo (2006) to find out what value people give to their
mobile phones, they surveyed Taiwanese college students and found out that for the poorly
connected socially, the mobile phone offers a unique advantage: it confers instant membership in
a community. the mobile phone supplements the fixed telephone as a means of strengthening
115

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

users family bonds, expanding their psychological neighborhoods, and facilitating symbolic
proximity to the people they call.
Young adults use mobile phones to great extent when it comes to building and
maintaining their social image and affecting their social influence (Henderson et al., 2002; Ling
and Yrtti, 2002 as cited in Auter, 2007) but they have also developed many instrumental uses for
the cell phone including coordinating and scheduling with peers and interacting and keeping
parents informed (Ling and Yrtti, 2002 as cited in Auter, 2007).
In their discussion of the social consequences of mobile phone use in Russia, Lonkila and
Gladarev (2008) states that call charges clearly affects the length and subjects of mobile
communications. With decreasing or changing tariffs and increasing income, this tendency may
become less marked, and the subjects of cellphone calls may become more diversified.
Gender-based Perception of Mobile Devices
In a study by Nysveen, Pedersen, and Thorbjrnsen (2005) aimed at investigating the
moderating effects of gender in explaining intentions of using mobile chat services, the study
results suggested that social norms and intrinsic motives such as enjoyment are important
determinants of intention to use among female users, whereas extrinsic motives such as
usefulness and expressiveness are key drivers among men.
Several other studies have found that boys tend to be more intrigued with the technical
aspects of the devices, while girls tend to prefer the interpersonal connectivity and spend more
time using their phones for voice calls (Henderson et al., 2002; Rakow and Navarro, 1993; Skog,
2002 as cited in Auter, 2007). In fact, while women in one study felt the phones resulted in more
freedom, male teens found the additional connectivity a constraining inconvenience (Skog, 2002
as cited in Auter, 2007) which in someway also supports Nysveen, Pedersen, and Thorbjrnsen,
(2005) claim. Gender was also found to be a mediating factor in terms of how users exploit the
cell phone to maintain social ties in Wei and Lo (2006) research regarding peoples perceived
value towards their mobile phones.
SYNTHESIS:
Despite the given fact that one of the main purpose of the mobile phone is for
interpersonal communication, several researches further support the notion that socialization is
one of the most prominent reason for using mobile phones (Rakow and Navarro, 1993; Ling and
Yrtti, 2002; Henderson et al., 2002; Skog, 2002; Wei and Lo, 2006; Auter, 2007; Lonkila and
Gladarev, 2008) however, several researches also states that gender must be taken into account
as a mediating factor when it comes to perspective towards mobile phones (Rakow and Navarro,
1993; Henderson et al., 2002; Skog, 2002; Nysveen, Pedersen, and Thorbjrnsen, 2005; Wei and
Lo, 2006). On the other hand, there is a lack of research regarding the degree of social
connectedness based on the frequency of ones use of their mobile phones anywhere let alone
here in the Philippines.

116

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

METHOD
Research Design
The research design that was utilized for this study is a descriptive research design
Participants/sampling
The sample size were 109 individuals within the age range of 60 to 82 who participated
in the study. The participant sample which is made up mostly of church-based organization
members, namely, Mother Butler Groups and Knights of Columbus, will represent the target
population of senior citizens.
Instruments
The Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (Lee, R.M., Draper, M., & Lee, S., 2001) was
used to measure the degree of social connectedness experienced by the participants. The scale is
comprised of 20 items to be rated in 6 varying degrees of approval ranging from (1) Strongly
Disagree to (6) Strongly Agree. Items number 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 19 of the scale are
positively worded while Items number *1, *3, *6, *7, *9, *11, *13, *15, *17, *18, and *20 of the
scale are negatively worded which will be scored in reverse.
PROCEDURES
Data Analysis
the data regarding the relationship of the participants age and their social connectedness
score was statistically analyzed using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient while
the mobile phone applications and the social connectedness score associated with them was
analyzed statistically using the comparison of means of each mobile phone application.
Using Pearsons Correlation Coefficient the study revealed that a significant negative
correlation exists between the participants age and the score they obtained on the social
connectedness scale. The significance value between the variables is 0.006 (0.004 less than the
0.01 significance level) implying that the inverse relationship between age and social
connectedness does exist in the actual population.

117

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

RESULTS
Table 1: Mobile application usage frequency

To answer the question of which mobile phone application is more commonly used by senior
citizens, a comparison of usage frequency between the applications was conducted. The results
on the table above show that of the sample size of 109, the largest number of the participants, 45
(or 41.3%) admitted to using Call application in their mobile phones for social purposes putting
Call as the most frequently used application by senior citizens in this study. 34 (31.2%)
otherwise used Text, 19 (17.4%) of them used Facebook and 11 (10.1%) on the other hand, used
Skype.
Table 2: Mean social connectedness score of participant users of each mobile application

To answer the question of the level of social connectedness associated with each mobile phone
application, a statistical comparison of the mean average social connectedness scores of the
participant users of the application was conducted. For the participants who frequently used call,
their average score for social connectedness is 77.7556, which fall well within average levels,
Text users got 89.1176 average social connectedness scores, Facebook users scored an average
of 83.5789, while Skype users scored an average of 86,6364. Text, Facebook, and Skype users
average scores fall within above average levels

118

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

CONCLUSION
Based on the the results, it can be concluded that senior citizens most often use their
mobile phones for calling due most likely to the ease of using the application considering that old
age starts to affect the body both physically and mentally as this notion is supported by the
inverse relationship between the participants age and social connectedness score. It also
indicates that those who are used to calling may not be entirely doing so for social purposes as
those who used it displayed lower scores on their social connectedness test.
RECOMMENDATION
The study has revealed that as a person gets older he is more likely to become more
detached from his social environment. It has also revealed that calling via mobile phone is the
most frequently used application out of the other applications that were compared yet its users
tend to have lower levels of social connectedness compared to those who used text and other
wifi-based social networking apps.
The study, however, failed to address the variable of gender among its participants.
Gender might have a mediating influence on social connectedness levels as males differ from
females in terms of social interaction. As direction for future research, it is highly recommended
that gender be taken into account as well as a larger sample size to compensate for a much
broader socioeconomic range and provide results that are more significant and comparable to the
actual population.

119

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Auter, P. J. (2007). Portable social groups: willingness to communicate, interpersonal
communication gratifications, and cell phone use among young adults. International Journal of
Mobile Communications, 5(2), 139-156.
"DOST-ICTO The Philippine ICT Statistics Portal." ICT Trends. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
<http://phicts.icto.dost.gov.ph/?page=trends>
Harman, B., & Sato, T. (2011). Cell Phone Use and Grade Point Average among Undergraduate
University Students. College Student Journal, 45(3).
http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-270894540/cell-phone-use-and-grade-pointaverage-among-undergraduate
Hutcherson, C. A., Seppala, E. M., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Loving-kindness meditation increases
social connectedness. Emotion, 8(5), 720.
Lee, R.M., Draper, M., & Lee, S. (2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal
behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 48, 310-318.
Lee, R.M., & Davis, C. III. (2000). Cultural orientation, past multicultural experience, and a
sense of belonging on campus for Asian American college students. Journal of College Student
Development, 41, 110-114.
Lee, R.M., Keough, K.A., & Sexton, J.D. (2002). Social connectedness, social appraisal, and
perceived life stress in college women and men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80,
355-361.
Lee, R.M. (2003). Do ethnic identity and other-group orientation protect against discrimination
for Asian Americans? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 133-141.
Lee, R.M. (2005). Resilience against discrimination: Ethnic identity and other-group orientation
as protective factors for Korean Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 36-44.
Liu, C. C. (2010). Measuring and prioritising value of mobile phone usage. International Journal
of Mobile Communications, 8(1), 41-52.
Lonkila, M., & Gladarev, B. (2008). Social networks and cellphone use in Russia: local
consequences of global communication technology. New media & society, 10(2), 273-293.
Motlik, S. (2008). Mobile learning in developing nations. The International Review of Research
in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2).
Nysveen, H., Pedersen, P. E., & Thorbjrnsen, H. (2005). Explaining intention to use mobile
chat services: moderating effects of gender. Journal of consumer Marketing, 22(5), 247-256.
Phang, C. W., Sutanto, J., Kankanhalli, A., Li, Y., Tan, B. C., & Teo, H. H. (2006). Senior
citizens' acceptance of information systems: A study in the context of e-government services.
Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on, 53(4), 555-569.
120

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Wei, R., & Lo, V. H. (2006). Staying connected while on the move Cell phone use and social
connectedness. New Media & Society, 8(1), 53-72.

121

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Pananaw ukol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit ng mga piling


kalahok sa Gawad Kalinga
Ma. Louise Vittoria C. Leuterio
Eva Castronuevo
ABSTRAK
Ang pag aaral na ito ay tungkol sa Pananaw sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng
walang kapalit ng mga piling kalahok sa Gawad Kalinga Sa kabuuan,
mayroong sampung volunteers ng Gawad Kalinga ang nakapanayam ng
mananaliksik. Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng katutubong pamamaraan sa
pagaaral na ito partikular ang pagtatanong-tanong at pakikipagkwentuhan.
Ang resulta ng nasabing pag-aaral ay naglalaman ng positibo at negatibong
pananaw ng mga volunteers ukol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit.
Hindi maikakaila na nanaig ang positibong pananaw ng mga volunteers
ngunit hindi maiiwasan ang mga negatibong pananaw tulad nalamang ng
pagiging volunteer dahil napilitan lamang.

Ang isang organisasyon ay may pangkaraniwang layunin at hangarin para sa


mamamayan. Ibig nitong bigyan ng isang karanasan ang bawat tao na may kakayahang tumulong
sa kapwa na maghatid serbisyo sa nangangailangan. Ang pakikipagsimpatya ay isang paguugaling na kung saan ay ang isang indibidwal ay nagpapakita ng pag-aalala. Isang pangunahing
aspeto ng pagbibigay tulong ay ang pagiging mapagpasensya, sa kadahilanang, may mga ibat
ibang uri ng tao na makakasalamuha ang bawat volunteer. Volunteering ay karaniwang
itinuturing na isang altruistic na aktibidad at inilaan upang magsulong ng kabutihan o mapabuti
ang kalidad ng buhay ng tao. Ang aktibidad na ito ay nakakapagbigay ng self-worth at
paggalang. Volunteering ay kilala sa pag-unlad ng kasanayan, socialization, at kasiglahan. Ang
volunteering ay maaaring magkaroon ng positibong benepisyo para sa mga boluntaryo at pati na
rin para sa mga tao o komunidad na kabilang sa isang organisasyon. Ito ay nilayon rin na gawin
mga contact para sa mga posibleng trabaho. Ito ay pagtulong ng isa pang tao o mga tao ng
walang sweldo. Maraming mga boluntaryo partikular na tulad ng mga gamot, edukasyon, o
emergency rescue. Ang iba ay maghatid sa isang bilang-kailangan na batayan, tulad ng pagtugon sa isang natural na kalamidad. Ang iba naman ay pagboboluntaryong paggawa ng mga
matitirahan.
Ang ilang organisasyon ay nangangailangan ng mga permanenteng volunteers
samantalang, ang iba naman ay kung sino lamang ang gustong tumulong sa nasabing kuponan.
Bawat indibidwal ay may karapatang maging parte ng isang Volunteering Project, ngunit hindi
lahat ay may magagandang loob na kayang tumulong sa nangangailangan.
Dahil sa ibat ibang volunteering projects sa ating bansa, ay nagkakaroon tayo ng ibat
ibang organisasyon tulad nalamang ng Gawad Kalinga na patuloy paring tumutulong sa
nangangailangan at naghahatid serbisyo sa mamamayan. Sa mabilis na paglawak ng nasabing

122

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

kuponan ay siya ring bilis ng pagdami ng mga volunteers kung kayat marami din indibidwal na
patuloy paring nakiki-ayon sa Gawad kalinga ng walang kapalit.

LAYUNIN NG PAG-AARAL
Sinikap ng mananaliksik na sagutin ang mga sumusunod na katanungan:
1.
Anu-ano ang mga pananaw ukol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit ng mga piling
kalahok sa Gawad Kalinga
2.
Ano ang epekto ng pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit sa isang Volunteer ng Gawad
Kalinga?
3.
Paano tinutugunan ng mga Volunteers ang posibleng epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya?
MGA KAUGNAY NA PAG-AARAL
Ibat ibang uri ng pagbibigay serbisyo:
Depende sa ninanais ng organisasyon kung alin ang nararapat upang magboluntaryo sa
ibang bansa. Ang bawat uri ay may sarili nitong mga advantages and disadvantages, kaya
maaari itong maging kapaki-pakinabang upang ilista kung ano ang mga maaaring maging bago
gumawa ng anumang mga pang-huling pagpapasya (Dunkle, 2012).
Traditional Volunteering or Long-Term Volunteer Programs
Ang tradisyonal na pagboluntaryo ay ang karaniwan na ginagamit ng mga organisasyon.
Ito kasi ang pinaka-popyular at ang pinakamadaling isagawa. Ito ang klase ng pagboluntaryo na
kung saan ay maaari kang maghanda para sa iyong kaarawan kasama ng mga nangangailangan at
kung saan ito ay ginagawa taun-taon ng isang consistent volunteer. (Dunkle, 2012).
Internship/Gap year Volunteering or Short-Term Volunteer Programs
Ito ang karaniwang ginagawa ng mga estudyante na may kinakailangan sa kanilang
paaralan. Karaniwang ginagamit itong prosesong ito ng mga bata upang masubukan ang kanilang
abilidad sa pagtulong sa kapwa sa murang edad palamang. Ito rin ang prosesong ginagamit ng
mga volunteers na hindi palaging nakas-ubaybay sa pag bigay tulong, sila lamang nakacontrata
at may hangganan ang kanilang pagsali sa isang organisasyon. (Dunkle, 2012).
Voluntourism or Conservation/Environmental Volunteer Programs
Ang prosesong ito ay pinaghalong paglalakbay sa ibang bansa o lugar upang maghatid
serbisyo sa nangangailangan. Ito ang karaniwang ginagamit ng Gawad Kalinga kapag may
nasasalanta ng bagyo sa ibat ibang probinsiya. Sila ay dumadayo at bumibisita sa ibang lugar
upang magbigay tulong sa mga nasalanta. Kasama na sa tulong nila ang magbigay pagkain at
tirahan. (Dunkle, 2012).
Online Volunteering
Sa modernong pamamaraan ng ating bansa, ang pagbibigay tulong ay maaari nang
magawa sa pamamagitan ng internet o atm/credit card. Ito ang prosesong ginagamit ng isang
123

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

organisasyon sa tuwing nagkukulang sila ng oras para makapunta sa isang lugar at maghatid
serbisyo. Sa modernong paraan ng pag boluntaryo, napapadali ang pag tulong sa kapwa kahit sa
maliit na paraan. (Dunkle, 2012).
Ayon kay Goic & Jeroncic (2012), ang tao ay piniling magboluntaryo sa ibat ibang
kadahilanan, at marami sa dahilan na kabilang ay ang mga aspeto ng personal na pagsasanay,
pag-aaaral at pag-uunlad. Ang Volunteering ay maaaring makatulong upang bumuo ng
epektibong gamit para sa ekonomiya lalo na para sa kaalaman, kasanayan at karanasan ng mga
volunteers. Ang mga natuklasan sa artikulo na ito ay may mga implikasyon para sa panitikan sa
saloobin patungo sa mga tao na may malubhang sakit sa isip. Natukoy namin ang mga miyembro
ng pangkalahatang publiko na regular at kusang-loob na gumastos ng malawak na oras ng
panahon sa mga tao na may Psychiatric na sakit at mag-ulat sa kalakhan positibong karanasan sa
paggawa nito. Hinaharap ng mga recruiters ay dapat i-target ang mga potensyal na mga
boluntaryo mula sa iba't ibang mga panig, pati na ang aming collation ng panitikan na
nagmumungkahi ng walang 'tipikal na' volunteer.
Napagalaman din naming na ang benepisyo ng mga boluntaryo sa programa para sa
parehong mga kliyente at mga boluntaryo. Hindi lamang ang mga tao na may sakit sa kaisipan
tamasahin ang mga nobelang pagsama ng mga boluntaryo, ngunit maaari ring mapabuti nila ang
kanilang mga social contact at social na pagsasama bilang resulta ng patuloy na suporta sa
volunteer. Katulad nito, ang mga boluntaryo na may kaunti nakaraang pagkakalantad sa mga
indibidwal na may malubhang sakit ng kaisipan mahanap ang kanilang mga sarili Hinahamon
kanilang nakaraang stigmatizing pagpapalagay. Ang nasabing pagkakalantad para sa lay
miyembro ng publiko ay may potensyal na implikasyon para sa pagbabawas ng mantsa sa gitna
ng publiko. Nailathala ang mga posibleng mga benepisyo at ang katunayan na ang mga
boluntaryo ay isang relatibong murang mapagkukunan, mayroong isang pangangailangan para sa
mga tiyak na katibayan ng pananaliksik sa mga pinakamahusay na paraan upang ipatupad ang
mga boluntaryo sa mga serbisyo sa kalusugan ng isip.
Ang mga natuklasan ay maaaring maging partikular na mahalaga sa liwanag ng
pagbawas sa pagpopondo para sa mga serbisyo sa kalusugan ng isip na naganap o ay binalak sa
maraming mga bansa. Mga Patakaran karaniwang bigyang-diin na ang mga boluntaryo ay
walang kapalit na bayad na mga propesyonal. Kung ito katiyakan, maaaring isa sumasang-ayon
sa pahayag na 'mayroong untapped (volunteering) mga potensyal na sa loob ng ating mga
komunidad na hindi namin kayang huwag pansinin (Hallett, Klug, Lauber & Priebe, 2012).
SINTESIS:
Ang pagboboluntaryo para sa kapwa ay maituturing na isang dakilang paraan sa
kadahilanang hindi naman nabibigyan ng sweldo ang mga nagboboluntaryo sa mga
organisasyon. Kusa silang tumutulong sa kapwa sa kahit na anong paraan na alam nila. Hindi
maipagkakaila na hindi lamang sa mga mahihirap tumutulong ang mga nagbibigay servbisyo.
Sila rin ay tumutulong sa may mga sakit na pisikal, emosyunal o sakit sa pagiisip o mentalidad.
Isa sa mga paraan na maaaring gawin ng isang volunteer ay ang pagkinig sa mga saloobin ng
mga taong may mga problema. Sa simpleng pagkinig at pagsimpatya sa nangangailangan ay
napakalaking bagay na sa mga taong hirap sa buhay. Hindi madaling makisimpatya sa kapwa
124

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

lalo na kung ang intension ay hindi kaaya-aya. Mayroong mga pulitiko na nagvovolunteer sa
kadahilanang kailangan nilang makalikom ng boto sa election. Ang publiko ay may negatibong
rin hatid sa pagtulong. May mga volunteers na bukal talaga sa kanilang loob ang tumulong sa
kapwa. Tulad nalamang ng mga volunteers ng Gawad Kalinga na regular na naghahatid serbisyo
sa kapwa ng walang hinihinging kapalit dahil bukal sa kanilang loob ang makisimpatya at
tumulong. Kung kayat minabuti ng mananaliksik na pag-aralan ang mga pananaw ng Gawad
Kalinga Volunteers ukol sa pagtulong ng walang kapalit dahil sa pakikipagsimpatya.

