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1.

Thermal energy is transferred through the glass windows of a house mainly


by
A.

conduction.

B.

radiation.

C.

conduction and convection.

D.

radiation and convection.


(1)

2.

The specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance is the quantity of


energy required to
A.

raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree


Celsius.

B.

convert a unit mass of liquid to vapour at constant temperature and


pressure.

C.

convert a unit mass of solid to vapour at constant temperature and


pressure.

D.

convert a unit mass of liquid to vapour at a temperature of 100C and


a pressure of one atmosphere.
(1)

3.

The temperature of an ideal gas is reduced. Which one of the following


statements is true?
A.

The molecules collide with the walls of the container less frequently.

B.

The molecules collide with each other more frequently.

C.

The time of contact between the molecules and the wall is reduced.

D.

The time of contact between molecules is increased.


(1)

4.

Some liquid is contained in a shallow dish that is open to the atmosphere.


The rate of evaporation of the liquid does not depend on
A.

the temperature of the liquid.

B.

the temperature of the atmosphere.

C.

the depth of the liquid.

D.

the pressure of the atmosphere.


(1)

5.

The specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance is greater than its


specific latent heat of fusion because
A.

boiling takes place at a higher temperature than melting.

B.

thermal energy is required to raise the temperature from the melting


point to the boiling point.

C.

the volume of the substance decreases on freezing but increases when


boiling.

D.

the increase in potential energy of the molecules is greater on boiling


than on melting.
(1)

6.

The kelvin temperature of an object is a measure of


A.

the total energy of the molecules of the object.

B.

the total kinetic energy of the molecules of the object.

C.

the maximum energy of the molecules of the object.

D.

the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the object.


(1)

7.

The distance between the 0C and 100C marks on a mercury-in-glass


thermometer is 20 cm. When the thermometer bulb is placed in a mixture of
ice and salt, the mercury level is 4 cm below the 0C mark. The temperature
of the mixture is
A.

+20C.

B.

+5C.

C.

5C.

D.

20C.
(1)

8.

The specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is defined as the amount of


thermal energy required to change the phase of
A.

the substance at constant temperature.

B.

unit mass of the substance to liquid at constant temperature.

C.

unit mass of the substance at constant temperature.

D.

the substance to gas at constant temperature.


(1)

9.

Two different objects are in thermal contact with one another. The objects
are at different temperatures. The temperatures of the two objects
determine
A.

the process by which thermal energy is transferred.

B.

the heat capacity of each object.

C.

the direction of transfer of thermal energy between the objects.

D.

the amount of internal energy in each object.


(1)

10. Which two values of temperature are equivalent to the nearest degree when
measured on the Kelvin and on the Celsius scales of temperature?
Kelvin scale

Celsius scale

A.

40

313

B.

273

100

C.

313

40

D.

373

0
(1)

11. A substance changes from solid to liquid at its normal melting temperature.
What change, if any, occurs in the average kinetic energy and the average
potential energy of its molecules?
Average kinetic
energy

Average potential
energy

A.

constant

constant

B.

increases

constant

C.

increases

decreases

D.

constant

increases
(1)

12. As part of an experiment to determine the latent heat of vaporisation of


water, a student boils some water in a beaker using an electric heater as
shown below.

The student notes two sources of error.


Error 1: thermal energy is lost from the sides of the beakerError 2: as
the water is boiling, water splashes out of the beaker

Which of the following gives the correct effect of these two errors on the
calculated value for the specific latent heat?
Error 1

Error 2

A.

Increase

Decrease

B.

Increase

No change

C.

Decrease

Increase

D.

Decrease

No change
(1)

13. A temperature scale is to be constructed using the property X of a


substance. Which of the following must be a characteristic of the property
X?
A.

The value of the property must be zero at zero kelvin.

B.

The property must increase with increase of temperature.

C.

The property must have a different value at each temperature to be


measured.

D.

