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PRICE

ONE SHILLING.

A TREATISE ON

PORTRAIT PAINTING
FROM

LIFE.

ALSO, INSTRUCTIONS FOR

PAINTING UPON PHOTOGRAPHS


AND

PAINTING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS.

By

F.

HAVNES.

SUPPLEMENTED WITH A DISCOURSE ON ART


BY THE SAME.

SECOND EDITION.

GEORGE.ROWNEY

&

CO.,

MANUFACTURING ARTISTS' COLOURMEN,


64,

OXFORD STREET, AND PRINCES HALL, PICCADILLY,


LONDON.

/sold by\
/dimmock\
I

London

St.
j

V NORWICH/

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

Research

2010 with funding from

Library,

The Getty Research

Institute

http://www.archive.org/details/treatiseonportraOOhayn

A TKEATISE ON

PORTRAIT PAINTING
FROM

LIFE.

ALSO, INSTRUCTIONS FOR

PHOTOGRAPHS

PAINTING UPON
AND

PAINTING

FROM PHOTOGRAPHS.
BY

HAYNES.

F.

SUPPLEMENTED WITH A DISCOURSE ON ART


BY THE SAME.

SECOND

EDITION.

GEORGE ROWNEY
MANUFACTURING
64,

OXFORD

ST.,

ARTISTS'

&

CO.,

COLOUEMEX,

and PRINCES HALL, PICCADILLY, LONDON.

MDCCCLXXXVH.

LONDON

HENDERSON, RAIT, AND SPALDING, GENERAL PRINTERS,


3

&

5,

MARYLEBONE LANE, W,

CONTENTS.
PAGE
5

Introduction

Materials

Posing and Lighting

Suitability

of

Coloui'

Accessories

...

in

Draperies,

...

...

Painting the Portrait from Life:


First Stage, or in

Backgrounds,

Second Stage, or First Colouring

...

...

...

...

...

...

16

...

...

...

...

IS

...

23

13

Third Stage, or the Second Colouring of the Head


of the

Head

2b'

Finish

27

Handling

29

Seeing Tints in Flesh


Complexions

11

...

Monochrome

Fourth Stage, or Re-touching

and

...

...

...

...

...

29

30

...

...

...

...

...

...

Temperaments
Dress of Hair, &c.

32

Characteristics

32

First Colouring of Draperies, Backgrounds, and Accessories

33

Relief

35

Draperies and Backgrounds further considered


Force and Point

36

Texture and Loading with Colour

...

...

40
...

...

Perspective

Luminous Colour and Glazing


Painting Photographs in Oil
Painting from Photographs in Oil
Defects in Photographs, and How to Correct in Painting
Painting in Water Colour from a Photograph
Painting on Photographs in Water Colour
Discourse on Art

41

42
43

44
46
48
49
56

60

INTBODUCTION.

Th e writer hereof claims that all is free from plagiarism


and

is

from

his

Technical

own

difficulties

and processes often obstruct the

advancement of persons of talent


carefully made, to
treat

practice of over 30 years.

an endeavour

is

here

render the required assistance, to

the subject in a philosophical manner, and to

show a reason for what is said.


Although it is the proper province
from Nature

and

that

siderable time before

of

Art

must be practised

to paint

for a con-

any one can become conversant

with colour and expression

nevertheless, since

now-a-

days advanced Photography has become an Art

and moreover,

as the necessity of earning a

also,

competency

has directed many to the pursuit of painting photographs,

and painting from photographs, together with the


fact that

rate kind

much of the portrait


is now done with its

in the infallibility of such

numbers of

who

copies required

are gone

it

painting even of a
aid

first-

and many believe

added

to

which there are

from photographs of those

would seem'

like only

performing half

the work to omit some instructions upon this department


of the subject, so a brief addition will be

found of the

application of the practice of general portrait painting

to

" painting

photographs."

photographs,"

and

" painting

from

INTRODUCTION.

VI

The work

is

supplemented with a discourse upon Art

which the Author hopes


Artists,

may

be interesting not only to

Art students, and patrons of Art, but

also to

the general reader.

The
high

position of fine Portraiture in Art should rank

the most celebrated painters have

practised

it,

but the individuality and precision, which in the best


are

its characteristics

possibility of there

and

being

The contemplation

requisites,

many

have precluded the

very successful.

of great Characters of History in

their " Counterfeit Presentment," as of those of families

whose images are endeared to the


this

Art an

essential in the

Such books

World's

as the writer has

social circle,

make

interest.

met with, have appeared

either too desultory, too vague, or rudimentar}r

some

modern handbooks being almost mere confused


so that a fair practical work on
of materials, &c.

of the
lists

Portraiture, the result of

thinking and working, ap-

peared to be a desirable addition to

an Art student.

the

library of

TREATISE ON PORTRAIT PAINTING BY AN

OLD HAND.

MATEEIALS.
OILS.

Paint as much
first

stages,

when "pale drying

and no more

make

as possible with the solid paint

of that

than

is

Hog

best to use, almost throughout.


in

early

The

stages.

especially

should be used

absolutely necessary to

the colours work freely.

Medium

oil,"

hair brushes are

Never use Megilp or


picture would crack

with such hard materials for foundations.

Use

named

above.

simply thinned a

In the

little

with the

and

finish of flesh

all

oil

paint,

light draperies, bleached

poppy o//must be used, with Megilp added

linseed or

Pale drying

glazing.
therefore,

would

oil will

the

spoil

for

turn yellowish, and,

colouring of any fair or

delicate complexion.

M C GILP.
This, as just stated,
delicate

objects;

bleached linseed

is

suitable for glazing

being made from


oil, it is

not afterwards discolour.

pure and,

gum
it is

on light

mastic and

expected, will

A TREATISE ON

BRUSHES.

Hog

tools,

all

as before observed, do well for general

The

painting.

finest quality of

both round and

sizes,

flat,

them

are soft

and as

are obtainable, almost

every part of a picture (approaching

life-size especially),

can be worked with them, excepting delicate matters,


such as eyes,

may

lips,

&c, and minute

objects,

when

sables

be used.

In either

case, use as large a

brush as can be managed

so as to obtain all possible freedom.

BADGERS.

Large masses

of colour sometimes are blended together,

after laying on, as

on backgrounds, draperies, &c, and

occasionally flesh tints require blending one into another

But

for this purpose badgers are used of different sizes.

are placed properly side

if tints

be a constant

call for this

and

be sparingly used, especially


heads, as

it

by

side, there will

in front objects

it

not

should

when roughly painted,

or in

often weakens the handling and muddles

the brilliancy of the colouring.

There should

also

be

small occasion for the use of the badger in any flesh or


front

object,

though a

softer feeling

is

advisable in

remote parts, as smoothness recedes whilst boldness


of paint

The

and touch

will, as

a matter of course, project.

colours requisite for general purposes are given

further on.

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

POSING AND LIGHTING.


This

is

a most important part of the study requisite

to the production of successful portraits

inasmuch as

the characteristic arrangement of the figure, and the

turning of the head upon the shoulders, together with

and shade

suitability of light

temperament, as well

to

as the expression of the face,

and the surroundings

of

means by which an artist essays to


in an immovable, inanimate image upon a flat
the semblance of living, embodied beings,

colour, are the chief

convey

surface

endowed with

feeling,

Practically, then,

and

some

to give

shade.

character.

illustrations,

we may

Arrangement of
the head. 3rd. Light and

consider the following points


the figure.

and

expression,

2nd. Turning of

4th. Colour of draperies

1st.

and

accessories.

Arrangement of figure. It may be thought there


should be no difficulty for a perceptive person to know
1.

that an elegant, graceful figure

is

best delineated

a waving line of posture, and standing,

than

sitting

a swelling bend of the front

so

of

the body,

and an

Thoughtfulness and modesty

an almost reverse outline


straight

by

and dignity should have

that grandeur

elevation of the chest.

much more

firmness

and strength a

and more square arrangement.

out these suggestions better,

it

But, to carry

appears advisable to

couple this with the next section.


2.

Turning

figure,

the

head upon the shoulders.

bending forward, with a strong top

sitting-

light, the

A TREATISE ON

10

upper part of the head


thoughtful

match,

to

and

projecting

will

expression

strong

indicate

mental

These, again, with the eyes turned upwards,

reflection.

and head backwards, suggest

reverie

and

inspiration.

The head turned quickly round and looking away


towards one

on shoulders placed squarely gives

side,

energy and quickness.


wisely inserted here,

and the

i.e.,

matter

curious

may

be

position be used,

if this last

eyes, instead of looking away, be turned to the

spectator, the result will be a sinister expression, as of a

detective on the alert.

Stout, phlegmatic, easy-going

may

be well reclining, three-quarter

people,

if

figure,

face

sitting,

much

the same, with the eyes directed

before them, or the head slightly turned, yet keeping


Or,

the eyes directed easily in front.


figure

may

on the hip
object

if

standing, the

be on a swelling curve, with a hand resting


a gentleman), or on a table, or other

(if

the head being easily posed in about the same

position,

gently turned a

or

looking

little,

at

the

spectator.
3.

The

and shade.

light

Light

and shade has a

material part in the conveying of a suitable impression


to the

whole character, of both the subject and the

picture

thus, for a child,

general gaiety of feeling.

more severe

contrasts,

much
For

light

is

suitable,

and

military subject,

and more depth and energy.

If

a thinker, or philosopher, repose, and Rembrandtesqueness of

effect.

In

the appearance
pose.

all,

consistent unity of feeling to suit

and expression

of the subject, as in

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

young

Attitudes in motion suit


those of mature ages.

11

people, sitting ones

Attitudes are, as

it

were, the

language of Portraiture, and unison of expression thereConsequently,

with should aid in giving character.

before beginning, the painter should see and remark to

himself what are the peculiarities of a subject, both as a

whole and in

detail, before painting.

lighter picture

suits

young

people, with

softer

shadows than those of middle age.

Old people generally

make

effects

with strong

pictures

fine

Compactness

shade.

of grapes

is

is

of light

desirable in grouping.

and

A bunch

considered a good model for grouping several

figures, so is the cone.

Colour

4.

may

Herein
display

backgrounds, and accessories.

be found fully as

of propriety,

the other divisions

to

it

occasion for the

the

and

subject

characteristics as

salient

because

much

suitability

developing the

in

skill

in draperies,

in

behoves the painter to

use his best judgment in using appropriate colours for


dressing the subject.

This relates more particularly to

The

gentlemen do not present much

ladies.

variety.

may

lady

dresses of

Suitable

colours for a fair or golden-haired

be found amongst light blues, azure, pea-

green, pink, lavender, primrose, scarlet, black and white,


or

cream

whilst

colour.

White, with more blue, heightens,,

more red reduces the rosy

tint in cheeks.

Purple, red and black develop and harmonize with

strong complexions wherein


tint

is

much

whilst brown, green, drab,

of the rubicund

and black

sallow and parchment coloured faces.

suit

the

Swarthy com-

A TREATISE ON

12

plexions are subdued

crimson velvet.

and

white suit

when black
it

by warm brown,

olive green, or

But it may be here remarked that black


and give tone to any picture. And

all,

(especially black velvet)

comes near a

subdues the strength of the red

face,

whereas white,

occurring in the like position, has the effect of height-

euing colour in the palest complexion, giving value


to

every tint therein, by comparison.

together,

have a

fine

effect,

Black

and

white occurring in juxtaposition,

and

softly shaded

but require

rather

generally powerful style of light and shade throughout

the whole picture, to support them


of the
best

work

will appear

amongst black

weak and

as a rule

otherwise, the rest

unfinished.

for red

is

Red does

the light of

shade.
Accessories

and backgrounds.

All the colours of

objects in, as well as the contrasts of,

and shades appertaining

lights

and strengths

to accessories

of

must be

secondary to those upon the chief object, the figure, or


it

will not

surface,

means

come forth

and

relieved.

We

work upon a

therefore, have to use Art,

i.e.,

for producing the appearance of relief,

parting

flat

artificial

and im-

effect to the chief point.

To cany

the spectator's eye through a picture, the

principal colours of the front object or objects are to be

repeated in the background, but in a minor degree.

deep

figure,

warm brown

the

tone of shade pervading the

near accessories,

and

the

background

shadows, will give breadth of tone throughout

whilst

the general tint of the lights and half tints of the

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

background should

13

be a contrast and

at once

comparatively speaking, to the complexion

relief,

and

coni-

plimentaiy to any marked colours of drapery on the

A greyish background,

subject or foreground accessories.

with warmish

lights, relieves a fair face

bluer for red

ones, or a greenish olive for dark complexions.

brown

or buff surrounding draperies benefit

Yellow
faces,

by

reducing their tone through the opposition of warmth,


as white gives force to lively bright ones.

PAINTING THE PORTRAIT FROM LIFE.


Having considered the

characteristics of the subject,

and decided consequently upon an appropriate


general outline

may

pose, a

be made of the whole figure,

beginning with large lines indicating general contour.

grey canvas

for the eyes,

Sticks

readily

preferable to white

is

and affording a half tone


charcoal

of

are

The whole being

divided

outlined,
is

by

into halves

corner of the eyes

work upon.
marks are

its

it

may

be remarked that

eight eyes from top to chin

line

drawn through the

an eye averaging one inch or a

little

so that a head will measure generally about eight

and a half

and

easier

removed by dusting with a rag.

the proportion of a head

over

to

when

good,

being

so,

inches.

There

is

an eye between the eyes,

on the average, three, to three and a half from

outer angles of eyes


five-eighths

eyes to tip of nose, one and

eyes to centre of

lips,

two and a half

eyes to chin, from three and five-eighths to four and a

A TREATISE ON

14

These are the general proportions of faces as a

quarter.
rule,

to

and

of course

will be apparent that

it

it is

necessary

have a standard or rule of proportions, because

from

deviating
peculiarity

of

an

it is

standard that individuality,

this

individual

obtained

is

in

in

or

other

words, their correct resemblance. For instance, some will

have a head higher from the eyes upwards, than the


face

downwards

is

from

Some have

Others the reverse.

than an inch

across,

and

eyes

the

less

to

the

chin.

eyes considerably less

than an eye between.

Noses vary likewise both in length and form, mouths


in widtli

and

projection, also in approximation to or

deviation from the shape

commonly

called a Cupid's

bow.

Such heads
females,
as

as that of

the

Venus de Medicis

and the Apollo Belvidere

for

for

men, are taken

models of standard beauty.


If therefore a student in portraiture will use those in

comparison with his subject


part

it

observing where

so

mark the work, the distinctive

to

convey strong resemblance will be obtained.


Lighting the Face.

light almost

wrong

any

and

individuality requisite

By judicious management of

face

may

be rendered agreeable.

direction of light almost

Let a painter for

any may be

illustration place, say, a

lady close under a gas chandelier,


the cavities of the face will be
whilst lines will be
that

in each

resembles or deviates from the like parts

made

all

i.e.,

the

By

spoiled.

middle aged

a vertical light,

thrown into shadow,

apparent, hard and severe,

were scarcely perceived in other

lights.

This

is

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


equally objectionable,

Now

light.

let

the strong light be a close side

if

the same face be lighted in front, and

from a greater distance

to get a

appearance presented will be


infinitely

15

more agreeable.

more diffused

many

The

light.

years younger and

Usually speaking, the light

which develops most heads well

may come

at

an angle

of forty-five degrees.

Having now
perceiving

of

indicated the preliminaries of pose


characteristics

how

we

next

Before painting we should

approach the painting.


understand

and lighting

to best see nature,

and

so

commence the

imitation thereof.

The suggestion for perceiving and securing a likeness,


by comparing a head, both as a whole, and in each
feature, with a standard model, will readily appear as

sure a guide as

may

be

which

contour of the figure.

The

comparison, will

more

see

characteristics of his model,

judge the pose suitable


full fat face,

strikingly,

and

the

whole

by

peculiar

also will the

for example, a front

better

view for a

a three-quarter or nearer profile for thinner

or aquiline countenances, &o.

much guide

also applies to the

painter having observed

These

settled, will pretty

as to the turning of the figure.

comparing of a

sitter

And

this

with a given standard model,

enabling a painter to catch the peculiar characteristics,


will

be found convenient and useful

because any one

can have the statues of Venus and Apollo in a studio.

Not

it is, after all, only a handy way of


mankind (most perhaps unawares) do
and must i.e., work by comparison, from

to be prolix,

doing what
constantly,

all

16

A TREATISE ON

objects present or in the

memory,

in imitating any-

thing.

picture should be

should come into

it

the head

masses,

indistinctly,

begun

To

must be

by the painter

looked

with

the broad masses,

see

To put

detail.

this

then the secondary


three-quarter

in

were,

it

and looking

being

troubled

on canvas, we should comstarts first to

ception on looking at the model

shades,

as

by which means he

without

mence by placing that which


lights,

Nature

see
at,

closing one eye

short of his object with the other,


will

masses, the details

in

gradually.

lights,

shades,

our per-

namely, the highest

and

half
so

lights,

on

half

broad

in

sweeping strokes, down to the deepest shadows, the


darkest of

all

being that shadow cast by the nose.

being on, they

may

All

be slightly blended together with

a clean, soft brush.