METODO NG PAG-AARAL
Disenyo ng Pananaliksik
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay isang palarawang pag-aaral na gumamit ng maka-Pilipinong o
katutubong pananaliksik partikular ang pagtatanung-tanong at pakikipagkwentuhan. Sa paggamit
ng metodong ito, mabibigyan ng kakayahan ang mananaliksik na malikom ang mga saloobin ng
mga volunteers ng Gawad Kalinga tungkol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit bilang
konsepto ng pakikipagsimpatya. Nalikom ng mananaliksik ang mga positibo at negatibong
naidudulot ng pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit at kung paano nila tinutugunan ito.
Mga Kalahok
Sa kabuuan, mayroong sampung kalahok ang nakapanayam ang mananaliksik. Ang mga
kalahok sa pananaliksik na ito ay ang mga volunteers sa isang organisasyon, partikular ang mga
volunteers ng Gawad Kalinga. Ang mga volunteers sa nasabing kuponan ay yung mga palaging
nakasubaybay sa mga nangangailangan at yung mga palaging katugon sa pagbigay serbisyo sa
kapwa. Walang espesikong edad at kasarian ang nais maging respondante ng mananaliksik
sapagkat ibabase lamang lahat ng mananaliksik ang kanilang mga sagot sa pagbibigay serbisyo
at pakikipagsimpatya.
Instrumento ng Pananaliksik
Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng libro at internet upang mapalawak ang kaalaman
tungkol sa paksa dahil limitado lamang ang mga datos sa mga ibat ibang artikulo at babasahin.
Minarapat ng mananaliksik na rekorder at panimulang tanong ang ginamit sa pagkalap ng mga
kasagutan tungkol sa paksa upang makuha ang mga saloobin ng mga volunteers ng Gawad
Kalinga. Ang mga impormasyong makakalap ng mananaliksik ay gagamitin upang maging
basehan sa panghinaharap na layunin.
Paraan ng pagkuha ng Datos
Ang paksa ng pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang hinihinging
kapalit dahil sa konsepto ng pakikipagsimpatya ng mga volunteers. Ang mananaliksik ay
gumamit ng pilipinong pamamaraan ng pananaliksik partikular ang pagtatanong-tanong at
pakikipagkwentuhan upang maipanig sa kamalayang Pilipino at nang maiwasan ang mga
posibleng bumalakid sa pagkuha ng datos. Ang pangunahing hakbang na ginawa ng
mananaliksik sa pagkuha ng datos ay nakibagay sa mga volunteers ng gawad kalinga upang
makagaangan ng loob at walang maging hadlang sa pagkuha ng impormasyon para sa pag-aaral.
Hindi kinailangan ng mananaliksik maging magarbo sa pakikibagay sa mga volunteers dahil
125

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

buong loob tinanggap ng mga kalahok ang pakay ng mananaliksik. Sa dahilan na makagaangan
ng loob ng mananaliksik ang mga volunteers, madaling natapos at hindi nahirapan ang
mananaliksik makapanayam ang mga volunteers, at idagdag pa rito, nabigyan din ng
pagkakataon ang mananaliksik na sumali sa kanilang mga program at makilala ang iba sa mga
tinutulungan ng Gawad Kalinga. Maganda at maayos ang naging interaksyon ng mga volunteers
at ng mananaliksik kung kayat madaling nakalap ng mananalik ang mga impormasyon at tiwala
ng mga volunteers.

PRESENTASYON AT INTERPRETASYON
Ang isinagawang pag-aaral ng mananaliksik ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga volunteers
ng Gawad Kalinga sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit bilang konsepto ng
pakikipagsimpatya at ang ginamit na paraan ng mananaliksik sa pagkuha ng datos ay ang
makapilipinong pamamaraan kung saan na kinakailangan maging maingat at masusi sa pagkalap
ng mga datos. Ang layunin ng pag-aaral na ito ay mabigyang kasagutan ang mga sumusunod na
tanong : (1) Anu-ano ang mga pananaw ng mga Volunteers sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang
kapalit bilang konsepto ng pakikipagsimpatya ; (2) ang epekto ng pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang
kapalit sa isang Volunteer ng Gawad Kalinga ; at (3) Paano tinutugunan ng mga Volunteers ang
posibleng epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya. Sa kabuuan, mayroong sampung kalahok ang
nakapanayam ng mananaliksik na may edad na dalawamput lima pataas. Isang masusing pagaanalisa at pakikinig sa mga kalahok ang isinagawa ng mananaliksik upang mabigyang
kasagutan ang mga tanong sa pag-aaral na ito. Upang mabigyang patunay, ihahayag ng
mananaliksik ang bawat pahayag ng mga kalahok patungkol sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang
kapalit na tumugon sa mga nais mabigyang linaw sa pag-aaral na ito.
Pananaw ng mga Volunteers sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit bilang konsepto ng
pakikipagsimpatya
Sampung volunteers ang nagbahagi ng kanilang pananaw at kuwento ukol sa pabibigay
serbisyo ng walang kapalit. Iba-iba ang kanilang naging reaksyon sa pagbigay serbisyo ng
walang kapalit. Mayroong nagbigay ng positibong pananaw, mayroon din naming nagbigay ng
negatibong pananaw. Ngunit, karamahian sa kanila ay nagbahagi ng positibong pananaw. Ibat
iba ang kanilang kasagutan ngunit mayroon din namang nagtugma sa kanilang pananaw. Ang
mga sumusunod na pahayag ay inalisa ng mananaliksik:
Positibong Pananaw
Ang mga mababasa sa saknong na ito ay mga positibong pananaw ng mga Volunteers na nakalap
ng mananaliksik:
Masaya maghatid ng tulong sa kapwa lalo na kung alam mong kahit maliit na bagay lang yan
eh napapasaya mo sila, isa pa hindi naman ako humihingi ng kapalit kasi gusto ko yung
ginagawa ko. Volunteer 2

126

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Matagal na akong gumagawa ng mga ganito lalo na pag may okasyon. Pag birthday ko, o pag
bagong sweldo ako, hindi naman importante sakin yung kapalit eh. Ang importante, napapasaya
ko sila. Kasi nakakawala ng pagod yung mga ngiti nila kapag nakakatangap sila ng tulong.
Lalo na pag mga damit mga binibigay kasi karamihan sakanila, walang pambili ng damit. Kaya
ako, hanggat maaari, hindi ako nag gagarage sale, kasi binbigay ko yun sa mga nasalanta o
kaya yung mga katulad nila. Volunteer 4
Para sa mga katulad kong hindi nagtatrabaho, maganda siyang libangan kesa yung pumunta
sa mall para maglakad lakad at wala naman ginagawa or yung katulad sa iba na nagcacasino,
imbis na tumulong nalangwinawaldas sa wala yung pera nila. Kaya mas ginusto kong sumali
sa mga ganito para libangan tsaka nakakatulong pa ako. Volunteer 5
Hindi naman sa pagyayabang, pero madami samin dito ang sobra sobra sa biyaya, lalo na
yung mga katulad kong wala pang sariling pamilya. Sa katunayan, wala akong balak
magkapamilya kasi isa akong tomboy, kaya sa mga outreach programs ko nalang binibigay yung
attention ko at masarap siya sa pakiramdam kasi kahit wala akong sariling pamilya, nana y ang
tawag sakin ng mga batang tinutulungan ko. Yung kusa ka nilang tawaging NANAY, yun palang,
masarap na sa pakiramdam kaya hindi na kailangan ng kapalit kasi sapat na yun para sakin.
Volunteer 6
Hindi masama tumulong sa kapwa lalo na pag yun ang iyong kinalakihan. Yun kasi ang turo
sakin ng magulang ko eh, bata palang kami, tumutulong na kami sa mga batang paslit kaya
tinutuloy lang namin yung nakasanayan naming kasi masarap siya sa pakiramdam.- Volunteer
8
Nakakalimutan kong may sakit ako kapag tumutulong ako sa mga nangangailangan. Ang sarap
pakinggan ng mga tawa nila pati yung mga pasasalamat nila, hindi ko nararamdaman yung
sakit ko. Volunteer 10
Sobra sobra naman yung kinikita ko sa trabaho pati na rin sa mga negosyo ko kaya ineextend
ko yung blessing ko sa mga nangangailangan, iba yung fulfillment na nararamdaman ko kapag
tumutulong ako sakanila, imbis na ipang-bili ko ng kung anoano, ibinibili ko nalang ng mga
personal na kailangan nila,- Volunteer 9
Ibat ibang sagot ang nalikom ng mananaliksik. Karamihan sa mga nakapanayam ng
mananaliksik ay may kaginhawaan sa buhay. Karamihan sa kanila ay sobra sobra ang kinikita
kung kayat ito ang naging daan upang sila ay mapabilang sa mga volunteers ng gawad kalinga.
Mula sa sampung nakapanayam ng mananaliksik, pito ang nagbigay ng positibong pananaw ukol
sa pagbibigay tulong o serbisyo ng walang kapalit. Ayon kay volunteer 2,5 at 9, masarap sa
pakiramdam kapag sila ay nakakatulong sa nangangailangan at hindi naman importante ang
kapalit dahil gusto nila ang kanilang ginagawa. Idinagdag ng volunteer 4 na imbis na siya ay
mag garage sale, ibinibigay niya nalamang sa mga pamilyang kanilang tinutulungan ang
kanyang mga hindi na ginagamit na kasangkapan o damit st nakakawala ng pagod yung mga
ngiti ng mga nangangailangan kapag nakakatanggap ng tulong.

127

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Idinagdag din ng volunteer 6 na nanay ang tinatawag sakanya ng mga bata kaya masarap
sa pakiramdam kapag tumutulong siya kasi wala siyang sariling pamilya. Kinalakihan naman ni
volunteer 8 ang pagbibigay tulong sa nangangailangan kung kayat siya ay sanay na at patuloy
paring sumasaya sa tuwing siya ay naghahatid serbisyo. Ayon naman kay volunteer 10,
nakakalimutan niyang may sakit siya kapag nakakatulong sa kapwa, hindi niya iniinda ang sakit
na kanyang nararamdaman sa tuwing siya ay naghahanda para sa mga proyektong nakalaan para
sa nangangailangan dahil ibang saya sa pakiramdam ang kapalit nito.
Negatibong Pananaw
Ang mga mababasa sa saknong na ito ay mga negatibong pananaw ng mga Volunteers na
nakalap ng mananaliksik:
.Minsan nakakainis na, kasi lagi silang umaasa samin. Hindi na sila gumagawa ng sarili
nilang paraan. Sila pa minsan ang magagalit samin pag hindi namin sila inuna, eh wala na nga
kaming nakukuha dito sa ginagawa namin. Volunteer 1
Nakakaawa sila na nakakainis kasi yung iba nagpapa-awa lang para mabigyan ng tulong.
Nakakapagod yung ginagawa namin.sobra.kaya minsan naiinis ako sa mga taong hindi
marunong magpasalamat. Para sa katulad kong nagseserbisyo ng walang kapalit, a simple
thank you from the person na tinulungan namin is more than enough. Nakakainis lang, kasi may
mga taong walang utang ng loob.- Volunteer 3
Sa totoo lang, hindi naman talaga ako dapat andito, nakasama lang ako kasi parusa ko to. Ang
masasabi ko lang, hindi ko gusto to kasi halatang nagpapa-awa lang sila para mabigyan ng
tulong. Naiinis ako sa mga kwento nila, kasi minsan, nagkekwento sila ng buhay nila.halata
namang hindi na totoo kasi hindi naman nagkukulang sa pagbigay ng tulong yung mga ibang
outreach programs. Volunteer 7
Ayon sa mga volunteers na naghayag ng negatibong pananaw, nagpapa-awa lamang ang
mga tao kaya napipilitan ang iba na magserbisyo sa kapwa kahit walang kapalit. Ayon naman
kay volunteer 3, maraming taong walang utang ng loob. Sila na ang tinutulungan, sila pa minsan
ang galit at hindi marunong magpasalamat. Ayon kay Goic ang Jeroncic (2012), maraming
dahilan kung bakit tumutulong ang isang tao sa kapwa, at isa na dito ang dahil sa kanilang
propesyon or dahil sila lamang at napagutusan at hindi bukal sa kanilang loob ang paghatid
serbisyo.
Dito tumugma ang pananaw ng volunteer 7. Ayon kay volunteer 7, hindi niya gusto ang
ginagawa niya kasi naiinis siya sa pagpapa-awa ng mga tao at hindi totoong naghihrap sila dahil
hindi naman nagkukulang ang Gawad kalinga sa paghahatid serbisyo sa kapwa at isa pa,
napagutusan lamang siya na maghatid serbisyo kahit walang kapalit sa kadahilanang ito ang
kanyang parusa.
Epekto ng pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit sa isang Volunteer ng Gawad Kalinga
Mayroong walo sa sampung volunteers ang nag bigay ng kanilang saloobin patungkol sa
epekto ng pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit. Ayon sa mga nalikom na kasagutan ng
mananaliksik, tila namuno ang mga positibo o ang mga magandang epekto ngunit may ilan sa
128

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

kanila na walang ibinigay na pahayag sa kadahilanang gusto nilang isarili ang kanilang personal
na nararamdaman at mayroon namang nag bigay padin ng negatibong epekto.
Positibong Epekto
Ang mga mababasa sa saknong na ito ay mga positibong epekto sa mga Volunteers na nakalap
ng mananaliksik:
....wala kaming nakukuhang kapalit pero ang kapalit naman ng pagtulong naminis yung
fulfilment na nakatulong kami. Ang gaan sa pakiramdam. Volunteer 9
dito sa Gawad Kalinga, Makita lang namin na napangiti naming sila. Masaya na kami. Parang
wish granted yung fulfilment na nagawa namin kahit wala kami nakukuha something in return.
Volunteer 4
....masarap sa pakiramdam yung Makita mong nakatulong ka sa kapwa mo. Hindi ka man nila
matulungan in return, but at least alam mong nakagawa ka ng tama...- Volunteer 2
...minsan sariling pera na namin yung ginagamit namin pang-gastos kapag hindi kami
nakakakuha ng funds. Kahit ganun, masaya parin kami kasi in return, unlimited smiles and
minsan maiiyak ka pa kasi nakaka-touch." - Volunteer 5
sabi nga nila, kung gusto mong tumulong, makakatulong ka. Kahit na anong paraan pa yan,
kung gusto mo talaga at Masaya ka sa ginagawa mo...hindi mo iindain yung hirap at pagod kasi
dun ka Masaya. Volunteer 6
.....one thing is for sure, helping others make me happy. One good effect is that, it makes me
forget all the pain from this cancer. That is why I am here. - Volunteer 10
Negatibong Epekto
Ang mga mababasa sa saknong na ito ay mga negatibong epekto sa mga Volunteers na nakalap
ng mananaliksik:
para sa katulad kong naparusan lang kaya andito, ang daming iba pang plano ang nasisira. Volunteer 7
....madaling uminit yung ulo ko kasi hindi marunong magpasalamat yung ibang tao. hindi na
ako nakakagawa ng sarili kong lakad kasi may dapat akong gawin dito. Volunteer 3
Ayon sa pag-aaral ni Moeller (2012), ang pagtulong sa kapwa ay isang gawain na
magagawa lamang ng isang taong may bukas na kalooban at malinis na intension sa
kadahilanang, ang pag serbisyo ng walang kapalit ay katumbas ng pag bibigay oras sa mga taong
hindi naman nila kamag-anak o personal na kilala, kung kayat ang mga taong nagvovolunteer
ng libre ay paniguradong busilak ang kalooban at may hangarin na kaaya-aya. Dito nalamang
papasok ang mga pahayag nina Volunteer 9,4,2,5,6, at 10. Dahil ang kanilang mga sagot ay may
naghayag ng mga positibong epekto sa pag bigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit. Ayon sa kanilang
anim na volunteers, masarap sa pakiramdam at hindi nila iniisip ang mga maaaring maging
129

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

kapalit ng kanilang serbisyo. Ngunit, may mga volunteers rin naman na naghayag ng negatibong
epekto sa pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit, iisa lamang ang naging kasagutan nila, ito ay
sagabal sa kanilang oras at hindi nila gusto ang kanilang ginagawa.
Pagtugon ng mga Volunteers sa posibleng epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya
Sampung volunteers ang nagbahagi ng kanilang pananaw ukol sa pagtugon ng mga
volunteers sa mga posibleng epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya. Ibat iba ang kanilang naging
pahayag ngunit ang kanilang pangunahing sagot ay malaki ang epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya
kung kayat ito ang nagiging daan upang sila ay ganahan pa lalo tumulong sa kapwa.
..sandali lang akong naging volunteer sa Gawad Kalinga at inaamin ko naman na nung una,
hindi ko siya nagustuhan. Pero kung iisipin mo araw araw yung mga taong walang pang tus-tos
sa pang araw-araw nila....ay nako naman talagang makikisimpatya ka nalang talaga. Parang
tutulong ka nalang kasi alam mong ang hirap ng dinadanas nila para lang makakain tatlong
beses sa isang araw. Volunteer 1
Ang pakikipagsimpatya naman talaga ang unang magiging epekto sa pagtulong sa kapwa eh.
Kung baga.. ito yung unang magiging dahilan kung bakit tumutulong ang isang tao. Kaya
kaming mga tao dito sa Gawad Kaling, araw araw kami nag-iisip ng mga iba-ibang solusyon
para matugunan naming yung mga pangangailangan nung mga hirap sa buhay, lalo na nung
mga kusang lumalapit samin para humingi ng tulong. Volunteer 2
Baguhan ako dito sa Gawad Kalinga eh. Kaya kung ano yung mga napaguusapan sa mga
meeting or sa mga small gatherings...nakikinig lang ako and nagbibigay lang ako ng
suggestions. Hindi ako yung tipo ng volunteer na active eh. Kaya nakikisimpatya ako, pero
nagsusuggest lang ako ng kung ano-ano Volunteer 3
Nako! Mahirap magisip ng mga solusyon pag bilgang umiral yung pakikipagsimpatya ko. Kasi
ang dami dami kong naiisip na mga projects kung paano naming sila tutulungan. Lalo na yung
mga feeding program...mga ibat ibang fund raising projects. As a volunteer in general, kapag
tumutulong sa iba, automatic na may pakikipagsimpatyang kasama eh. Yung epekto na yun, yun
yung nagiging way para magbukas yung isip naming mga volunteers kung paano kami
magsisimulang tumulong and maiisip din namin kung magiging sapat ba yung gagawin naming
o hindi. Volunteer 4
.....yang pakikipagsimpatya, katulad nung sinabi nung kasama ko kanina. Yan yung nagiging
daan para sa mga ibat-ibang ideas namin eh. Kung baga, sa padlock, yung pakikipagsimpatya
yung susi para mabuksan yung isip at puso naming mga volunteers dito sa gawad Kalinga.
Volunteer 5
If you were in my place and ikaw yung nakakakita ng mga taong naghihirap and alam mong
maraming tao ang umaargabyado sakanila, imbis na tulungan sila, anong gagawin mo?
Syempre hindi mo naman sila pwedeng leksyunan kasi baka ma-offend sila sayo, kaya ako, yung
mga ganung bagay, automatic sakin yung epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya. Kasi paano kung ako
yung nasa lugar nila at wala akong pwedeng gawin? Yung mamatay sa gutom agad yung
pumapasok sa isip ko and yung pamilya ko, kaya dahil sa pakikipagsimpatya, nakakagawa ako

130

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ng mga paraan kung paano tugunan yung mga problema nung mga nangangailangan kahit sa
maliit na paraan lamang. Yun yung nagbubukas ng realizations ko. -Volunteer 6
To be honest, I am not a volunteer by heart. But when sympathy gets me, different ideas or
ways enter my mind. A lot of ways on how I or we can help them. So, kahit di ako volunteer by
heart, by mind, alam kong nakaka-contribute ako ng maayos kasi nabibigay ko sakanila yung
opinion ko on how to help the needies. Volunteer 7
....Sympathy is the process. Meaning, yun yung guide namin kung saan and kung paano kami
tutulong. Kasi hindi naming magagawa kung ano man yung mga nagawa na naming kung wala
kaming simpatya sa tao. Kaya i believe that Sympathy is the key the trabaho namin.
Volunteer 8
....as a volunteer, expected na samin yung may pakikipagsimpatya kami eh. Expected na samin
yung may awa kami sa mga nangangailangan. Minsan may hindi ito magandang epekto, kasi
minsan, hindi nakukuntento yung mga inaabutan namin. Pero syempre, hindi naman
maaapektuhan yung mga projects naming dahil sa mga negative feedbacks. Yung mga negative
feedbacks, yun pa yung mga nagiging way upang mas maunawaan namin yung mga
nangangailangan. Volunteer 9
Sa totoo lang, bilang isang magulang...nadudurog ang puso kapag naiisip kong maraming bata
sa lansangan ang palaboy dahil walang tirahan, maraming bata ang namamlimos dahil walang
pambili ng kanilang pagkain. Hindi ko maiwasan hindi maawa and makisimpatya eh. Dahil ang
daming paraan para lutasan yung mga ganyang problema. May sakit ako pero hindi ko
iniintindi kasi alam kong may magandang plano sakin ang Diyos. Kaya ako andito dahil alam ko
kung ano ang pakiramdam kung paano maghirap, araw-araw ako nagiisip ng solusyon para sa
mga taong nangangailangan. Volunteer 10
Ayon kina Hopkins, Kleres, Flam, & Kuzmic (2011), ang pakikipagsimpatya ay kabiyak
na ng pagiging isang volunteer. Isinaad sa kanilang pag-aaral na natural lamang sa isang
volunteer ang makisimpatya sa mga tao. Ang mga sagot na nakalap ng mananalik ay mga sagot
na base sa kanilang mga tunay na karanasan sa pagtulong sa kapwa at hindi nalamang galing sa
kanilang mga opinion. Sampung volunteers ang nagsabing ang pakikipagsimpatya ang kanilang
nagiging gabay sa paggawa ng mga ibat ibang proyekto para sa mga nangangailangan.
Tinutugunan nila ito sa paraan na sila ay nagbabahagi ng mga kanilang saloobin kung paano at
kung saan sila tutulong. Gayunpaman, hindi maiiwasan magkaroon ng mga negative volunteers,
subalit, ang kanilang naging mga sagot ay ang pakikipagsimpatya ang kaisa-isang bagay na
nagtutulak sakanila para hindi sila maging sagabal sa mga proyektong naka-talaga sakanila.