The value of the property must vary linearly with kelvin temperature.
(1)

14. Which of the following is not an assumption on which the kinetic model of
an ideal gas is based?
A.

All molecules behave as if they are perfectly elastic spheres.

B.

The mean-square speed of the molecules is proportional to the kelvin


temperature.

C.

Unless in contact, the forces between molecules are negligible.

D.

The molecules are in continuous random motion.


(1)

015.

The specific heat capacity of a metal block of mass m is determined by


placing a heating coil in its centre, as shown in the diagram above.
The block is heated for time t and the maximum temperature change
recorded is . The ammeter and voltmeter readings during the heating are
I and V respectively.
The specific heat capacity is best calculated using which one of the
following expressions?
A.

c=

B.

c=

C.

c=

D.

c=
(1)

16. During an experiment, a solid is heated from 285 K to 298 K.


Which one of the following gives the rise in temperature, in deg C, and the
final temperature, in C, of the solid?

Rise in
temperature in deg
C

Final temperature
in C

A.

13

571

B.

13

25

C.

286

571

D.

286

25
(1)

17.

The specific heat capacity of a metal block of mass m is determined by


placing a heating coil in its centre, as shown in the diagram above.
The block is heated for time t and the maximum temperature change
recorded is . The ammeter and voltmeter readings during the heating are
I and V respectively.
Which one of the following is not a source of error in the experiment?
A.

Some thermal energy is retained in the heater.

B.

The thermometer records the temperature at one point in the block.

C.

Some thermal energy is lost from the variable resistor in the circuit.

D.

The block is heated at its centre, rather than throughout its whole
volume.
(1)

18. Three bodies X, Y and Z are at temperatures X, Y and Z respectively.


Thermal energy passes freely from Y to X and also from Z to X, as illustrated
below.

The direction of flow of thermal energy, if any, between Y and Z is unknown.


What can be deduced about the temperatures X, Y and Z?
A.

X = (Y +Z)

B.

Y = Z

C.

Y > X

D.

X > Z

(1)

19. Which of the following is the internal energy of a system?


A.

The total thermal energy gained by the system during melting and
boiling.

B.

The sum of the potential and the kinetic energies of the particles of the
system.

C.

The total external work done on the system during melting and boiling.

D.

The change in the potential energy of the system that occurs during
melting and boiling.
(1)

20. A liquid is contained in a dish open to the atmosphere.


Which one of the following contains three factors that affect rate of
evaporation of the liquid?
A.

Temperature of
the liquid

Surface area

Specific latent
heat of
vaporization

B.

Temperature of
the liquid

Mass of liquid

Specific latent
heat of
vaporization

C.

Surface area

Mass of liquid

Temperature of
the liquid

D.

Mass of liquid

Surface area

Specific latent
heat of
vaporization
(1)

21. The Kelvin temperature of an ideal gas is a measure of the


A.

average speed of the molecules.

B.

average momentum of the molecules.

C.

average kinetic energy of the molecules.

D.

average potential energy of the molecules.


(1)

22. A liquid is evaporating, causing the liquid to cool. The temperature of the
liquid decreases because
A.

the number of liquid molecules is decreasing.

B.

the mean kinetic energy of the liquid molecules is decreasing.

C.

the pressure above the liquid surface is increasing.

D.

the rate of evaporation is increasing.


(1)

23. The specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance is defined as the


amount of thermal energy required to
A.

change a liquid to vapour at constant pressure.

B.

change a liquid to vapour at constant temperature.

C.

change unit mass of liquid to vapour at constant pressure.

D.

change unit mass of liquid to vapour at constant temperature.


(1)

24. A container holds 20 g of neon (mass number 20) and also 8 g of helium
(mass number 4).
What is the ratio ?
A.

0.4

B.

0.5

C.

2.0

D.