FIRST STAGE, OR MONOCHROME.


been the practice in former times, as now, by

It has

many good

masters to lay on the

first

stage in a

mono-

chrome, black and white, or brown and white, as a

Some

basis.

have, and some of the present time do,

But the shadows must evidently be


hot and flaring if begun in warm, thin, transparent
add to which, if the
colours on a very light canvas
begin

in colours.

painter

be a beginner, he

difficulty,

light

having to get in

and shade and

colour.

at

will

find

it

complex

once the image, likeness,

;;

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

As

the shadows,

when

the picture

is

17

completed, should

be glazed with transparent colour, to give solidity and


relief

solid,

best

by

body opaque

their opposition to

evident that not only should the

it is

first

lights,

&c,

time over be

but cool for glazing, because rich finish shows

when warm

tones are passed over cool ones.

Whilst on the subject of the head being commenced

monochrome,

in

it

may

be to the purpose here to

remark upon a few points


The Eyes.

showing the top of the


especially

when

as to expression.

"WTien the upper

lid is raised in the centre,

iris, it

the bright speck shows over the pupil

if

the lid

is

Eyes are made

lowered instead, a soft repose


to

by

smile

especially at the outer angle,


lid

down

suggests keen energy,

at the outer angle.

raising the

increased

Eyebrows

raised at the

lowered and

a studious or thoughtful one,

by giving depth

of

which

is

shade between them

Shade in the centre

this in extreme, gives anger.

lid,

and drawing the upper

inner angle give a melancholy expression


contracted,

results.

lower

of a

forehead, helps to suggest thought.

The Mouth.

Lips

turned up at the corners suggest

smiling and agreeableness


projecting lower

Lights
expression

them.

and
:

For

lip,

turned down, moroseness

firmness.

shades

materially aid

light, raising

muscles

instance, a bright light

in

producing

shadow, depressing

on the upper part of

the cheeks, and under the eyes, and

by the curve

mouth, gives cheerfulness by raising the

of the

flesh in appear-

ance, whilst shade in those parts has the opposite effect.

A TREATISE ON

18

The student

much

will learn

by observing how
own face, by assuming

of this

the lights and shades form on his

various expressions before a looking-glass.

Having, as before
of the head,

it

said,

now

got in the

will be necessary to let

days to dry before repainting in colour.

first
it

painting

stand some

Meantime, the

drapery, background, and accessories should be laid in


the same

monochrome being

Breadth and

used.

ness being preserved throughout,

shadows, nor severe white lights

i.e.,

soft-

no spotty black

care being also taken

that the objects are not stronger in contrasts,

&c, than

the head.

SECOND STAGE, OE FIEST COLOURINa.

We will here remark upon


as simple a
as will

method

as

may

do the work well

being quite unnecessary,


will paint almost

is

anything

the advantage of adopting

suffice,

using as few colours

because multiplicity, besides


confusing.

The following

Flake "White

Antwerp Blue

Yellow Ochre

Ivory Black

Raw

Bitumen

Sienna

Sugar of Lead

Burnt Sienna
Crimson Lake

Linseed Oil

Vermilion

Pale drying Oil

Indian

Red

Let the palette be

Megilp.

set

commencing with white,

in the order printed above,

j'ellows,

&c, on the right

the

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


others going to the

On

left,

19

gradually to the shadow colours.

the extreme right, instead of actual white

flesh lights,

mixed

made of

white, yellow ochre,

we have

and a little lake


on a face,

to a tint resembling the brightest point

to be varied with other colours to suit the complexion

under treatment; for instance, add raw sienna

By

sallow one.

the side of this

of secondary high lights,

On

stronger in degree.
"

the left

" this

common brown
burnt sienna, made
;

may

made from

cool with

the same colours,

hand

we make

if

be another patch

of the palette is

of ivory black

more

and

warmer

black, or

with more burnt sienna, as required.

The

use of this

common brown

means

of getting tints

affording a

invaluable, as

is

down

in

degree

without their being crude, to any depth, in modelling.

and three-quarter

It will be found mostly in the half

tones that a complexion

is

The following may be


where to place the various
is

conveyed.
set

down

tints,

aided by using the above-named

tints,

Next

and high

lights, use white,

as a

common brown)

little

lake

flesh

yellow ochre, and red.

Next, the same,

to this the same, rather orange.

with a

general rule

(observing that depth

and common brown

made pinky.

or, if

very

fail',

a very

little

blue.

Going into the shadow, use common brown,

Antwerp

blue

blue,

and

flesh

lights

Next, the

for the

yellowish brown, or reddish brown.

more

for the forehead

and

chin.

These

The

last,

with

shadows,
tints are

cheeks, are to

partake more of tints with the lake and raw sienna.

Always bear

in

mind

that in the centre of a face the

b 2

20

A TREATISE ON

colours are warmest, whilst cooler tints are to be at the

The first time over in colour, flesh should be


throughout cooler than required when finished, lighter

sides.

and

softer

in

the

markings

shades,

pearly and blue greys) and the


are ultimately to be rich.

the

(especially

deep shadows, which

The mellow yellow brown,

on shadow side of forehead, under chin, &c, the redish tone

imder nose,

tlnown by locks of

and

cool in this stage

shadows

let

&c, should be made purplish


and whilst on the subject of

us note that the edges of shadows are of a

purplish grey.

The orange and red

kept comparatively cool this

hence this stage

The

flesh

shadows

cavities of ears, nostrils,


hair,

is called,

first

tints are to

about cheek-bones

all

" dead colour."


is

usually rather more of

a yellow tint than the middle of the cheeks

warm complexion has

be

time over in colour,

little of

but in a

the orange in

rich strong complexion burnt sienna

it

in a

and crimson lake

The

are to be used in the red of the cheek.

chin

is

paler

generally.

The

eyes are to be softly coloured, the

parent shows the tint

by

refraction

iris

being trans-

on the side of the

pupil opposite to that from which the light comes.


outline round the

iris

The

should not be marked hard, but

blended into the white of the eye, which must be pearly

and subdued.

The

pupil should be put in softly,

its

intensity will be increased as the other deep passages

advance, such as the depth of hah', to be finished with


glazing.

The mouth may be modelled

in colour, greyish lake

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


upper

tints for the

one

lip, greyish,

21

vermilion for the lower

brightest in colour, of course, where lightest.

Do

not mark the division between the lips too strongly, nor

make

the edges of the lips rigid, but

Hair may be

The

laid

lighter than intended afterwards,

ment

that

of lights
if

is

to say, not

all soft.

on in colour now, rather

any

and broad in

but masses

lines of detail,

Where,

and shadows, giving the general form.

any, shadows are cast

by

treat-

hair on the forehead &c.,let

these be of a purplish Indian red tint, edged with a

purplish grey, like other shadows.

A shadow

is

the light, and

denly

strong in proportion to

whereas a shade

from light

proximity to

is

merely the gradual declining

dark on a bone, muscle, or feature.

to

may

Eyebrows
actual colour

be

laid

in

also

with their

&c, whilst the dark parts should be a

deep reddish grey or


is

softly

grey being used to edge them into the

light forehead,

The Ear

its

caused by an intervening object sud-

is

warm

purple.

be painted in this stage of a general

to

lakey grey, the laps only moderately marked, and lobe


rather warmer, but

having plenty of grey half

all

tint,

the darks of the recess a reddish Indian red purplish


grey, as also the

shadow thrown by the

lobe,

edged with

cool purplish grey.


Reflections.

It

will be observed in nature that the

edge of the side of the face in shade has a


light

upon

it.

This

is

soft half

caused by reflection from the

surrounding objects, and to a degree enters into

all

the

dark shadows of the whole face and figure, sufficiently

22
to

A TREATISE ON

make

By

out the form and modelling of each part.

reflected lights the edges of objects are relieved against

shadows and dark

where

will be observed that the

it

(wing of the

cast

by

edge and bottom

relieved against the shadows

reflections.

The

faces,

edge of the nose,

nostril), lobe of ear, lips,

&c, are

of chin,

This prevails also in

parts.

which they

colour of reflected lights should

be usually made warmish and luminous, but will be

by any near

influenced

object imparting

brightness. Locks, ringlets,

or whiskers, have these reliefs on the

may be

by

seen

any object

is

colour

its

shadow side, which

The nearer

carefully observing Nature.

to the spectator's eye, the

more marked
Study of

should these reflections be in the picture.

Nature

is

ever advisable

and

and curls of hair, moustaches,

but

all

eyes and intellects are

not equally capable of perceiving

hence the require-

ments of instruction from those of experience, and the


consequent saving of

much time

to the student.

One more remark, and then we may


that the
is

first

fairly consider

colouring will have been laid down.

with respect to shadows and markings.

the dark lines of eyelids, eyebrows, nose,

where

be

soft,

both

in

definition

strength in this stage would be in the

way

and transparent

The

corrections

must come gradually,


looking at

as

it

richness.

all

every-

lips,

and

That

Let
colour,

as

of future
full effect

does upon the eye

when

life.

In fresh coloured or ruddy complexions,

it

may

be

found serviceable to use light red instead of lake in the


high lights and general pinky tints of the light parts of

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

23

a face, as affording more solid basis to work the necessary


transparent colours for finishing.

And

it

may

be well also to mention a composition for

the deep shades, to be used the


over,

which

affords a

This tint

colours upon.

first

and second times

good ground for glazing rich

made

is

of

black,

white,

Indian red, and lake, mixed to a murrey of a middling


This colour will be found to work well

and depth.

tint

in the early stage of a head, as

other tints.

be used in

down

set

At
all

it

the same time the

blends well into the

common brown should

other parts of the flesh, for the reasons

before.

It will be apparent

that neither light red nor the

above shadow tint can be admissible in the very

fair,

pale, or sallow complexions.

THIRD STAGE, OR THE SECOND SOLID


COLOURING OF THE HEAD.
Warm

the canvas slightly before a

part to be repainted,

the head

Megilp and bleached linseed


rub

all off

oil

fire,

at present

little

mixed, using the fingers;

again with cambric or other clean rag free of

The warming
make the surface

any damp, and the oiling

flue.

dispels

to

receive paint freely.

colouring or repainting
of light

rub over the

with a

is

to give

is

The second

more general strength

and shade, together with more accuracy of

outline to the features, rectify


subject's expression

and

and produce more

of the

character, also a decision in the

colouring of the complexion, hair, eyes,

&c,

so as to

24

A TREATISE ON

make out

the temperament.

This

is

the place to

note that a Portrait-painter must become conversant

with the sciences of Phrenology, Physiognomy, and to

some degree of Physiology,


colour,

&c,

Indeed,

he shall comprehend

points of expression,

to emphasize.

it

should be pre-supposed that a painter

with these, also

familiar

so that

know what

the subject, and so

perspective,

is

drawing, and

modelling, before he poses the figure or starts an outline


at the

beginning of a picture.

The second

colouring

is

begun by laying on the

to be

high lights in their several degrees


they are always brightest

most prominent and

observing

where they

reflective objects,

fall

that

on the

such as the bony

forehead and the bridge and tip of the nose

a project-

ing cheek bone will have them in the second degree,


the chin lower, &c,

all

lower as they

recede from

the light.

As

orange, or reddish, and

to colour, yellowish, or

lakey

tints,

with

greys

partaking

of

these

in

varied degrees, will be found to prevail most in the


centre of the face, as in the middle of the forehead,
cheeks, nose, chin

whilst, as

we approach the sides,


we reach the mellow

the flesh becomes greyer, until

shadows; and on looking at Nature, which should be a


constant practice,

blue tint

shadow
to the

we

shall observe that the greys

have more of the lakey, lavender,

light side
;

on the

lilacy,

and

they resolve more into the neutral on the

side,

and

dark shade.

ajipear comparatively greenish next

This

is

varied, as a matter of course,

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

25

according to complexion; and these greys are


result of comparison, one tint

than actual positive tints


especially in

the

more

with another

so

there being on an average,

complexions, but

fair

much

actual

little

or

positive colour, the purest being in the vicinity of the

and half

light

tones, the nose

and

This

cheeks.

is

generally speaking, for peculiarities are to be seen in

many

In

individuals.

but these purest

all

Brown " before referred to

"

Common
made warm

or

reducing tints

according

cool

and

it

to be

is

the

to

tints,

the

employed,

subject,

for

invaluable as a means for

is

working the modelling down into deep shadow without


the colours becoming crude.

In

this second stage of the colouring, the lines of

features,

cavity

eyelids,

of

ear,

are to be

&o.,

under eyebrows,

shadows

worked deeper;

this time semi-trans-

parent, but the full richness left for glazing,

be spoken of in the chapter on


transparent tints

for

may

vermilion

which

will

These semi-

finish.

the shadows

common brown and

the

nostrils,

the dark passages of the hair,

also

or

be made of

Indian red,

purple and raw sienna, or vermilion and bitumen with


the

common brown, and

little flesh

degree of depth required,

heavy

is

it

being too

applicable to the hands.

this second colouring, or,

of the head,
in masses;
cast

prevent

to receive the ultimate finish.

The same treatment


In

i.e.,

light to give the

by

we have

and paint

softly

locks of hair,

more properly repainting,

to lay in all shades of the hair,

if

on the forehead any shadows

there be

any

such, but not

26

A TREATISE ON

any

locks of hair in detail

those will come afterwards

in due course with the finish.

made

a purplish red grey,

Antwerp blue
vermilion

with

little

common brown and


added, will give a

neutral reddish purple, which will receive the

warm transparent
may be required.

glaze

of

depth

We
and

after

colour well, of whatever

should next repaint the background draperies

accessories

getting

may

strength as

body-colour can
of

be

and

flesh lights

and a

(purple),

these,

may

These shadows

of a little crimson lake

them down

additional

shadow having

to as near the right

and completing them,

be,

as

so far

strength and transparency

to be imparted

when dry by

glazing.

FOUETH STAGE, OE EE-TOUCHING OF


THE HEAD.
Having got about

the required depth and strength on

the background, draperies, and accessories

any very bright high


flesh is finished)

strength

is

we

lights

(still

leaving

on white linen, &c, until the

are enabled to see

what additional

required to the shadows and general model-

ling of the head.

Warm

the canvas,

proceed as before,
re-touchings.
colours

raw

sienna

cheeks
for

(to

By

damp with Megilp and

and

enriching tints with semi-opaque

semi-opaque

which the

and

oil,

is

meant transparent

flesh lights are added),

lake,

or vermilion for

to
lips.

enrich

the

such as

carnation

on

Semi-opaque re-touching

deep shadows might be made

of

for

shadow

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

under

nose

the

bitumen
which

and common brown

shadow on the edge

for

vermilion

of a yellowish brown, of

is

27

of the

or

forehead,

bitumen and yellow

sienna, or these with white,

ochre, or

raw

lightish

for the side of cheek, redder, with perhaps

Use Megilp and

vermilion and bitumen.

pale or

if

oil

mixed

to thin this colour.

The lights and pearly greys may require heightening


we do by scumbling, as it is called, which consists
;

this

of passing thin

require

opaque

The

it.

may

tints over such passages as

effect of

scumbling materially aids in

obtaining the various beautiful pearly tints to be seen in


fine complexions,

It

ness.

is

and can be used

available in

shadows, by adding the


tone.
laid
of

As

any mute-

to soften

any part, down


common brown

to the deepest
to reduce the

a matter of course, scumbles are thin, and are

on with Megilp and

oil

The

mixed.

last glazings

shadows will be best done in Megilp alone.

FINISH.
First

warm and Megilp

consists in glazing

warm

passages.

other brown.

as

Finishing

before.

with transparent colours

The shadows
The shadows of

all

deep

of hair, with bitumen or


flesh

with the same, and

sometimes Indian red or vermilion added.

The

nostril,

with lake, or lake and vermilion, or lake and burnt


sienna.

Cavity of ear, with vermilion and Indian red,

or bitumen.

nations with

All shadows of flesh similarly.

raw sienna and

The

car-

lake, or lake alone, or lake

28

A TREATISE ON

and burnt sienna, according

Lips, with

to complexion.

lake or lake and vermilion for the lower one, lake and

Indian red for the upper one.


eyelids,

Rich deep touches about

shadows under eyebrows, &c, made of bitumen

and Indian red, or with raw sienna added. Shadows


from locks of hair, &c, with the same. All the shadows
of draperies that are dark

or

may

be glazed with bitumen

some other transparent brown.


should here be noted that the circumstance of

It

having rubbed over the part (head, drapery, or background) requiring to be worked upon with Megilp,
the painter to begin or leave

enables

anywhere

off

without being obliged to re-paint the whole.


