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1. Assumptions for kinetic theory of ideal gas:

(i) volume of molecules negligible.

(ii) intermolecular attraction negligible.

(iii) elastic collision.

(jv) time of collision negligible compared with time between collisions

2. Pressure p = 1/3c 2 where c2 is mean square speed.

Note that root-mean square (r.m.s.) speed, c 2 is different from mean speed, c.

In proving pressure formula, note that (i) force = momentum change per second at

walls, (ii) c 2 = u2 + v2 + w2 and u2 = v2 = w2 = 1/3 c2 for random motion and large

number of molecules.

3. Other formulae (i) pV = 1/3Nmc2 or p = 1/3nmc2 where n is N/V, number per

unit volume, (ii) pV = 1/3 Mc2 = RT (M = molar mass) (iii) r.m.s. speed (3RT/M)

so r.m.s. speed T or 1/M

4. For 1 mole of monatomic gas, kinetic energy of translation = 1/2Mc2

=3/2RT=internal energy of monatomic gas.

Kinetic energy of translation of 1 molecule = 3/2kT, where k = Boltzmann

constant = R/NA = 1.38X10-23 J K-I molecule-1

5. In kinetic theory, we assume kinetic energy of translation of gas T.

Note. Mean square speed c2 also printed as < c2 >

Worked Example

A vessel contains 5 g of helium, molar mass 4 g, at 27C and 1.5 x 105 Pa

pressure. Calculate (i) the kinetic energy of the gas.

(ii) the root-mean-square speed of the molecules.

(iii) the number of molecules per unit volume present.

(Assume R = 8.3JK-1 mol-1, NA = 6.0 X 1023 mol-1)

(i) From kinetic theory, pV = 1/3 Nmc2 = RT for 1 mole

So kinetic energy for 1 mole = 1/2Mc2 = 3/2RT.

Thus energy for 5/4 moles

= 5/4 x 3/2 x 8.3 x 300 = 4670 J

Since M = 4g = 0.004kg.

(ii). R.m.s speed = (3RT/M) = (3 x 8.3 x 300/0.004) = 1367m/s

(iii) From pV=nRT, n/V= p/RT

Then the no. of molecules per unit volume = 6.0 x 1023 x 1.5 x 105

8.3 x 300

= 3.6 x 1025

Questions:

1. List the fundamental assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases. A cube

contains N molecules of a gas. On simple theory, how many molecules on the

average may be assumed to move (i) along each of three perpendicular axes, (ii)

in a direction towards, and perpendicular to, one particular face of the cube?

Ans: i.N/3 ii. N/6

2. What is the difference between the root-mean-square speed and the mean speed

of a group of gas molecules. The r.m.s. velocity is given by the expression

(3p/), where p is the gas pressure and is the density. Show that this formula is

dimensionally correct.

3. Calculate the r.m.s. speed by hydrogen molecules at (i) 0C, (ii) 27C if the

density of hydrogen is 0.09 kgm -3 at 0C and 1.0 x 105 Pa.

Ans: i.1840ms-1 ii. 1930 ms-1

4. Show how Boyle's law is explained by the kinetic theory of gases. State the

assumptions made.

5. Derive an expression for the root-mean-square speed of the molecules of a gas.

Calculate the root-mean-square speed of oxygen molecules at 00C and at 100C, if

the density of oxygen at 0C and 1.0 x 105 Pa is 1.42 kg m-3.

Ans: 460ms-1 540ms-1

6. (i) The r.m.s. speed of oxygen gas molecules is 500 ms-1 at a certain

temperature and pressure. What would be the r.m.s speed of hydrogen gas

molecules at the same temperature and pressure. if the molar mass of oxygen is 16

times that of hydrogen?

(ii) At what temperature will the r.m.s. speed of hydrogen gas molecules be twice

that at 300 K?

(iii) At what temperature will the r.m.s. speed of nitrogen molecules equal that of

oxygen molecules at 300 K, if the relative molecular masses of nitrogen and

oxygen are 28 and 32 respectively?

Ans: 2000ms-1 1200K 262.5K

7 Using the motion of the molecules, explain

(i) the pressure of a gas,

(ii) the increase in pressure when the volume of a gas is reduced at constant

temperature,

(iii) the increase in pressure of a gas at constant volume when its temperature

rises,

(iv) the rise in temperature when the air in the barrel of an air pump is

compressed.

8. The mass of one mole of helium gas is 4 x 10- 3 kg. Calculate the r.m.s. speed

of its molecules at 0C and 1x 105 Pa. What is the r.m.s. speed of oxygen gas at

the same temperature and pressure if the mass of one mole of oxygen is 32 x 10-3

kg?

Ans:1304ms-1, 461ms-1

9. The pressure and heat capacity of a given mass of gas depends on the mean

square-speed of all its molecules, whereas its rate of diffusion through a porous

partition depends on the mean speed of all its molecules.

From the kinetic theory, account for this difference. Name another property of a

gas which depends on its mean speed.

10 The number of molecules per m3 in a given gas is 1.2 x 1024m-3 at 270C and 1.0

x 105 Pa pressure. Calculate the number of molecules per unit volume of this gas

at a temperature of -23C and a pressure of 2x 103 Pa.

Ans: 2.9 x 1022

11 Derive the ideal gas equation pV = RT from kinetic theory. State the

assumption made about the temperature of the gas.

12 Hydrogen gas escapes much more quickly from a sealed container than

chlorine gas due to leakage through a small hole. Explain why this occurs, given

that the densities of hydrogen, air and chlorine are respectively 0.09,1,2 and

3.2kgm-3.

13. The speed of sound in air is given by c = (1.4p/), where p is the pressure

and is the density of the air. Why is this relationship for v similar to that for the

r.m.s. speed of a gas, cr = (3p/)?

14. 2 g of helium gas, molar mass 4 g, in a container has a temperature of 470C

and a pressure of 1.2X105Pa.

i. Calculate the internal energy of the gas and the number of molecules.

ii. 5g of neon gas molar mass 20g and temperature 470C is added to the helium

container at constant volume. Find the new pressure inside the container and the

new value of the internal energy.

Ans: i.1992J, 3 x1023, ii.1.8 x 105 Pa, 2988J

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