2.5
(1)

25. This question is about modelling the thermal processes involved when a
person is running.
When running, a person generates thermal energy but maintains
approximately constant temperature.
(a)

Explain what thermal energy and temperature mean. Distinguish


between the two concepts.
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(4)

The following simple model may be used to estimate the rise in temperature
of a runner assuming no thermal energy is lost.
A closed container holds 70 kg of water, representing the mass of the
runner. The water is heated at a rate of 1200 W for 30 minutes. This
represents the energy generation in the runner.
(b)

(i)

Show that the thermal energy generated by the heater is 2.2


6
10 J.
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(2)

(ii)

Calculate the temperature rise of the water, assuming no energy


losses from the water. The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J
1 1
kg K .
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(3)

(c)

The temperature rise calculated in (b) would be dangerous for the


runner. Outline three mechanisms, other than evaporation, by which
the container in the model would transfer energy to its surroundings.
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(6)

A further process by which energy is lost from the runner is the evaporation
of sweat.
(d)

(i)

Describe, in terms of molecular behaviour, why evaporation


causes cooling.
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(3)

(ii)

Percentage of generated energy lost by sweating: 50%Specific


6
1
latent heat of vaporization of sweat: 2.26 10 J kg
Using the information above, and your answer to (b) (i), estimate
the mass of sweat evaporated from the runner.
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(3)

(iii) State and explain two factors that affect the rate of evaporation
of sweat from the skin of the runner.
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(4)
(Total 25 marks)

26. This question is about nuclear reactions.


(a)

Complete the table below, by placing a tick () in the relevant columns,


to show how an increase in each of the following properties affects the
rate of decay of a sample of radioactive material.

Property

Effect on rate
of decay
increase

decrease

stays the same

temperature of
sample
pressure on
sample
amount of
sample
(2)

Radium-226 (Ra) undergoes natural radioactive decay to disintegrate


spontaneously with the emission of an alpha particle (-particle) to form

radon (Rn). The decay constant for this reaction is 4.30 10


masses of the particles involved in the reaction are

yr . The

radium:

226.0254 u

radon:

222.0176 u

-particle:

(b)

4.0026 u

(i)

Explain what is meant by the statement that the decay constant is


4
1
4.30 10 yr .
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(2)

(ii)

Calculate the energy released in the reaction.


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(3)

(c)

The radium nucleus was stationary before the reaction.


(i)

Explain, in terms of the momentum of the particles, why the radon


nucleus and the -particle move off in opposite directions after
the reaction.
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(3)

(ii)

The speed of the radon nucleus after the reaction is vR and that of
the -particle is v. Determine the ratio .
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(3)

A college has been using a sample of radium-226 as an -particle source for


30 years. Initially, the mass of radium was 15.0 g.
(d)

Determine
(i)

the initial number of atoms of radium-226 in the sample;


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(ii)

the number of atoms of radium-226 in the sample after 30 years;


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(iii) the average activity of the sample during the 30 year period.
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(6)

(e)

The -particle is composed of protons and neutrons. Describe, by


reference to the structure of the proton and the neutron, why they are
not classed as fundamental particles.
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(3)

Another type of nuclear reaction is a fusion reaction. This reaction is the


main source of the Suns radiant energy.
(f)

(i)

State what is meant by a fusion reaction.

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(3)

(ii)

Explain why the temperature and pressure of the gases in the


Suns core must both be very high for it to produce its radiant
energy.
High temperature:
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High pressure:
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(5)
(Total 30 marks)

27. Some students were asked to design and carry out an experiment to
determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of water. They set up the
apparatus shown below.

The current was switched on and maintained constant using the variable
resistor. The readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter were noted. When
the water was boiling steadily, the reading of the top-pan balance was taken
and, simultaneously, a stopwatch was started. The reading of the top-pan
balance was taken again after 200 seconds and then after a further 200
seconds.
The change in reading of the top-pan balance during each 200 second
interval was calculated and an average found. The power of the heater was
calculated by multiplying together the readings of the voltmeter and the
ammeter.

(a)

Suggest how the students would know when the water was boiling
steadily.
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(1)

(b)

Explain why a reading of the mass lost in the first 200 seconds and
then a reading of the mass lost in the next 200 second interval were
taken, rather than one single reading of the mass lost in 400 seconds.
(2)

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The students repeated the experiment for different powers supplied to the
heater. A graph of the power of the heater against the mass of water lost
(the change in balance reading) in 200 seconds was plotted. The results are
shown below. (Error bars showing the uncertainties in the measurements
are not shown.)