Passages of light, locks of hair, or details of drapery,

may

require brightening, or scumbling up

indicating, &c.

If

any

done with transparent touches

may be

Greys

colour.

eyelashes

may

of these are dark, they


if light,

be

on in body-

laid

improved, corrected, or enriched,

pupils deepened, the point of light added to the eye, and

any

fine finish

added.

If the general breadth of light

and shade, expression, form of


have been

previously

touches of bright lights.


picture then

is

There

is

add the

it,

much in knowing when to do

a tolerably good work


to do too

is

it is

the wise course

spoiled

in the

is

crisp

full

Review the whole, and

as near the original as

of the painter to give

and likeness

features,

obtained,

if

the

power

to leave off.

that, as frequently

by trying

too anxiously

much.

If the student looks at his

progresses, or at finish, the

work

in a mirror as he

image being reversed,

will

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


be a

and

29

new picture, comparatively to him, as to a stranger


him to see errors, if there are such,

this will enable

which before had escaped him.

HANDLING.
This

is

in fact in

ance

a department in the treatment of heads, as

every part of a picture, of

much

import-

much

though not necessarily in the early stage so

as after

and in the

last.

It

means the mechanical

working of the brush, together with the sweeping,


loading of colour, &o., light into dark, and dark into
light

will

it

be

shades give most

evident

of roughness or otherwise

subject

that

strong

lights

must ever be adapted

rough and thick on aged, rough

smooth for young ones, &c.

Strokes

speaking of painting faces.


flesh.

Hair

and

be curved,
This

is

will be usually less

Perhaps a good general

guide for the amount of paint to lay on

by saying

to the

subjects,

may

broken, &c, according to form of feature, &c.

loaded with paint than

and

The amount

facilities for its display.

may

be given

that all the parts of a figure should be about

equally loaded, the most prominent the thickest.

A perceptive person will be aware of the

necessity of

managing the brushwork differently on different textures


to give their impressions in paint.

SEEING TINTS IN FLESH.


Sometimes students experience
the tints in nature, that

is

difficulty in discerning

to say, the delicate pearly

A TREATISE ON

30
greys

by com-

for in all complexions there are greys

parison,

may

however ruddy or brown the subject

To such

students

it

may

be.

be a help to hold a piece of

white paper or linen by the side of any part where the

appearance in respect of colour


comparison, will

and a help

is

this, by
more decided,

in question

the colour seem

to some.

Complexions.
lights,"

make

The

two leading

made, as before

tints,

called

" flesh

raw sienna and

said, of white,

light red, or white, yellow ochre and crimson lake, and


the " common brown," being understood as the basis
for light
to be

and shade, into which

other colours are

all

mixed; the addition of "lights"

for heightening,

is

brown for reducing shades


and getting down parts into shade, so as

whilst the addition of the


in modelling,

to produce breadth without crudeness

may

a painter

readily give a representation of the living complexion

by adding

to these plentifully, in all

a rich, ruddy face, there

the

directions,

Supposing

leading or characteristic tint thereof.

it

to be

may be used raw sienna and lake,

vermilion and raw sienna, or crimson lake and burnt


sienna, in

which complexions some might suppose greys

were nowhere to be seen or required


depict flesh without greys,

it

but

if

a painter

would resemble

A trained eye will discover all the

leather.

greys in their usual

places, only modified in accordance with complexion.

On

the shadow side of a face the lights are to be

slightly

subdued in any

common brown may


sienna, to keep

it

case.

For

this a little of the

be used, with a touch

from being cold or

dirty,

more

of

raw

and Indian

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


red, in

31

a very slight degree added instead of lake,

more subdued, and therefore more suitable


for carnations and purplish greys, where also the cool
greys should be less pronounced, i.e., more common
brown used and less blue than in the greys in
as being

light.

Lines and wrinkles must be given with

and rounded with grey, but warm in


on a light passage
lines

may

be

warm

colour,

effect, especially

as forehead, light cheek, &c.

made

of

raw sienna and lake

Indian red, or burnt sienna, according as

Such

or vermilion,

may

appear

and the complexion.

suitable for place

Whilst young people have the bloom of the peach, or


the freshness of the rose, and middle-aged have richness, mellowness, or tan

old people have usually

much

yellow in the lights, and purplish three-quarter tints


of

many

purplish shades; their individual complexions

being conveyed in

the

half

tints,

treme shadows must be mellow,

though the ex-

rich,

and warm,

to

preserve luminousness.

In a

fair

much

lady

tender pinky grey

is

observable

in the centre of the face, about the eyelids,

under eye-

brows, &c, whilst the cool greys on the temples are


bluish, as also

round outer edge of chin and the half

shade of neck,
greenish grey as

The

best time

colour in a face
as first

&c, resolving
it

it

as

blends into the


to

is,

usual into a cool

warm shadow.

judge of the exact amount of

say, half-an-hour after sitting,

will be perhaps too

on too pale from fatigue.

much

flushed,

and

as

later

A TREATISE ON

32

TEMPERAMENTS.
The Nervous are
rich

brown

cheeks

usually blue or blue grey eyes,

delicate pearly greys in the flesh.

refined

fair,

moderate amount of lakey pink on

hair, a

and

They

are

poetic.

The Sanguine are of a

fair,

vermilion tint throughout,

sandy, auburn, or chestnut hair, hazel or blue eyes,


vermilion tinted cheeks, quick and earnest in action,
enthusiastic.

The Bilious are dark, brunette, or swarthy, brown or


black eyes, deep

warm tint on cheeks,

of the kind

lake and burnt sienna, or sometimes the face

dark

The

opal.

hair

is

made

of

is

entirely

black, strong, intense,

and de-

termined, enduring.

The Lymphatic, pale grey and puffy, coarse, lightish brown hair, pale eyes of a grey colour, mostly stout
in person, they are slow

and

lethargic, indolent often.

These are general types of the Europeans, most


people are mixtures of two or more, some compoimded
of all four,

seldom any purely one.

Characteristics, Hair, 8fe.

The

hair or head dresses

should be arranged for a portrait as usually worn,

In nature they are

any particular

so conducive to individuality that

alteration causes doubt

at first sight in

recognizing a person.

We
such,

should also depict any peculiarity of manner,


as

to pose

and

trait in

if

painting a subject of

notoriety.

Painting Hair.

The treatment of

hair

is

considered

one of the most important matters about a portrait, and

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

It should

softness.

first

always be drawn with freedom, and

i.e.,

Any

stages.

and

Its characteristics are thinness

tests a painter's skill.

painted broadly,

33

without

lines, or

even detail in the

detail or suggestions of lines should

be given in transparent colour at the

last finishing glaze

on the shadows, and only coming partly towards the


lights,

The
tones.

which must be preserved broad.


local tints of hair usually

The

bright, glossy light

clining to lilac

bluish grey

grey half

show most in the half


on auburn hair

is

in-

on ordinary brown, lakey grey on black,

on flaxen and golden

tints as in gold,

hair, it is

yellow with

which has the colour strongest

in the light.

In the early stages


indefinite, the

the edges should be soft and

shadows broad and

and

richness,

all

general

detail

cool,

their

added as the

depth,
picture

advances.

FIRST COLOURING OF DRAPERIES, BACK-

GROUNDS AND ACCESSORIES.


The head and
first

hair having been put on in colour the

time over, or dead-colour,' we proceed next to the

background, accessories and draperies, and lay in the

background
the

first,

complexion

with

its

contrasts of colour to

but

in

any

case

always

suit

grey in

general effect as compared with the colours of front


objects,

and

slightly deeper in the lightest passages


c

34

A TREATISE ON

than the half tints of the


of backgrounds

The

lights.

broadly,
lights

objects in backgrounds should be treated

and

and

As a rule the shadows


much warmer than the

flesh.

should he

not

invested

with

or

detail,

The deepest shades

shades.

strong

are not at this

warm or brown, but generally grey,


common brown " and white will make,

stage to be very

such as the "

softened into purplish half and three-quarter tints.

Draperies and

accessories

should

be put on

also

broadly, and strong contrasts left for an after repainting,

when corrections in drawing and chiaroscuro should


be made with any required alterations so that severe

decision in this early stage

and

would be only

in the way,

detail a waste of time.

In

this place it is essential to note that

white objects,

such as linen, &c, are not to be painted up with the


whitest parts laid on, but a broad general sort of half
tint laid in

all

with subdued half and three-quarter shades

comparatively

white make.

warm

Also note

in tone
that,

like cool

by

white,

brown and

we mean

white with a tinge of yellow added, to take

off

the

crude cold asperity of the white, which should never be

used by

How

itself.

to

manage

contrasts of light

and shade, com-

binations of colour, relief of near objects, and general


construction of the picture, have been

former chapters.

We

treated of in

have here in addition to what

has been just said, only to add that the outlines and
definitions of forms are to be kept soft, that the lights

on draperies and

accessories

are

to

be broad, their

35

PORTRAIT PAINTING PROM LIFE.

brighter points left for the after stage, that the deepest

shadows are only to be moderately strong, their intense


parts having to be given in another stage

when

all is

on and seen to be accurate in form and place.

There

is

a defective quality about some pictures

called spottiness

making the

the result of

lights in

different parts of a picture of equal brightness,

whereas

there should be only one brightest part, and all other

subdued in degree from

it.

BELIEF.
Foreshortening and

helped much by having

relief are

a light intervening between the


object,

and that object

shadows from

an

also by having retiring

itself;

surfaces indefinite,

and rendered transparent by glazing.

For

background

instance,

is

made

to

recede

by

glazing, whilst foreground objects are brought forward

by bold body
Perspective

colour.

aids

relief

where the objects

duced render such admissible

of retiring colours to those that

intro-

so does the opposition

come forward (which

has been already explained), together with the softness of


receding lights and shades contrasted with the forcible
oppositions in prominent objects.
aids in creating the illusion,

These are the

which in

artist's

many works

annihilates all appearance of a flat canvas.

c 2

so

36

A TREATISE ON

DRAPERIES AND BACKGROUND FURTHER


CONSIDERED.
In cases where the
of draperies

and

artist is free to

may

accessories, it

choose the colour

be well to state as a

leading principle in the disposition of colours that

all

such as appertain to light, as white, yellow, red, and


their

compounds, come forward

browns, and blacks,

whilst greys, greens,

Consequently by having

retire.

the former in the front on the figure and accessories,

helped with strong opposition of lights and shades, and


the latter in the background, where the contrasts of
light

and dark are modified, the appearance

must be the

aided

result, especially if

of reliej

by good drawing,

perspective, &c.

CLOTH AND SILK.


Cloths have broad masses of lights, even the finest

have but few breaks.


Silks are full of angles

throughout

reflected lights

more numerous than in


half-tones broader
in effect.

It

is

the pictures of

and

and sparkling breaks, with


;

the folds are smaller and

which are heavier, the

satins,

larger,

and consequently richer

always observable in Nature, as in

Rubens and Velasquez,

that the ex-

tremely rich draperies have large unbroken masses of

gorgeous colour.
VELVETS.

peculiarity in velvets, necessary to be understood

for its representation, is that

from the circumstance

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

6(

of the pile absorbing the light, the highest lights are

seen on the edges of folds, whilst their prominences


are

darkest.

They should be painted

transparently

throughout.

EL IE DRAPERIES.

The highest

lights should not be cold blue

but blue broken with flesh lights instead

richness.

any

inclination to greenness,

The deep shadows

to

blue for the

and some lake added

half-tones, with black for shade,

to prevent

and white,

and

to give

have lake added, and

glazed with lake and bitumen.

GREEN.

The foundation

coat for green should have plenty

of yellow in the lights

and

the shadows, over which,

bitumen and much


be made warm.

lake.

The high

half-tints, with brown in


when finished, glaze with
The reflected lights should

lights

may

be broken with

keep up the
warmth which shoidd pervade the light

flesh lights, as in the painting of blue, to

breath of

throughout the whole picture.

YELLOW AND BROWN.


Whatever the
lights in

tint,

them instead

let

the high lights have flesh

of cold white, the individual

tint residing in the half-tones.

In yellows the three-

quarter tints have grey, which sweetens them, and


increases the brightness of the colour of the half -tint

iu

browns they are purple.

The

reflections of yellow

have vermilion in them or orange, whilst browns have

38

A TREATISE ON
These

crimson.

be modified according to circum-

to

stances.

CRIMSON.

Let the high lights be golden. Burnt sienna, lake,


raw sienna, vermilion, &c, varied to suit the colour for
the lights, mixed with flesh lights, the local colour to be
in the half -tints.
Crimson is to be much enriched by
using some purple in the three-quarter tijtf s, the deep
shadows yellow brown, glazed with bitumen. The first
si

ages of

in

brown

other

this, as of

colour

than

in shading

warm

down

parts

^f

the deep shadows partake


as a solid basis to

Reflections

draperies, should be softer

and masses
this,

and

let

with body-colour,

work upon.

warm,

of course,

Yandyke and

surroundings.

Use common

required in finish.

is

and varied according to


others

managed

their

backgrounds so as to repeat in a subdued degree the


chief

colours of

breadth of

the

front

objects,

and

so

preserve

effect.

WHITE LINEN.
Use a

little

yellow (either raw sienna or yellow ochre)

with flake white for the


black with a touch of
tints,

lights

to this

Antwerp blue and

more black and blue

add ivory

lake for half

for three-quarter tints,

and

common brown, deep into the darkest


warm with the sienna and bitumen,
proximity to a warm drapery, burnt umber.

this reduce

with

shadow, which make


or
If

if

in

near red drapery,

it

may

be found necessary to

glaze the deep shadows with lake, burnt sienna,

and

39

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

Lines, folds, or creases, in the mass of light

bitumen.

made

should be warm, their half-tones

brown and

of

white, the shadows to have yellow in them, to prevent

which would break up the

iciness,

of

some consequence

studiously,

it

The

picture.

effect.

mass

to treat a

being a key to the

of white drapery

whole

warm and

in front of blue or grey drapery, as

if

the shadows of those too should be


contrast to their lights

In

a subject

effect of the

shadows should be

their character cool, the

be heavy.

is

and greys on white being in

half-tints

luminous, even

It

and

warm and

rich, in

half-tints, or the effect will

fact, to preserve

brown shadows should pervade

tone in a picture, rich

all

the objects, especially

in the foreground.

BLACK CLOTH.

Use

lake in all the tints of black cloth, excepting the

deep shadows, which must be rich transparent brown

when finished, with reflections according to surroundings.


High lights, white, black, and lake half -tints, the same
;

deeper

shadows on the shadow

towards the

gradually infuse
purplish black

common brown,

a good deal as

Sometimes vermilion
even raw sienna to

striking) to

ultimately

all

(as

as

to

lose

the

lights, or

the cold hue, according to the

surrounding colours of objects.

shadows are

so

goes into shadow.

added in the high

is

kill

it

side,

much

In any case the deep

as can

be without being

have plenty of bitumen and lake glazed on


so the half -tints alone

the local colour, and thus

we

remain pure to give

get rid of the heaviness.

40

A TREATISE ON

FORCE AND POINT.

may

telling portrait

background

times a mannerism
of the

be made by opposing a dark

used of having the shadow side

is

head and figure to

on the edge

is

the different parts of

front,

and

the

if it

be not hard

and shade on

light

must

those

be

dictated

from the

parts

Thus, on a hand and arm actually

the light

may

be

shadows

deepest

black, whilst

of

a subject

distances of

relative

spectator's eye.

in

good

and requires qualifying by circumstances.

The comparative strength


by the

strongly against light

tell

This in moderation

behind.

Some-

to light draperies, or the reverse.

bright

as

on

as possible,

nearly

same,

the

on parts more remote, as on the reced-

hand and arm, they should be softer. Distinct


contrasts of light and shade come on the eye suggesting and producing the appearance of nearness,

ing

from a cause similar in

by

know

enabled to

are

clearness

and

effect to

that

the distance of

by which we
sound, namely

distinctness giving proximity, while

softness tells us that those sounds are farther away.

Point,
part

or

in

parts

picture,

means laying

most consequence.

of

sition the chief light is usually

principal object, whilst,


to

speak,

and

to the darkest

is

made

stress

In

to fall

perhaps, that light

on

the

compoon the
is

made

brightened by being opposed close

bit

in

the

picture.

also Rembrandt's " Nativity" for

this.)

(See Lawrence,

41

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


Point, in a head

is

meant, and is advantageously intro-

duced where there

is

a peculiar beauty of expression or

feature, or both,

beautiful eyes,

touch a

little

and depth

to

Same with

which we wish to be

we

give

it

to

them by making

pupils

the eyelids, &c.

lines of

&c,

respect to the mouth,

Texture and Loading with Colour.

