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UNIT - II

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
1. Define pollution and what are the types of pollutants?
Any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of any
component of the environment (air, water, soil) which can cause harmful effects on various
forms of life or property.
Types of environmental pollution:- a) Air pollution b) Water pollution c) Soil pollution d)
Marine pollution e) Noise pollution f) Thermal pollution g) Nuclear hazards
2. What is the chemical composition of atmospheric air?

Gas

Volume

Nitrogen (N2)

780,840 ppmv (78.084%)

Oxygen (O2)

209,460 ppmv (20.946%)

Argon (Ar)

9,340 ppmv (0.9340%)

Carbon

dioxide (CO 397 ppmv (0.0397%)

2)
Neon (Ne)

18.18 ppmv (0.001818%)

Helium (He)

5.24 ppmv (0.000524%)

Methane (CH4)

1.79 ppmv (0.000179%)

Not included in above dry atmosphere:


Water vapor (H2O)

~0.25% by mass over full atmosphere

3. What are the causes of air pollution?Mention some control measures of air
pollution.
.Air Pollution. means the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant. Air pollution
means
any solid, liquid or gaseous substances (including noise) present in the atmosphere in such
concentration
as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or
property or
environment.
Causes:
Ex. Gases, particulate matter, radioactive substances etc. Gaseous pollutants sulphur
oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, volatile organic compounds Particulate pollutants
smoke, dust, soot, fumes, aerosol, liquid droplets, pollen grains Radio active pollutants
Radon 222, Iodine 131, Sr 90
Control of air pollution:
1. Using non conventional energy
2. Using bio filters
3. Planting more trees
4. Reducing vehicle exhausts
5. Using less polluting fuels
6. Using mass transport
7. Removal of particulate matter using electrostatic precipitator, cyclone filter etc.
8. Setting of industries of EIA
9. Removal of NOX from vehicle exhaust

4. Define PAN.
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a component of photochemical smog, which is a mixture of air
pollutants that includes both gases and particulates, some of which react with sunlight.
when PAN is inhaled along with ozone, as it often is in normal air, lung capacity decreases
and respiratory rate increases. PAN may also cause eye irritation.
5. What is smog and how it affects health and environment?

It is a mixture of smoke and fog which forms droplets that remain suspended in the air.
Smog forms when heat and sunlight react with these gases and fine particles in the air.
Smog can affect outlying suburbs and rural areas as well as big cities. Its occurrences are
often linked to heavy traffic, high temperatures, and calm winds. Many people suffered
respiratory problems and increased deaths were recorded, notably those relating to
bronchial causes
6. Define ACID rain and its cause. What are the control measures of acid rain?
Acid rain is another menace caused by thermal power plants. The three main constituents
of flue gases which mainly affect acidity of rains are SO2, NO and NO2. In the atmosphere,
sulphur dioxide gets converted into sulphuric acid (H2 SO4) and the nitrogen oxides get
converted into nitric acid (HNO3). During the rainy seasons, the acid formed in the
atmosphere falls on the ground in the form of rain called acid rain. .The most effective way
to reduce the incidence of acid deposition is to reduce the emission of its causes . The
.PRECURSORS., nitrogen oxides and Sulphur dioxide.
.Nitrogen oxide reduction. The main method of lowering the levels of nitrogen oxides is by a
process known as .Catalytic reduction.. Catalytic reduction is used in Industry & in motor
vehicles.
7. What are Municipal Solid Wastes(MSW)
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris,
sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from
residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and
food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its
composition changing.
8. What is the mechanism of ozone layer depletion?
Ozone layer a region of the atmosphere from 19 to 48 km above the earth.s surface. B
Although the concentration of ozone is the ozone layer is very small, it is vitally important
to life because it absorbs biologically harmful ultra violet (UV) radiation emitted from the
Sun. Certain human produced pollutants lead to destroy the stratosphere ozone and
causing an imbalance between formation and dissociation of ozone. This decrease in the
ozone level is called
depletion or thinning of ozone layer or zone hole. Ozone can be destroyed by a number of
free radical catalyst, like hydroxyl (OH), the nitric oxide (NO), atomic chlorine (Cl) and
Bromine (Br), CFC

10. Mention the chemical parameters of water quality.

Alkalinity

Color of water

pH

Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), etc.)