(c)

(i)

On the graph above, draw the best-fit straight line for the data
points.
(1)

(ii)

Determine the gradient of the line you have drawn.


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(3)

In order to find a value for the specific latent heat of vaporization L, the
students used the equation
P = mL,
where P is the power of the heater and m is the mass of water evaporated
per second.
(d)

Use your answer for the gradient of the graph to determine a value for
the specific latent heat of vaporization of water.
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(3)

(e)

The theory of the experiment would suggest that the graph line should
pass through the origin. Explain briefly why the graph does not pass
through the origin.
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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

28. This question is about work, energy and power.


(a)

Define the work done by a force.


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(2)

A body of mass m is in a gravitational field of strength g. The body is moved


through a distance h at constant speed v in the opposite direction to the
field.
(b)

Derive an expression in terms of


(i)

m, g and h, for the work done on the body;


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(2)

(ii)

m, g and v, for the power required to move the body.


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(2)

(c)

A mass falls near the Earths surface at constant speed in still air.
Discuss the energy changes, if any, that occur in the gravitational
potential energy and in the kinetic energy of the mass.
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(3)

A sample of an ideal gas is contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston, as


shown below.

(d)

(i)

Explain, in terms of molecules, what is meant by the internal


energy of the gas.
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(2)

(ii)

The piston is suddenly moved inwards, decreasing the volume of


the gas. By considering the speeds of molecules, suggest why the
temperature of the gas changes.
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(5)

(iii) The gas now expands at constant pressure p so that the volume
increases by an amount V. Derive an expression for the work
done by the gas.
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(4)

An engine operates by using an isolated mass of an ideal gas. The gas is


compressed adiabatically and then it is heated at constant volume. The gas
gains 310 J of energy during the heating process. The gas then expands
adiabatically. Finally, the gas is cooled so that it returns to its original state.
During the cooling process, 100 J of energy is extracted. The cycle is shown
below.

(e)

(i)

Mark, on the diagram, arrows to show the direction of operation of


the stages of the cycle.
(1)

(ii)

Using data for point A, calculate the number of moles of gas.


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(2)

(iii) Determine the temperature of the gas at point B in the cycle.


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(2)

(iv) State what is represented by the area ABCD on the diagram and
give the value of this quantity.
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(2)

(v)

Calculate the efficiency of the engine.


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(3)
(Total 30 marks)

29. This question is about estimating the area of solar panels and the diameter
of a wind turbine.
It is suggested that a combination of solar power and wind power be used to
provide the hot water system in a house.
An active solar heater is to provide the energy to heat the water. A wind
turbine is to provide the energy to pump the water.
Solar heater
The following data are available:
3

volume of hot water tank

= 1.2 m

density of water

= 1.0 10 kg m

initial temperature of the water

= 10C

final temperature of the water

= 40C

specific heat capacity of water

= 4.2 10 J kg

1 1

average power per unit area from the Sun = 0.80 kW m


time required to heat the water

(a)

= 2.0 hours

Using the above data,


(i)

deduce that 1.5 10 J of energy is required to heat the volume


of water in the tank from 10C to 40C.
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(2)

(ii)

estimate the minimum area of the solar panel needed to provide


8
1.5 10 J of energy in 2.0 hours.
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(2)

(iii) discuss whether, in this situation, using a solar panel to heat the
water is a sensible method.
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(2)

Wind turbine
The following data are available:
power of solar heater pump = 0.4 kW

(b)

(i)

average local wind speed

= 6.0 m s

average density of air

= 1.0 kg m

Using the above data, estimate the minimum radius of the wind
turbine needed to provide the power required to drive the solar
heater pump.
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(3)

(ii)

Discuss whether, in this situation, using a wind turbine to pump


the water is a sensible method.
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(1)
(Total 10 marks)

30. (a)

A small lump of ice (a hailstone) at 0C falls to the Earths surface.