131

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

KONKLUSYON AT REKOMENDASYON
Tinalakay ng pagaaral na ito ang mga Pananaw ng mga Volunteers ng Gawad Kalinga sa
pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang kapalit bilang konsepto ng pakikipagsimpatya. Sa kabuuan,
sampung kalahok ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ayon sa resulta ng pag-aaral, nagkaroon
ng dalawang panig ang mga kasagutan ng mga kalahok. Nahati ito sa positibo at negatibong
pananaw ng mga volunteers. Karamihan sa mga volunteers ay nagbigay ng positibong pananaw
sa kadahilanang ang pagbibigay ng serbisyo ng walang hinihinging kapalit ay nakakapagpasaya
sakanila. Makita lamang nilang nakangiti ang kanilang mga tinutulungan ay sobra pa sa isang
premyo ang kanilang natatamasan.
Ang iba sakanila ay kinalakihan na ang pagiging isang volunteer at impluwensiya ng
magulang at pinagpapatuloy ang kanilang serbisyo dahil sa masarap sa pakiramdam ang
makatulong sa kapwa. Ngunit mayroon din namang nagbigay ng negatibong pananaw sa
kadahilanang sila lamang ay napilitan at hindi bukal sa kanilang pusot isipan ang pagiging isang
volunteer dahil ang iba sa kanila ay naging volunteer lamang dahil ito ang kanyang naging
parusa,at ang iba naman ay naiinis. Maraming naging epekto ang pagbibigay serbisyo ng walang
kapalit sa isang Gawad Kalinga volunteer, nahati rin ito sa dalawang grupo ng opinyon, ang isa
ay positibong epekto, ang isa naman ay negatibong epekto. May ilan sa kanila ang nagbigay ng
negatibong epekto sa kadahilanang maraming plano ang kanilang kinakansela dahil sa mga
proyektong ginagawa ng organisasyong gawad Kalinga. Gayumpaman, nanaig parin ang
positibong epekto sa pag-aaral na ito. Karamihan sa kanila ang nagsabing iba ang Fulfillment
na kanilang natatamasan sa tuwing sila ay nagpaplano at naghahatid tulong sa nangangailangan,
lalo na sa mga batang paslit. Kakaiba ang epekto sa kanilang personalidad ang paghahatid
serbisyo, itinuturing nila ito Wish Granted kapag sila ay nakakakita ng mga malalawak at
masisiglang ngiti. Ika nga ng isang volunteer, it makes me forget all the pain.
Sampung volunteers ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik at lahat ng ito ay sumang-ayon
na ang pakikipagsimpatya ang pinakamahalagang bagay sa pagiging isang volunteer, kahit ang
nagbigay ng negatibong opinyon ay sumang-ayon na ito ang kaisa-isang bagay na kanilang
pinanghahawakan sa tuwing sila ay nawawalan ng sigla sa pagtulong sa kanilang gawain at pagganap ng kanilang misyun. Maraming naging opinyon ang mga nakapanayam ng mananaliksik
sa kung paano nila tinutugunan ang posibleng epekto ng pakikipagsimpatya ngunit iisa lamang
ang naging resulta sa lahat ng kanilang mga naging sagot. Isa-isang inusisa ng mananaliksik ang
kanilang sagot at ang naging resulta ay ang pakikipagsimpatya ang nagiging rason kung bakit
mayroon silang mga proyekto para sa mga nangangailangan. Ito ang nagtutulak sakanila na magisip at palawakin ang pag-uunawa sa kung paano sila makakatulong at sa kung paano nila
magagampanan ang kanilang misyun.
Mahirap ang naging posisyon ng mananaliksik dahil kinailangan niyang makisama at
makibagay sa mga volunteers. Ngunit, habang tumatagal ang pagkuha ng datos ng mananaliksik
ay kanyang naramdaman ang mainit na pagtanggap sa kanya ng mga volunteers at ang isa pang
importanteng bagay sa pag-aaral na ito ay nagawang sumali ng mananaliksik sa isang
proyektong ginawa ng isang volunteer at kanyang nadama ang simpatya ng mga volunteers na
talaga naming isang malaking bahagi sa pagiging isang volunteer. Sa makabagong panahon
132

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

ngayon, marami nang ibat ibang paraan ng pagtulong sa kapwa. Inirerekomenda ng mananaliksik
na subukang maging isang tunay na volunteer upang kanyang maranasan at lalo pang
maunawaan ang posisyon ng isang volunteer at nang kanyang lalo pang mapatibay ang pag-aaral
na ito. Inirerekomenda ng mananaliksik na patuloy paring gumamit ng makapilipinong paraan sa
pagaaral na ito nang lalo pang ma-usisa ang kanilang mga saloobin at karanasan.

133

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

TALAAN NG SANGGUNIAN
Goic, S., & Jeroncic, P. Z. (2012). International Journal of Management
Cases.VOLUNTEERING AS THE WAY FOR PRODUCTIVITY AND EMPLOYABILITY
IMPROVEMENT, 14 (1), 421-433.
Hallett, C., Klug, G., Lauber, C., & Priebe, S. (2012). BMC Psychiatry.Volunteering in the care
of people with severe mental illness: a systematic review, 1-11.
Dunkle, A. (2012, July 2). Five Types of Volunteer Programs and How to Find the Right One.
Retrieved from http://www.gooverseas.com/five-types-volunteer-programs-and-howfind-right
Canilao, N., & Diaz, M. A. (2012) Critical Psychology in Changing World. Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: 50 Years of Critical-Emancipatory Social Science in the Philippines, 765-783.
Cristobal, K. (2013, September 30). Philippine Psychometricians Licensure Exam Reviewer :
Sikolohiyang Pilipino - Metodo ng pananaliksik.
Retrieved from: http://psychometricpinas.blogspot.com/2013/09/sikolohiyang-pilipino-metod
ng.html
Moelle, P. (2012). Why helping others make us happy.
Retrieved from http://money.usnews.com/money/personal-finance/articles/2012/04/04/whyhelping others-makes-us-happy
Saisan, J., Smith, M., & Kemp, G. (2014). Volunteering and its Surprising Benefits: Helping
Others While Helping Yourself. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/work
career/volunteering-and-its-surprising-benefits.htm
Hopkins, D., Kleres, J., Flam, H., & Kuzmics, H. (2011). Theorizing Emotions: Sociological
Explorations and Applications, vol 26, 241-244

134

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Blogging and Depression Levels among Adolescents


Carl Niels David M. Ocab
Juli-Ann Alonso
ABSTRACT
This research examines how effective blogging is in decreasing depression
levels of adolescents. Blogging can be used to publish a personal diary
online. It is public, interactive, and easily accessible platform of publishing
information online especially with the youth. The experiment consisted of
two groups (15 participants each). The first group is the experimental group
who were asked to publish a blog post and read at least one entry from
blogs of other participants every other day in the span of 4 weeks.
Depression levels were measured at the pre and post intervention. Results of
the experimental group showed a declination of depression levels in
depressed adolescents who received the blogging treatment.

Depression is a major public health problem. It is the leading cause of disability


worldwide, starting in the 15 to 44 year old age group (Lopez, 2006). There were 4.5 million
cases of depression reported in the Philippines according to the World Health Organization in
2004. The risk of depression begins in the early adolescents and continues to rise throughout
adulthood (Rao, 2006).
Adolescents who maintain a diary mostly write about their social interactions and
experience throughout the day. A study by Jensen-Campbell and Graziano (Graziano, 2000)
revealed that 30% of the content of adolescents writings are about conflics and confrontations.
Most adolescents writing involves emotional venting. It is their way of coping. It consequently
influences the emotional state, as well as the social behavior, of the writer (Jannsody, 2007).
The emergence of the internet has brought a lot. Internet based communication has
unique characteristics. The virtual social environment created by the internet that exists mainly
through texts and images. There is a sense of anonymity that can promote the users confidence
to share and express thoughts and feelings. (Suler, 2010) A blog, derived from the word web log,
is a website published on the internet that is updated with posts that vary from pictures, videos,
and articles typically displayed in reverse chronological order so that the most recent posts
appears first (Huffaker, 2005). Blogs vary widely in nature and content. There are three primary
types of blogs: individually authored personal journals, filter blogs that select and provide
commentary on information from other websites, and niche blogs that talk about specific topics
of interest. The 70% in their sample were of the personal journal, "online diary" type (Scheidt,
2004). Blogging is the act of maintaining a blog by regularly updating the website with posts. A
blogger is someone who is maintaining or updating a blog.

135

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

In 2006, there were about 36 million blogs on the internet. Now, 2014, there are about
280 million blogs on the internet. 172 million of which are from Tumblr, 76 million from
WordPress, and the rest from other platforms such as Livejournal and Blogspot (The Nielsen
Company, 2014).
At first glance it may seem that keeping a personal diary and a blog is the same, it actually isnt.
Anyone who has access to the internet can see blogs. This is very different from a diary because
a diary is private and blogs are mostly public. If for an instance, you happen to have read
someones diary, the best you can do is absorb all the secrecy you have uncovered. With blogs,
you can comment and respond to the blogger. You can connect with other bloggers and socialize
in the blogosphere. You can share the article to your friends. There are a lot of possibilities
with blogging that is why it would be interesting to know if it is an effective way of having a
catharsis.
Most research about catharsis concentrates on strong emotions like anger and fear, and ways to
have a catharsis like journaling and venting out. The purpose of this study is to explore if
blogging can help improve the depression levels of adolescents.

The study aims to answer these questions:


1. What is the level of depression of the participants in the pretest and posttest when
grouped according to:
a. Experimental;
b. Control Group?
Is there a significant difference between the pretest and posttest on the level of depression
when grouped according to:
. Experimental;
a. Control Group?
Is there a significant difference between the pretest on the level of depression of the
experimental and control group?
Is there a significant difference between the posttest on the level of depression of the
experimental and control group?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Blogging
Blogging is the act of maintaining a blog by regularly updating the website with posts.
Many adolescents turn to blogging, sometimes through social networking sites as this form of
writing allows them to search for their own voice in both the personal and interpersonal
context (Anderson-Butcher et al., 2010). Blogging creates a social framework within which selfawareness and self-consciousness may develop (Davis, 2010). In addition, blogs can serve as an
efficient vehicle for interpersonal interactions in communicating with a large social audience, as
well as friends and family (Scheidt, 2006).
136

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

In the last ten years, several studies (Ann Cochran, 2010; Zefa Alinda Fitria, 2013; James
R. Baker and Susan M. Moore, 2008; Leon Tan; 2008) showed that blogging has a positive
effect to a persons emotion and even an improvement to a persons eating disorder (Hilde Hove
Pettersen, Solveig Askim Rrvik, and Hilde Wanvik, 2011). In another research (Meyran BonielNissim and Azy Barak, 2011), participants who maintained a blog showed a significant
improvement in their self-esteem. The studies of Michelle Gumbrecht (2004) and Leon Tan
(2008) suggests that the social networking with other bloggers contributed to the improvement of
the participants emotion.
Writing
According to Jannsody (2007) People find it effective to write a journal. It has been suggested
that writing allows and promotes important psychological factors, self-talk and awareness, and
distancing and organization of thoughts (Kerner & Fitz- patrick, 2007; Pennebaker, 2004). In
addition to the therapeutic implications of writing, open online communication is also
susceptible to interpersonal influence from other online readers. As a virtual social environment,
the internet serves as an interpersonal meeting place in which users communicate and socialize
with one another and, frequently, look for help or offer support. In this regard, research shows
that people characterized by various kinds of social difficulties reveal a higher motivation for
Internet use (Amichai-Hamburger, 2007).
Depressed Adolescents
Depression is a major public health problem. It is the leading cause of disability worldwide,
starting in the 15 to 44 year old age group (Lopez, 2006). The risk of depression begins in the
early adolescents and continues to rise throughout adulthood (Rao, 2006). Compelling evidence
suggests that stressful experiences play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of
depression in adolescents and adults (Hammen, 2004).
SYNTHESIS:
Writing is one of the most effective way to have a catharsis. Writing allows and promotes
important psychological factors, self-talk and awareness, and distancing and organization of
thoughts. Unfortunately, most adolescents are not inclined to write nowadays. Adolescents are
spending more time on the internet and on social networking sites. Many adolescents turn to
blogging, sometimes through social networking sites as this form of writing allows them to
search for their own voice in both the personal and interpersonal context.
They are able to create relationships and social frameworks that they are not able to do
on a face-to-face basis. The researcher aims to explore if through blogging, the modern take on a
personal diary/journal, depressed adolescents are able to have a catharsis that would have a
positive effect on their emotions because depression is a major public health problem. The risk
begins early at the age of 15. It is time to use technology as an aid in behavioural modification

137

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

because modern methods such as the internet and blogging are easily absorbed by young adults.
METHOD
Research Design
The researcher utilized an experimental design for this study. Specifically, a pretest-posttest
control group design. The researcher used an experimental design to establish the degree of
causality. The first group received the blogging treatment with Beck Depression Inventory as
their pretest and posttest. The second group served as the control group and received no blogging
treatment with Beck Depression Inventory as their pretest and posttest. If a change in the
dependent variable occurs at the onset of the blogging treatment in the first group, a relationship
between the independent (blogging) and dependent (depression) variable has been established
whether blogging had been effective in decreasing depression levels.
Participants and Sampling
There were 30 chosen out of 200 high school students of Immaculate Heart of Mary Paranaque
who took the Beck Depression Inventory in this study. The researcher used purposive sampling
in which participants were selected because they were showing signs of depression. All of the
participants in this study scored 17-20 (Borderline clinical depression) and 21-30 (Moderate
depression) in the Beck Depression Inventory. Participants who scored 31 and above were
excluded as severe and extreme depression should be handled by professionals only.

Instruments
The Beck Depression Inventory was used in this study in order to determine the
participants and the effect of blogging intervention. The Beck Depression Inventory was
developed by Dr. Aaron T. Beck. It is a 21-question multiple choice self report inventory, one of
the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression. The test assesses in a
likert scale. In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over
which is what is needed in this study. It is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression
such as hopelessness and irritability, cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished. It has
a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.85. The highest possible total for the test would be 63 while
the lowest possible score is 0. Depression is established if a participant scores 17 or above. See
Appendix A for the test.
Procedures
The researcher requested permission to the high school principal of Immaculate Heart of
Mary Paranaque to administer the Beck Depression Inventory to 2nd year high school students.
The students who scored 17-30 were selected in the purposive sampling and were given a letter
of consent. The students whose parents signed the letter of consent were chosen to participate in

138

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

the study. The letter also indicated that they will not participate in any therapy, support group, or
any treatment for their depression during the duration of the study.
For this research, the researcher used a pretest-posttest control group design. There were two
groups. The first group is the experimental group. A pretest was established when they took the
Beck Depression Inventory. The treatment given to them is blogging. Participants of the first
group were given login credentials with their pen names for their respective blogs created by the
researcher. They were asked to publish a blog post about their depressive thoughts and read at
least an entry from blogs of other participants every other day on the span of the 2nd-29th day.
On the 30th day, after the blogging treatment, they took the Beck Depression inventory again as
their posttest to determine if the treatment had an effect.
The second group is the control group. A pretest was established when they took the Beck
Depression Inventory. They were not given a treatment condition. On the 30th day, they took the
Beck Depression inventory again to determine changes without treatment.
This is the time frame of the first group that spanned for 30 days:
1st day: Pretest
2nd-29th day: Blogging treatment
30th day: Posttest
This is the time frame of the second group that spanned for 30 days:
1st day: Pretest
2nd-29th day: No treatment
30th day: Posttest
Data Analysis
The data gathered from the first week of baseline will be compared to the last week of baseline
by determining the differences with each other. The result from the depression scale is
represented using a graph that will show the progress of the study.

139

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

RESULTS OF THE STUDY


The researcher tabulated the results of the participants scores in the Beck Depression Inventory
for both the experimental group and the control group. This will serve as the pretest of the
experiment wherein no treatment was given to the participants.
Table 1 - Participants scores in the Beck Depression Inventory with its respective means for the
pretest
Experimental Group
Control Group
Participant Score
Depression
Participant Score
Depression
1
22
Moderate depression
1
21
Moderate depression
2
25
Moderate depression
2
27
Moderate depression
3
17
Borderline clinical
3
25
Moderate depression
depression
4
20
Borderline clinical
4
22
Moderate depression
depression
5
26
Moderate depression
5
27
Moderate depression
6
25
Moderate depression
6
18
Borderline clinical
depression
7
29
Moderate depression
7
29
Moderate depression
8
26
Moderate depression
8
26
Moderate depression
9
25
Moderate depression
9
25
Moderate depression
10
21
Moderate depression
10
19
Borderline clinical
depression
11
19
Borderline clinical
11
22
Moderate depression
depression
12
28
Moderate depression
12
27
Moderate depression
13
23
Moderate depression
13
24
Moderate depression
14
26
Moderate depression
14
20
Borderline clinical
depression
15
25
Moderate depression
15
22
Moderate depression
=
=
23.8
23.6
The table above shows the score of 15 participants in the experimental group with its total mean
and 15 participants in the control group with its total mean.
On the 2nd day of the experiment, the blogging treatment was introduced to the participants in
the experimental group. They were asked to publish a blog post about their depressive thoughts
and read at least an entry from blogs of other participants every other day on the span of the 2nd29th day.
Table 2 - Participants scores in the Beck Depression Inventory with its respective means for the
posttest
140

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Experimental Group
Control Group
Participant Score
Depression
Participant Score
Depression
1
20 Borderline clinical depression
1
20 Borderline clinical depression
2
21
Moderate depression
2
25
Moderate depression
3
14
Mild mood disturbance
3
26
Moderate depression
4
18 Borderline clinical depression
4
22
Moderate depression
5
21
Moderate depression
5
27
Moderate depression
6
17 Borderline clinical depression
6
17 Borderline clinical depression
7
27
Moderate depression
7
28
Moderate depression
8
20 Borderline clinical depression
8
25
Moderate depression
9
20 Borderline clinical depression
9
26
Moderate depression
10
13
Mild mood disturbance
10
18 Borderline clinical depression
11
15
Mild mood disturbance
11
23
Moderate depression
12
20 Borderline clinical depression
12
26
Moderate depression
13
19 Borderline clinical depression
13
23
Moderate depression
14
23
Moderate depression
14
20 Borderline clinical depression
15
20 Borderline clinical depression
15
22
Moderate depression
19.2
23.2
On the 30th day, after the last day of the blogging treatment, the researcher asked the participants
to answer the Beck Depression Inventory again. The table above shows the score of 15
participants in the experimental group with its total mean after the blogging treatment on the
2nd-29th day and 15 participants in the control group with its total mean after receiving no
treatment on the 2nd-30th day.
DISCUSSION
Table 3 - Significant difference between level of depression of the participants under
Experimental Group
Pretest

Posttest

P-value

Result

23.8

19.2

0.001

Significant at p < 0.05

The table above shows the mean of the participants scores in the Beck Depression Inventory for
both the pretest and the posttest under the experimental group. The pretest garnered a mean of
23.8 while the posttest garnered a mean of 19.2. It is evident that there is a change in the
participants scores after the blogging treatment. After the calculation of the p-value (0.001) with
an N of 15 and with a significance level of 0.05, the result is significant.
This shows that the blogging treatment may have influenced the declination of the depression
levels of the participants. It is still uncertain until it is compared with the control group. To

141

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

further solidify the results, the next table will discuss the results and changes of the control
group.
Table 4 - Significant difference between level of depression of the participants under Control
Group
Pretest

Posttest

P-value

Result

23.6

23.2

0.75

Not significant at p < 0.05

The table above shows the mean of the participants scores in the Beck Depression Inventory for
both the pretest and the posttest under the control group. The pretest garnered a mean of 23.6
while the posttest garnered a mean of 23.2. It is evident that there is no change in the
participants scores after the blogging treatment. After the calculation of the p-value (0.75) with
an N of 15 and with a significance level of 0.05, the result is not significant.
This shows that the participants depression levels in the control group showed little to no
change. These participants received no blogging treatment or no treatment whatsoever. This
further proves that the blogging treatment may have influenced the declination of the depression
levels of the participants. The next table will compare the pretest and the posttest of the
experimental and control group.
Table 5 - Significant Difference between level of depression under Experimental and Control
Group
Experimental