&c.

Much diversity

opinion prevails with respect to whether

Now,

that there are the finest works on earth

we know

painted by the same

becomes

c|uestion

of

hands

in

matter of

As much knowledge,

taste.

truthfulness of effect to Nature,

both manners, the


will

and

difference

genius and feeling,

and

every way, are obtained by one as by

successful result

the other, perhaps

moderation as to the quantity of the pigment used


the most consistent generally.
to

do,

to

is

properly told,

pathos

of

picture

should be thickly loaded with paint or smooth.


as

if

the bright

with transparency

sharp and strong,


the

So,

striking.

convey,

if

is

"What the painter has

a historical work, the story

with suitable sentiment, feeling

and

a portrait, the individual, and good imitation

if

of the textures of his or her draperies, &c.

never paint.

No method

thick

not

paint,

or thin should ever

suggest the material used, but the things represented,

whether
paint,

flesh or fabric.

or

a fashion

So

it

cannot be a question of

prevailing in saiy age or clique

but truthfulness to Nature.


There

is

one danger, however, about loading and

working a head too boldly, which


accuracy of likeness

is

is,

that seldom

much

obtained that way, especially

42
if

A TREATISE ON
a refined or delicate face.

Besides there

wide difference between bold painting well

and impudent painting which

is

such a

qualified,

results in vulgar failure.

PERSPECTIVE.
Perhaps

it

may

suffice for portraiture to

remind the

student that lines which recede from the front converge

say

for instance,

head

the

we

are

drawing a three-quarter

horizontal lines tend to

from the near

to the off cheek

practical words, suppose a line

or,

common

point

in more simple and

were drawn through the

angles of the eyes, and another through the corners of


the mouth, these two lines converge on the retiring or
off side of the face,

and

extended on the canvas some

if

it

is

with

objects

all

The vanishing
therewith, as

at a point.

So

architecture,

&c.

would meet

distance bej'ond the head,

furniture,

scale will decide all matters


it

connected

does the height of figures and other

objects placed in groups.


It is not the province of this treatise to describe the

rules of perspective.
to have been learnt

These and drawing are supposed


by any who would desire to become

painters.

What

is

said above

is

merely as a reminder, and so

far necessary as directing attention to certain appear-

ances in nature requisite to be understood to ensure


propriety of delineation and

relief.

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

43

LUMINOUS COLOUR AND GLAZING.


Much

charm

of the

being luminous

of a picture

and shade are concerned),


shadows,

warm

full of

full

reflections,

depends upon

and

far as colour

(so

of

rich

transparent

and luminous bright

both on the flesh and wherever attainable.

tints

transparent colours over opaque

its

effect of light

Glazing

ones will give this

raw sienna over the carnations of a


cheek, previously painted with
blooming young
lake, vermilion, raw sienna, and white in the solid
glaze

lake and

body colour

or

if

burnt sienna and lake.


colour to glaze with
or with

other

rich

richer complexion, glaze

On

cool greys, lake

is

with

a good

on deep shadows, bitumen alone,


colour

added

but whatever be

added, transparency must be preserved.

Sometimes

these glazes shoidd be repeated, especially in obtaining

In glazing, use Megilp, and warm the

deep shadows.

picture both before

To keep
tints

and

after, to preserve

the brightness.

the colour of flesh clean let the order of the

be observed as laid down, minding that the yellow,

orange, and pinky tints pervade the lights, with blues,


greys, greens,

and purples outside

be mellow and

rich,

the shadows should


and never allow cold greys to get

into the lights, as that

would instantly make

These things observed, the result

and

satisfactory.

is

it

dirty.

certain to be clean

44

A TREATISE ON

PAINTING PHOTOGKAP1IS IN
If

menized
the

prints are carbon they

tlie

at once

oil

may

be worked upon

without any sizing or preparing

paper

they require

and paint sinking

Megilp does very

well,

OIL.

if

something

to

but will

prevent

the paper.

into

on albu-

little

two days

require

become firmly dry for painting upon. The method


most handy is to varnish the print with a thin coat of
to

" Soehnee's " negative varnish (obtainble from dealers


in photographic materials)

This on being floated over,

or spread on the print, with a brush,

and dried quickly

by being held before a fire, presents a bright surface,


with sufficient body to prevent the paper absorbing too
much, and at the same time is not thick as are many
other varnishes, which bury the fibre or grain of the

and present such a slippery surface that there


much difficulty in manipulating upon it.
Photographs upon opal (which is white glass with one

paper,
is

side

ground) require no preparing for either oil or water-

colour.

In working upon photographs in

oil

we must suppose

the print to be either a good or defective one.

former

is

meant

a print in

which the image

is

By
soft

the

and

round, the light and shade well gradated, expression


satisfactory,

with the distortion of features reduced to a

minimum by being

taken

with

wherein the spherical aberration

is

a long focus

lens,

not ruinous to truth

of proportion, as in the case of photographs taken with

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

45

The photograph, then, being so


we commence by first damping whatever

short focus lenses.

good,

far

part

going to be worked upon with a

is

or Megilp and

with the

must not be wet,

it

an old

or

finger,

Megilp,

off again, either

silk

or

cambric

This will cause the colour to work freely,

handkerchief.

but

mixed, which take

oil

clean

little

as that

on the smooth surface

underneath would prevent any possibility of giving


a body to the colour, or meaning to the touch.

The

print, then, to

be worked upon being a good one,

of a fair average light tone, with good bright lights, the


briefest

and most simple direction from

be to use the colours set

down

this point will

for painting the first

stage of " colouring " a head on canvas from life

work

and

carefully,

minding that each shade throughout,


solid colour, does not deviate from, hut

as that of the photograph


is

worked upon.

the likeness

safely preserve

to

by

laid

on in

exactly the

same

as
is

it is

underneath in every part that

Painting with a guide print by

the side, of the same depth, or a slight degree deeper,


to

show each shade a

go on

from
takes

life,

directions
still

place

from what

more decided, the work should

In succeeding

well.

follow the

little

in
is

laid

stages,

down

and the

carefully watching that


outline,

finish,

for finishing a

modelling,

head

no alteration

or

expression,

considered satisfactory in the " Guide."

Treat the picture throughout likewise as directed when

working from
in relation

any

life,

always bearing in mind one thing

especially

sensible degree

to

the face, that deviation in

from the exact

lights

and shades will

46

A TREATISE ON

entail loss of resemblance

graph

is

nature,

neither

for a fine

to the end, touch

up

of lights

and shades.

lights, correct shades of

down shadows,

modelling, glaze
life,

untouched photo-

more nor less than a transmitted image of

made out by gradations

So go on
from

as directed in

working

giving points of strength in sharp, deep

touches where required, until the painting presents a


faithful transcript of the plain guide, with the addition

of colour

and the

difference

that

it

would have in

life.

PAINTING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS IN


By

OIL.

meant making a painting from a photograph upon the bare canvas or any similar surface. To
secure the drawing we trace the outline in this way
this is

a transparency

is

placed so that the light of a magic

lantern condenser

is

transmitted through

it,

and a

photographic lens thence disperses the image on to the


canvas, where

we run

over the outline with a pencil.

This must, of course, be done in a dark room.

In arranging, care must be taken


transparency

and

canvas

quite

to

have both the

perpendicular,

perfectly parallel with each other, as

and

any deviation from

the square on the part of the transparency, would get

magnified by the lens on reaching the canvas, and any


inclination of the canvas sideways

image, whilst
elongate

it

down an

being

tipped

being, in that
inclined

plane.

over

would broaden the


or

case, like a

under

would

shadow thrown

nice thin transparency,

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


with the head about an inch long

47

best

is

then the

light from, the condenser will cover the face at once

but with an ordinary magic latern,

removed

have to be

will

it

to different parts of the transparency as each

drawn, care being taken not to touch the

is

or

slide

camera box containing the transparency or the canvas,


as a touch

would disarrange

It will be

all.

for a life-size or other large picture,

it

found that

will require the

transparency to be nearer the lens (say six inches,

working from an inch head, and

life-size

and the lens farther from the canvas

The nearer the canvas

to the lens,

if

be required),

for smaller sizes.

and the farther the

transparency from the lens, the smaller will be the image

on

the

canvas.

distances

of

alternately

the

To

get

three

sharpness,

moving each

the

adjusted

are

respective

together

until the required size

by
and

sharpness of outline are at the same time obtained.

The

traced outline, or, in other words, the drawing,

being so obtained upon canvas, then with a print, for


guide in the painting, proceed just the same as

down
solid
it is

pre-supposed that the painter

photograph, as in last chapter.


to be

made

a picture of

original, then deviations

to

is

laid

work when describing the painting of a


picture upon canvas from life.
But in so doing,
in this

is

If,

is

copying a good

however, what has

a bad copy or defective

therefrom and corrections are

be made, as they are also when working upon a bad

photograph.

made

These defects and corrections will be best

a chapter of

being able to

by themselves,

know what

as

much depends on

are probable,

if

not certainly

48

A TREATISE ON

ascertained, errors in the print,

guide, and, of course,

which

used as the

is

the same in a transparency,

is

which has to furnish the image

to be outlined.

DEFECTS IN SOME PHOTO GBAPHS,


AND TIOW TO CORRECT

UPON OR COPYING

IN PAINTING

FROM THEM.
Mockiness

is

a term used

by photographers

harshness of light and shade

and

to signify

the result of want

is

of half-tones, or that delicate gradation of shades

which

constitutes the chief excellence of a well-exposed photo-

In such

graph.

lightened,
shades,

up

the black shadows must be

cases

and worked with intermediate degrees


to the lights

also harsh patches

reduced where they are not the actual bright


Distortion.

This

short in focus,

bad

occurs from using

&c, in which

cases all

of light

lights.

lenses, too

prominent features

are represented too large in proportion to those

recede
is

noses, too large

of

eyes, too small

which

hand which

placed in front, too large for one placed further back;

perpendicular lines falling

all

ways

divergence from

truth, in fact, from the same cause that one's face and

figure looks so grotesque in the bull's-eye of a lantern,

or a very convex mirror, seen in old fashioned dining-

rooms, &c.
Expression.
racteristic,
sitter

The

though

than the

expression

is

seldom right, or cha-

this oftener results

photographer. The

from fault of the

sitter either

assumes

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


a look, or one

is

directed to look pleasant

who

cannot";

or some scared gaze creeps in through nervousness

other inconsistent appearance

What
sider

is

upon the guide,

right,

so as to

can be done, and

and

is to

con-

and improve

so alter

make an agreeable picture which


;

still

retain

the proper form and

characteristics everywhere, thereby


trait,

or

there.

the painter has to do in such cases

what would be

not departing from

improving the por-

it.

These remarks are intended to aid the painter when


endeavouring to make a good picture from an inferior

photograph

but

if

the latter be good, as so

now-a-days, every care

is

many

are

to be taken not to alter whilst

endeavouring to convert the image into a painting, nor


interfere with their balance of lights

and shades, or

other beauties.

PAINTING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS IN WATER


COLOUR.
It

is

supposed that the reader hereof has read the

instructions on painting photographs in oil so that there


will be

no occasion

to repeat the principles of

painting, but only to apply

them to the

photograph

different processes

required for manipulating in water colour.

A sheet of crayon paper may be chosen of a tint suitable


to the

complexion

that

one, or a salmon grey

is

to say, cool

grey for a

fair

bluer for florid faces, or where

red drapery has to be introduced

olive, if

a dark, or

brown, or sallow person has to be painted.


i)

A TREATISE ON

50

The

better

way

is

to

draw the

satisfactory

Then mount

first.

its

being

with flour-starch

upon

stoutish cardboard or Bristol board.

Should

it

will then

curl

it

brown

in drying, paste a piece, the full size, of

strongish paper at the back

mount-

picture before

ing the paper on board, so as to make sure of

up

or other

keep

flat.

Ordinary crayon paper might be too coarse for small


heads; in which case other tinted paper suitable for

may

painting upon in water colour

The

picture

is

to

be obtained.

be traced in the same way as was

directed to be done on canvas for oil-painting, using a

transparency, magic-lantern and lens, and going over


the outline with an II

minding that the hands

pencil,

Perhaps

are clean, so as not to soil the paper.

is

If the drawing be made,

advisable to use a mahl-stick.


as directed,

it

upon paper before

it is

mounted,

tacked on a canvas or board, so as to lay

it

may

be

flat.

The drawing being made and moimted, proceed with


as follows

the painting,

Take

a large

camel-hair

brush and go over the whole with a plentiful wash of


This

water.

to saturate the paper,

is

so that

may

it

not absorb the colour too quickly and to allow of the

first

stage of painting being given with freedom.

Lay

on in broad washes.

Some papers absorb

great

deal.

Make
candle

a black

when

by smoking

a plate over an ordinary

well covered with the black smoke, rub

thinnish gum-water into

it.

be only just strong enough to


to the plate.

The rubbing

is

The gum-water should


make the smoke adhere
to be

done with very


PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.
clean fingers,

rubbed,

it

and whilst the plate

more

in

This

freely.

from which a

addition

lot of

be taken

black,

which,

to

black on the plate

little is to

If well

hot.

is

any ivory

will be quite as fine as

more transparent

51

off

it

is

the stock,

as required

put upon the china palette to work with.

and

washes

and

This being

done, and the drawing wetted as before directed, pro-

ceed as follows

With

a brush as large as can well

be used, according to the

size

of the features,

make a

shade just dark enough to be pretty distinct, and rather


free

With

with water.

make out

that will

this

go over the dark parts

the features and the general head,

under

such, for instance, as the shades of hair, shade

eyebrows, eyelids, nose,


the dark
of

Next lay

hah the high


-

i.e., if

irises,

lights

This means

&c.

in freely the large dark masses

shadows throughout, next a

the

bits.

lips, chin, ear,

and

soft

all,

broad wash

according to

very dark hair, rather deep

leaving out the bright speck

all

its

the same

over

depth

by the

next, with a fainter

shade, softly lay in the light shades all over the face,

using the faintest possible towards the high lights,

where

it

must, of course, be pure.

This treatment will have

image of the head


photograph

and,

end in that
important

namely,

faint

soft,

to a lightish

besides being a stage towards the

respect, answers, also, the following

purpose

it is

made out

something equivalent
in

connection with

the same in effect as the

frequently mentioned in

without crudeness.

oil

very

colouring

common brown

painting for obtaining shades

Being carbon,

it

is

imperishable.

n 2

A TREATISE ON

52

Now commence

As

colouring.

paper

the

probably be a tint some degrees below white,


be requisite to use a
with body

them, for

in

higher lights up,

high lights

to lay the

on rather more

head with Naples yellow, a

Wash

2nd.

red.

again,

stronger

The

3rd.

above, with a

This

the lower part of the head, that

all

with more lake, for

warm

yellow
to

is

go

to say,

is

parts of cheeks.

lay in the greys

lake for the pinky ones

ones

over

Next, give another of the same

below the eyes.

Now

light

all

more

little

and a touch of crimson lake added.

all

and

leaving out the brightest point in the fore-

head.

over

over the

all

white,

little

little,

where

solidly,

"Wash

1st.

little

the same a

get the

advancing a

after

the very bright points strike:

To

courses.

first

also,

as,

will

and colours

body-white,

little

will

it

using

little

Antwerp blue

Antwerp blue and lake

and

cobalt

for the bluer

for the purpler ones

and Antwerp blue and raw sienna, or Antwerp blue


and raw umber for the greener ones. Eich shadows
lay on

last,

forehead

may

perhaps
warm.

as follows

The

shadow down

be raw umber with a


little

This

burnt

shadow-tint

sienna
is

little

also

also

side of

raw sienna
if

required

suitable

for

the

bottom of the chin, and, with the addition of ivory


black to deepen

it,

for the throat.

for the side of the cheek

under the nose,


ear.

have Indian red

eyelids, cavity of ear,

The dark by

under chin, &c,

may

The shadow-colour

are,

also

shadow from the

the side of the forehead, cheek,

properly speaking, shades

being

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


the result of the rounding

down

53

in modelling of those

and consequently the deepish greys which blend

parts,

them are to be greenish


whereas the darks
named above as being under the nose, under the lobe
into

of the ear, are cast shadows, as are also

and

locks of hair,

The greys on

purple grey.
bluish grey

As

shadows from

shadows should be edged with

cast

a lady's neck,

&c, are

on men's, more neutral.

a general rule, and to guide the student,

it

may

be observed that to produce bright, clean flesh there


should be, in whatever complexion, a prevalence of the

arrangement

following
lights, pale

next,

of

tints

Yellowish

orange next, pinky grey next, bluey grey

and greenish grey by the

side of the

dark shade

whilst the deep shades should be quite rich.


rich shade

may

in Nature,

its

be

made warmer, mellower than appears


its side will, by

it,

prevent

its

being rich will give

ousness to the head.

appearing

life,

The same

vigour,
effect is

and pink//

Though
in

these

half-tints

several

strong,

too

and luminthe result of

the strong red shadows edged with purple


greys,

This very

and the greenish-grey by

blending into
whilst

white

greenislt-

make any complexion

tints

may

some complexions, experience

clean.

not be so palpable
will

teach

anyone

that they are there, in different modifications.