When the hailstone hits the surface, all of the kinetic energy of the
hailstone is transferred to thermal energy in the ice. Calculate the
minimum speed of the hailstone so that it just melts when it hits the
1
surface. The specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 340 kJ kg .
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(3)

(b)

By reference to your answer in (a), suggest whether hailstones are


likely to melt on hitting the Earths surface.
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

31. This question is about wind turbines.


(a)

State two factors that affect the maximum theoretical power output of
a wind turbine.
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(2)

A wind farm is to be built to supply electrical energy to a small town. The


following data is available.

Energy consumption for the town for 1 year


= 5.0 10 kWhLength of

turbine blade
= 20.0 mAverage wind speed = 8.0 ms
1
3
7
Density of air
= 1.1 kg m 1 year
= 3.2 10 s

(b)

Deduce from this data that approximately 16 wind turbines are


required.
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(5)

(c)

State three reasons why in fact more than 16 turbines will be needed.
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(3)
(Total 10 marks)

32. This question is about the change of phase (state) of ice.


A quantity of crushed ice is removed from a freezer and placed in a
calorimeter. Thermal energy is supplied to the ice at a constant rate. To
ensure that all the ice is at the same temperature, it is continually stirred.
The temperature of the contents of the calorimeter is recorded every 15
seconds.
The graph below shows the variation with time t of the temperature of the
contents of the calorimeter. (Uncertainties in the measured quantities are
not shown.)

(a)

On the graph above, mark with an X, the data point on the graph at
which all the ice has just melted.
(1)

(b)

Explain, with reference to the energy of the molecules, the constant


temperature region of the graph.
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(3)

The mass of the ice is 0.25 kg and the specific heat capacity of water is
1 1
4200 J kg K .
(c)

Use these data and data from the graph to


(i)

deduce that energy is supplied to the ice at the rate of about 530
W.
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(3)

(ii)

determine the specific heat capacity of ice.


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(3)

(iii) determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.


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..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

33. This question is about the change of phase (state) of ice.


A quantity of crushed ice is removed from a freezer and placed in a
calorimeter. Thermal energy is supplied to the ice at a constant rate. To
ensure that all the ice is at the same temperature, it is continually stirred.
The temperature of the contents of the calorimeter is recorded every 15
seconds.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the temperature of the
contents of the calorimeter. (Uncertainties in the measured quantities are
not shown.)

(a)

On the graph above, mark with an X, the data point on the graph at
which all the ice has just melted.
(1)

(b)

Explain, with reference to the energy of the molecules, the constant


temperature region of the graph.
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....................
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....................
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....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(3)

The mass of the ice is 0.25 kg and the specific heat capacity of water is
1 1
4200 Jkg K .
(c)

Use these data and data from the graph to


(i)

deduce that energy is supplied to the ice at the rate of about 530
W.
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..................
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..................
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..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(3)

(ii)

determine the specific heat capacity of ice.


.........................................................................................................
..................
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..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(3)

(iii) determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................

(2)

(d)

State what property of the molecules of the ice is measured by a


change in entropy.
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(e)

State, in terms of entropy change, the second law of thermodynamics.


.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(f)

State what happens to the entropy of water as it freezes. Outline how


this change in entropy is consistent with the second law of
thermodynamics.
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(4)
(Total 18 marks)

34. This question is about specific heat capacity and specific latent heat.
(a)

Define specific heat capacity.


.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(b)

Explain briefly why the specific heat capacity of different substances

such as aluminium and water are not equal in value.


.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(2)

A quantity of water at temperature is placed in a pan and heated at a


constant rate until some of the water has turned into steam. The boiling
point of the water is 100C.
(c)

(i)

Using the axes below, draw a sketch-graph to show the variation


with time t of the temperature of the water. (Note: this is a
sketch-graph; you do not need to add any values to the axes.)
(1)

(ii)

Describe in terms of energy changes, the molecular behaviour of


water and steam during the heating process.
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..................
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..................
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(5)

Thermal energy is supplied to the water in the pan for 10 minutes at a


constant rate of 400 W. The thermal capacity of the pan is negligible.
(d)

(i)

Deduce that the total energy supplied in 10 minutes is 2.4 10 J.