Control

P-value

Result

Pretest

23.8

23.6

0.883

Not significant at p < 0.05

Posttest

19.2

23.2

0.003

Significant at p < 0.05

The table above shows the mean of the participants scores in the Beck Depression Inventory for
both the pretest and the posttest under the experimental and control group.
The pretest of the experimental group garnered a mean of 23.8 while the pretest of the control
group garnered a mean of 23.6. After the calculation of the the p-value (0.883) with an N of 15
and with a significance level of 0.05, the result is not significant. Since there is no significant
difference between the pretest of the experimental and control group, we can use both of these
groups to determine if the blogging treatment can decrease the depression levels of the
participants.
The posttest of the experimental group garnered a mean of 19.2 while the posttest of the control
group garnered a mean of 23.2. After the calculation of the p-value (0.003) with an N of 15 and
with a significance level of 0.05, the result is significant. This proves that the blogging treatment
142

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

have influenced the declination of depression levels of the participants because the control group
showed little to no change while the experimental group that received the blogging treatment
showed an evident declination after the treatment.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, the pretest and posttest of the experimental group showed an evident
declination in the depression levels of the participants. The statistical data also backs this up as it
shows that the significant difference between the pretest and the posttest is significant at p <
0.05. There is also a control group that showed no significant difference in the pretest when
compared to the pretest of the experimental group but showed a significant positive change in the
posttest comparison. Therefore, blogging has helped decrease the depression levels of depressed
adolescents.
A study by Leon Tan showed how MySpace blogging became a form of self-therapy.
According to Tan, blogging as a form of self-therapy went relatively unnoticed by
psychotherapists and other mental health professionals. Given the rather significant global
population of bloggers and readers, and the seemingly intractable problem of mental illness
worldwide, the possibility of blogging as self-therapy deserves greater attention. Research
investigating the health possibilities of blogs holds particular promise.
Meyran Boniel-Nissim and Azy Barak did an experimental research on the therapeutic
value of blogging for adolescents who experience socialemotional difficulties. The field
experiment included randomly assigned adolescents, preassessed as having socialemotional
difficulties. Groups were assigned to blogging, a group assigned to writing a diary, and a control
group. Participants in the writing groups were instructed to post messages at least twice a week
over 10 weeks. Their measurement took place at pre- and post intervention as well. Results
showed that participants maintaining a blog significantly improved their emotions.
Most participants in the experimental group who are suffering from moderate depression lowered
to borderline clinical depression and even to mild mood disturbance after the blogging treatment.
This studys research design is only limited to a single pretest and posttest design. There might
be a possibility that the longer the blogging treatment, the greater the declination in depression
levels. A different research design will be able to prove it.
The studys purposive sampling was among high school adolescents only and it was not
gender specific. Further studies can expand this research by selecting specific age groups and
genders. It is also possible to choose participants who are not only depressed, but also with
specific personalities such as introverts and extroverts.
Most blogs have a comment system. In this research, comments are controlled and therefore
closed. It might be of interest for some researchers to examine the effects of comments of other
people to the participants writings.

143

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Ann Cochran (2010): Blogging the Recovery from Anorexia
Zefa Alinda Fitria (2013): Cyber Catharsis on the Blog if Raditya Dika
James R. Baker and Susan M. Moore (2008): Blogging as a Social Tool: A Psychosocial
Examination of the Effects of Blogging
Leon Tan (2008): Psychotherapy 2.0: Myspace Blogging as Self-therapy
Hilde Hove Pettersen, Solveig Askim Rrvik, and Hilde Wanvik (2011): Blogging and Eating
Disorders
Meyran Boniel-Nissim and Azy Barak (2011): The Therapeutic Value of Blogging about SocialEmotional Difficulties
Michelle Gumbrecht (2004): Blogs as Protected Space
Edelyn Verona (2008): Emotional Catharsis and Aggression Revisited: Heart Rate Reduction
Following Aggressive Responding
Thomas J. Scheff (2007): Catharsis and Other Heresies: A Theory of Emotion

144

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Expectations and Perceptions of Psychology Students of their Future


Workplace
Alwyn RaquelSantos
Fatima Bullecer
ABSTRACT
This study focused on the investigation of the expectations and perceptions
of Psychology students held for what awaited them while they studied. The
study used a quantitative descriptive design and its way of investigation
used questionnaires that were distributed to students from colleges and
universities that study in a Psychology course. 597 students were randomly
selected for this study. The majority of the participants responses were
positive towards their future careers in Psychology with the remaining
responses showing negative responses due to overestimating their abilities
and underestimating the jobs in the Psychology field.

The expectations and perceptions of a person tend to have some influence on what a
person wants and believes and those can change what was normal to you compared to others,
whether they were positive or negative (Formica 2008). College students have formed their own
perceptions and expectations of their field as they studied through their selected field for a few
years. They imagined how they would be working in that field and what they would be able to do
during their working time.
While it was not bad to think how working in one place would be, it did tend to over exaggerate
things for the field. One of the common myths about Psychology was that it was an easy course,
which brought in more entrants to the course, but as the years went by the numbers decrease,
eventually leaving only a few graduates left in the course (Whitbourne 2012). Due to this, and
more myths about the course, students drop out because they could not handle the course. They
may have different expectations and perceptions going into the course of Psychology, like being
a master mind reader and reading people like books in a snap, when it actually involves years of
training and experience.
Having such things did not come without any advantages and disadvantages. For
expectations, there were a lot of disadvantages for a person in regards to a career. It was a lot
similar in putting expectations on other people, not just normal ones. Peole stacked them over
each other so much that others create unrealistic ones. In one article about unrealistic
expectations, one title of an article said what can be wrong of unrealistic expectations:
Unrealistic expectations are the root of problem. Having those kinds of expectations create
problems (qtd. in Monette 2010). This would often result in them failing their standards or them
not being able to meet their expectations. When that happened, they condemned them for not
145

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

doing so. However, if they did not put their expectations out there, it would have led to trouble.
Without them, it would have placed them in danger of being mistreated. These expectations had
been their boundaries. These expectations let them know how they should be treated, and in turn,
it made the people comfortable that they made their expectations clear from the beginning.
However there were also problems with having too much or few if not no expectations
and perceptions at all. Kazdin wrote an article about parents expecting too much of their children
(2008). When their child did not meet their expectations, their stress levels would rise and in turn
change their behaviour to the child. Parents would bear down on their child to force them in
meeting their expectations, which would make the child escape and avoid the authority, and in
turn make the parent bear down harder on them, making a spiral of escalation.
From the research of Bazerman and Chugh (2005), in one part of their study, they found
an experiment wherein Neisser (1979) presented a videotape of two visually superimposed
teams, one team wore light colors and the other dark colors, passing balls to each other and
tasked participants in counting how many passes occurred. Due to the superimposing of the two
teams, it was a difficult task to accomplish. What the participants did not know was there was a
part in the video that a woman walking through the two teams. There were only a few
participants that saw her and pointed her out, and a repeat viewing of the tape and the removal of
the counting task improved the numbers of people seeing the woman. This experiment was
replicated by Simons and Chabris (1999), where a person wearing a gorilla costume walked
through a basketball game and acted comically, making him visible until five seconds passed.
This phenomenon was called inattentive blindness (Simons and Levin 2003), wherein too
much focus was given to one thing, the person basically ignores anything else that happened
around their focus.
According to the reports of CHEd, Psychology has been listed as one of the CHEd InDemand courses for the next four years, being listed as eighth type of course in the list, part of
the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Along with BS Social Work, Human Development, and
Guidance and Counselling, it made up five percent (5%) of the demand reported by CHEd.
While low in the list, it was still one of the listed priority courses in the countrys bid to steer
future college students towards degrees that the countrys labor market needs to fill (Bacani
2014). During the AY 2012-2013, data recorded last January 3, 2014, in the category of High
Education Enrolment in Government and Private Schools by Discipline Groups, the total
enrollees in that time was in the amount of 3,317,530 people enrolling in various discipline
groups. Particularly, the discipline group of Social and Behavioral Sciences had the number of
100,607 enrollees (Statistics on Philippine Education 2014)
New undergraduate students often develop and carry over unrealistic expectations and
perceptions of the course, and if not too much of this, they lack any expectations or perception of
it. And as they continue to be educated of the course, these expectations and perceptions could
grow or weaken. If these expectations and perceptions of the students were not managed
properly, at the end of their time in the course and delving into the careers that Psychology
offered, they would be overestimating or underestimating their future, which can break their
careers before it may even begin.
146

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

The research would be able to gain more information about what this generation of
students in the Psychology community expect and believe about the careers this field offers.
According to the research by Voss, Gruber and Szmigin (2007), the students expectations can be
a valuable source of information. With that information, the different colleges in the country may
be able to adjust their teachings and lessons in ways that can accommodate changing their
students expectations and perceptions of the Psychology career, and if possible, other courses as
well.
In terms of impact, the study would be of help for colleges and universities in educating
the students of Psychology to manage their expectations and perceptions of the community and
be able to bring it down in a more realistic level. Professors would be able design their classes in
a way that would inform them of what to expect and perceive about the course. (Voss, Gruber
and Szmigin 2007)
For the importance of solving the researchs problem, according to the research by Voss,
Gruber and Szmigin (2007), the students expectations can be a valuable source of information.
With that information, the different colleges in the country may be able to adjust their teachings
and lessons in ways that can accommodate changing their students expectations and perceptions
of the Psychology career, and if possible, other courses as well.
For their current trends, in a study made by the Ipsos MORI, a research company under
the Ipsos Group, highlighted how wrong the public across 14 countries about the make-up of
their own population and the scale of key social issues (2014). The public tended to overestimate
or underestimate the current issues of their country, overestimating issues such as teenage birth
rates, the amount of Muslims in the population, immigration, murder rates and unemployment
while underestimating the amount of Christians and the portion of the population that was
voting. For expectations, there were a lot of trends that focused on it. In an article made by Ben
Spencer (2014, 8), he wrote about the secret of happiness was not to expect too much out of life.
In the article, it was mentioned that starting off with low expectations; one would be surprised of
what comes, in a more pleasant way.
The aim of this study was to investigate the current student generation of the Psychology
community and their expectations and perceptions in regards to their future in a Psychological
career. After gather those responses, their answers would then be grouped into batches that hold
similar or close answers in relation to each other and the study would conclude with a summary
of the findings and suggestions in regards to further research. The researcher would also like to
know what influenced them in having these expectations and perceptions, and to find more
insight on what they expect of it and the way they perceive the line of work.
BACKGROUND PROBLEM/SITUATION
Students that have begun to plan in taking the course of Psychology often dream big or
see things differently than how it should work. This often times led them into disappointment
when they realized that their idealized career was not met or it never worked the way they

147

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

wanted to. The creation of such expectations and perceptions not only hurts the individual, but
also its line of work. (Taylor, 2011; Patton and Creed, 2007)

Relevance
This research would be useful not only for current students of the course of Psychology,
but also to researchers and people that question the relationship of a persons expectations and
their perceptions of their own chosen career. Thus, the research would be able to gain more
information about what this generation of students in the Psychology community expect and
believe about the careers this field offers.
This research focused on the current students of the course of Psychology. Its
significance was to provide more insight of what the current students of the course expect of
their careers and help them prepare for their future careers and enhance the understanding of the
mindset of current students and new ideas regarding their expectations and perceptions of their
chosen career in Psychology. The researcher aims to answer the following question: What are the
expectations and perceptions do current Psychology students hold for their future career? In
addition to that, how much of their expectations and perceptions have similarities?
The first question seeks to find out what these students were looking forward to in their
career and the way they see their career before they were finished with their studies. It also
brings into mind what influences these expectations and perceptions of the career they were
working towards. Could it be that the state of their environment will be in their workplace? What
would be the reception they will receive once they work there? Was also the amount they were
paid of a factor in their expectations? What about the current perceptions they hold over the
career? Were their workplace and the work to be done in it influenced by current media and how
it was represented in these different media? Was it influenced by their biases in the field of
Psychology? And finally, do these expectations and perception change the career they have been
preparing for entirely?

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Expectations
According to an article (Managing Expectations 2009), Expectations were the feelings
of being pressured to achieve certain goals, to behave in a certain manner or look a certain way.
These expectations might have a positive influence on a person, challenge them and motivate
them.
In the research of Ahn, Mochn, and de Juan (2007), only a human being was capable of
formulating reasoned expectations about its future, and these expectations affect the current level
of life satisfaction. The human brain was the only one that was able to formulate reasoned
expectations regarding its own future (Gilbert 2006) and that these expectations significantly
148

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

affect happiness (Layard 2005). These expectations can cause pleasure or pain, and it insisted on
mixing up thoughts about the future (Gilbert 2006).
According to their research to finding the impacts of expectations for the future on the
current satisfaction levels, there were problems that were found. Expectations were often
correlated with other variables, with personality or past experience in particular. In summary to
its conclusion, even when many of the relevant variables were controlled, expectations continued
to have a significant effect on the current satisfaction level of a person and their impact to that
person was substantial.
In the research of Lavoie-Tremblay (2010), the subjects express their needs as wanting to
be challenged in their line of work. To do that, there were certain needs that needed to be
addressed at the start of employment: stability, flexibility of work schedules and shifts,
recognition, professional development, and adequate supervision. They even mention that one of
the key needs, recognition, also acts as a motivator in both monetary and peer recognition.
Also, before their subjects entered the retail business, potential employees form
expectations of what the job will be like. This anticipation of what will happen was
preconceived, based on work and life experiences, career aspirations, dreams and personal
characteristics.
According to Hurst and Good (2009), people would form expectations of what the job
would be like before they start entering a career or job. Their anticipation of the new career and
what will happen in it was pre-conceived, as they were based on existing work and life
experiences, career aspirations and dreams, and personal characteristics (Woods, 1993). This was
why they invest a great deal of their time, energy and resources in obtaining a higher educational
degree; hence, they have high expectations regarding to their careers and employment status
(Wood, 2004). Research said that when work experiences became parallel to their career
expectations, the employees became more satisfied with their jobs and career choices (Igbaria et
al., 1991).
In addition to that research, Hurst and Good (2009) found that college seniors were able
to have well-formulated expectations in regards to retail careers. Also found in their review,
there was a study regarding retail work experience and industry expectations, it was found that
those who were planning to pursue a career in retailing and currently employed in retail stores
expected to have enjoyable work, a sense of accomplishment, good pay, and opportunities to
develop their skills (Knight and Crutsinger, 2003).
In the research made by Arcidiacono, Hotz and Kang (2010) about expectations,
especially in regards to their future earnings, playing a critical factor in determining their choice
of a college major, students made their decisions related to how much they may be able to earn
in association to those college majors. Their survey to the students was about their expected
earnings in both the major their chose and in counterfactual majors.
At their conclusion, the students own expected earnings and their abilities in the different
majors were important determinants in their decision in taking a specific college major. In the

149

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

research, it was stated that if the students made no forecast error in their decision, 7.5% of them
would switch majors.
Perceptions
According to the field of psychology (Cherry, 2011), Perceptions were the sensory
experience of the world around us. Environmental stimuli and actions in response to those
stimuli were usually involved in it. Through the perceptual process, information was gained
about the properties and elements in the environment and become aware of them then interpret
them. It included the five basic senses: sight, smell, hear, taste and touch. The way they interpret
what was around us was what made us so much different than the animals that lived in the wild
and the other people that live among us. One persons perception of a certain place was different
from another persons perception of that place. It was another thing that makes us unique from
one another. Though it was possible to have some perceptions the same as others, it was not bad
to have the same ones.
In the study of Buerhaus, Donelan, Norman, and Dittus (2005), they gave a survey that
asked their nursing participants their perceptions on the career before and after the Johnson &
Johnson Campaign for Nursings Future on 2003. In its conclusion, their survey resulted in a mix
of positive and negative perceptions of the issues in their research upon the result of the
campaign, such as the nursing shortage, the awareness of the issues that need to be addressed by
the nursing educators and by practicing nurses, and the evidence that a focused multifaceted
initiative to increase the number of people becoming nurses can be effective. With the campaign,
it definitely changed peoples perception about the career, even those that were already in the
career as the survey shows, having both positive and negative results.
Before the campaign, their ideas of the career in terms of the presented issues in their
research were relatively high. When the campaign had been presented and passed, they had
changed their perceptions on the issues, albeit slightly. The results showed small differences due
to the impact of the Johnson & Johnson Campaign, which made the results a mix of positive and
negative to the nursing students.
According to the recent study the Ipsos MORI group (2014), their poll showed how
wrong the perception of the population of several countries to the reality happening in their own
homeland. The perception of the people of 14 countries perceived wrongly about the basic
makeup of their population and the issues currently happening to it. They overestimated issues
such as teenage pregnancy, the Muslim proportion of their population, the number of immigrants
currently in their countries and murder rates while underestimating the Christian population and
the current voting population of their countries.
In the research of Xia, Monroe and Cox (2004), they focused on the integration of
theoretical foundations of fairness perceptions due to the recent news coverage on pricing and
how it portrayed the importance of price fairness. The effects of these unfair perceptions in the
buyers influenced buyer satisfaction, purchase intentions and complaints from older studies as
cited in this study (Campbell 1999; Huppertz, Arenson, and Evans, 1978; Martins, 1995). In this
150

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

current study (Xia, Monroe, and Cox, 2004) added to that information. It was suggested that
price fairness perception influenced assessments of product value and customer satisfaction. In
addition to that, the perceptions gave negative and discrete emotions that may vary in type and
intensity. In turn, these value assessments and negative emotions were mediating variables o that
influenced other behavioural actions, including purchase intentions, complaints and negative
word-of-mouth communications.
According to the research of Heyland (2006), the initiatives that were made to improve
on the end-of-life care for the terminally or seriously ill patients were hampered due to the
nascent understanding of what quality care meant to patients and their loved ones and how that
was measured. There were several experts and professional societies that attempted to define the
specific components and related domains involved, but it lacked in the patient and family
perspectives.
SYNTHESIS:
Expectations were feelings that motivate individuals into achieving certain goals, to act in
a certain manner or appear in a certain way. These expectations have an effect on the individual,
be it a positive or negative one. Only human beings were capable of creating expectations and it
can cause the person pain or pleasure. These expectations were affected by the person's
personality and past experience. Before a person entered a job, expectations will be created due
to their anticipation. It also played a part on a person's decision depending on what these
expectations were created to accomplish.
Perceptions were the sensory experience of a person. With the stimuli and the actions
done in response to it, information was gained on the properties and elements of the environment
and become aware to them and then interpret it. A person's perception changed whenever new
information was introduced, updating previous information and altering present perceptions with
a new one to accommodate the newly learned information. If people were not informed of such
things, then they would create wrong perceptions or ill-informed ones.
The missing areas that I found out in the literature that I have was that were no available
papers of this type of research for the public or were in need of validation to view this research
within local districts or national sources. It complicated further research that was not in the same
organization of other psychologists or even simple people looking into this field of research done
by college students such as myself. That leaves us the question that these papers have already
answered, yet none were there in the field. What were the expectations and perceptions the local
students have on their future career? Would their created and developed expectations and
perceptions of the careers in the field of psychology as students in the course affect how they
value their future careers?

151

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

METHODOLOGY
Research Design
For this research, a Thematic Analysis was planned, with a Descriptive Quantitative
Research Design type using a questionnaire for the research. This type of research design was
chosen due to the proposed number of participants needed and analysing the numerical data
received from the participants during the exploration of the topic in order to see the similarities
and differences of the students expectations and perceptions.
Participants and Sampling
The participants of the research were Psychology college students. They should be of the
level of College Freshmen up to College Seniors. Their age should be in the range of 16-20 years
old. Exceptions can be made if the participant was past the age range described but was still in
the levels between Freshmen and Senior. Only 597 individuals will serve as the researchs
participants. As to why this number was taken, usually the sample size being investigated for this
kind of method was quite small and its main goal was to focus on the particular characteristics of
the population that were of interest, which helped in answering the research questions.
Statistically, the researcher had taken the number of enrollees from 2012-2013 and calculated it
with a 4% margin of error (the positive and negative deviation allowed on the results for the
sample) and a 95% confidence level (how sure the margin of error is), resulting in that number.
As for the sampling method, a non-probability type sampling method was used. So, with that in
mind, the method that was chosen for the research was the Purposive Sampling Method. The
criteria of the participants for this sampling were as follows: current student of a Psychology
course, they can be from freshman up to senior, age range within 16-20, located only in the
Philippines. This type of sampling was used due to the participants being picked by using a
criterion already set for the research
Instruments
For this research, a questionnaire was created by the researcher to ask the participants
expectations of their eventual career in the community of Psychology. This instrument was first
created in a physical form, but after some time it was made digitally to make distribution from
other participants in long distances possible. The questionnaire was made to be as short as
possible to avoid the participants being distracted from answering it, containing 13 questions for
them to answer, with the questions being as open-ended as possible.
Procedures
The first step in this procedure was to locate a group of people that matches the criteria
made for the participants. Find various people from other colleges by contacting people taking
their education that were part of the Psychology course of that college.