To return to the washing-on of colours. We supnow that the general tints are on. Next proceed
as follows
With the same set of tints in their several
places, hatch upon any unequal parts to make the
pose

washes level or uniform, that

is

to

say,

work with

54

A TREATISE ON

shortish broad strokes, like small touches, where

large washes have not

This

made

done

hatching,

it

the

uniform.

smaller,

he repeated

to

is

and

at

which are

to

throughout to strengthen and correct the

tints,

the same time improve the likeness.

The

last

stage

working in

is

lines,

curve according to the form of the bone, muscle, or


feature.

All the hatching

is

be done so softly as not to

to

show, any further than simply to level the washes laid

on previously
of the

and afterwards, when the strengthening


and modelling

tints

is

being advanced, the

hatches are to be gone over and over two or three


times gradually, so as not to show palpably; otherwise,
if

would

too strong, they

interfere with the fine effect

of the succeeding lining of the finish,

which comes

guide for which

is

to

up the

and the

stippling,

good

be found in some large

steel

last of all to

fill

interstices

engravings, especially fine old ones.


If,

during the working of a head as directed, any

stage of the hatching gets to look hard or dry


too strong, the softness

by again washing over


used at
itself

first,

may
it

throughout

with the semi-opaque colours


if

required, or

same may be done

last, after finishing,

and stippling

appears hard and wiry.

if it

head, to lay in the


rather

any part by

with the tint suitable for that part.

It is advisable in

by being

be in a measure restored

Also the

with the lining

commencing the colouring

first

wash

of yellow, red,

of the

and white,

warmer than might appear warrantable by com-

"

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


parison with the complexion iu Nature.
of this

is

warmth

that the

will, as it

55

The advantage

were, shine through

the greys, which are laid over afterwards, and which,

making them

by

cool (and even, in proper places, blueish),

made to reduce it to the palest complexion.


medium is frequently used by some painters

can be

in

water colour, called "water colour medium,"* which

may

be made of the following ingredients

Gum

Arabic, half an ounce.

Lump

Sugar, one drachm.

Alum, three

scruples.

Alcohol, one teaspoonful.

Water, eight ounces.

gum

The lump sugar

is

alum preserves

from decomposition, alcohol

uniting,

it

dissolving,

quantity of

to prevent the

and

rendering

all

cracking, the
assists in

fluid.

The

water named will of course make the

solution weak, but quite strong

general flesh.

enough

to

work the

stronger mixture for enriching the

&c, may be made of the same


Each to be kept in a
"
labelled
separate bottle,
weak " and " strong
medium. A little of the weak may be added to the
first and all the other washes, and can be used throughout both in the hatches and finishing.
The use of this prevents colours sinking, and enables
a painter to produce an effective picture more quickly
dark shadows at
with

than

finish,

only half the water.

if

working without

it.

Supposing the picture to be a vignette (bust or other*

Excellent water colour Megilp

is

sold

by

artists' colour

makers.

56

A TREATISE ON

wise),

it

is

evidently better upon tinted paper than

white, from the circumstance that the paper,

if

tinted,

being deeper than the lights and half-tints of the

flesh,

relief of the latter will result.

The
and
its

haii-

must have a

lake, or other

glossy lights

and

first

wash throughout

grey according to
next

lastly the rich

its local

its tint,

of cobalt

to represent

colour in the half-tints

brown shadows with

lake

always beginning with broad masses, and, at

may

imparting what details of lines there

in

it,

finish,

be in the

shadom, and thence up into the half shades, but never


breaking up into the lights with

lines.

PAINTING UPON A PHOTOGRAPH


IN

WATER COLOUR.

The treatment

in

water colour

depends materially upon whether


one, or the reverse.

a photograph

of
it

is

a very good

But, in either case, the colours to

be employed require to be generally of a warmer class

than

if

a picture

is

the fact that there

being made upon plain paper, from


is

the grey colour of the print

to begin with, which, especially in the shadows, requires


to be converted into a rich

Also,

it

mellow

must be apparent that

tone.
if

exceedingly fine photograph, wherein


bright and well balanced,

and

true,

all

all

working upon an
all

the lights are

the gradations of tone soft

the shadows clear, so that they can be

seen into, and expression and likeness altogether satis-

;;

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

57

much opaque

factory, in such a case the use of

colour iu

washes or any part of the process of painting would be

A certain amount of slightly semi-

certain destruction.

opaque

wash

may

colour

be used once,

of the flesh, to impart

and such

good

is

first

an appearance of solidity

work

to

the

in

i.e.,

But the general

on.

character of the colours used throughout should be of

a transparent character

such

raw

as

sienna, burnt

Indian yellow, crimson lake, Antwerp blue,

sienna,

Vandyke brown, madder brown, &c.


The painter should work upon

a print very

little

than an average plain print, and should be

lighter

furnished with a duplicate, one or two degrees deeper,

wherein the various shades of modelling are of a more

The

decided character.

print which

light

to be

is

painted will therefore require those same shades of

modelling imparted, of a consistent strength


opportunity

affords

management,

of

into

converting
painting,

or

with

it,

the

and

this

skilful

semblance

thereof.

Generally speaking, upon such a good photograph,


the

wash may be made

first

yellow, Indian yellow

and

a very

of

little

Naples

lake, for a fair person,

with

the addition of light red for the second wash, and for
the rest of the

and lake
blue

with

These

warm washes

using more Indian yellow

and Antwerp
Antwerp blue alone

for the silvery greys a little lake

for the cooler greys the

Indian
over

yellow
the

general impression

added

semi-opaque
of flesh.

for

the

green

greys.

wash will impart a


The hatching to level

A TREATISE OX
and the lining

it,

to finish,

colours of a like character,

must

i.e.,

be worked with

all

almost transparent, and

rather strong and bright, as, Indian yellow and lake.

The
cool

should be painted in

flesh

the early stage

at

comparatively

all

and the warmth imparted

gradually, up to the required complexion.


It will be found,

when painting with

warm

colours over cold ones (where

quired), thus:
if

if

a purple,

wash

a green, yellow over blue.

of a tint

time
like

is

compounds

or hatch, lake over blue;

And

so the heightening

by giving the strong touches

painted and modelled

grey, and the red

Vermilion, although comparatively opaque,

may

be

parts, as lips, cheeks, cavity of ear,

nostril, to other red, as lake, to

and burnt

last

with plenty of

first

last.

added in the redder

and

are re-

obtained with more force, and at the same

softness,
lips

transparent

produced by working

colours, that brighter effects are

heighten

it.

Lake

sienna, with a touch of vermilion, give a fine

tint for enriching a

the weak Megilp

ruddy cheek

may

A little of

at finish.

be used throughout, and the

stronger in the shadows at the finish.

Painting Copies or Defective Photographs in

Water

Colour.

If

rocky in the

worked upon with a colour made


graph.

do

this,

to

match the photo-

Indian red, ivory black, and blue will sometimes


if

the print

is

sienna, instead of blue,

ivory black.
shades,

they must be

lights,

With

this,

warm, burnt
the Indian red and

cool in tone

added

any

must be reduced by

to

if

lights that should be half


soft, small,

broad washes

;;

59

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIVE.

and

strokes,

also

where

and any white


are any
added

of the foregoing,
for the part

black

must be covered by a

patches, they

dark

or

spots,

light shade,

made

to white in the degree required

may

yellow and lake

little

touched out

"blemishes

there

be advan-

tageously added to the white, as otherwise the least


addition to

make

the shade colour mentioned would

of

it

Any

a cold grey.

patches too black in appear-

ance in the shadows are also to be rectified by com-

pounds

of

two,

the

i.e.,

the

and the shade

light

colour, so that, in fact, the picture is to

monochrome before proceeding

be corrected in

Avith the colouring.

This being done, the washing and ultimate process

may

be carried forward, as directed, for painting good

photographs.

The quantity

of colour

and boldness

manipulation to be proportioned to the

To prevent

picture.

what has been


photographs in

prolixity,

it is

of

the

advisable to peruse

said respecting painting


oil,

of

size

good and bad

together with the other remarks

about photographs.

Opals.

upon

Opals

in

much like ivory


The tints do not

are very

water-colour.

on paper, therefore they require


neither
tion,

is

and

much water
it

of the film

to

softer

be used, as there

must be borne in mind


on which the image

is

is

to

paint

sink,

treatment

no absorp-

that, in consequence

printed being tender,

great care must be used to do all correct, because

if

by taking paint off, the film


come up from the opal in such places, and with it

parts have to be fretted,


will

as

a part of the image.

A TREATISE ON

0(J

A DISCOURSE ON

AKT.

In attempting a discourse on Art, I propose,


briefly to review its history,

outline of

much

not so

first,

to give a general

and

to offer a

few

to artists, as to those

who

its essential characteristics,

words of advice

may

and then

be thinking of becoming such

on the one hand,

endeavouring to avoid the grandiose style of diction


with which the subject

mystery

and on the

is

often enveloped in a cloud of

other, the tedious pedantry of a

preceptor; presuming that

any who have

to hear or read about painting

taste sufficient

and sculpture are too

sensible to be satisfied with the former,

and

will not

expect the latter here.

The

" Fine Arts "

the term specially applied as

is

distinguishing painting and sculpture from


called arts, because

now-a-days so

adorned

title

with

"science"

or

that

"skill"

many

would

many
where

more

be

Sculpture and painting are our subjects.

adapted for subjects wherein form


istic,

and

is

many

so-

things are
the

term

applicable.

Sculpture

is

the chief character-

is

necessarily limited in its field to objects

decided and tangible.

But though

it

cannot have the

advantage of varied distance, perspective, suggestiveness, the introduction of great

numbers

of objects, or

the magic mystery and charm of light and shade or


colour, yet sculpture possesses

in painting

and

front,

an advantage not possible

each object can be seen on

above and below.

all

sides,

back

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

With

this advantage,

difficulty of

the complex

evident what genius and

is

it

must have been employed


of the ancient Greeks

few

is

rendering the subject true from every point

Hence

of view.

however, there

61

also of

skill

in the most perfect statues

Michael Angelo and a

others.

Painting has a wider scope

is

more capable

of con-

veying sentiment, pathos, feeling, the magic of light

and shade, mysterious shadow,


its

wonderful charm and

aerial perspective,

with

illusive deceptions of distance


}

apparently annihilating
the canvas

all

idea of the

flat

surface of

introducing hosts of figures in any variety

of condition at the will of the designer.

The

arts

of

painting and sculpture reveal to the

sense of vision tangibly the inward mental conception,

and thereby reproduce


producer

to other

minds the feeling

of the

wonderful proof of the invisible soul of

man.

High art, the lofty and grand, can only be produced


By such, the
by those capable of deep feeling.
impressive scenes of celebrated historic events and the
conceptions

more

of

fully than

the poet are represented in paintings

by any other medium

music, or sculpture

works wherein
feeling,

whether

and the 'magic

the
it

master

conveys

fusion, or the realisation of


its

shown

sentiment

in

and

be the tranquil poetry of a moonlight

landscape, the tumult of battle with

with

either language,

of art is

its

horrors and con-

an exalted sacred subject,

teachings of piety, peace, and goodness.

To descend from

the consideration

of

the

higher

A TREATISE OX

62
attributes,

it

is

also art to

produce

by apparently inadequate means;

effects of deception

for instance, giving

the appearance of rotundity and relief on the


face of a picture

or the appearance of

flat sur-

by

distance

perspective.

Anatomy and
texture to objects

and the

expression

giving

require the painter's

painter's

"combination"

of

and

character

eye to perceive
tact

invent

to

by mechanical

means

of

skill of

handling, together with accuracy of colour and

form.

The

giving these

appearances,

painter must possess

a mastery over

all

these.

Invention and feeling are leading essentials of a


" Invention,"

picture.

says

Homer,

"

the highest

is

power in man," and comes nearest of any other in


a

human being

his

to resembling the creative

There are various degrees of invention


the subject

inventing incidents

convey the meaning


to

power

of

Maker.

these

in

invention of

composition

originality of conception.

to

Add

an invention of manner observable in the

grandeur of Michael Angelo's compositions (and which


small

critics

have

termed

" extravagant

mysterious chiaroscuro of Rembrandt.

descend lower, there


call for

is,

"),

In

or

the

truth, to

to speak practically, constant

invention from the painter, in detail, in mani-

pulation, in devising

execution,

and

means

to

bring about results in

to give feeling.

This brings us to consider feeling, which means


imparting the

required

sentiment and character to

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


the scenes and figures of
up,

and the impression

textures of parts

and

which the work

subject

for in great

Da

it,

according to the

and imaginative works ordinary

are to be omitted, as

Italians,

made

whole to even the

the

of

is

herein judgment and taste are

required to put in detail or omit

trifles

63

by the Greeks and by

Vinci, Michael Angelo, Raffael

the

whereas

in

more

to

making out the impression as in the pictures


Duow, Teniers, Wilkie, Faed, Frith, &c.

realistic pictures, details are essentially requisite

of

Grerard

The

origin

of

sculpture

and

paintiug

the

in

beginning was probably due to the imitative element


inherent

in

mankind,

and

being

found

capable

of communicating ideas and thoughts, of recording


history, making visible objects
mind to dwell upon and worship, as poetry
became a means of employing the utmost powers of
the mind wherein, during the brief space of a life,
one man's intellect has achieved what the rest of the
world could but marvel at for ever. Witness Homer,

events,

perpetuating

for the

Shakespeare, Phidias, Raffael.

The remotest history of art places its origin in


in Egypt
the earliest civilized nation
East

antiquity.

Those

and progress was

first

slow, keeping pace with the develop-

for art

to be too exalted to be devoted to others

Egypt it was

of

attempts were crude and strange,

ment of the human mind.


The earliest subjects were sacred
early

the

a sacred calling,

trained to the service of religion.

and

its

was thought

in

fact, in

professors

men

They were bound by

64

A TREATISE ON

not allowed to swerve from

them so that they


became mechanical, conforming and adhering to certain
forms, established for many centuries, prohibiting any
rules

advance towards beauty.

in

The unthinking, monotonous adherence to fixed forms


modern Chinese painting and sculpture has its pro-

totype in the productions of the ancient Egyptian?,

whose singular representations of the human


of animals,

and other

objects,

figure,

were not permitted by

the priesthood to be departed from, as those fixed forms,

with

all their

common
lest

were held sacred

absurdities,

or illiterate person

was allowed

and no

to practise art,

they shovdd introduce anything at variance with the

laws established of the figures of the


ventionalities

Their con-

deities.

became characteristics, perhaps from policy

in the priesthood to inspire

awe and wonder, by making

the representations of their deities, &c, different from

No

ordinary humanity.

beauty

approach was made towards

hence, they never advanced beyond the

postures, absurd violation of all consistency in

and perspective
profile

stiff

drawing

such as putting a front view eye in a

head, the feet and hands twisted aside, in

They
only way

figure standing full front, dislocated necks, &c.

knew nothing

of dignity or grandeur,

and the

they had of producing either was by

enormous

apparently

intended

to

size

frequently

arouse

reverence

and admiration.

The monuments

of

Babylon

those of Egypt, but rather

freedom.

are

much

the same as

more resembling nature and

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

From

this condition art advanced,

and attained

At

highest perfection in ancient Greece.

500
In

had much

B.C., it

golden age, 400

its

65

first

its

there,

Egyptain character.

of the old

the perfection of later Greek

B.C.,

art is to be attributed to their public spirited enthusiasm.

With them,

An

was a glory, and

art

its

practice sacred.

ancient Greece was looked up to as a

in

artist

superior being, honoured as the bearer of a divine gift,

devoted to the gods and the community.

The
as

them

were the breath of

life

observes, nothing

could have compensated

arts

Cicero

for the loss of such

have been

felt as

with the Greeks, and,

works as the Venus

it

would

Art was with them

a public calamity.

the highest aim of public thought, and the universal


interest,

made

it rise

From

to its perfection.

absence of

that national interest, high art has never since been

equal to what the Greeks

made

Phidias, Appelles,

it.

have not reappeared.