.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(ii)

Using the data below, estimate the mass of water turned into
steam as a result of this heating process.
initial mass of water

= 0.30 kg

initial temperature of the water

= 20C

specific heat capacity of water

= 4.2 10 J kg

specific latent heat of vaporization of water


1

1
6

= 2.3 10 Jkg

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..................
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..................
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.........................................................................................................
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(3)

(iii) Suggest one reason why this mass is an estimate.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
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(1)
(Total 14 marks)

35. This question is about an experiment to measure the temperature of a


flame.
(a)

Define heat (thermal) capacity.


.................................................................................................................

....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

A piece of metal is held in the flame of a Bunsen burner for several minutes.
The metal is then quickly transferred to a known mass of water contained in
a calorimeter.

The water into which the metal has been placed is stirred until it reaches a
steady temperature.

(b)

Explain why
(i)

the metal is transferred as quickly as possible from the flame to


the water;
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(ii)

the water is stirred.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

The following data are available:


heat capacity of metal

= 82.7 J K

1
2

heat capacity of the water in the calorimeter


heat capacity of the calorimeter

= 54.6 J K

initial temperature of the water

= 288 K

final temperature of the water

= 353 K

= 5.46 10 J K
1

(c)

Assuming negligible energy losses in the processes involved, use the


data to calculate the temperature T of the Bunsen flame.
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.................................................................................................................
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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

36. This question is about nuclear power and thermodynamics.


A fission reaction taking place in the core of a nuclear power reactor is

(i)

State one form in which energy is released in this reaction.


.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(ii)

Explain why, for fission reactions to be maintained, the mass of the


uranium fuel must be above a certain minimum amount.
.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(2)

(iii) The neutrons produced in the fission reaction are fast moving. In order
for a neutron to fission U-235 the neutron must be slow moving. Name
the part of the nuclear reactor in which neutrons are slowed down.
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

19

(iv) In a particular reactor approximately 8.0 10 fissions per second


take place. Deduce the mass of U-235 that undergoes fission per year.
.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

37. This question is about wind power.


(a)

A wind turbine produces 15 kW of electric power at a wind speed v.


(i)

Assuming a constant efficiency for the wind turbine, determine


the power output of the turbine for a wind speed of 2v.
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest two reasons why all the kinetic energy of the incident
wind cannot be converted into mechanical energy in the turbine.
1.

.................................................................................................
................
.................................................................................................
................

2.

.................................................................................................
................
.................................................................................................
................
(2)

(b)

State and explain one advantage of using wind power to generate


electrical energy as compared to using fossil fuels.
.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
....................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

38. Data analysis question


At high pressures, a real gas does not behave as an ideal gas. For a certain
range of pressures, it is suggested that the relation between the pressure P
and volume V of one mole of the gas at constant temperature is given by
the equation
PV = A + BP
where A and B are constants.
In an experiment to measure the deviation of nitrogen gas from ideal gas
behaviour, 1 mole of nitrogen gas was compressed at a constant
temperature of 150 K. The volume V of the gas was measured for different
values of the pressure P. A graph of the product PV of pressure and volume
was plotted against the pressure P and is shown below. (Error bars showing
the uncertainties in measurements are not shown).

(a)

Draw a line of best fit for the data points.


(1)

(b)

Use the graph to determine the values of the constants A and B in the
equation
PV = A + BP.
Constant A
...........................................................
......

...........................................................
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......
Constant B
...........................................................
......
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......
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......
...........................................................
......
(5)

(c)

State the value of the constant B for an ideal gas.


.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(d)

The equation PV = A + BP is valid for pressures up to 6.0 10 Pa.