152

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Next was handing out the questionnaire to the willing, now identified participants and
explain to them what they should do to complete it. The questionnaire can be given physically
(in paper form along with additional paper if answers cannot fit in the provided questionnaire), or
via online (Google Forms). Once they were done, gather the replies to the questionnaire, the
papers used for them to write down their answers on or from the created document that inputs the
responses on the online questionnaire. If the questionnaires were given to a contact, have them
gather it back and return them to me. Then take all of the results of the questionnaire for studying
and analysis.
Finally, after analyzing them, create a conclusion based on the data given by the
participants.
Data Analysis
The first step of data analysis was to review the responses given by the participants from
the questionnaire. Once a few responses matched or had close resemblance in meaning, those
similar responses would be put into a batch. Each number of people that made up the batch must
be noted to see how many of the participants made up that dimension of the questionnaire.
Once the data was collated, a table was made for those batches in each dimension to display the
data. The data needed to be checked for accuracy in case a miscalculation was made in the
batches. If so, review the data and check again.
After the data analysis was done, the researcher would discuss what the data presented in
regards to the research topic and the research questions.

RESULTS
Based on the answers given by the respondents to the questionnaire, below were the
categorized results:
Expectations
Table 1.1: Expectations Towards Learning Within the Job
Responses of Participants: Expected Things to be Learned Within the Job
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Science Aspect

101

0.1692

16.92%

Research Aspect

111

0.1859

18.59%

Learn Everything

349

0.5846

58.46%

153

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Processes and Similarities

36

0.0603

6.03%

Total

597

100%

Learning within the Job


In the first batch, 101 of the participants wanted to learn the science side of the
Psychology career. Those that had this answer wanted to be directly involved in that aspect of
Psychology, having the interest in this aspect and the goal to be the best in this field. In a similar
vein, 111 participants answered that they wanted to learn the research side of Psychology and the
processes it contains. The people that answered here wanted to work in the field that continued
their pursuit of knowledge, wanting to know how things worked and why it did so. In the next
batch, a large number of responses had quite the similarity. 349 participants of the study
answered that they wanted to learn whatever it was offered to them, what the job had for them,
they wanted to learn it. And finally, the smallest batch of common responses, 36 participants
replied with their desire to learn the processes of the job and its similarities with the other
professions in the Psychology community.

Table 1.2: Expectations Towards Promotion


Responses of Participants: Promotion
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Immediately

119

0.1993

19.93%

1 Month to 3 Months

85

0.1424

14.24%

5 Months to 2 Years

219

0.3668

36.68%

4 Years to 7 Years

174

0.2915

29.15%

Total

597

100%

Time of promotion
There were only four batches of similar answers in this dimension, but the numbers were not
cleanly split between them. In the first batch, 119 of them from the total 597, answered that they
154

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

expected to be promoted as soon as they get the job, either immediately or after a short time in
the position they have obtained. The next batch was slightly lower than the first. The expected
time of promotion for the next batch was within 1 month to 3 months, having only 85
participants with similar answers. Then, the next batch had the largest number in all of the
answers here, which 219 participants expected their promotion to arrive during the 5th month of
their employment up to 2 years. And finally, having 174 participants in the final batch answered
that they expected to have their promotion within their 4th year in the job up to their 7th year,
which was admittedly a long time for their first promotion.

Table 1.3: Expectations Towards Time of Acquisition of First Psychology Related Job
Responses of Participants: Expected Acquisition of First Psychology Related Job
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Immediately

104

0.1742

17.42%

A Few Months

189

0.3166

31.66%

A Long Time

99

0.1658

16.58%

Uncertain

205

0.3434

34.34%

Total

597

100%

Acquiring their first Psychology related job


Similarly to the last dimension, this one was also split into four batches and the numbers
between them were not as cleanly split as it was imagined. First, this batch was like an echo to
the last expectation, 104 of the responded that they would be able to get a Psychology job as
soon as possible, being immediately after they graduate or until one month had passed. The next
batch had the opposite result compared to the last expectation, which had the least number in that
expectation. Here, 189 participants expected to gain a Psychology job within one month up to
three months. Then, in the next batch, it had 99 participants answering that it would be a long
time after graduating that they would be able to gain a Psychology related job. And finally, 205
participants answered that they were uncertain of the time they will be able to gain a Psychology
related job after their graduation. An interesting note in the first three batches mentioned having
their own ways of gaining their jobs, either through referrals from those they knew or through
their connections.

155

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 1.4: Expectations Towards Workplace Treatment


Responses of Participants: Expected Treatment to be Received in the Workplace
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Normal

225

0.3769

37.69%

Fairly

159

0.2663

26.63%

Positive or Non-Threatening

106

0.1776

17.76%

Negative

107

0.1792

17.92%

Total

597

100%

Expected Treatment in the Workplace


For this dimension, the researcher started with the positive answers. The first batch, with
a strong 225 participants has the similar answer of expecting to be treated as a normal employee.
They expected to get no special treatment from their fellow employees, especially no hostile
treatment as from their co-workers as well and that if there were any treatment to be given to
them, let it be a neutral one. The next batch had a sense of justice and fairness to the treatment
they expected to have, with this batch having 159 participants having similar answers. Some of
the respondents had their reason for such an answer, explaining that because in TV shows and
movies, new employees get abused by the older ones.
They would be forced into doing work that was not their own, the older employees get the
privilege to order the new employees and not treating them like a human being. They want to be
treated as humanely as possible and like everyone in the office. After that batch, 106 participants
expect to be received positively and non-threatening manner, avoiding conflict with each other
and only wanting to have great relations with each other. And finally, 107 participants expected
the opposite of the last batch, which was receiving a negative reception. These participants
expected that the old employees would be too hard on the new employees and expect far too
much of them. That goes twice to the ones that came from prestigious schools. And if they failed
those expectations, the treatment would worsen. Due to this, they would be isolated from the
other employees or forced to isolate themselves from others due to this treatment

156

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 1.5: Expectations Towards Their Future Earnings


Responses of Participants: Expected Earnings
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

P5,000-P10,000

98

0.1642

16.42%

P10,000-P20,000

152

0.2546

25.46%

P20,000-P30,000

210

0.3517

35.17%

P30,000-P40,000

72

0.1206

12.06%

P40,000-P50,000

65

0.1089

10.89%

Total

597

100%

Earnings
Finding similarities in this dimension was quite difficult since most of the answers did
not have an exact common point. So, to solve this problem, the researcher took the answers and
group together the answers nearest to each other. In doing that, that similarity with each other
was clear and distinguishable between each other. In the first batch, the gathered answers of 98
participants answered around the range of P5,000-P10,000. The next batch, which was around
152 participants answered around P10,000-P20,000 as the amount of their earnings. The third
batch, which was around 210 participants that had closely similar had the expectation of their
earnings reaching P20,000-P30,000. The fourth batch had around P30,000-P40,000, which had
72 participants. And finally, the last batch responded with the expectation of their earnings
reaching P40,000-P50,000, which had 65 participants that had closely similar responses.

Table 1.6: Expectations Towards Workplace Environment


Responses of Participants: Expected Workplace Environment
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Family-Oriented

245

0.4104

41.04%

Strictly Professional

129

0.2161

21.61%

157

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Combination

145

0.2429

24.29%

Hard-Working

78

0.1306

13.06%

Total

597

100%

Workplace Environment
For the first batch in this dimension, which held 245 participants and the highest number
of this dimension answered to expecting a workplace being similar to a family, or the workplace
treating each other like they were their own family. They answered this dimension with this due
to what the country was well-known for, its family-oriented culture. Next batch held 129
participants answered with an environment strictly being a professional one. These participants
wanted their workplace to be work and only that, mentioning that their personal lives did not
have to be present in their work and that it will interfere with it. And 21 of those participants
noted that having their personal lives present in the job would only interfere with their judgement
and develop biases to clients and co-workers.
In the next batch, 145 participants had the expectation of having a family-oriented setting and
the professional setting, having a combination of both environments. To them, there should be a
clear line of personal and professional, and that it was not possible to separate the two. It needed
to be perfectly meshed together so that both environments would not interfere with each other.
And finally, 78 of the remaining participants answered in expecting a hard-working environment.
Table 1.7: Expectations Towards Preferred Job After Graduating
Responses of Participants: Learning Within the Job
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Analytical Jobs

41

0.0687

6.87%

Scientific Jobs

29

0.0486

4.86%

Interactive Jobs

21

0.0352

3.52%

Continuation of Learning

31

0.0591

5.91%

Isolated From Others

11

0.0184

1.84%

Industrial Setting

117

0.1960

19.60%

Clinical Setting

90

0.1508

15.08%

158

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Educational Setting

132

0.2211

22.11%

Therapeutic Setting

55

0.921

9.21%

Challenging or Hard Jobs

47

0.0787

7.87%

Freelance

23

0.0385

3.85%

Total

597

100%

Preference of Work After Graduation


The first few batches focused on specific profession within the Psychology community.
Starting off, one batch containing 55 participants answered with a job in the therapeutic setting.
Next, the following batch had similar responses from 90 participants decided on the clinical
setting. After that batch, one group of participants answered with the industrial setting, those that
answered that response or close to it were 117 participants. And the last one for the specific
profession was a batch with 132 participants answered with the educational setting. For those
that described their perceived career, well start off with the batch that answered this: these 41
participants wanted a job that was more on the analytical.
They wanted to flex their logic and gain experience in their use of the methods provided.
Next was fairly similar to the batch before this one, but differed once the explanations of the
participants were studied. This batch had 29 participants answered they wanted a job that
focused on the science they have already known from their studies, the principles, theories and
experiments that were involved in all of it. The next batch, which contained 21 participants,
responded that they expected a job that had the participants interacting with a lot of people.
Some of those people in that batch also added that through their interactions, they wanted to be
of help to others in that way. Next up was a batch responding of their wish to continue learning
their craft in the community of Psychology, further exploring what they could learn and extend
their pursuit of knowledge. This batch had 31 participants having the similar answer. Ironically,
11 participants answered that they expected their job would be done in isolation or they would be
isolated from the other employees.
These people expressed their desire to work while having minimal interaction with their
co-workers or no interaction at all. After that batch, 47 participants answered that the job they
prefer to have after graduating was one that challenged them, a job that would be harder than
most ones. They wanted a challenging job so that they would be able to work harder than usual
and that the difficulty would make the job a more worthwhile job and the experience would truly
be earned through their hard work. And finally, the last 23 participants answered the job that was
more of a freelance type, not wanting to be stuck in one kind of Psychological job for a long
time. These people preferred to work in different types of Psychology anytime they wanted to,
and not have them restrained from doing so.
159

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Perceptions
Table 2.1: Perception on what Psychology Jobs were really like
Responses of Participants: Perception of Psychology Jobs
Type of Response

Number of
Participants

Relative
Frequency

Percent

Tests and Examinations

215

0.3601

36.01%

Helping With Problems and Illnesses

109

0.1828

18.28%

Easy Work

51

0.0854

8.54%

Difficult Jobs

100

0.1675

16.75%

Flexible

63

0.1055

10.55%

Specialization

15

0.0251

2.51%

Heavy Interactions w/ Other Psychology


Professions

20

0.0335

3.35%

Heavy Application of Principles and


Lessons

24

0.0402

4.02%

Total

597

100%

How Psychology jobs worked


Upon gathering the answers for this dimension, there were 7 batches made after grouping
them together. The first batch, this comprised of 215 participants answered with the process of
testing and analyzing its results. Some noted of giving tests to the clients and patients, examining
them, reviewing the results of the given tests and giving a proper diagnosis related to the results.
Another batch of participants answered that they thought Psychology jobs was about helping
people with their problems and illnesses, which was 109 of them. Next was the batch that
thought Psychology jobs were an easy job to work in, which made their decision in taking that
career choice.
This batch was made up of 51 participants. In an opposite opinion, 100 participants
answered that Psychology careers will be one of the hardest ones to work in. After that batch,
another one containing 63 participants thought that the field would be one that adapted; those
that work in it and the field itself would be flexible. Then, another batch made up of 15
160

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

participants thought that Psychology jobs would make people that worked in it to be specialized
in only one certain thing, or as one participant gave the term: a one trick pony. The next batch,
gathered from 20 participants answered that the work focused on interaction with people from
various Psychology professions, sharing notes and comparing ideas on certain subjects. And
finally, 24 participants of the total participants answered that Psychology careers worked with
the applications of the scientific principles and the lessons they had learned as a student of the
course.
Table 2.2: Perception on Biases to a Psychology Career
Responses of Participants: Perception of Psychology Jobs
Type of Response

Number of
Participants

Relative
Frequency

Percent

Judgmental of Clients

149

0.2496

24.96%

High Expectations/Exaggerated Expectations

111

0.1859

18.59%

More Receptive and Less Stereotypical/Reverse


Selective Perception

79

0.1323

13.23%

No Biases

63

0.1055

10.55%

Psychology being too difficult for new people

74

0.1206

12.06%

Inferiority Complex Like Bias

23

0.0385

3.85%

Total

597

100%

Biases to a Psychology Career


In this dimension, they responded with answers that they thought would change their
perceptions in the career, their preference in one thing from another that would alter the way they
worked. For starters, one batch of participants, 149 of them answered of being judgemental of
clients and patients, which can tip the scales on making calls and decision when your opinion of
the client or patient was even slightly changed compared to a normal opinion of ones own
patient. Next up was a collected batch of 111 participants responded with high expectations of
people, also known as exaggerated expectations.
These people think that in their work, people like their co-workers and bosses should not
force upon expectations that employees could not reach, especially those kinds that even the
mentioned bosses and co-workers could not reach. They wanted others to be more understanding
161

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

of their abilities and not be stubborn against them. Speaking of understanding others, the next
batch, containing 79 similar responses of the participants thought that they would be more
receptive of others and have less biases. These people should be able to distinguish people
outside of their stereotypes, as one participant said in her answer, and it should not be able to
change their opinions of others because of such biases. After that batch, 63 participants answered
that they had no biases that would influence them. In addition to that, some of them noted that
people should not have biases to change their minds of others in the first place. Then, another
group of participants, their number in that group was 74 participants replied that the career would
be too difficult for them to work in, thinking that they may have bitten off more than they could
chew. And finally, this last batch, which had 23 participants, would have an inferiority complextype of bias in regards of other employees.
Table 2.3: Perception on Jobs Difficulty
Responses of Participants: Perception of Psychology Jobs
Type of Response

Number of Participants

Relative Frequency

Percent

Easy

256

0.4288

42.88%

Average

189

0.3166

31.66%

Difficult

152

0.2546

25.46%

Total

597

100%

Difficulty of the Job


In this dimension, the answers of the participants were gathered and reviewed, and what
came out of that review were three simple classifications of their perceptions in the community
of Psychology. One, it was going to be an easy job to work in. Their choice of working in
Psychology was going to be a good choice as it was, to them, one of the easiest careers to be in.
They imagined that they would encounter little to no difficulty here. The batch was comprised of
256 participants. Next, to the participants, the path they took in Psychology would be a simple
and average one. To them, it would not be an easy career choice, but it was also not the hardest.
To quote, the difficulty on Psychology would be just right. For this batch, it had 189
participants. And finally, the jobs in Psychology would be a difficult place to be. They thought
that Psychology would be almost one of the hardest careers to be in, and that only those who
were capable to work in it should be working there. According to one of the participants, it
would not be for the faint of heart. This batch had 152 participants having similar responses

162

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

DISCUSSION
During the start of the research, the participants only seemed to give closely similar
answers to the questions, or nonchalant ones that barely contributed to the research. This may be
due to the participants being located at the same school during the start of this research and
before the decision of branching out for more results. It was only in doing said branching out that
got the research more varied data from students that originated from other colleges and
universities.
Upon reading through all of the responses, it could be said that the subjects answers have
quite the variety. And in all of this variety, there were differences and similarities between them,
small and big in comparison to each other. There were some answers that clashed with others,
and then others agreeing with one another. Using the differences and the similarities of each
response the subjects gave, these answers were quite difficult to go through and then categorize.
It needed to be carefully studied and separated from the other responses, before finding what
category and similar group the response can be placed into. It took a long while to do that to
every response, but it had been done.
In terms of expectations, the respondents let their expectations motivate them to reach for
the future this profession holds. Some have high expectations, some fairly average and others
low in comparison to each other. There were those that were motivated with the expectations of
the jobs that were available in this course would generate a high income that would satisfy their
needs, some motivated by the challenge of what the jobs can offer and also those motivated by
their thirst for knowledge of this career line. Then there were others that had expectations that
were average, not straying to be different and barely going out of their way to achieve much
more. These responses mentioned of just having a sustainable job that can get them through life,
having average pay and barely expecting anything from it. And then, there were those that had
barely any expectations. Reading through these responses, what can only be ascertained from
them was that the respondents were merely going through the phases or using one of the
responses from the questionnaire: winging it. Similarly to Lavoie-Tremblays research (2010),
there were respondents that wanted to be challenge in this line of work. The subjects expressed
similar, if not close to, needs compared from the subjects of that research, except those needs
were aligned to the course.

It was also similar that their expectations for their careers were based on how they
viewed it, based on what they have already learned, about to learn, and what they experienced in
it, with the additions of aspirations and their own characteristics influencing it.
In terms of perception, their answers showed how aware they were of what their future in
the career holds. There were a large number of the participants that perceived this course and the
jobs it offered quite an easy profession to work in, seeing the profession to be an easy way it for
them to live the easy life. Also, they believed that the jobs that could be obtained in this course
would give quite the pay-out. While some of this may be true, the subjects that answered these

163

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

types of answers had been overestimating what the near future was coming for them. To be able
to achieve such way of living, they would have to study longer, especially if one would want to
become a doctor in the profession of Psychology. More years dedicated in learning more of the
field of Psychology had to be added after graduating from the course. They would have to obtain
their Masters and their Doctorates. It would quite the reward for such dedication, but the next
question that needed to be asked to them would be: Was it worth it?
Though, there were those that view the careers in Psychology to be quite the opposite.
They view it to be a challenging path to travel, but the harder the path, the more worthy they
were of what awaits in the end. The participants would enjoy such a path and the challenge it
holds, seeing the opportunity to learn more about the field, the theories that could be studied, and
the hands-on experience they would be able to get during their time of study. Taking such an
opportunity would be a gift for them, one that they would not plan to waste, and will bring many
rewards.
Many of the categorized groups of answers in this research gave varieties of answers in
regards to the kind of work in store for them, the amount of pay they would be receiving, the
kind of workplace they would be placed in and the environment of that workplace. These
answers they gave were based on their anticipation to what comes after graduating, and as how
some of these responses were reasoned within their answers, based on what they have known
during their time in studying, similar to what Lavoie-Tremblays research (2010) contained, or
what they wanted it to be, more like with Hurst and Goods research (2009). Both of these
researches pointed out that their expectations and perceptions were formed based on what
currently exists in their life and work due to the anticipation of the new career and what would
happen. From the answers of the respondents, there were those who wanted a fulfilling job or a
challenging job, one that has a modest pay or that of a higher number, a family-like environment
in their workplace or a strictly professional one. These kinds of answers were based on what they
currently wanted or needed in the future. They want such a challenging or fulfilling job because
they want to work hard for what they learned for or they want to be satisfied with the work they
will be doing. They wanted a modest pay because they either dont have the need for such a high
amount of pay or that the average pay would be enough for them, and the others that wanted a
high paying job was because they need the money due to the financial troubles they experienced
or they did not want to suffer those kinds of issues.
They seek the family-like environment due to it making their jobs more enjoyable to be
in and lessen the stress of the job, and those looking that only want to do their work, and solely
the work, without having to needlessly interact with others seek the strictly professional
environment. All of these expectations and perceptions were made due to their needs and wants
for what it was to come after all their preparation for it, all of it pre-conceived due to their
anticipation to it and what they want to happen.