Art

fell

Roman

when Greece

fell,

and Rome

ancient Greeks, they only used

though they employed Greeks,


the class of

work achieved

and commemorations

During ages

away from

The

it

of old

for a luxury,

and

was no longer upon

it
;

but for adornments,

of their victorious achievements.

of conquest

and barbarism

it

had passed

Greece, and had died out, or almost sunk to

the low level of

Upon

rose.

conquerors had no such love for art as the

its

primeval condition in Egypt.

the establishment of Christianity, however, and

under the influence of the Church,

Leo X. and Julius

II.

it

revived in Italy.

were chief patrons, when Leonardo


E

A TREATISE ON

66

da Vinci, Michael Angelo, and Raffael flourished,

to

attempt to impart but an idea of whose marvellous works,


their learning,

power

of invention, intuitive perception,

and knowledge, would he


since

their

in vain

day can do by a

them but partly

to

comprehend

With

and admire.

for all that the ablest

life-long

study enables

their works, to

these greatest of

masters in Italy, art rose again.

all,

wonder

and other

There, and in other

European nations, as Holland, Germany, Spain, Flanders,


appeared several most extraordinary geniuses,

we

whom

the old masters;

most of the greatest being

nearly contemporary, and

achieving works not since

call

approached.

The world does not possess painting* by the great


we only know of their merit from contem-

Greeks

porary historians and other writers.

Their paintings

have perished, but some of their unequalled statuary

and sculpture remain

to be marvelled at, such as the

Laocoon, Venus de Medici, Apollo 13elvidere, Hercules,


the Elgin Marbles, and

But

many

others.

the world happily possesses the greater part of

whom we are accustomed to term


by which is meant those from about
Ballad up to Rubens.
The variety of

the works of those


the old masters,

the time of
subject

treated,

the

power, feeling,

skill,

may

be

at

least

extent of
in

said,

them
is

is

knowledge, thoughtalmost

infinite, or,

it

amazingly comprehensive.

Yet, excepting the above and a few others, most were

produced

b}^

like llaffael

devoted enthusiasts in poverty.

and Rubens, princely

rich.

Few were

67

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.

Thus we find that the first development of art in


Egypt was under the sanction of the priesthood, made
exclusive,

and even limited

to

men

trained in religion,

Also we find that

supported as a national institution.

where

in Greece,

it

was most perfected,

community

to the entire

unlimited

it

was

rewards were given the great masters.

Church and State

Italy, with the

genius,

devotion,

history of ancient

Agaiu, in

for its support, the

supreme Pontiff, his cardinals, the

and most opulent, we

all in all

honour, unlimited

great, the learned,

see the result of combination,

The

and patronage.

enthusiasm,

Egypt and

ancient Greece

is

too

remote for us to have details of individual instances


but of the great masters of Italy, 400 years ago, we

know more and we know that there were many great


men who were also of that country and of nearly the
same period whose works are immortal, but who had
;

not the patronage of the wealthy, as had Raffael and

Michael Angelo, but who achieved works second only to


theirs,

by long devotion

of

poverty

some

want

was

in absolute

irresistibly strong

worked

its

palaces,

in

happened
spirit

did

way,

if

lives
;

to

hard work, in

for the spirit of art

within them

and where

not amidst luxury and wealth in

contented poverty under any roof

to
its

so, it

be apportioned to their hard

lot.

that

The

work, whether under the advantages of

fortune or despite all adverse circumstances.


It

woidd seem that there are periods wherein certain

conspicuous conditions tend to remarkable results. There

have been ages, marked as periods, wherein vast revolu-

e 2

68

tions

TREATISE ON

Lave occurred from time to time

the world ad-

vancing in parts, then declining there to develop and

advance further elsewhere.


politics,

and arms

so

in

So

it is

in arts, literature,

so in the mental,

religion

moral, and social condition of mankind.

Now-a-days,

both

is

and

patronage

On

generally speaking, wrong.

practice

no patronage for histrionic greatness in

upon

as a settled prospect

requisition

by the Church,

community educated

all

art to

depend

precarious, because not in

as of old

or bred

are,

the one hand, there

up

nor

is

moneyed

the

to a feeling or capacity

equal to earing sufficiently to employ high talent upon

long and costly undertakings in their

mansions

nor

is

any public

Mipport and encouragement of


is

not the universal interest

art as

it.

felt in

palaces

and

taken for the

action

Consequently, there
or

honour paid

to

was in the middle ages all which conditions

developed and fostered

it.

Thus, on the one hand, we

have want of patronage.

On the other,

there

is,

on the part of so-called students,

no object of greatness pursued.

If the pictures

statues that are now-a-days being done


served, in

name

were

to

and

be pre-

most instances, posterity would be puzzled

the school from which they emanated.

to

Simple

appearances of things, frivolous subjects, without senti-

ment

or purpose,

is

too much, with rare exceptions, the

character of the medley exhibitions which

we

see yearly.

Comparing the present condition of art, the patrons,


and their productions, with the celebrated

professors

periods of art-greatness in bygone periods, the contrast

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


is

striking

and instructive

works of

the

some

for although

classical

taste

and requirement,
and mastery

beautiful treatment, with excellent colour

remarkable

detail,

historical

Moderns evince consummate learning

and knowledge, high


of

69

skill

in

handling, imitation of

textures, together with realistic portrayal of

Nature in

her ordinary appearances to a degree often surprising,


does

there

be

to

not

appear

characterized

as

any
a

originality

particular

not

school,

the

sublime

grandeur which distinguished some of the great old


masters; and in instances where Moderns have
sacrifices in

made

endeavours to produce historical works, the

lack of encouragement or reward has been very different

from what the more fortunate of former ages received.

And

though, as just observed, some truly accomplished

sculptors

lately appeared, and do now


number of mediocre and inferior ones is
Of any rank and condition, many of the best

and painters have

the

exist,

legion.

are deprived of the opportunity of ever achieving fame,


for their abilities are necessarily prostituted to earning

a livelihood at

common

work.

As

to being learned or

philosophic in their art, this class ignore such matters

Too many arrive at, or start with, a notion


they can manage the palette, and produce a

altogether.

that

if

specious something, they have

made

a picture, and are

enrolled painters for ever.

As

to

who should

or can

become

depends upon the enthusiasm, the


of

any one

advantages.

painters,

ability,

much

and energy

coupled with early opportunities and other

A TREATISE ON

70

Reynolds said " there


painting,"

meaning

there

tions,

much

is

none

Let

required.

that,

no royal road

is

to success in

whatever the natural

to

much

and

learn

who

begin

qualifica-

are

thoroughly, so as willingly to sacrifice

industry

devoted

not

all for it,

night

and day.
In the words of Michael Angelo, " Art

who

mistress,

will

admit of no

It is difficult to rise or

who have

to

work

is

a jealous

rival."

make

name

in art for those

for a living, as the time taken in

getting this position should be spent in learning and

advancing in the higher walks of

The struggling

lead to fame.

name

get a

yet until this

From

for patronage.

pictures

bought

are

is

it

difficult to

achieved he cannot hope

this cause,
at

art that eventually

artist finds

though a number of

exhibitions,

and

elsewhere,

every year, purchasers do not always buy from


feeling, or

knowledge.

by

This

class

taste,

only " invest " in

whose works have got up in the


market, so as to be safe of " realizing " at a profit when

paintings

artists

wishful.

Though

there

is

support to foster
to,

it

is

present

neither the Church nor


art, as

nevertheless
time,

by our

Government

in the former ages referred

probable
efforts,

that

we

are

at

by the growing

the
taste

evinced by connoisseurs, and the gradual diffusion of interest in the


shall at

works of genius, laying a foundation which

no distant period develop conditions and results

akin to those of the periods which produced Phidias

and

Raffael.

PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


In conclusion, as the issue of
a

life of

all this

71

discourse,

from

thought, some reading, study, and experience,

I would wish to offer a few words of advice to the

young

desire to

no

First to be sure of a strong

aspirant after art.

become

difficulty,

will be

excellent, so strong that

no opposition,

can subdue or daunt him, for that there

much

of each

certain

is

second,

he

if

is

with-

out resources, no purse or friends to supply the re-

on the road,

qusite, whilst

him beware how the

let

enthusiasm of youth or ambition betray him into a path

which leads on, on, on

For the bright


illusive

life,

in

and poverty.

most things,

to die whilst he lives, to live after he

for fame, or

cannot

to perhaps old age

vision of early

make

hope of fame, when even whilst

is

is

dead,

living,

he

a blast of the trumpet heard amidst the

general din.

He

must not look

port whilst working

his

to patronage for sup-

toilsome

way up

the

hill.

Before he can get rewarded by recognition and remuneration he

must work on year

after year amidst, perhaps,

hard privation, into notoriety, by producing and sending


his

works to exhibitions, where the best are not always

admitted, where the

unknown

are frequently " skied "

and passed by, living in the hope that they


admired and bought.

become known,

it

There,

will be

if

may

be

his efforts are ever to

through notices of praise or

perhaps condemnation in the critiques of reviewers.

Unlike poetry, which

may

be dashed

off at

once

by

one naturally endowed, painting requires a good part of


a man's

life to

abilities

may

acquire the practice of

be

But

if

the

it,

whatever his

student

have

the

72 A TREATISE ON PORTRAIT PAINTING FROM LIFE.


conscious sense of genius, with fair means, whereby

can
life,

live

lie

with his mind free from the ordinary cares of

which are a hindrance

to,

and

so clash

with higher

no nobler pursuit than the higher

thoughts, there

is

achievements of

art,

and no doubt there

will arise

some

here worthy the honour which has been gained by


those of other lands.
catch

inspiration

Let the student endeavour

to

from the writings of Homer, the

Bible, Shakespeare, Dante, Milton.

Then

let

him study

the works remaining of ancient

Greece (we have the Elgin Marbles, and copies of most

own Flaxman,

of the antique), the great Italians, our

Barry,

Haydon

practice

such a

life,

well spent in industrious

and study, with well directed

attain great results

energies,

may

and the time may come when,

perhaps at no far distant date, posterity shall wonder and

admire on beholding preserved monuments of genius


in sculpture

and painting by the hand

of

an English-

man.

HENDERSON, RAIT, & SPALDING, PRINTERS, MARYI.EBONE LANE, LONDON, W.

MATERIALS

PAINTING

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MESSRS.

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GRINDING COLOURS BY MACHINERY,


thev

are

enabled to supply Artists' Colours in Oil, Water, or

Powder, perfectly
Colours

for

fine, at the

less finely

Messrs. G.

same

prices as hitherto charged

ground.

Rowney & Co.

feel

ground by their improved process

assured the Oil


will be

found

brighter, less oily, and to dry quicker, than

Colours

to he finer,

any

others

at

present manufactured.

Messrs.

Rowney & Co. have

that their efforts to

improve

great satisfaction in

Artists'

knowing

Pigments are appreciated

and acknowledged by many of the most eminent Artists of


the

day.

Annexed

large number.

are

few testimonials, selected from

GEORGE ROWNEY &

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TESTIMONMALS
FROM MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATK MEMBERS OF THE

ROYAL ACADEMY, AND OTHER

EMINENT ARTISTS.
io,

New Mi i.man

Strbei

Gentlemen, I have

tried those Colours you kindly sent me, and beg to state
them excellent, both in brilliancy and working, which proves the truth
of your statement that they are manufactured in a very superior manner.

that

find

Gentlemen,

ABRAHAM COOPER,

remain your obliged Servant,


Co.

ROWNEY

Messrs. G.

R.A

"<:

Eldok House, Hamfsteau.


you for this opportunity of trying your
Colours ground on a new system. I have tested them and found them very fine
and free from grit, especially the Indian Red, a most difficult Colour to procure

GENTLEMEN, I am much

obliged

to

properly ground.

am, your obedient Servant,

Rownev &

Messrs. G.

\V.

C. T.

DOBSON,

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By, iSine Jiiin, 1871


Couleurs que vous avez eu la bonte de
Je vous en remercie, et je les trouve tres belles et j'aurai l'honneur

Rowney, J'ai employe

Monsieur

m'envoyer.
de vous eerier lorsque

les

j'en aurai besoin.

Veuillez agre'er

mes

ROSA BON H KUR.

salutations,

Royal Acaue my.


have yet had the opportunity of trying the Colours
Gentlemen, As far as
you have done me the favour of sending, I am of opinion that they afford a very
I

proof of the advantage of your new system of Grinding Colours by

satisfactory

All painters must agree that the qualities of depth and brilliancy
Colours are greatly enhanced by good and sufficient grinding.

Machinery.

am, Gentlemen, your most obedient Servant,

Rownev &

Messrs. G.

CHARLES LANDSEER,

111

R.A.

Co.

Wa i.ton-on-Tha mes.
Gentlemen, I am

much

really

scientiously express
is

beyond

my entire

last.

satisfaction with them.

praise, for the fact

all

of every and any Colour

by the

obliged

which you so kindly sent me on Friday

is

receipt of a packet of Colours

have

The

tried

them, and can con-

excellence of the grinding

certain that, without extreme grinding, the beauty

not brought out, to say nothing of the impossibility of

is

painting anything requiring finish with ill-ground Colours.

am, Gentlemen, truly yours.

Messrs. G.

Ri.w.sey

Mi. E. M.

Ward, R.A

a.

H.

Kent
bj

Messrs.

them

in

A. R.A.

Villa, Lansdownb Road, No ting Hill.


has tried the colours ground by machinery sent to him

Rowney, and has much

the quality of

LEWIS,

Co.

every respect

pleasure
;

in

the Indian

expressing his entire approbation of


Red and other ( olours, generally

coarse under the ordinary grinding, seem to him to have more especially benefited

by the

prf.i ess.

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,,2
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<

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&R0WNP1NK
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OIL

FLAT

SKETCHING BOX,

Oil.

11

C & D.
Empty.

C.

13 inches by 8%
}4 inch deep containing twenty colours,

Flat Sketching
inches,

s.

d.

Fitted

s.

d.

size

Chrome Yellow

Flake White (double),

viz.,

No.

Box

Naples Yellow No. 2; Yellow Ochre,


Sienna, Italian Pink, Orange Chrome,

1,

Raw

Light Red, Burnt Sienna, Vermilion, Crimson

Lake, Permanent Blue, Prussian

Blue, Ivory

Vandyke Brown, Raw Umber,


two
Emerald Green, Sacrum

Black, Bitumen,

Terra Vert,
bottles,

Mastic Varnish and Light Drying Oil,

Capped Dipper, one each


Tools,

Mahogany

inch

Palette

to 6 Flat

Knife,

and

French
12.

inch

Palette.

072

D.

The same

as

Box

C, with the addition of a

recess underneath for Millboards.


as

Fittings

BoxC, and two Prepared Millboards

by 8 inches.

same

12 inches
-

-099 158

GEORGE ROWNEY

12

&

OIL SKETCHING BOX,

CO.

G,
Kitted.

E.

Improved Flat
Sketching
Box size, 13^4
inches by 8> inches, i%& inch deep containing
two Double Tubes, Flake While and McGuilp ;
Twenty Single Tubes, Chrome
and 4, Naples
Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Vermilion, Burnt Sienna,
Light Red, Indian Red, Rose Madder, Crimson
Lake, Cobalt, Permanent Blue, Prussian Blue,

Brown

Pink, .Manganese Brown,


Bitumen, Emerald Green, Terra
one eaeh 1, 2, 3, and 6 Flat Sables in tin,

Ivory Black,

Raw Umber,
Vert

one each

Softener,

to 6 Flat

two

Turpentine, Capped
Knife, and

French Tools, No. 2 Badger

bottles,

13 inch

Light

Dipper,

Mahogany

Drying Oil and

$%

inch

Palette.

Palette

J.

s.

d.

COLOUR BOXES.

OIL

13
Empty.

t-

s.

d.

Kitled

d.

The same as Box F, with the additionof a recess


underneath for Millboards. Fittings same as Box
E, and two Prepared Millboards 3 inches by 8

-01361150

inches.

G.

size, 12 '4 inches by


Oil Sketching Box
containing the following
inches, 2 inches deep
nineteen colours, viz., Flake White, Naples

4%

Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Raw Sienna, Cadmium


Yellow, Light Red. Indian Red, Scarlet Vermilion, Crimson Lake, Madder Brown, Cobalt,
Cceruleum, Prussian Clue, Veronese Green, Terra
Vert, Ivory Black, Bitumen, Raw Umber, and
McGuilp, one each 1 to 6 flat Sables in Tin one
each 1, 4, and 6 flat French Tools, No. 6 Badger
Softener, 3J2 inch Palette Knife, Chalk, 6 inch
Portcrayon, Japanned Tin Bottles of Linseed Oil
and Turpentine, Double Dipper, and Folding
.Mahogany Palette. The Box contains a contrivance to hold a canvas, as shown in illustration,
the strap, passing under the feet, holds the Box
firmly on the knees.
( See cut, page 11) ;

o 13

16

H.