(i)

Determine the value of PV for nitrogen gas at a pressure of 6.0


7
10 Pa.
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the difference between the value of PV for an ideal gas

and nitrogen gas when both are at a pressure of 6.0 10 Pa.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(e)

In the original experiment, the pressure P was measured to an


accuracy of 5% and the volume V was measured to an accuracy of 2%.
Determine the absolute error in the value of the constant A.
.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 14 marks)

39. This question is about driving a metal bar into the ground and the engine
used in the process.
Large metal bars can be driven into the ground using a heavy falling object.

In the situation shown, the object has a mass 2.0 10 kg and the metal
bar has a mass of 400 kg.
1

The object strikes the bar at a speed of 6.0 m s It comes to rest on the bar
without bouncing. As a result of the collision, the bar is driven into the
ground to a depth of 0.75 m.
(a)

Determine the speed of the bar immediately after the object strikes it.
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(4)

(b)

Determine the average frictional force exerted by the ground on the


bar.
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.................................................................................................................
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(3)

(c)

The object is raised by a diesel engine that has a useful power output
of 7.2 kW.
1

In order that the falling object strikes the bar at a speed of 6.0 m s , it
must be raised to a certain height above the bar. Assuming that there
are no energy losses due to friction, calculate how long it takes the
engine to raise the object to this height.
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(4)

The diagram below shows the relation between the pressure and the volume
of the air in the diesel engine for one cycle of operation of the engine.
During the cycle there are two adiabatic processes, an isochoric process and
an isobaric process.

(d)

Explain what is meant by


(i)

an adiabatic process;
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(ii)

an isochoric process;
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(iii) an isobaric process.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(e)

Identify, from the diagram, the following processes.


(i)

Adiabatic processes
.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(ii)

Isochoric process
.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(iii) Isobaric process


.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

During the process B C thermal energy is absorbed.


The diesel engine has a total power output of 8.4 kW and an efficiency of
40%. The cycle of operation is repeated 40 times every second.
(f)

State what quantity is represented on the diagram by the area ABCD.


.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(g)

Determine the value of the quantity that is represented by the area


ABCD.
.................................................................................................................
....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(h)

Determine the thermal energy absorbed during the process B C.


.................................................................................................................
....................
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.................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 22 marks)

40. This question is about thermal physics.


(a)

Explain why, when a liquid evaporates, the liquid cools unless thermal
energy is supplied to it.
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.................................................................................................................
....................

.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
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(3)

(b)

State two factors that cause an increase in the rate of evaporation of a


liquid.
1. .............................................................................................................
....................
2. .............................................................................................................
....................
(2)

(c)

Some data for ice and for water are given below.
Specific heat capacity of ice
capacity of water
of fusion of ice

= 2.1 10 J kg K Specific heat


3
1 1
= 4.2 10 J kg K Specific latent heat
5
1
= 3.3 10 J kg

A mass of 350 g of water at a temperature of 25C is placed in a


refrigerator that extracts thermal energy from the water at a rate of 86
W.
Calculate the time taken for the water to become ice at 5.0C.
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(4)
(Total 9 marks)

41. This question is about electrical components.


(a)

In the space below, draw a circuit diagram that could be used to


determine the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an electrical
component X.

(2)

The graph below shows the I-V characteristics for the component X.

The component X is now connected across the terminals of a battery of emf


6.0 V and negligible internal resistance.
(b)

Use the graph to determine


(i)

the current in component X;


.........................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(ii)

the resistance of component X.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

A resistor R of constant resistance 2.0 is now connected in series with


component X as shown below.