164

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE STUDY


From the responses of the participants, their expectations were motivated by what they
could gain from their career, expecting to receive what they thought to be what they needed.
From high monetary earnings to the knowledge they could earn. Most of it was mostly positive,
with the small gathering of responses or batches were negative. There were some expectations
that steered near difficult and unrealistic, if their expectations towards their promotion and
earnings were to be believed.
Similar can be said to their perception. Their perception of the Psychology career was not
far off to the unrealistic beliefs of their jobs. The majority of the participants saw it normally,
with some having quite the negative beliefs, only those responses were on the downside in terms
of the numbers. They actually see the career to be an easy one, and yet based on the expectations,
still want to challenge them more.
Further recommendation for this research was to investigate further and farther. That
means including more colleges and universities take more respondents from nearby colleges and
universities that offer the courses of Psychology, and to add more to the data, expand the search
for respondents. The search would need to be expanded more, stretching the boundaries of
respondents to reach more colleges and universities that were located to the countryside.

165

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Arcidiacono, P., Hotz, V. J., & Kang, S. (2012, 12). Modeling college major
choices using elicited measures of expectations and counterfactuals.
Journal
of
Econometrics,166(1), 3-16. doi:
10.1016/j.jeconom.2011.06.002
Ahn, N., Mochn, F., & de Juan, R. (2007). Expectations and happiness.Documento de trabajo,
1.
Barron, P., Maxwell, G., Broadbridge, A., & Ogden, S. (2007, 12). Careers in Hospitality
Management: Generation Y's Experiences and Perceptions. Journal of Hospitality and
Tourism Management, 14(2), 119-128. doi: 10.1375/jhtm.14.2.119
Ben Spencer for the Daily Mail. (2014, August 06). The secret of happiness? LOWER your
expectations: A good day is when things are going better than expected. Retrieved
February 12, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2715853/Thesecret-happiness-LOWER-expectations-A-good-day-things-going-better-expected.html
Broadbridge, A. M., Maxwell, G. A., & Ogden, S. M. (2007, 12). 13_2_30: Experiences,
perceptions and expectations of retail employment for Generation Y. Career Development
International, 12(6), 523-544. doi: 10.1108/13620430710822001
Buerhaus, P. I., Donelan, K., Norman, L., & Dittus, R. (2005, 12). Nursing Students' Perceptions
of a Career in Nursing and Impact of a National Campaign Designed to Attract People into
the Nursing Profession. Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(2), 75-83. doi:
10.1016/j.profnurs.2005.02.001
Carmeli, A., & Schaubroeck, J. (2007, 12). The influence of leaders' and other referents'
normative expectations on individual involvement in creative work. The Leadership
Quarterly, 18(1), 35-48. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.11.001
Cherry, K. (n.d.) Perception and the Perceptual Process. Retrieved August 11, 2014 from
http://psychology.about.com/od/sensationandperception/ss/perceptproc.htm
Chugh, D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2007, 12). Bounded awareness: What you fail to see can hurt
you.Mind & Society, 6(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1007/s11299-006-0020-4
Gallagher, J. E., Clarke, W., Eaton, K. A., & Wilson, N. H. (2007, 12). Dentistry a professional
contained career in healthcare. A qualitative study of Vocational Dental Practitioners'
professional expectations. BMC Oral Health, 7(1), 16. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-7-16
Formica, M. (2008, July 24). Negative Self-perception and Shame. Retrieved February 18, 2015,
from
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/enlightened-living/200807/negative-selfperception-and-shame
Hurst, J. L., & Good, L. K. (2009, 12). Generation Y and career choice: The impact of retail
career perceptions, expectations and entitlement perceptions. Career Development
International, 14(6), 570-593. doi: 10.1108/13620430910997303

166

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Jussim, L., & Harber, K. D. (2005, 12). Teacher Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies:
Knowns and Unknowns, Resolved and Unresolved Controversies. Personality and Social
Psychology Review, 9(2), 131-155. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0902_3
Kazdin, A. (2008, 11). Why parents expect too much from their kids. Retrieved February 12,
2015,
from
http://www.slate.com/articles/life/family/2008/11/why_cant_johnny_jump_tall_buildings.
html
Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Leclerc, E., Marchionni, C., & Drevniok, U. (2010, 12). The Needs and
Expectations of Generation Y Nurses in the Workplace. Journal for Nurses in Staff
Development (JNSD), 26(1), 2-8. doi: 10.1097/NND.0b013e3181a68951
Monette, R. (2010, January 1). Unrealistic expectations is root of problem. Retrieved February 5,
2015, from http://www.houmatoday.com/article/20100101/ARTICLES/912319952?tc=ar
Patton, W., & Creed, P. (2007, 12). The Relationship Between Career Variables and
Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents.
Journal of Career Development, 34(2), 127-148. doi: 10.1177/0894845307307471
Perceptions are not reality: Things the world gets wrong. (2014, 10). Retrieved February 12,
2015,
from
https://www.ipsosmori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/3466/Perceptions-are-not-reality-10things-the-world-gets-wrong.aspx
Reynolds, J., Stewart, M., Macdonald, R., & Sischo, L. (2006, 12). Have Adolescents Become
Too Ambitious? High School Seniors' Educational and Occupational Plans, 1976 to 2000.
Social Problems, 53(2), 186-206. doi: 10.1525/sp.2006.53.2.186
The Role of Assumptions, Perceptions and Expectations in Conflict. (n.d.). Retrieved October
08, 2014, from https://www2.viu.ca/conflict/role.asp
Schneider, B. (2005, 12). University Preparation for Workplace Writing: An Exploratory Study
of the Perceptions of Students in Three Disciplines. Journal of Business Communication,
42(2), 195-218. doi: 10.1177/0021943605274749
Suffering Comes From YOUR Perception (Yep, it's your fault!). (2011, April 16). Retrieved
February 15, 2015, from http://www.pickthebrain.com/blog/suffering-comes-from-yourperception-yep-its-your-fault/
Sutton, G., & Griffin, M. A. (2004, 12). Integrating expectations, experiences, and psychological
contract violations: A longitudinal study of new professionals. Journal of Occupational
and Organizational Psychology, 77(4), 493-514. doi: 10.1348/0963179042596487
Voss, R., Gruber, T., & Szmigin, I. (2007, 12). Service quality in higher education: The role of
student expectations. Journal of Business Research, 60(9), 949-959. doi:
10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.01.020

167

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Whitbourne, S. (2012, September 11). The Top 10 Reasons to Major in Psychology. Retrieved
February 5, 2015, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-anyage/201209/the-top-10-reasons-major-in-psychology
Why people think psychology is just common sense: Children's misperceptions - Personality &
Spirituality.
(n.d.).
Retrieved
August
10,
2014,
from
http://personalityspirituality.net/2010/03/31/why-people-think-psychology-is-justcommon-sense-childrens-misperceptions/
Xia, L., Monroe, K. B., & Cox, J. L. (2004, 12). The Price Is Unfair! A Conceptual
Framework of Price Fairness Perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 68(4), 1-15. doi:
10.1509/jmkg.68.4.1.42733

168

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Personality Dimensions in Career Decidedness Among Filipino College


Students
Benedict RaquelSantos
Fatima Bullecer
ABSTRACT
The focus of this research is to find the relationship between career
decidedness and one's personality traits in Filipino college students. With
138 college students from various colleges and universities in the
Philippines, they answered a questionnaire analyzes the connection with the
personalities used a basis being the Big Five Personalities while careerdecidedness having ten factors to consider for the correlation. The
personality profile of the collective respondents, most of them lean towards
the neutral level scoring of the traits. Majority of them, in regards to their
career decidedness, six factors scored a moderate level while the rest had a
very low rating. And the traits that predict career decidedness are
Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness.

College is a gateway for high school students to the real world. They go to college to
have a glimpse of their future, to have a look at what it would be in the life of someone with a
job while being prepared for it. People work harder than before at this part of their academic
education as they should because college is the final step for them before stepping up into
adulthood.
It is also a place that mixes a lot of personalities with varying degrees of interest and attitude.
Sure, one can say that high school can be another place that can introduce numerous
personalities, but college is unique on its own because the people in universities or college
already have a gotten used to other people and have embraced their own selves personality-wise.
This is where they can see if they can mesh well in an environment focused on success, an
environment that will warrant hardworking efforts from everyone, which is something that
people after college look to have.
This stage prepares individuals for the jobs and careers they want to have in the future.
Students study to become doctors, actors, producers, creators, contributors among other things.
They give them an opportunity to get their foot stuck on the door, leading them to their dream
jobs or a moment to reflect on what they really want. During their time in college, they slowly
but surely become sure of what they want to become.
College freshmen arent the only ones struck with career indecision as many students in
their sophomore years and beyond tend to linger with growing career indecision (Titley & Titley,
1980). Students can be seen as afflicted with this firstly on choosing what course or program of
academic study they want to take up but it grows into being uncertain about one's choice in a
169

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

professional career. This is especially challenging to those in their later years in college as
pressure adds up as they progress through their final years (Van Wie, 2011)
Becoming sure of what career the students would want or ones ability to be sure, to be
conclusive of what their options of career would be, is called career decidedness. Of course, not
everyone can be immediately sure. That would be called career indecision. Career indecision
would be, in the terms of this thesis, how an individual is hesitant and unsure of their choices in
career exploration or acceptance. People develop it over time. And sometimes in the
development of that ability of being sure, there are some things that affect it. Some of it can be
psychological, some can be influenced from external sources like parents, and sometimes it can
be the person's abilities itself.
A way of addressing career uncertainty were analyzed by developmental tasks that
consist of planning, exploring, and deciding, which were known processes in identifying career
readiness (Philipps & Blustein, 1994). Manners of conceptualizing and operationalizing various
parts of readiness have emerged from their line of work as a way of addressing and dealing with
this problem.
The significance of this research is to see if the personality of a Filipino college student
can determine their career decidedness as they go and find their future career. With an amount of
more than 3 million possible college students enrolled today, this researchs significance would
help give a cursory glance into how ones personality can affect their drive to be confident in
their decision to choose their own careers once they are finished with college.
But for this study, it aims to investigate the connection of career decidedness with the Big
Five Personality Traits (which consist of agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion,
neuroticism, and conscientiousness). Its goal is to find how much the Big Five Personality Traits
has a sway with ones career decidedness, especially in the targeted population of the Filipino
college students. Specifically, what is the personality profile of the participants in terms of the
Big Five Personality traits? What is the level of career decidedness of the participants? Which
among the traits predicts career decidedness of Filipino college students?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
From 2003 onwards, there have been multiple studies concerning the career decidedness
of individuals, most of them involved with the academic life of a college student. One such study
that was is from last year. This study (Datu.; 2013) centered around the investigation of the
involvement of Perfectionism on career decidedness. The studys findings showed that parental
expectations had an effect in decidedness, being a robust predictor of it. Students with low
perfectionism managed to score high in decidedness while students with high levels of
perfectionism have a high self-clarity, occupational training and knowledge, decisiveness, and
career choice importance. (Low perfectionists are career decided while those with high
perfectionism seem to be more capable in having a job while being career decided)
In another study (Lounsbury, Hitchens, Lovelan; 2005) investigates about the ties of the
Big Five personality traits (which are Conscientiousness, Openness to experiences, Extraversion,
Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) to career decidedness in adolescents, more specifically middle
and high school students. What they concluded is that Consciousness had a positive and
significant correlation to career decidedness for all of the grades involved along with Openness
and Agreeableness in the grade and high school levels. Emotional stability had a positive and
170

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

significantly relation to career decidedness for the twelfth grade students. The other Big Five
personality traits were not mentioned in the abstract.
In relation to personalities, a study (Smith; 2011) was conducted to answer some question
regarding temporal stability of relationships between broad personality traits and Career
Decidedness and about the role of narrow personality traits as predictors of CD. Same with the
previous study, Lounsbury, et. al., this one shows a positive correlation with three of the broad
personality traits (conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness). However, this time it
mentions Extraversion as it did not correlate as expected with it, along with neuroticism as it
correlated inversely only for low-achievement students. Extraversion does not have the expected
correlation to CD while Neuroticism inversely correlates to it.
This next study (Gati, Gadassi, Saka, Hadadl, Ansenberg, Friedmann, & Asulin-Peretz,;
2010) centers on the emotional state and personality and how their model can be associated with
career decision-making difficulty It was found out that these were associated with high levels of
neuroticism, agreeableness, perfectionism, and need for cognitive closure, and lower levels of
extraversion, openness to experience, and career decision self-efficacy, leading to career
deciding difficulties. Career decision-making is more difficult for people with high levels of the
previously mentioned characteristics.
Career Decidedness - Negative Career Thoughts, Differentiation, and Satisfaction of Choice
Another investigation (Chason; 2011) focuses on the relationships of four factors: negative
career thoughts and profile elevation (decision-making confusion, commitment anxiety, and
external conflict), career decidedness, differentiation, and satisfaction of choice on 226
university students. Different tests were used in this research such as the Career Thoughts
Inventory (for negative career thoughts), Self-Directed Search (for profile elevation and
differentiation), the Occupational Alternative Question (for career-decidedness), and lastly the
Satisfaction with Choice item was used to determine their level of satisfaction with their first
career choice.
According to the results of the research using regression analyses, it seems that negative career
thoughts have a variance in ones profile elevation, career decidedness, and satisfaction with
choice. The results of this research support the inverse of the relationship between careerdecidedness, satisfaction of choice, and negative career thoughts. Their findings suggest that
more research has to be made in order to fully understand the interference of negative thinking
with effective career-making decisions.
Computer Assistance in Career Guidance
A system was also used in one specific study (Stephen; 2010) in order to assist students with
their career explorations using the Computer Assisted Career Guidance System and Kuder
Career Planning System. Those who took the KCPS were retained at a higher rate compared to
those who did not (KCPS > CACG).

171

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Career Decision-Making and Self-Esteem in Athletes


One study (Mize; 2005) focused on a specific category of college students compared to the
overall population of college students and that category being athletes. The researcher looked
upon the relationships of career decision-making and self-esteem between the two different
groups. Respondents consist of students from traditional fourth-year institutions and two-year
junior colleges, about 107 male and female athletes and 136 male and female non-athletes.
Results show that athletes scored higher in self-esteem and that freshmen athletes had
higher self-esteem compared to the sophomore athletes. Male athletes also scored higher than
female athletes, who according to the study have high self-esteem and career decidedness.
Influence of Career Indecision and Indecisiveness
For career indecision, there are multiple studies about the factors that have an effect to career
indecision. In this study (Di Fabio, Palazzeschi, Asulin-Peretz, and Gati; 2012), they looked at
what are the distinctions between career indecisiveness and career indecision and what are the
factors that influence them. There were two sides to this research: one is the different patterns of
associations of career indecision and indecisiveness and two being career-decision making selfefficacy, perceived social support and emotional intelligence.
The study found that in 361 university students career indecision is driven by emotional
intelligence, while career indecisiveness is driven by personality traits, emotional stability in
particular. (Career indecision is more mental while career indecisiveness is more emotional). The
prediction of indecision was far stronger than indecisiveness.
Dimensions of Career-Decision Making
Another study (Gadassi, Gati, Dayan;2012) used the simultaneous use of 11 dimensions in order
to determine a way of characterizing how individuals make decisions. They tried to find out
which pole was more adaptive.
They found and characterized a lot of profiles using their questionnaire model (e.g.
comprehensive Information gathering, analytic Information processing, a more internal Locus of
control, etc). However, some profiles turned out to be more adaptive contrary to their hypotheses
(e.g. high Aspiration for an ideal occupation was more adaptive for the decision-making
process).

Self-Determination Theory in Career Indecision


Going to models, one study (Guay, Sencal, Gauthier; 2003) proposed to use a model of career
indecision based on self-determination theory, which is a theory about motivation that is
concerned with supporting our natural tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways.
In their research, they found that from structural equation modelling provided support for the
proposed model and showed that the model was invariant across gender. (The career indecision
model used does not affect genders)
172

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

SYNTHESIS:
The Big Five personalities mostly seem to have a positive correlation to career
decidedness according to some of the researches compiled in this thesis. However, this thesis
would like to know if it can have the same results in a different culture compared to the findings
of other researchers. From the research of Lounsbury, Hitchens, and Lovelan (2005), their
researches state that consciousness, agreeableness, and openness have positive correlation to
career decidedness while Smith's research found that Extraversion did not meet the expected
correlation of his research as Neuroticism is opposite to the first three personalities.
The researcher wants to see what is the personality profile of the participants in terms of
the BIG Five Personality traits? What is the level of career decidedness of the participants?
Which among the traits predicts career decidedness of Filipino college students?
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The type of research used by the researcher is descriptive correlation, where the
participants were asked to answer a questionnaire about their personal career decidedness and
personality levels. The decision to use descriptive correlation is to see which factor would have
the most effect in contributing to ones career decidedness.
Participants and Sampling
The manner of choosing the participants for this research uses a random sampling type.
This type was used so the researcher can get responses from anyone available or for those who
want to complete the questionnaire made for this. The researcher gave links to people they were
acquainted with and were told to spread it out to their college friends or relatives.
For the sake of obtaining participants for data gathering, the researcher made an online
version of the survey that contains the two questionnaires for Career Decidedness and analysis of
the Big Five Personalities for easier access and reach without being physically there overseeing
them answer it.
Through networking with fellow college students, current and former classmates, and through
some social media, the link for the questionnaire made its way to a number of the participants.
The number of participants whom answered the questionnaire totalled to a number of 138.

173

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Instruments
There are two different instruments used to focus on one aspect of data needed for
obtaining responses from the participants. The first half of the questionnaire consists of a portion
of the Ten Item Personality Test while the second half focused on the Career Decision-Making
Difficulty Inventory.
Ten Item Personality Inventory. (2003). Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B., Jr. A
Very Brief Measure of the Big Five Personality Domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37,
504-528.
A much shorter test that focuses on the Big Five Personalities. The test is ten items long
that briefly measures Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness, Neuroticism, and
Extraversion by analyzing the facets connected to each trait according to the answer of the
respondent. According to the 2011 research of Jonason, Teicher, and Schmitt, they were able to
replicate and extend the construct of TIPI, resulting to the conclusion that it is a reasonably valid
scale as they were able to make reliable correlations.
Regarding its reliability, the creators of this inventory have stated that its goal was not to
create an inventory that focused on making an instrument with high alphas or Confirmatory
Factory Analysis fits since it would be too easy to design scales that optimized these two. They
had done this due to that having the high alphas and impressive fit indices would have cost them
with their more important concerns, which were content and criterion validity. If reliability
estimates are needed then a more appropriate index would be test-retest reliability.
Career Decision-Making Difficulty Inventory (1996). Gati, I., Krausz, M., & Osipow, S.
M. A Taxonomy of Difficulties in Career Decision Making . Journal of Counseling Psychology
1996, Vol. 43, No. 4, 510-526
A 30-item test whose goal is to find the focuses of the difficulties one has in making career
decision-making and recommending ways to overcome these difficulties. Recommendations are
not the main focus of the usage of this test in this research. As reported in a study about the
reliability and validity of the CDDQ (Arnold, R. (2003)) the reliability of the CDDQ scales show
a total score of high reliability at .94.
Procedure
For gathering data, the researcher used an online survey form from the available Google
Docs application. The questions necessary for data gathering were all applied to it, from the Big
Five Personality Inventory and Career Decidedness questionnaire, both were placed there for a
much simpler way of getting answers.
Following that, the researcher found a number of participants willing to take part and
answered the questionnaire through networking. Given with just a link to the questionnaire, the
researcher was able to obtain data from their answers.
Once satisfied with the data obtained through the participants, all of that is gathered and
recorded in order to be analyzed.

174

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

After the analysis, the research is then completed with a narrative about the data and is
explained, thus reaching the conclusion for the whole research.
Data Analysis:
The data collected from the survey will be analyzed through Regression Analysis.
RESULTS
From the responses obtained through the participation of 138 college students from various
schools such as the University of the Philippines, Imus Institute College, AMA Computer
College, San Beda College Alabang, and De La Salle College of Saint Benilde, the researcher
has obtained these answers to their research questions.
1.
What is the personality profile of the participants in terms of the Big Five
Personalities?
Presented in the following table are the amounts of respondents that are ranked to a
category that are either a positive or negative rank in regards to the Big Five Personalities. There
are five different score categories used here.

Extremely Low this category serves as the lowest score ranking based on the scores
analysed in the questionnaire. The scores that count towards this category range from 1-1.5. The
participants that scored extremely low are placed in the negative spectrum of the trait. For
example, if the trait is extraversion and they scored extremely low then they are the type of
person who would enjoy their solitude more than others.

Low this category entails the score ranking of the participants that obtained an analyzed
score ranging from 2-3. Scores here are interpreted as not too low, but not high enough to be an
okay level.