Dissolved metals and salts


(sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium)

Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium,


and Giardia lamblia; see Bacteriological water analysis

Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)


Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic
carbon (DOC)

Radon

Heavy metals

11. Define COD and BOD.


COD:-COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is the amount oxygen required for chemical
oxidation of organic matter using some oxidizing agent like K2Cr2 O7 and KMnO4.
The biological oxygen demand (BOD) It is defined as the amount of oxygen required for the
biological oxidation of the organic matter under aerobic conditions at 20oC and for a period
of 5 days . measures the level of organic pollution in the sewage water
12. What are the advantage and disadvantages of zeolite process?
Zeolites are widely used as ion-exchange beds in domestic and commercial water
purification, softening, and other applications. In chemistry, zeolites are used to
separate molecules (only molecules of certain sizes and shapes can pass through), and as
traps for molecules so they can be analyzed.
Zeolites are also widely used as catalysts and sorbents.

Disadvantages include the inability to create crystals with dimensions of a comparable size
to their natural counterparts.
13. Brief about demineralization process.
Demineralization is the process of removing mineral salts from water by using the ion
exchange process.
Distillation

Deionization
Membrane

filtration

(reverse

osmosis

or

nanofiltration)
Electrodyalisis

Or other technologies.
14. Define soil pollution and what the sources of soil pollution are?
The contamination of soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects
on living beings. Causes: Industrial waste
Urban waste
Agricultural practices
Radioactive pollutants
Biological agent

15. List some sources of industrial waste.

Industrial

Light
and
heavy
manufacturing,
fabrication,
construction
sites,
power and chemical
plants.

Housekeeping
wastes,
packaging,
food
wastes,
construction
and
demolition materials,
hazardous
wastes,
ashes,
special
wastes.

16. What are the effects of marine pollution? How will you control it?
The discharge of waste substances into the sea resulting in harm to living resources,
hazards to human health, hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea
water.
Effects:
disturb entire aquatic or marine ecosystem
oil has suffocation effect on most aquatic animals
Pollution may increase the temp. of water and DO may be depleted which causes danger.
There may be chances for bioaccumulation and bio magnification in the food chain due to
the disposal of non-degradable wastes
Oil promotes anaerobic conditions by preventing diffusion of oxygen from air
Disposal of radio active wastes cause chronic, acute and genetic damage
Control measures: Ban to dump the toxic, hazards waste and sewage sludge.
Prevent sewer overflows
Minimize coastal developmental activities
Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea.

17. How will you control noise pollution?


Control of noise pollution:
Reduction in source of noise]
Noise making machines should be kept in containers with sound absorbing media
Proper oiling will reduce noise from machinery
Using silencers fibrous material
Planting trees
Legislation can prevent excess sound production, unnecessary horn blowing etc

18. What are the sources of thermal pollution?


Causes: Nuclear power plant
Domestic sewage

Hydro electric power


Effects: Reduction inn dissolved oxygen
Increase in toxicity
Direct mortality

19. Define radioactive pollution.


The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of air, water and the
otherradioactive materials. The ability of certain materials to emit the proton, gamma rays
andelectrons by their nuclei is known as the radioactivity.
20. List out the role of an individual in preventing pollution.

Use stairs instead of elevators


Use public transportation walk or ride a bicycle
Plant trees around building
Turn off lights, television sets and computer when not in use.
Pay immediate attention to leaks in pipes.
Install waste saving equipments.
Recycle glass metal and paper.
Compost garden waste
Segregate waste and recycle
Buy locally made long losing material
Buy environmentally degradable products.
Take some bag from home to market to purchase.

UNIT III
NATURAL RESOURCES
1. What are the types of natural resources?
1) Renewable Resources (Inexhaustible Resources):
Inexhaustible resources have the ability to reappear or
replenish themselves by recycling, reproduction or replacement. These renewable sources include

Sunlight,
Plants,
Animals,
Soil,
Water
Living organisms
2) Non-renewable Resources (Exhaustible Resources): The non- renewable resources are the
earth.s materials. These renewable sources include
Minerals,
Fossil fuels,
Non-mineral resources

2. Define deforestation and causes of deforestation.

Shifting of Cultivation 300 million people 5 lakh hectares of forest for slash and burn culture
2. fuel requirement
3. raw materials for industrial use
4. developmental projects
5. growing food needs
6. overgrazing

3. Mention some consequences of deforestation.


4. Define mining and its types.
5. What are the steps involved in mining.
6. What are the effects of dams on forest?
7. Define the steps in hydrological cycle.
8. What are the types of fresh water resources?
9. What are the consequences of over utilization of ground water?
10. How minerals are formed and whatare the classifications of mineral
resources? 11. How minerals are exploited?
12. What are the impacts of extracting and using minerals?
13. Mention the problems in using fertilizers and pesticides.

14. What is salinity? And what are the problems faced during salinity.
15. Define OTE.
16. What is biomass energy?
17. Differentiate coal power and nuclear power.
18. Define soil erosion and its types.
19. Define desertification.
20. What is meant by bioconversion of pollutants?