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c_-are sually - ow. Yay ive areas. ~Iany
e organisms use estuarie for reprodu tion.
Insec are ammon in fre hwater and ab ent in marine
__.stems. Lake how a tructure similar to that of the ocean,

y al ecosystem 129 limnetic zone 130 primary succession 109


alpine tundra 125 littoral zone 130 savanna 118
benthic 127 mangrove swamp ecosystem 129 secondary succession 109
benthic ecosystem 127 marine ecosystem 126 seral stage 110
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) 131 marsh 131 sere 110
biome 114 Mediterranean shrublands 119 steppe 116
boreal forest 124 northern coniferous forest 124 submerged plants 130
climax community 109 oligotrophic lake 131 succession 109
coral reef ecosystem 129 pelagic 126 successional stage 110
desert 115 pelagic ecosystem 126 swamp 131
emergent plants 130 periphyton 131 taiga 124
e tuary 129 permafrost 125 temperate deciduous forest 123
euphotic zone 126 phytoplankton 126 tropical dry forest 119
eutrophic lake 131 pioneer community 109 tropical rainforest 122
freshwater ecosystem 126 plankton 126 tundra 125
grassland 116 prairie 116 zooplankton 126

Review Questions
1. Describe the process of succession. How does primary succes- 5. How does height above sea level affect the kind of biome
sion differ from secondary succession? present?
2. How does a climax community differ from a successional 6. What areas of the ocean are the most productive?
community? 7. How does the nature of the substrate affect the kinds of organ-
3. List three characteristics typical of each of the following bi- isms found at the shore?
omes: tropical rainforest, desert, tundra, taiga, savanna, Mediter- 8. What is the role of each of the following organisms in a marine
ranean shrublands, tropical dry forest, grassland, and temperate ecosystem: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, coral animals,
deciduous forest. and fish?
4. What two primary factors determine the kind of terrestrial 9. List three differences between freshwater and marine eco y terns.
biome that will develop in an area? 10. What is an estuary? Why are estuaries important?

CHAPTER 6 Kinds of Ecosystems and Communities 133


Critical Thinking Questions
1. Does the concept of a "climax community" make sense? Why 5. The text says that 90 percent of the old-growth temperate rain-
or why not? forest in the Pacific Northwest has been logged. What to do
What do you think about restoring ecosystems that have been with the remaining 10 percent is still a question. Some say it
degraded by human activity? Should it be done or not? Why? should be logged, and others say it should be preserved. What
Who should pay for this reconstruction? values, beliefs, and perspectives are held by each side? What is
3. Identify the biome in which you live. What environmental factors your ethic regarding logging old-growth in this area? What val-
are instrumental in maintaining this biome? What is the current ues, beliefs, and perspectives do you hold regarding this issue?
health of your biome? What are the current threats to its health? 6. Much of the old-growth forest in the United States has been
How might your biome have looked 100,1000,10,000 years ago? logged, economic gains have been realized, and second-growth
4. Imagine you are a conservation biologist who is being asked by forests have become established. This is not the case in the trop-
local residents what the likely environmental outcomes of de- ical rainforests, although they are being lost at alarming rates.
velopment would be in the tropical rainforest in which they live. Should developed countries, which have already "cashed in" on
What would you tell them? Why do you give them this evalua- their resources, have anything to say about what is happening in
tion? What evidence can you cite for your claims? developing countries? Why do you think the way you do?

Concept Map
Construct a map to show relationships among the following concepts:

primary succession pioneer community northern coniferous forest


econdary succession prairie tundra
biome temperate deciduous forest successional stage
limax community

Interactive Exploration
Check out the website at http://www.mhhe.comlenvironmentaIscience and click on the cover of this textbook for quizzing, career
information, case studies, and hot links for the following topics:

Field Methods for Studies of Ecosystems Taiga


u cession and Stability Tundra
Biomes and Environmental Habitats _ Iarine Habitats
De erts ~Iarine Ecology
Sa\"annah The Marine Pelagic Zone
Gras lands The Marine Deep Sea Zone
Rangelands and Land Use Issues Shallow Subtidal Communities
Tropical Rainforests E tuaries
-rr:picai Rainforests and Land Use Issues _\fafl!!foves
::al Forests and Extinction Coral Reefs
Forests Fre hwater Habitats