Moderate this category is the most balanced of the rankings, not too low and not too
high. The scores that count here range from 3.5-4.5. Individuals who scored moderately are
stable when it comes to the traits they have scored in this level. For example, ones
conscientiousness is scored moderately would mean an able-leveled self-discipline that
sometimes have some impulsive decisions from time to time.

High this category can be described as high enough for the norm, but does not have a big
enough gap between the other scores. The analyzed scores that are part of this range from 5-6.

Extremely High this category counts the scores that are from 6.5-7 in the analyzed
scores of the participants. These scores are the highest ranking in terms of the overall scoring
system, which means that they take after the positive end of the trait spectrum. For example, in
emotional stability/neuroticism, if one gets an extremely high score here then they tend to not be
easily upset or are less emotionally reactive.
With a total 138 respondents that answered the questionnaire, the sum of each score
ranking can be seen increasing towards the Moderate level with it having the most respondents
gaining a Moderate level in the personalities or near to the Moderate level like the Low or High

175

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

levels. This leaves with the extreme ends of the spectrum to have the least amount of
respondents.
For the trait of extraversion, majority of the respondents were scored in the negative to
moderate levels with 23.91% in the Extremely Low level, 34.80% in the Low level, and 30.43%
in the moderate level. This means that majority of the participants seem to be less active in terms
of being outgoing and energetic and might see themselves as more reserved and willing to sit in
solitude more.
In terms of agreeableness, they have more participants scoring in the middle levels of the
trait with the biggest part being 50% in the moderate level. Therefore, the two extremes of the
spectrum have the lowest percentage of participants with Extremely Low having 4.35% and
Extremely High having 2.17%. An interpretation of this may mean that they have a steady sense
of cooperation and selfishness.
In the respondents ranking in conscientiousness, they share the same results with
agreeableness, only this time, regarding the two extremes of the spectrum, Extremely High
(4.35%) is higher than Extremely Low (2.17%). The participants see themselves as equally
vigilant but with a good enough sense of impulsivity.
The emotional stability, or neuroticism if we want to stick to the official name of the Big
Five Personality, High level is the highest amount of respondents getting this score ranking with
36.96% and Extremely Low being the lowest with 4.35%. This means that they tend to
experience negative emotions more than the minority of the people who answered the
questionnaire.
Openness seems to be increasing more until they reach the high level (50%) with the
lowest level of all the traits be present here with Extremely Low having 0%. The respondents
believe that they are okay with new experiences.
2.

What is the level of career decidedness of the participants?

There are a total of 10 factors that make up the entirety of career-decidedness according to the
Career Decision-Making Difficulty Questionnaire. These factors are: Lack of Motivation,
General Indecisiveness, Lack of Information about the Decision Making Process, Lack of
Information about the Self, Lack of Information about Occupations, Lack of Information about
Additional Sources of Information, Internal Conflicts, External Conflicts, Dysfunctional Beliefs,
and Unreliable Information.
Here are the descriptions of the factors and the level scoring of each of them according to the
CDDQ:
Lack of Motivation - A high score in this area reflects a lack of willingness to make a
decision at this point in time.
General Indecisiveness - A high score in this area reflects a state of general difficulty in
making decisions
Dysfunctional Beliefs - A high score in this area reflects a distorted perception of the
career decision-making process. May also refer to irrational beliefs and expectations
Lack of Information about the Self - A high score in this area reflects a situation where
you feel that you do not have enough information about yourself.
176

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Lack of Information about Occupations - A high score in this area reflects a lack of
information about existing career options: what alternatives exist and / or what each
alternative is like.
Lack of Information about Additional Sources of Information - A high score in this
area reflects a lack of information about ways of obtaining additional information or help
that may facilitate decision making.
Unreliable Information - A high score in this area indicates that you feel that the
information you have about yourself or about the considered occupations contains
contradictions.
Internal Conflicts - A high score in this area reflects a state of internal confusion.
External Conflicts -- A high score in this area may indicate a gap between your
preferences and the preferences voiced by significant others.
Lack of Information about the Decision Making Process - A high score in this area
reflects a lack of knowledge about how to reach a decision wisely

The scores have been categorized into the ranking of RED, ORANGE, GREEN. Each color
indicates three levels in the scoring of the traits. Green indicates a positive scoring since it means
a low score would be opposite of the definition given above. Orange indicates a moderate score
for those traits. Red indicates a high score, meaning that that trait would be negatively defined.
For example, a person with a high score in Lack of Motivation would mean that they are
unmotivated to make a decision while a low score would mean that they are highly motivated to
decide.
Here is a summary of the responses and their level scoring:
One will notice that majority of these factors have a lot or a considerable amount of the
respondents getting a Moderate level except for some factors, namely Lack of Info about the
Decision-Making Process, Lack of Info about the Self, and Lack of Info about Additional
Sources of Info.
Lack of Motivation did not have any respondent get a Very High score ranking, resulting
in a flat 0% for that category. This factor of career-decidedness proved that the respondents did
not feel that they didn't lack much motivation as majority of them scored Very Low to Moderate
with only 13.04% scored High.
General Indecisiveness looked a bit evenly spread out with a tied respondent amount in
the Moderate and High score rankings at 28.26%. A total percentage of 53.48% had an affinity
of indecisiveness while 28.27% scored low for this factor, just being .01% above the Moderate
level.
Lack of Info about the Decision-Making Process had a high combined percentage for the
Low levels with 54.35%. It means that the respondents who received this ranking are know more

177

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

than others to be able to make a decision. The minority side of the participants, the combined
High and Very High level, only had a combined percentage of 32.61%.
Lack of Info about the Self shared the results like the factor above with the Very Low and
Low categories having majority of respondents being ranked there with 58.70% while the High
and Very High side has 26.09%. Because of this, they see themselves as in-tune with their selves
compared to the others.
Lack of Info about Occupation has a pretty even level field except for Very High with its
6.52%. Still, Very Low is the highest ranking with 26.09% of the participants getting this level.
A ranking like that means that they are knowledgeable of their career options if they so choose a
certain occupation and what possible alternatives they can have for it.
Lack of Info about Additional Sources of Info had the second-highest majority of
participants in a single factor ranking with 43.49% for its Very Low rank. That trades with the
0% of Very High, another lowest percentage of participants for that rank. This means that the
respondents know where to find additional info about their chosen careers and when to consult
those info that can change their decision making process.
Internal Conflicts has the third-highest percentage for a rank with 43.48% to its Moderate
level. Once again the Very High and High levels are in the minority with a wide margin with
their 13.05% in total. This means that majority of the participants have a stable internal process
that is ready to reflect on their actions and decisions.
External Conflicts' Very Low ranking achieved the highest percentage of participants to
get this rank with 47.83% and the opposite end of the spectrum once again has the lowest
numbers with a total of 15.22%. A low affinity for this factor means that one's preferences are
not affected by the opinions and preferences of those around them.
Dysfunctional Beliefs has a much more Moderate percentage of respondents with 43.48%
of them getting this level. This means that they have an okay enough perception of the career
decision-making process, one that is a bit shaky but gets the job done when needed.
Unreliable Info leans more to the Very Low level with about 28.26% of the participants
obtaining this score level. Due to these results don't believe that the information they know about
oneself and their considered occupations don't have contradictions.
3.
Which among the traits predicts career decidedness of Filipino college students?
The data shall be arranged by each of the factors of career-decidedness and their r-values.
Lack
of
Moti
vatio
n

Genera
l
Indecis
iveness

Lack
of
Infor
matio
n
about

Lack
of
Infor
matio
n
about

Lack
of
Infor
matio
n
about
178

Lack
of
Infor
matio
n
about

Inte
rnal
Con
flict
s

Exte
rnal
Con
flict
s

Dysfu
nction
al
Beliefs

Unrel
iable
Infor
matio
n

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

the
Decis
ion
Maki
ng
Proce
ss

the
Self

Occu
pation
s

Addit
ional
Sourc
es of
Infor
matio
n

Extraver
sion

0.0
603

0.130
7

0.14
03

0.14
55

0.05
09

0.039
3

0.2
741

0.03
48

0.146

0.05
38

Agreeabl
eness

0.052
6

0.0256

0.058

0.000
1

0.093
1

0.268
3

0.00
54

0.0
686

0.3006

0.194
5

Conscien
tiousness

0.1
382

0.002
9

0.17
67

0.15
04

0.030
7

0.045
3

0.2
187

0.2
524

0.2039

0.09
8

Neurotici
sm

0.3
178

0.179
5

0.13
46

0.17
47

0.05
51

0.04
29

0.2
978

0.3
377

0.2315

0.15
66

Opennes
s

0.1
729

0.084
2

0.27
36

0.15
05

0.24
95

0.28
25

0.2
138

0.0
579

0.0775

0.17
39

According to a guide about interpreting the r-values of regression analysis, the value of r is
always between -1 and +1 (Rumsey, 2011). Here are the different interpretations for these linear
relationships:

Exactly 1. A perfect downhill (negative) linear relationship


0.70. A strong downhill (negative) linear relationship
0.50. A moderate downhill (negative) relationship
0.30. A weak downhill (negative) linear relationship
No linear relationship
+0.30. A weak uphill (positive) linear relationship
+0.50. A moderate uphill (positive) relationship
+0.70. A strong uphill (positive) linear relationship
Exactly +1. A perfect uphill (positive) linear relationship

In regards to obtaining the p-values for the data in the table, the researcher was unable to
get the p-values due to the requirement of the r-values needing to be around -0.99999 and
0.99999. Since that limitation will be restricting the process of getting the p-values, the
researcher decided to only get the r-values.

179

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

One may notice that majority of these correlation coefficients are in the negatives. The
interpretation for the general negative r-values can range from a weak to a perfect downhill
linear relationships. 18 of the r-values shown here have an uphill linear relationship.
Agreeableness has the most uphill linear relationships with 9 out of 10 careerdecidedness factors. Two of those are near the weak uphill linear relationship (Lack of Info about
Additional Sources of Info & Dysfunctional Beliefs) while the rest are in the range of not having
a positive linear relationship.
For the Dysfunctional Beliefs factor, one may notice that all of the Big Five Personalities
have at least a weak positive linear relationship with that very factor, which did not happen for
the rest of the factors in the table.
Extraversion and Conscientiousness follows Agreeableness with the three career decidedness
factors it has weak positive linear relationships with. Extraversion has this relationship with Lack
of Info about Additional Sources of Information, External Conflicts, and Dysfunctional Beliefs.
Conscientiousness has this kind of relationship with Lack of Info about Occupations, Lack of
Info about Additional Sources of Info, and Dysfunctional Beliefs
Aside from that, the other traits are in the range negative linear relationships. Their
relationships may be attributed to the weak negative linear relationship due to them mostly being
in the -0.00 to -0.1 range.
DISCUSSION
There are a few observations in the data regarding the entirety of the research.
One can notice an ongoing trend with the results of the Personality Profiles and Career
Decidedness Levels where the respondents lean towards the Moderate levels of each respective
table, more evident in the Personality Profiles. It's like they begin to group more for that ranking.
Also, four out of five of the personalities in the table have low respondent percentages for
the Extremely Low and High ranks with Extraversion being the only exception. A very curious
thing as it may loo surprising for a percentage like that, but it may be because of the students'
focus on studying.
In the Career Decidedness factors, the percentages for the Very High levels being very
low with the highest of them being General Indecisiveness with 15.22% with the lowest being
0%, which happens twice. The participants' Career Decidedness does not reach a high enough
level for it to be affected negatively by these factors so much.
And because of this, there does not seem to be a balanced and evenly distributed
arrangement of ranking percentages. There is a big gap between the sides of Low to Moderate to
High of the respondents' career decidedness. The nearest one is Lack of Info about the Decision
Making Process, but has a 10% gap between Very Low to Low and the overall gap between Low
to Moderate is 41.31%.
If one uses the scatter graps for the simple regression analysis would see the evenly
scattered dots that are evenly proportionate to the slope of the line in the graph.
180

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

It is somewhat unfortunate that the data obtained in the regression analysis restricts the
usage of the data to get the p-values as it would give better understanding to the data provided by
the correlation coefficients.

CONCLUSION
The conclusion reached for this research in terms of the first research question, the
overall personality profile of the respondents is the following: they are introverted, have an okay
level of cooperation and interactivity with others, have an equal vigilance and impulsiveness in
terms of conscientiousness, have a tendency to experience negative feelings more than others,
and they like to take part in new experiences as they seek it out.
For the participants' career decidedness, they have moderate levels for the Lack of Motivation,
General Indecisiveness, Internal Conflicts, Lack of Info about Occupations, Dysfunctional
Beliefs, and Unreliable Information. Lack of Info about the Decision Making Process, Lack of
Info about the Self, Lack of Info about Additional Sources of Info, and External Conflicts have a
very low score.
And regarding the predictors of career decidedness of Filipino College Students,
Agreeableness have the most positive linear relationships with the traits and CD factors, despite
it being weak positive linear relationships. Extraversion and Conscientiousness follow it with 3
weak positive linear relationships.

181

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
- Lounsbury, J. W., Hitchens, T., Lovelan, J. M., (2005) An Investigation of Big Five Personality
Traits and Career Decidedness Among Early and Middle Adolescents (Check)
- Chason, A. (2011) The Relationships Among Negative Career Thoughts, Profile Elevation,
Differentiation, Career Decidedness, and Satisfaction with Choice (Check)
- Stephen, A., (2010) The effect of the Kuder Career Planning System used in a classroom
setting on perceived career barriers, coping self-efficacy, career decidedness, and retention
(check)
- Datu, J. (2013) Perfectionism and career decidedness of Filipino college (Check)
- Smith, R. M. (2011) Personality Traits and Career Decidedness: An
Empirical Study of University Students (Check)
- Mize, J., (2005) Relationships of Career Decision-Making and Self-Esteem for College
Students and Athletes (Check)
- Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the big-five
personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504-528. doi: 10.1016/S00926566(03)00046-1
Commission
on
Higher
Education.
(2012)
Enrollment.
Retrieved
http://www.ched.gov.ph/index.php/higher-education-in-numbers/enrollment/

from

- Jonason, P. K., Teicher, E. A., Schmitt, D.P. (2011) The TIPIs Validity Confirmed:
Associations with Sociosexuality and Self-Esteem. Individual Differences Research. 2011, Vol.
9, No. 1 , pp. 52-60. ISSN: 1541-745X

182

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Stress Resilience and Introversion Among Select Filipino Adolescents


Loraine M. Belviz
Rodelando E. Ocampo
ABSTRACT
This study aims to find if there is a significant relationship between
Introversion and Stress Resilience, and Stress Resilience to Gender. Using
descriptive correlational design, a sample of 261 respondents (119 male,
142 female) within the vicinity of Las Pias and within an age range of 15
to 19 participated by answering questionnaires measuring their levels of
introversion and stress resilience. The results of this study yielded a
correlation between Introversion and Stress Resilience at a Sig. (2-tailed)
value of 0.001 but with a Pearson Correlation of 0.198 (P > 0.05), meaning
there was a significant relationship between the two, though weak. While
there was no significant relationship between Stress Resilience and Gender
at Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.707. This study stated that introversion
correlates with low stress resilience, and gender does not define ones level
of stress resilience.
Contrary to popular belief, introversion cannot be simply described as being timid or
shy. Its meaning is far beyond that, and can even be said that it is nothing like the stereotype
most people believe this trait is. Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist Carl Jung, the one who
popularized the term along with extraversion, defined it as an attitude-type characterized by
orientation in life through subjective psychic contents (Sharp, 1987). By this definition it is
hinted that an introvert is less likely to show it from his actions, and rather it displays in the way
he thinks or how he processes information.
Introversion is one of the Big Five Personality Traits, dimensions that describe the human
personality that started in the 1880s as a lexical hypothesis on Sir Francis Galtons psychological
researches. Its existence solidified after Lewis Goldberg coined the term from his independent
project that now specifically pioneered what we currently call the Big Five. In the Big Five,
Introversion has a polar opposite, Extraversion, which is defined as an attitude-type
characterized by concentration of interest on the external object (Sharp, 1987). Extraversion
usually represents the two as one of the five major factors of human personality. These two are
often described as a single continuum, like two sides of the same coin, as no one can really be a
pure introvert or a pure extravert. Such a person would be in the lunatic asylum, as Jung stated
(Sharp, 1987).
In the late 1940s, after conducting several experiments with brain-scanning devices, Hans
Eysencks research concluded that introverts are sensitive to external stimuli not only because
they are mostly preoccupied with their internal stimuli, but also because they are biologically
wired to be that way. Such is the common mistake that introverts are shy just because they tend
183

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

to stay away from lively events when they are only trying to regulate the amount of stimuli they
can take in by the moment. To differentiate, introverts only prefer solitary activities than
engaging in social ones, while shy persons avoid social activities out of fear.
Statistical-wise, it is often perceived that the extraverts population outnumber introverts
by three to one. Briggs-Myers (1962) even estimated the number around 25% against the 75% of
the extraverted population. But from the first stratified random sampling done by the MyersBriggs organization back in 1998, the results turned out that introverts were actually sort of
dominant with a number of 50.7% against extraverts with around 49.3%. In this US-based study
we see that when separated by gender, males have a tendency to be more introverted compared
to females who were seen to be more extraverted.
On the other hand, we also have Stress Resilience as our other variable in this study.
Stress in simple wordings is our reaction to things we believe we cannot handle by ourselves.
When something seems to be too overwhelming for us to cope up, we become stressed. Stressors
can be either problems at home, with friends, schoolwork, etc. Sometimes what seems to be a
simple problem to others might be the cause of extreme stress to the ones having it. Meaning, the
amount of stress depends on how a person reacts to it, whatever it may be.
Resilience however, is a persons ability to cope with problems and crises they face in
everyday life. Scientists and researchers are still on the debate whether resilience is innate or
learned (Jackson, Firtko, & Edenborough, 2007), but certain similar characteristics are evident in
a resilient person such as that they are aware of the causes of their stress and understand that
these things are just a part of life (Kendra, n. d.). They tend to have an internal locus of control
and are aware of the outcomes that will happen when they choose decisions. A manifestation of
this is being good at problem-solving. Being stress resilient therefore means the ineffable ability
to cope up with situations that induce stress.
In the US alone, moderate to high levels of stress are reported by half of the population,
with 75% of people feeling stressed in any two-week period as stated by the National Health
Interview Survey. Stress is also being pointed as the root of all illness by the American Medical
Association, and parallel results were harvested by the University of London, agreeing that stress
is a bigger contributor to cancer and heart disease than smoking and fatty foods. 71% of whitecollar workers also felt stressed with their work, with 60% feeling overwhelmed (Velasco, 2013).
From a survey conducted by Readers Digest and Neilsen Media Research, around two
out of five Filipinos (43%) stated that they were stressed (2007).
Thus, it brings us to explore the following research questions: What is the degree of
introversion of the respondents? What is the level of stress resilience of the respondents? Is there
a significant relationship between stress resilience and introversion? And is there a relationship
between stress resilience and the gender of the respondents?
This study came into being in an attempt to further understand introversion, to further
clarify its seemingly vague nature in relation to other topics, specifically of stress resilience. It

184

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

may be of use to those in search of further clarifications, as a particularly helpful information to


support their studies regarding similar variables tackled in this research.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introversion
Neuroticism
There have been more than a handful of studies concerning introversion, and some of
them persistently correlates it positively to neuroticism (Khosravi & Bigdeli, 2013; De Jonge &
Slaets, 2005; Jylh, Melartin, Rytsl, & Isomets, 2009) while others to eating disorders
(Miller, Schmidt, Vaillancourt, McDougall, & Laliberte, 2006; obot, Markovi, SrdanoviMara, & Mitrovi, 2010). In search of literature, there are staggering amounts of other more
articles and journals relating introversion to various maladaptive developments and
neurobiological studies conducted regarding how differently a brain of an introvert functions
when presented with certain stimuli.
Personality type
One study that uses introversion as a personality type is of that made by Batayeneh, AlZoubi, and Mahasneh (2012). They found a significantly positive correlation between optimism
and introversion on their sample population of 534 undergraduate students. Consequently, a
study attempted to explore the relationship between the personality types of students and their
attitudes toward their course, and came up with the conclusion that students personality types
should be taken into consideration when developing a communication skills course (Lee, Y. H.,
Lee, Y. M., & Kim, 2008). Rafati, Sharif, & Zeyghami (2013) found that a students mental
condition had effects on their academic achievement after testing 304 full-time undergraduate
nursing students. They concluded that 25.5% of students were successful in studying and 25%
were unsuccessful and others were moderate.
Competence (in general)
Some studies try to relate introversion with competence in various types of tests and
experiments. One study produced findings saying personality influence the way people perceive
facial expressions of others, extraversion trait is associated with pleasant emotional information
processing (Shafiee & Zare, 2012). Another found a significant relationship between ones
introversion and listening ability (Sameei & Alavinia, 2012). In contrast, traffic noise does not
make any different on an introverts performance (Alimohammadi, Soltani, Sandrock, Azkhosh,
& Gohari, 2013) and extroverts are more likely to take opportunities to learn new languages
while introverts are suited more in classroom learning (Zafar & Meenakshi, 2012).