9 inches by 7
containing twelve Single

Small Oil Colour Box

2^inchesdeep

inches,

size,

viz., Chrome No. 1, Naples Yellow,


Yellow Ochre, Raw Sienna, Burnt Sienna, Vermilion, Crimson Lake, Cobalt, Prussian Blue,
Ivory Black, Vandyke Brown, Terra Vert; Double
Tubes, Flake White and Medium 4 bottles,
Mastic, Light Drying Oil, Linseed Oil, and Turpentine one each 1 to 6 flat Sables in Tin, one
each 1 to 6 flat French Tools, No. 3 Badger
Softener, Chalk, 6 inch Portcrayon, 3^ inch

Colours,

Palette Rnife,and

Mahogany

Palette. {Seecttt,pi^)

072

I.

10 inches by

containing three Double7

Small Oil Colour Box

inches, 2 l z inches deep

Flake

Tubes,

Ochre

White,

size,

Medium,

and

Yellow

16 single Tubes, Chrome No. 1, 'Naples


Yellow No. 2, Raw Sienna, Brown Pink, Crimson
Lake, Light Red, Indian Red, Vermilion, Cobalt,
Permanent Blue, Prussian Blue, Ivory Black,
Vandyke Brown, Raw Umber, Terra Vert, Emerald Green ; four bottles, Mastic Varnish, Light
;

Drying Oil, Poppy


O to 6 Flat Sables
French Tools, No.

and Turpentine, one each


Tin, one each o to 6 Flat
Badger Softener, Chalk, \ z

Oil,
in

/
l

inch Portcrayon, 3)^ inch Palette Knife, 10 inch


Mahogany Palette.
(See cut, page 14. J
-

11

GEORGE ROWNEY &

14

CO.

SMALL OIL COLOUR BOXES,

Box

& K.

I,

Kmptv.

K.

The same

H,

s.

d.

Fitted.

s.

with the addition of a recess


underneath for Millboards. Fittings same as Box
I, and three Prepared Millboards, 10 inches
by
7 inches.

as

I,

----.__.
L.

Small Oil Colour Box size 10^' inches by


7%. inches, 3 inches deep containing ihreedouble
Tubes, Flake White, Medium, and Yellow
Ochre; twenty single Tubes, Pale Cadmium,
Naples No. 2, Yellow Ochre, Raw Sienna, Yellow
Lake, Brown Pink. Crimson Lake, Light Red.
Indian Red, Vermilion. Rose Madder, Cceruleumj
Cobalt, Permanent Blue, Prussian Blue, Ivory
Black, Vandyke Brown, Raw Umber, Terra Vert,
Veronese Green
three bottles, Mastic Varnish,
Light Drying Oil, and Turpentine one eacho to
6 Round and Flat Sables in Tin, one eacho to
9
Flat French Tools, N0.6 Badger Softener, Chalk,
inch
Portcrayon,
4K
3 , inch Steel and 6 inch
;

Ivory Palette Knives,

Capped Dipper, Mahogany

Palette.
The Tray for the Colours lias
which opens out when the Box is in use.

cover

a
-

16

OIL

COLOUR BOXES.

MIDDLE OIL COLOUR BOX,

15

N.

&

O.

Empty.

M.

Fitted.

The same as Box L, with the addition of a recess


underneath for Millboards. Fittings same as Box
L, and three prepared Millboards, 10 inches
by
7 inches.

'

H
N.

Middle Oil Colour

Box size 12^

inches by

8X inches, 2% inches deepcontaining six double


Tubes, Flake White, Yellow Ochre, McGuilp,
Siccatif, Light Red, and Ivory Black
twentyone single Tubes, Zinc White, Chrome No.
1,
Naples Yellow No. 2, Raw Sienna, Brown
Ochre, Burnt Sienna, Indian Red, Crimson Lake,
Scarlet Lake, Rose Madder, Cceruleum,
Cobalt!
French Ultramarine, Prussian Blue, Raw Umber,
;

Vandyke Brown, Manganese Brown, Bitumen,


Terra Vert, Veronese Green, Emerald Green *
4 bottles, Mastic Varnish, Light Drying Oil,'
Poppy Oil, and Turpentine one each o to 6
Flat Sables in Tin, one each o to
9 Flat French
Tools, No. ? Badger Softener. 4 inch Steel
and
6 inch Ivory Palette Knives, and 12 inch
;

Mahogany

Palette.

'3

GEORGE ROWNEY &

16

CO.

IMPROVED LARGE OIL COLOUR BOX, P &

Empty.

O.

The same asBoxX, with


underneath

for Millboards.

Q.

Fitted.

s.

d.

the addition of a recess


Fittings

same

as

Box

X. and three Prepared Millboards, 12 inches by


S inches.

(See cut, page 15.)

OIL

COLOUR BOXES.
p
r

Empty.
'

s.

d.

Fitted.

t.

Improved Large Oil Colour Box size, 14^


containing
inches by clinches, 2^ inches deep
four double tubes, Flake White, Yellow Ochre,
thirty-four single
Medium, and Ivory Black
Tubes, Zinc White, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow
Nos. I and 2, Yellow Lake, Pale Cadmium,
;

Deep Cadmium, Raw Sienna, Brown Ochre,


Burnt Sienna, Chinese Orange, Light Red,
Indjan Red, Vermilion, Orange Vermilion, Rose
Madder, Crimson Lake, Scarlet Lake, Madder
Brown, Cceruleum, Cobalt, French Ultramarine,
Prussian Blue, Indigo, Brown Pink, Raw Umber,
Vandyke Brown, Manganese Brown, Bone Brown,
Bitumen, Veronese Green, Terra Vert, Emerald
Green, and Sacrum four bottles, Mastic Varnish,
Light Drying Oil, Poppy Oil, and Turpentine
Double Capped Dipper, one each o to 9 Round
;

and Flat Sables in Tin, one each o to 12 Plat


French Tools, No. 9 Badger Softener, 4 inch Steel
and 8 inch Ivory Palette Knives, Charcoal, Chalk,
6 inch Portcrayon, 14 inch Mahogany Palette.
(See cut, page 16.)

o 16

.9The same as Box P, with the addition of a recess


underneath for Millboards. Fittings same as Box
P, and three Prepared Millboards, 14 inches by
(See cut, page 16.)
9 inches.

-1004

10

3 10

R.

Complete Large Oil Colour Box size, \^%


inches by 10 inches, 2.% inches deep
with four
Screw-top Japanned Bottles for Oils and Varnishes,
Smutch
Pan.
Brush
Washer
and
The
Japanned
colours are held in a covered tray, containing
twenty-six colours, viz., Flake White, Lemon
Yellow, Naples Yellow No. 2, Pale Cadmium,
Yellow Ochre, Italian Pink, Raw Sienna, Burnt
Sienna, Light Red, Indian Red, Vermilion,

Crimson Lake, Madder Lake, Indian Lake,


Cceruleum, Cobalt, Permanent Blue, Prussian
Blue, Ivory Black, Bitumen, Vandyke Brown,
Raw Umber, Terra Vert, Mineral Green, Emerald
Green, McGuilp ; four bottles, Mastic Varnish,
Light Drying Oil, Linseed Oil, and Turpentine
one each o to 6 Round and Flat Sables in Tin,
one each o to 12 Flat French Tools, No. 9 Badger
Softener, 4 inch Steel and 8 inch Ivory Palette
Knives, Charcoal, Chalks, 6 inch Portciayon,
Three-jointed Common Mahl Stick, and 14 inch
White Wood Palette. (See cut, page 18.) -

149

GEORGE ROWNEY &

18

CO.

COMPLETE LARGE OIL COLOUR BOXES, R &

Empty.

c
b

The same

as

Box R, with

as

Fitted.

s.

d.

s.

d.

16

the addition of a

recess underneath for Millboards.

same

S.

Fittings also

Box R, and three Prepared Millboards,

14 inches by 10 inches.

COLOUR BOXES.

OIL

19
Empty.

Improved Extra Large Oil Colour

l6#

nji

inches by

inches,

4%

*.

d.

Fitted.
s.
d.

Box size,

inches

deep-

containing four double Tubes, Flake


White, Yellow Ochre, McGuilp, and Ivory
Black
;

single Tubes, Zinc White,

Lemon

forty-six

Yellow, Yellow

Lake, Indian Yellow,

Cadmium Pale, Cadmium


Cadmium Orange deep, Mars Yellow,

Orange,

Naples Yellow Nos.


Ochre, Brown

and

2,

Raw

Ochre, Burnt

Sienna, Italian

Sienna, Chinese

Orange, Light Red, Indian Red,


Orange Vermilion, Scarlet

Lake, Crimson

Vermilion,

Lake,

Vermilion,

Scarlet

Rose Madder, Madder

Lake, Brown Madder, Purple Madder,


Ultramarine Ash, Coeruleum, Cobalt,
French Ultramarine, Permanent Blue, Prussian
Blue, Mineral

Grey Nos.
Burnt

and

Umber,

2,

Brown

Vandyke

Pink,

Raw Umber,

Brown,

Manganese
Brown, Bitumen, Veronese Green,
Terra Vert,
Malachite Green, Mineral Green,

and Sacrum

Chrome Green,

6 bottles, Mastic Varnish, Siccatif,

Light Drying Oil, Poppy Oil, Linseed


Oil, and

Turpentine

Double Capped Dipper, Rimmed

Dipper, one each o to


9
in Tin,

Round and

Flat Sables

one each o to 12 Flat French


Tools, one

each o to 6

Round French

Tools, one each 00 to 6

Round and

Flat Extra Fine French


Tools,'

inch

Varnish Brush, one No.

Flat

Softener,

4% inch Steel and

1%

9 Badger

S inch Ivory Palette

Knives, Charcoal, Chalk, 6 inch


Portcrayon, best
Three-jointed Mahl Stick, 16 inch

Mahogany

Palette,

by

and three prepared Millboards, 16


inches

11 inches.

--_.._

12

GEORGE ROWNEY &

20

CO.

DIPPERS, BRUSH WASHERS, &c,


FOR OIL PAINTING.

Each.
Plain Tin.

No.

Single Tin Dipper for the Palette

Double

ditto

3 Single Conical

5 Single

04

.------03
o

Tin Dipper, with screw top

7 Single

ditto

ditto

Tin Dipper, with capped

8 Double

ditto

ditto

9 Single Conical, with capped


10 Double ditto

ditto

lid

Double

ditto

ditto

lid

o 10

12 Single Dipper, with removable rim


13

-02

4 Double ditto

6 Double

Japan'd.
s.

d.

DIPPERS,

Tin Brush Washer.


Square Bottom, Round Top.

BRUSH WASHERS,

Square Brush Washer.

&c.

21

Double TinBrush Washer.


Square Bottoms Round Tops.
Plain Tin. Japan'd.

Each.
*.

1 in Brush Washer, square bottom, round top

Double
ditto
ditto
Square Brush Washer
Round Brush Washer, small -

Oblong screw-top

Bottle, to

fit

2
I

6
IO

II

Oil Colour Boxes

OIL SLANT
12-inch Tin Oil Slant
14-inch
ditto
12-inch Smutch Pan
14-inch
ditto

Each.

d.

AND SMUTCH

PAN.

PI iin Tin
k. ach.
s.

I
I

d.
5

8
8

GEORGE ROWNEY &

22

CO.

BRUSH CASES.

OIL

Plain Tin. Japan'd.

Each.

No.

14 inches by \]/ inches


14 ditto by 2 ditto
14 ditto by 2Y2 ditto

i.

,,

2.

,,

3.

VARNISHES,

Glass

Quarter

half-a-gill.

bottles.

Each,
-

Amber Varnish

bottles.

Each.

Each.

d.

d.

d.

030 060

Paper Varnish

s.

s.

Gallon.

s.

(Can,
zs. yd.

d.

O 12

O 4
O 13
O 4

6
6

s.

16

10

Nut Oil
Poppy Oil

11

2
2

Purified Linseed Oil

Light Drying Oil

10

Dark Drying Oil

Fat Oil

Spirits of

Turpentine

*Also

in bottles

10
1

3
3
3

18
12
15

containing half the quantity at half the price.


1

d.

16

Copal Varnish

ex.)

4 10

Oil Copal Varnish

White Hard Varnish


Japan Gold Size White Lac Varnish

IO

Per

Pints
stone

in

bottles.

s.

Crystal Varnish

Light

Each.

&c.

Half-Pints
in stone

Pints in
stone

Bottles containing

Mastic Varnish

17
18

d.

s.

09

OILS,

Each,

d.

j.

13

17

PREPARED CANVAS,

SICCATIF,

SI

CCATI

23

&c.

F,

PREPARED BY

GEORGE ROWNEY &


This medium

CO.

intended to supersede the use of Oils or McGuilps

is

should be mixed with the colours on the palette, either pure or with the

The former makes it dry


Age renders

admixture of Oil, or Spirits of Turpentine.

more slowly
it

the latter

increases

nearly colourless, and causes

it

drying property.

its

to dry

more

Exposure

rapidly.

to the

atmosphere thickens, the addition of Spirits of Turpentine thins the

medium.
*.

d.

13

Bottles

04

Tubes

PREPARED CANVAS.
IN

ROLLS OF SIX YARDS.

Roman,

Quality A.
or Ticken.
Per yard.
j.

Ji
3 feet
,,

9
4 6
3

31

....--.-40
.......
---------72

2 inch.

d.

29
32

\i of a yard or 27 inches wide

,,

--

,,

6 2

,,

10

,,

12 9

>.

,,

Quality C, per yard,

Made 48

2s. Sd.

Large Canvases,

6s.

inches wide only.

per square yard.

GEORGE ROWNEY &

24

CO.

GEORGE ROWNEY & CO'S


LIST OF
PREPARED CANVAS AND WEDGED FRAMES.
Wedged

Wedged

Frames with Frames with

Size.

Proportion for

Inches.

by

9
9

>>

10
10
12
12
12

13
14
14
15
16
17
18
18

19

20
20
21

21

22
22
24
24

8 Landscape
9 Landscape

,,
..

>>

M
,,

,,
,,
,,

,,

,,

,,

27

SO
3

7 Portrait

7 Landscape
8 Portrait

24
24

29K

6 Portrait
6 Landscape

.,

>

--00
-00

-00
00

o
o

10 Portrait

9 Landscape
10

Landscape

12 Portrait

Landscape
12 Landscape
13 Landscape
12 Landscape
11

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
c

14
13
12
16

Portrait

Portrait

14
17
16
17

Landscape

Portrait

o
o

Landscape
Landscape

Frames

s.

only.

Each.

d.

6
7
7

8
8
8

9
9
9
11

Landscape
Landscape
12 Landscape
16 Landscape 18 Landscape 20 Portrait, Head-size
20 Landscape
2\]A Landscape20 Landscape -

25 Portrait, 3{- size

Wedged

Canvas.
Canvas.
Quality A. Quality C.
Roman or Ticken.
Each.
Each,

9
9
9
9

o
-

o
o
o

11

11

o
o

11

O
o

3
2

o
24 Landscape
8
28 Portrait, Kitcat
o
36
Portrait,
Small
half-length
o
44
,,
34
o
5
M 40 Portrait, half-length
Portrait,
Bishop's
half-length
o 15
56
44
94 >, 58 Portrait, whole length
106 ,,
70 Portrait, Bishop's whole length 2
C quality is not made larger than 36 by 28
The last two are 4.C extra with hinges.
Irregular and large sizes made to order on the shortest notice.
Artists' Canvas prepared in a variety of ways, including Pure White singleprimed, and absorbent Grounds,
Odd-sized Frames up to 30 by 25 are charged the same as Frames two sizes
a Frame 15 by 12 would be charged the same price as
larger, for instance
one 18 by 12.
36

-220
1^0

108
132

MILLBOARDS.

25

PREPARED MILLBOARDS FOR OIL PAINTING.


No.

of Ordinary Thickness.

Each.

Each.

6 inches by 5 inches
/
5)
7
5} z >>

33
33

,,

3 J

93

39

ii

6
8

o
o
o
o
o

33
39

99

d.

,,

7
S

39

,,

..

>

39

i.

10
io

o
o

33

"

s.

12 inches
12
>)
12

9
10

j 1

13
13
13

9
9
9
9

14
14
14

,,

9
10

|J

11

>>

33

9
10

,,

11

5?

d.

O
O

2
2

by 8 nches

,,

>

,,
59

,,

35

No. 2 OF Extra Thickness.


Each.

Each.
j.

14 inches by 12 inches
^5
15

16
ID

,,

II

,,

12

,,

II

>>

12

>)

,,

33

33

d
6
8

17
17

9
9

IS
18
18

ii

nches by
33
33

5.

d.

12 inc les

14
12

2
2

2
2

4
8

13
14

J 3

33

No. 3 of Double Thickness.


Each.

Each.

19 inches
19
19
,3
19

10
,,
3 3

by 12 inches

s.

d.

13

33

2
2

33

6
6
8

15

,,

,,

,,

20

14
16

21

,,

15

3,

21 inch

22
22
22
24
24
3

,,

33

33
33
,,
33

;s

by

17 inches

15

16
18
iS

20
25

33

33

33

9
6

33

,,

33

SKETCHING OR ACADEMY BOARDS FOR OIL PAINTING.


]

Each.
5.

8 inches by 6 inches

9
10
10
12
12
12
13
13

14
14

3 3

,,

7
7

8
8

,,

10

3.

3.
3,
39

9
10
9
10

,
,
,

O
O
O

15

33

11

16

33

12

iS

33

14

,,

33

12

,,

,,

15

,,

33

19

,,

19

20
24

19

33

12 Stout

O
O

24

3 3

19

33

d.

5
5

6
6
9
6

3 1

,
,

s.

14 inch S3 by 12 inches
10
.,
15
,,

O
O

Each.

d.

10
1

GEORGE ROWNEY &

26

CO.

CANVAS BOARDS.
These Boards present a surface of the best primed Canvas, and from
and portable form, are undoubtedly the very best kind of
Sketching Board ever introduced.

their neat

Each.
s.

7 inches

9
9
io
10
11

by

S%

inches

,,

6
6

,,

8
8

,,

11

o
o
o
o
o

o
O

Each.

d.

9
9
9
9

nches by g
12
8
12
IO

ii

13
13
14

inches

*.

a.

>>

j>

>

IO

IO

II

OIL SKETCI ING PAPER.

Per Sheet.
s.

Royal

24 inches by 19 inches, Canvas grain


Imperial,
21

30

Goodall's Sketching Paper, 21 inches by 15 inches

d.

Size,

PREPARED MAHOGANY PANELS.


Each-

Each.
j.

d.

8 inches by

6 inches

9
9

6
6

8
8

6
9

10
IO
II

9
8

12
12
12
13
13
13
13

14
14
14
15
15
16

9
,

10

2
3
3
3

3
3

10

11

10
12

11

12
12

>

17
17
17

iS
18
18
19
19
19

20
20

6
9

21

3
3

22
22
23

24
24
28
3
36

nches by 12 inches
>)

>>
,1

>
5>
'>
15
'>

>>
)>

!3

14
12
13
14
13
14
16
14
16
17

16
18
16

5>

iS

>>
|,

>!

>)
5>
?>

20
20
25
28

>>

j>
j>
>

5.

d-

6
6
6
6

!>

>

>
5)

5>

>>

9
8

11

11

5>

'3

5>

12

)>

J>

14
14
19

26

39

>

!>

6
3
6

9
3

6
6
6
3
3

9
9
6
6

BLOCKS WITH AND WITHOUT CASES.

27

BLOCKS WITH AND WITHOUT CASES FOR SKETCHES


IN OIL COLOURS.
Made on

the principle of the Solid Sketch Block, and are

composed of

a number of sheets of Prepared Paper, fastened at the edges, forming


a solid block of paper, from which each sheet

may be

separated by

passing a knife round the edge.

Each Block contains 24 Surfaces of Oil Sketching Paper.


These Sketching Blocks

in

cases are

also

made with Japanned Tin

Frame, which serves as a protection to the wet sketches.

Block
Block
with Case
with Case
and

and
Block
only.

Each.

Size.

j.

Imperial

i6mo

Ditto Svo

7 inches
-

Ditto 4to
Ditto half

by

d.

10

,,

14

>)

IO

SO
60

20

,,

14

12 O

Wooden

Japanned
Tin

Protector. Protector

Each.
s.

Each.
5.

d.

33
56
90

12

24

l8

GEORGE ROWNEY &

28

CO.

PALETTE KNIVES.

IS

j
Each.

No.
Shape.

Cocoa Handle

Ditto Balance

E
C

s.

540

inch.

19
12

Trowel

French shape

d.

on

I I

in

12

Scrapers, 34' inches

Artists'

Trowel Palette Knives,

Gilders' Knives, 6 inches

Ditto

Ebony Handles

ditto

Ivory Palette Knives, 6 inches


Ditto

inch.

s.

541
o 10
Cocoa Handle Trowel 554
Cocoa Long Shank
564
Artists' Diamond-shape Trowel Palette Knives

Artists'

3 inch.
d.

*.

ditto

3 inch

4% inch.
*.

d.

IO
1

each

inch

s.

d.

POCKET KNIVES AND PALETTES.

THE

29

ARTIST'S POCKET KNIVES.

Messrs. Ro.WNEY & Co. have had manufactured expressly for them
by one of the best Sheffield makers, a Knife of the finest quality,
It is not larger than an
especially adapted for the use of Artists.
A Fine
ordinary Pocket Knife, and contains : A Palette Knife
;

Blade; A File for Sharpening Pencil or Chalk An Erasing


Or, with the addition of a
or Scraping Blade. Price $s. 6d. each.
;

Screw

for

drawing the corks of varnish

bottles, price Js. 6d. each.

STUDENTS' POCKET KNIVES.


Each
Students' Pocket Knives

Ditto

ditto

Two

MAHOGANY PALETTES,

j.

d.

Blades

OVAL, OBLONG, &

HOOK SHAPE.

Spanish
Honduras
Mahogany. Mahogany.
Each.
Each

9 inches long

s.

d.

i.

d.

10

11

12

11

2
o
2
5
2 11

2
2

13

14
15
16

LIGHT WOOD PALETTES, OVAL, OBLONG, & HOOK SHAPE.


Satin

Sycamore.
Each.
s.

d.

Wood.
Each.
s.

9 inches long
10

d.

5
8

II

12
13

14
15

16

FOLDING PALETTES.
Each,
12 inch

Honduras Mahogany

12 inch Spanish
12 inch Sycamore
12 inch Satin Wood

ditto

i.

a.

GEORGE ROWNEY &

30

CO.

BRUSHES FOR OIL PAINTING.


RED SABLES IN

TIN.

ROUND.

*RED SABLES IN TIN.


WITH POLISHED CEDAR HANDLES.
ROUND OR FLAT.
Each.
J.

No. OO,

o&

I,

Round

o
o

">,

ditto

6,

ditto

ditto

3.

ditto

,,

.,

Round

2,

No. 7

Each.

d.

or Flat o

No.

4,

or Flat

*.

d.

II

Flat.

Round.

Flnt.

Round.

Each.

Each.

Each.

Each.

s.

*.

d.

2
O
o
3
The prices of Red

j.

d.

6
6
9

s.

No. ro
,,

>,

12

Sables aie fluctuating.

d.

BRUSHES.

FRENCH TOOLS, OR HOG~HAIR BRUSHES.


WITH PLAIN CEDAR HANDLES.

ROUND OR
Nos. oo, o,
7

9
io
ii

i,

2,

3,

4, 5,

and 6

FLAT.

31

GEORGE ROWNEY &

32

CO.

LYONS HAIR BRUSHES.


SAME

=^^^"?-Z'

"2

SIZE AS SA1

A-3MAAOii-

BsSfi|l^P
Each.

Each.
s.

No.

oo,

),

&

o
o
o

s.

a.

No.

5 J

))

(i.

o
o

EXTRA FINE FRENCH TOOLS.


POLISHED CEDAR HANDLES.
Nos. oo, o to

6,

Flat or

Round

8d. each.

of which these Brushes are made is dressed in such a manner


as to render it finer and softer than the ordinary hog hair, without in

The Hair

any way impairing

its elasticity.

FAN SHAPE BRUSHES.


FOR PAINTING HAIR, GRASS, OR LIGHT FEATHERY TOUCHES.

Hog Hair, Nos.


Sable Hair, No.

I
i

4
5

8d. each.
6d.
8d.
lid.

to 6
-

"

"

is.

id.

is.

is.

5d.
9d.

BRUSHES.

33

IRREGULAR SHAPED FRENCH TOOLS.

C, No. 6

D, No. 3

E.
Each.

The above shapes

are

....
....
....

made

in

Nos.

to

6.

A.

Short Hair, Thin Flat

C.

Extra Thin Hair, Flat (Landseer Brushes.)

D.

Short Hair,

E.

Lone; Hair,

Round
Round

FLAT BADGERS IN

TIN.

Each.
s.

d.

inch wide

Each.
d.

s.

inch wide

1%.

(See Cut, page 34.;

ROUND BADGERS

IN QUILL, TIED
Each,

No.

WITH WIRE
Each.

s.

d.

9
10

s.

No;

,,

,,

,,

12

(See Cut page 34.)

d.

No.

GEORGE ROWNEY

34

=-LAT

& CO

BRUSHES FOR OIL PAINTING.


ROUND BAD GER IN QUILL.
BADGER IN TIN.
WITH WIRE.
I

II 1.1)

No.
(

For prices see page

33.

11.

BRUSHES

&

EASELS.

35

FLAT HOG HAIR VARNISHING BRUSHES.


WARRANTED.
Each.

Each,

j.

d.

s.

inch wide

inch wide

3
2

i.'
4
2nd quality

,,

2^

BLACK FITCH HAIR,


Nos.
(Size,

to 6,

same

Round

or

flat,

IN TIN.
6d. each.

as Sables in Tin,

page

EASELS.
MADE BY MACHINERY,

TABLE EASELS.
Ea

Heigh
In.

IS
21

24
18
21

24
18

r.

tabic easels

Ditto
Ditto
Deal table easels, with

6
6

Mahogany

24

Ditto
Ditto

18

Mahogany

21
2+

Ditto
Ditto

4
5

sliding frame
21

:h.

O
O
O
O

Deal table easels

9
9
6

8
10

6
table easels,

with sliding frame


Ditto
Ditto

I
FOLDING EASEL, CLOSED.

....
....
....

Deal Forked Easel, 5 feet or 6


Ditto Portable Folding
Mahogany Forked Easel
Ditto, Portable Folding

feet

high

"

."

ditto, per inch

30.)

d.

o
6
9

GEORGE ROWNEY

36

& CO

fl

WITH SLIDING FRAME.

EASEL,

MAHOGANY
MADE

Easel, 6 feet

Ditto, sliding panel, 4 feet

Ditto

Mahogany

ditto, 5 feet 3 inches


ditto,

MADE

BY MACHINEKV.

Mahogany framed
Ditto

DEAL EASELS.

EASELS.

feet

16

Ditto, with sliding panel 4ft.

17

Ditto

ditto, 5ft. 3in.

10

16

10

19

ditto, 5ft. 6in.

18

Ditto

ditto,

Walnut

Ditto

feet

ditto, 4 feet

MACHINEKV.

d.

Deal framed Easels, 6

sliding frame, 4ft.

BY

$.

litto

ditto,

Deal sliding frame,

feet

12

feet

4ft. -

Ditto

ditto, 5ft. 6in.

Ditto

ditto,

feet

SKETCHING EASELS

37

FRENCH SKETCHING EASELS.

feet

high

This Easel, from

its

extreme portability,

sketching in the open

air.

securely by the Easel,

is

The

canvas,

is

os.

od. each.

admirably adapted

when

not liable to be thrown

in use,

down

for,

being held

or disturbed.

38

GEORGE ROWNEY &

CO.

FRENCH STUDIO EASEL

EASELS.

39

FRENCH STUDIO EASEL.


This Easel
picture

lias

may be

raised or lowered

to the slide at the

vents
picture

a Screw at the back worked by the handle

back which

is

To give

in front,

by which the

the forward inclination, a screw

worked by a wheel from under the

is

trav.

attached
This pre-

the possibility of the inclined part falling suddenly forward


is

when a heavy
The Stand hasan adjusting screw to accommodate any inequality
This is a m st serviceable Easel, and is made of Oak.

upon

in the floor.

it.

AS

5*.

each

CORBOULD'S EASEL.
Corbould's Easel

Corbould's Easel, with desk

each

s.

d.

12

14

GEORGE ROWNEY

40

& CO.

GEORGE ROWNEY & COS


PORTABLE SKETCHING EASELS.

Bach.
I.

Folding Ash,

5 or

Mahogany
Ditto

feet, in

or

case

Walnut-Wood,
ditto

Ash Sketching Forked Easel, 4

feet 3

d.

5 feet, in case

12

9
6

14

,,

inches

Student's Folding Sketching Easel 4 feet

ditto
-

SKETCHING EASELS.

41

THE GERMAN SKETCHING SEAT

AND EASEL COMBINED.


ADAPTED FOR EITHER

Oil.

OR WATER-COLOUR SKETCHING.

THE EASEL, OPEN.

Seat and Easel combined, similar to above illustration


Ditto

adapted

ditto

Square Seat, without the Easel

for the use of


-

Ladies
-

Improved Seat and Easel combined, with brass rack,


legs,

and box

With

for

holding colours and brushes

13

d.

sliding

extra strong leather seats 3s. 9d. additional.

S.

-156

GEORGE ROWNEY &

42

CO.

SKETCHING STOOLS.
$.

Four-legged Sketching Stools, 21 inches

common

ditto

24

ditto

21 inches best

ditto

24

ditto

21

ditto

24

web

each

rf

scat

,,

,,

canvas

,,

REST OR MAUI. STICKS.


Bamboo Rest
Lancewood

Sticks

ditto, 5 feet

each
long

Por able Jointed ditto

Telescope

Jointed, 2 joints

Mahogany Hand

Rests, polished

SKETCHING UMBRELLAS.
Each.

made of Brown Holland,


cane ribs with Fan Joint

Superior

Superior,

made

cane ribs

Brown Holland, length of ribs 32 inches


with Fan Joint
With Bamboo Sticks, 2s. 3*/., extra.

of

Made of Brown Holland, length


Fan Joint, bayonet joint
Ditto,

s.

length of ribs 28 V2 inches

ditto

of ribs 26

2QJ4 inches

inches,

ditto

with

18

&

ROWNEY &

GEO.'

CO.'S

TREATISES ON THE FINE ARTS.


Price each.

HINTS ON SKETCHING FROM NATURE.


HINTS ON SKETCHING PROM NATURE.
HINTS ON SKETCHING FROM NATURE.

Part

N. E. Gkbbn

I.

Part II.

N.E.Green

Part III.

N. E. Gkeen

GUIDE TO LANDSCAPE ANIMAL DRAWING. N. E. Green


..
GUIDE TO PORTRAIT PAINTING IN OIL COLOUR. F. Havnes
GUIDE TO FIGURE PAINTING IN WATER COLOURS. Sydney

...

...

..

..

T.

Wkjtkford

GUIDE TO SKETCHING

FkCL\T

NATURE.

Leonidas Clint Miles

PRINCIPLES OF PERSPECTIVE. Henry Lbwis. P..A


GUIDE TO WATER COLOUR PAINTING. R. P. Noble
HINTS FOR SKETCHING TREES FROM NATURE, IN WATER
COLOURS. Thomas Hatton
GUIDE TO OIL PAINTING. Part I. J. S. Temfleton
GUIDE TO OD^ PAINTING. Part II. (Landscape from Nature.) A.Clint

GUIDE
GUIDE
GUIDE
GUIDE
GUIDE
GUIDE
GUIDE
GUIDE
J. S.

TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

LIGHT AND SHADE DRAWING. Mrs. M. Merrifif.i.d


PENCIL AND CHALK DRAWING. G. Harlev
PICTORIAL ART. H. O'Neil

...

PICTORIAL PERSPECTIVE. B. R. Green


FIGURE DRAWING. G. E. Hicks
FLOWER PAINTING in Water Colours. G. Rosenberg
PAINTING ON GLASS. H. Bielfibld
MINIATURE PAINTING AND COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS.
...

Tbmpleton

ON THE MATERIALS USED

IN PAINTING, with Remarks on Varnishing and Cleaning Pictures, Charles Martbi

GUIDE TO ANIMAL DRAWING. C. H. Wbigall


GUIDE TO ILLUMINATING AND MISSAL PAINTING.

W. and

Ditto, with additional

Chromo-Lithograph

THEORY OF COLOURING.

J.

Illustrations, cloth, gilt

Bacon

ith additional Illustrations, cioth

Sydney T. Whiteford

and

...10

gilt

GUIDE TO MODELLING AND THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE


OF SCULPTURE. With Illustrations. By George Halsb
PRACTICAL MANUAL OF HERALDIC ILLUMINATION. F. J. Baigf.nt
and C.

I.

Russell.

Demy 8vo,

cloth

and

gilt

PRACTICAL GUIDE TO SCENE PAINTING.


*

Three Part* bound

o
6

GUIDE TO PORCELAIN PAINTING.

o
o

G.

AUDSLEY

Ditto,

in

F.

Lloyds.

one, cloth and

Cloth and

gilt, 5s.

gilt