185

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Stress Resilience

Traumatic events and PTSD


From the articles found, the term stress resilience was generally used side by side with
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffered from these traumatic events (Pietrzak, Johnson,
Goldstein, Malley, & Southwick, 2009). Among them are Ghisi, Novara, Buodo, Kimble,
Scozzari, Di Natale, Sanavio, & Palombas (2013) study of trauma in work accidents, Bonanno,
Galea, Bucciarelli, & Vlahovs (2007) research on ones resilience after disaster, and Norris,
Tracy, & Galeas (2009) semi-parametric group-based modeling on correspondents from the
1999 Mexico floods and the New York 9/11 attack.
Coping strategies on life events
Others relate it to coping strategies on various/daily life events (Guinn, Vincent, &
Dugas, 2009; Hardy, Concato & Gill, 2004; Neff & Broady, 2011; Yi, Smith, & Vitaliano,
2005). Namely, Hardy S. & co. wrote on elderly peoples resilience who had experienced
stressful life events. After analyzing their results from a sample of 546 participants with ages
70+, they found that functional and psychosocial factors are associated with high resilience,
and suggested further research should be done in this field. One such is the study of Alqudah A.
(2013) on 86 Iraqi refugees indicating the higher ones educational levels are, the higher his/her
resiliency to stress, with the spiritual influence being the highest contributor to it.

Competence of professionals
A study by Stenmarker, Palmrus, & Mrky (2008) examines the life of professionals in
the medical field (specifically pediatric oncologists) and the contributors for their high stress
resilience, finding their motivational factors are generally link to an overall life satisfaction.
Other studies that tackle stress resilience in the professional field are Wilks & Crooms (2007)
research on overall social support as a moderating factor to Alzheimers caregivers and RajanRankins (2013) social work students lived experiences of managing emotion and developing
resilience. Kinman & Grant (2010) also did a similar study involving 240 social worker trainees
as they examine their samples social and emotional competencies.
Recent studies
One interesting study conducted by Oldehinkel, Verhulst, & Ormel (2007) had notable
findings stating (pre)adolescents with low heart rates fare better in environmental challenges in
early adolescence compared to those with high heart rates. Also worth mentioning is the study
of Iwasaki, MacTavish & MacKay (2010) stating leisure as a stress survival strategy, with
good results confirming the statement.
Synthesis:
To summarize, introversion and stress resilience were used in various ways in these
studies. Introversion is more often than not related to neuroticism and eating disorders. There
186

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

were also significant relationships between introversion and personality traits when it comes to
the students attitudes and behaviors regarding certain academic matters. Introversion also still
strikes a difference in competence when compared to an extroverts.
While stress resilience is frequently correlated with traumatic and stressful events which
usually leads researchers to put PTSD as one of their variables in their studies. Other subtopics
also include daily stressors experienced by the correspondents, and the competence of
professionals when it comes to their resilience with their jobs. There are also recent studies that
might suggest markers of resilience in an individual and a new coping strategy against stress.

All these show the variables that are frequently correlated with introversion and stress
resilience. We see correlations that are overly studied and others, despite having generous
amounts of analysis, still remain open for further research. The literature taken for this review
serves as a representative to other literatures with similar, if not the same, variables for research.
What then is this study about that includes seemingly separate variables of stress
resilience and introversion? What is the relationship of the two, and can they even be related
to each other? And how does this add to the body of knowledge regarding these two?

METHODOLOGY
Research Design
For this study, descriptive correlational design was used to analyze if an adolescents
level of introversion is related to ones level of stress resilience. This design tried to correlate
these variables and know whether they have a significant relationship. It did not necessarily try
to find if one causes the other; rather, it described the relationship instead.
Participants Description
First-year to third year college students living with the vicinity of Las Pias submitted
their answers through the questionnaires with a total number of 261 responses, aging within the
range of 15 to 19 years old.
Instrument Description
An introversion scale developed by McCroskey was used for this study. It is an 18-item
test of which the items were drawn from the work of Eysenck. It is a likert scale wherein the
respondent can choose from the following frequency depending on which corresponds to them
most in each item: 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = undecided, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly
agree. Its Alpha reliability has been estimated as above .80, with the PRCA-24 measuring its
correlations around .30. The scoring system begins by adding the raw scores of items 1 and 4,
then separately add those for items 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18. The formula to get the
respondents level of introversion goes: 12 - Total from Step 1 + Total from Step 2. Those
scoring 23 and below were classified low in introversion and was scored as 1, while those
187

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

between 24 and 48 were moderate and was scored as 2. Highly introverted individuals having
49 and above were 3. Filler items (specifically 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 17) measuring neuroticism
were not scored with the rest of the items.
Smith et als 6-item Brief Resilience Scale has a Cronbachs alpha of .80 to .91. Like the
previous instrument, it is also a likert scale with the same 1 - 5 frequency. Items 2, 4, and 6 were
inversely scored because their nature directly contradicts their main subject. After inversing the
following items, the scores were added for all the questions, and the sum was divided by the total
number of questions answered to get the level of stress resilience.
Sampling Procedure
The sampling procedure used for this research is a simple Chain Referral sampling. The
two tests attached to each other were disseminated among the specified age group of 15 to 19
scattered within the vicinity of Las Pias by relatives, friends, and acquaintances via web survey.
They then refer the researcher to other acquaintances who were willing to participate in the study
still within the vicinity and age group until the target number of respondents were met.
Submitted raw scores were subjected to analysis.
Data Analysis
The software used for analysis was SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The
said software analyzed the Descriptive Statistics for the levels of Stress Resilience and
Introversion. Pearson Correlation measured the strength of the relationship between the two.
Group Statistics was used to describe the levels of Stress Resilience of each Gender and
Independent Samples Test which compared the said variables.

RESULTS
In the first table, the Means were calculated for the two variables of Stress Resilience and
Introversion to measure their levels in a population (N) of 261, along with the Minimum,
Maximum, and Standard Deviation.
Table 1. Levels of Stress Resilience and Introversion
N

Minimum Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Stress Resilience

261

2.33

4.17

3.0651

.35867

Introversion

261

1.00

3.00

2.0460

.45340

The Mean for Resilience was 3.0651, with a Standard Deviation of 0.35867, revealing the
sample had a low average when placed between the Minimum and Maximum values of 2.33 to
4.17. While the Mean of Introversion was at 2.0460, which was about average when placed

188

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

between its own Minimum (1.00) and Maximum (3.00) values, with a Standard Deviation of
0.45340.

Table 2. Correlations of the two variables


Introversion
Stress Resilience Pearson Correlation .198**
Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

The second table showed the Pearson Correlation of Stress Resilience and Introversion.
When crossed with Introversion, Stress Resilience demonstrated a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.001.
This stated that Introversion and Stress Resilience had a significant correlation with each other in
reference to P 0.05. However, it had a weak relationship since the Pearsons r was 0.198. It
was closer to 0, but it did not mean they are completely unrelated.
Table 3. Relationship of Stress Resilience and Gender
Stress Resilience
and Gender

Mean

Std.
Deviation

Male

119

3.0742

.34832

Female

142

3.0575

.36818

For table 3, the population of 261 was split by Gender accordingly, and were compared to
each other by their Stress Resilience. The population of 119 male respondents displayed a Mean
of 3.0742 with a Standard Deviation of 0.34852. As for the female population, 142 respondents
came up with a Mean of 3.0575 and a Standard Deviation of 0.36818. The table indicated that,
when the two means were compared, the male gender had higher Stress Resilience than the
female.
Table 4 elaborated further the comparison between the male and female samples in Stress
Resilience.

189

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Table 4. Independent Samples Test for Stress Resilience and Gender


Levene's
Test
for
Equality of
Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
Sig.
Sig.
Resilience Equal variances .660
not assumed

Mean
(2-tailed) Difference

df

.376

255.191 .707

.01672

Since the Sig. value in Levenes Test for Equality of Variances was greater than 0.05, the
variability of the two genders was not significantly different from each other. Looking at the Sig.
(2-tailed) = 0.707, which was P > 0.05, this stated that there was no statistically significant
difference between the male and female, and was about the same when compared to each other.

DISCUSSION
According to the results shown, when placed between their Minimum and Maximum
values, the mean of Stress Resilience is low compared to the mean of Introversion. It is already
evident in Table 1 that there is a difference between the two variables being examined, and this
assumption is further clarified in the results of Pearsons R found in Table 2, showing us that
though there is a significant correlation, it has a weak relationship. This may explain why many
research papers relate introversion to neuroticism and other disorders because introverts are
generally perceived as having low resilience to stress. Thus, this study demonstrated that
introversion correlates with low stress resilience.
Though a study by Bataneyeh et al. (2012) relating introversion and optimism may negate
this statement, we cannot ignore the cultural factors having an effect on the results. Two similar
studies from two different origins may have different results because of the customs and norms
its people have grown up learning.
This may also be related to why introverts tend to learn more in a classroom (Zafar &
Meenakshi, 2012) and why traffic noise has no effect on them (Alimohammadi et al., 2013) in a
similar controlled environment.
Another result reveals that gender has no effect on ones stress resilience. Though the
introverted population has a low mean in resilience, it may vary when they grow up, seeing that
many related researches have samples with older ages compared to the ones in this study, namely
190

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Hardy et al.s (2004) findings relating old age with resilience from stressful life events and
established professionals with their work on the medical (Stenmarker et al., 2008) and social
(Wilks & Croom, 2007) fields, all with significant results. Knowing that adolescence is a pace of
major changes to an individual, it may be of no surprise that they have low stress resilience
because of their ongoing transition into adulthood.
Though the research problems have been answered, still more questions arise from this
study. When the introversion questionnaire stated social affairs, there is a possibility that they
may react differently if it specifically wrote scenarios like a family reunion or a friends party
depending on their background regarding these things.
It also can be noted that the strength of the sample used in this study may be too small to
be a proper representative of a certain population, or the instruments used were too simple to
harvest solid and satisfactory results.
This study also raises the question whether the two variables directly affect each other,
despite having a weak correlation. Since the design used is descriptive correlational, it does not
touch directly on the subject and can only show what the relationship looks like from a big
picture.
This also goes for the stress resilience between genders of adolescence, only describing
its relationship and failing to answer what kind of stress affects them and why they are so.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


All in all, we discover that introversion correlates with low stress resilience, and that
gender does not affect ones level of stress resilience. This study contributes to the body of
knowledge by shedding light on the nature of introversion in relation to other variables. In return,
we also learn more about stress resilience and its nature towards gender and maturity of
individuals in our society. A whole array of possibilities open up for further research, such as the
questions and problems that arose regarding this study. It can be said that this has only touched
the surface of something that needs to be dug up further, to understand more of our behaviors as
a human being.
It is recommended that further research must be done for this study. This is just one of the
many possible approaches in examining this problem, and there may be better approaches that
can clarify the questions of what and why stated earlier.
Cultural-wise, it can be disputed that the Philippines has a limited generation of research
in lieu of the studied variables. Thus, we have a limited knowledge in the mental workings of us
Filipinos when it comes to our levels of introversion and stress resilience, and our widening
social stratification only further varies our behaviors and attitudes. Philippines is a diverse
country, with diverse cultures in each region of islands, such that conducting one research in
different areas may garner, in return, different results. This is a great opportunity to other
aspiring researchers interested in these areas, as this very study only lays out the possibilities,
ready to be picked up on where this researcher left off from this study.

191

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

REFERENCES
Alimohammadi, I., Soltani, R., Sandrock, S., Azkhosh, M., Gohari, M. R. (2013). The effects of
road traffic noise on mental performance. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health
Science & Engineering, 10(2), 18.
Alqudah, A. (2013). Resiliency levels among Iraqi refugees in Jordan and its relation to some
demographic variables. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 5(4), 50-59.
Batayeneh, O., Al-Zoubi, Z., Mahasneh, A. (2013). The relationship between optimismpessimism and personality traits among students in the Hashemite university.
International Education Studies, 6(8), 71-82.
Bonanno, G. A., Galea, S., Bucciarelli, A., Vlahov, D. (2007). What predicts psychological
resilience after disaster? The role of demographics, resources, and life stress. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 671-682.
De Jonge, P., Slaets, J. (2005). Response sets in self-report data and their associations with
personality traits. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 19(4), 209-214.
Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas Publishing.
Ghisi, M., Novara, C., Buodo, G., Kimble, M. O., Scozzari, S., Natale, A. D., Sanavio, E., &
Palomba, D. (2013). Psychological Distress and Post-Traumatic Symptoms Following
Occupational Accidents. Behavioral Sciences, 3(4), 587-600.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative "description of personality": The Big-Five factor
structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216-1229.
Guinn, B., Vincent, V., Dugas, D. (2009). Stress resilience among border Mexican American
women. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 31(2), 228-243.
Hardy, S. E., Concato, J. and Gill, T. M. (2004). Resilience of community-dwelling older
persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(2), 257262.
Iwasaki, Y., MacTavish, J., MacKay, K. (2005). Building on strengths and resilience: Leisure as
a stress survival strategy. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 33(1), 81-100.
Jackson, D., Firtko A. & Edenborough, M. (2007). Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving
and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. Journal of Advanced
Nursing 60(1), 1-9.
Jylh, P., Melartin, T., Rytsl, H. and Isomets, E. (2009). Neuroticism, introversion, and major
depressive disordertraits, states, or scars?. Depression and Anxiety, 26(4), 325334.
Kendra, C. (n.d.). Characteristics of resilience. About.com Psychology. Retrieved March 9, 2014,
from http://psychology.about.com/od/crisiscounseling/p/resilience-2.htm
Kendra, C. (n.d.). What is resilience? Coping with crisis. About.com Psychology. Retrieved
March 9, 2014, from http://psychology.about.com/od/crisiscounseling/a/resilience.htm

192

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Khosravi, M., Bigdeli, I. A. (2008). The relationship between personality factors and test anxiety
among university students. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2(1), 24-13.
Kinman, G., Grant, L. (2011). Exploring stress resilience in trainee social workers: The role of
emotional and social competencies. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 261-275.
Lee, Y. H., Lee, Y. M., Kim, B. S. (2008). The relationship between personality types,
communication skills and learning attitudes in premedical students. Korean J Med Educ.,
2(3), 177-187.
McCroskey, J. C. (1995). Introversion scale. jamesmccroskey.com. Retrieved October 11, 2014,
from http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/measures/introversion.htm
Miller, J., Schmidt, L. A., Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., Laliberte, M. (2006). Neuroticism
and introversion: A risky combination for disordered eating among a non-clinical sample
of undergraduate women. Eating Behaviors, 7(1), 69-78.
Neff, L. A., Broady, E. F. (2011). Stress resilience in early marriage: Can practice make perfect?.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(5), 1050-1067.
Nordqvist, C. (2013, August 27). What is stress? How to deal with stress. Medical News Today.
Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145855.php
Norris, F. H., Tracy, M., Galea, S. (2009). Looking for resilience: Understanding the longitudinal
trajectories of responses to stress. Social Science & Medicine, 68(12) 2190-2198.
Novara, C., Buodo, G., Ghisi, M., Poli, S., Bichescu, D. M., Sanavio, E. and Palomba, D. (2009).
Integrated assessment of emotional distress after work-related accidents. Stress and
Health, 25(2), 195204.
Oldehinkel, A. J., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J. (2008). Low heart rate: A marker of stress resilience.
The TRAILS Study. Biological Psychiatry, 63(12), 1141-1146.
Pedroso, K. V. (2007). Filipinos most stressed-out in Asia--survey. Inquirer.net. Retrieved
March
9,
2014,
from
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/2007071376383/Filipinos_most_stressed-out_in_Asia_--_survey
Pietrzak, R. H., Johnson, D. C., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C. and Southwick, S. M. (2009).
Psychological resilience and postdeployment social support protect against traumatic
stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom
and Iraqi Freedom. Depression and Anxiety, 26(8), 745751.
Rafati, F., Sharif, F., Zeyghami, B. (2004) Correlation between academic achievement and
introversion-extroversion and neuroticism of nursing students in Shiraz. The Journal of
Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, -(30), 0-0.
Rajan-Rankin, S. (2013). Self-identity, embodiment and the development of emotional
resilience. The British Journal of Social Work. doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bct083

193

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

Sameei, A., Alavinia, P. (2012). Potential bonds between extroversion/introversion and Iranian
EFL learners listening comprehension ability. English Language Teaching, 5(5) 19-30.
Shafiee, H., Zare, H. (2012). The relationship between extraversion-introversion and attentional
bias to emotional faces in adolescents. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences,
2(2), 9-26.
Sharp, D. (1987). Personality types: Jung's model of typology. Toronto, Canada: Thistle Printing
Company
Ltd.
Retrieved
January
16,
2015,
from
http://www.innercitybooks.net/pdf/books/personalitytypes.pdf
Silverman, L. K. (2009). What we have learned about gifted children. Gifted Development
Center.
Retrieved
February
22,
2014,
from
http://www.gifteddevelopment.com/What_is_Gifted/learned.htm
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief
resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral
Medicine, 15(3), 194-200.
obot, V., Markovi, J., Srdanovi-Mara, J., & Mitrovi, D. (2010). Personality traits of
adolescent girls with eating disorders. Aktuelnosti iz neurologije, psihijatrije i graninih
podruja, 18(3), 54-59.
Srivastava, S. (2014). Measuring the Big Five Personality Factors. Retrieved January 29, 2014,
from http://psdlab.uoregon.edu/bigfive.html.
Stenmarker, M., Palmrus, K. and Mrky, I. (2009). Stress-resilience capacity of pediatric
oncologists: A Swedish nationwide and population-based study of motivation, emotional
distress, and overall life satisfaction. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 52(4), 503509.
Velasco, B. (2013). New studies on stress. Philstar.com. Retrieved January 4, 2014, from
http://www.philstar.com/sports/2013/05/25/946128/new-studies-stress
Wilks, S., Croom, B. (2008). Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers:
Testing moderation and mediation models of social support. Aging & Mental Health,
12(3), 357-365.
Yi, J. P., Smith, R. E., Vitaliano, P. P. (2005). Stress-resilience, illness, and coping: A personfocused investigation of young women athletes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28(3),
257-265.
Zafar, S., Meenakshi, K. (2012). A study on the relationship between extroversion-introversion
and risk-taking in the context of second language acquisition. International Journal of
Research Studies in Language Learning, 1(1), 33-40.

194

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

About the Editors


Savipra Alexandrio De Jesus Gorospe
A resolute, perceptive, and conscientious BA Psychology alumnus.
Can build insight on information from psychological assessments
and project into training opportunities; crusader of learning and
development, with excellent analytical, interpersonal, and
presentation skills; seeking further training and experience in
training & development and optimizing peoples performance in
the workplace while furthering his career towards being a Licensed
Psychometrician and as a future I/O Psychologist.

Chennie Alyssa B. Regala


Is a diligent, highly motivated and has a keen sense of
responsibility alumna of BA Psychology in San Beda College
Alabang. Has been a consistent deans lister during her academic
term; always willing to learn with iniative and fully devote herself
to designated schemes; has the ability to resolve interpersonal
conflicts and creates positive learning environment. She is in her
quest of enhancing her formal education and gain more application
learning about Psychology to become a Professional and Licensed
Psychometrician.

Renzen Pauline Martinez


A responsible person who engage in different activities and an
alumna of BA Psychology in San Beda College Alabang. She was
an active member of the Peer Facilitators Guild, an organization
created as an extension of the Guidance Office, and became its
president in her third year then became its fourth year level
representative in her senior year. Always ready to help other people
for their own personal growth and create fun new experiences that
can help others. She is searching for other experiences and training
to broaden her knowledge about Psychology while working her
way to her desired career as a Licensed Psychometrician and an HR
in a company
195

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

San Beda College Alabang


Alabang Hills Village, Muntinlupa City
Tel. Nos.: (02) 772-2357 (02) 842-3508 loc. 211

College of Arts & Sciences


Edited by:
Prof. Paul V. Hilario, Ph.D.
College of Arts and Sciences Dean
Savipra Alexandrio DJ. Gorospe
Volume 1 Editor-In-Chief
Chennie Regala
Volume 2 Editor-In-Chief
Renzen Pauline B. Martinez
Volume 3 Editor-In-Chief

Cover Page Art Designed by:


Kryshnan Vergara
Jan Paula Minas

196

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME III

197