(c)

(i)

On the graph in (a), draw the I-V characteristics for the resistor R.
(2)

(ii)

Determine the total potential difference E that must be applied


across component X and across resistor R such that the current
through X and R is 3.0 A.
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(d)

(i)

A resistor is to be used as a temperature-measuring device. List


two desirable properties of such a device.
1. .....................................................................................................
..................
2. .....................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(ii)

Explain how a temperature scale could be constructed for this


resistance thermometer.
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(3)
(Total 14 marks)

42. This question is about wind energy.


It is required to design wind turbines for a wind farm for which the following
information is available.
Total required annual electrical energy output from the wind farm = 120 TJ
Maximum number of turbines for which there is space on the farm = 20
1
Average annual wind speed at the site
= 9.0 m s
(a)

Deduce that the average power output required from one turbine is
0.19 MW.
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....................
.................................................................................................................
....................
(3)

(b)

Estimate the blade radius of the wind turbine that will give a power
3
output of 0.19 MW. (Density of air = 1.2 kg m )
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....................
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....................
.................................................................................................................
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(3)

(c)

State one reason why your answer to (b) is only an estimate.


.................................................................................................................
....................

.................................................................................................................
....................
(1)

(d)

Discuss briefly one disadvantage of generating power from wind


energy.
.................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

43. This question is about ideal gases and specific heat capacity.
(a)

(i)

State, in terms of kinetic theory, what is meant by an ideal gas.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(3)

(ii)

Explain why the internal energy of an ideal gas is kinetic energy


only.
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

A fixed mass of an ideal gas has a volume of 870 cm at a pressure of 1.00


5
10 Pa and a temperature of 20.0C. The gas is heated at constant
pressure to a temperature of 21.0C.

(b)

(i)

Calculate the change in volume of the gas.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(3)

(ii)

Determine the external work done during this process.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(c)

(i)

Define specific heat capacity.


.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(ii)

Explain what happens to the molecules of an ideal gas when the


temperature of the gas is increased at constant volume.
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(iii) Apply the first law of thermodynamics to show that, if the


temperature of a gas is raised at constant pressure, the specific
heat capacity of the gas is different from that when the
temperature is raised at constant volume.
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................
.........................................................................................................
..................

(3)
(Total 17 marks)

44. The physics of cooling


(a)

Explain what is meant by the temperature of a substance.


.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
(2)

A thermometer is placed in a liquid contained in an open beaker. The


reading of the thermometer is recorded at regular intervals. The variation
with time t of the temperature is shown below.

(b)

The temperature of the surroundings is 20C. On the graph continue


the line to show the variation with time of the temperature for the next
3000 s.
(2)

(c)

By reference to the graph, state and explain the rate of loss of thermal
energy from the substance between
(i)

0 and 600 s;
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)

(ii)

600 and 1800 s.


.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(4)

The mass of the liquid is 0.11 kg and the specific heat capacity of the liquid
1 1
is 1300 J kg K .
(d)

(i)

Use the graph to deduce that the rate of loss of thermal energy at
time t = 600 s is approximately 4 W.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(3)

(ii)

Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion of the liquid.


.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(3)
(Total 16 marks)

45. The physics of cooling


(a)

Explain what is meant by the temperature of a substance.


.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
(2)

A thermometer is placed in a liquid contained in an open beaker. The


reading of the thermometer is recorded at regular intervals. The variation
with time t of the temperature is shown below.

(b)

The temperature of the surroundings is 20C. On the graph continue


the line to show the variation with time of the temperature for the next
3000 s.
(2)

(c)

By reference to the graph, state and explain the rate of loss of thermal
energy from the substance between
(i)

0 and 600 s;
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)

(ii)

600 and 1800 s.


.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(4)

The mass of the liquid is 0.11 kg and the specific heat capacity of the liquid
1 1
is 1300 J kg K .
(d)

(i)

Use the graph to deduce that the rate of loss of thermal energy at
time t = 600 s is approximately 4 W.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................

.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(3)

(ii)

Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion of the liquid.


.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(3)
(Total 16 marks)

46. This question is about specific heat capacity and a domestic shower.
(a)

Define the term specific heat capacity.


.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
(1)

(b)

Equal masses of two different solid substances A and B are at the same
temperature. The specific heat capacity of substance A is greater than
the specific heat capacity of substance B. The two substances now
have their temperatures raised by the same amount.
Explain which substance will have the greater increase in internal
energy assuming both remain in the solid phase.
.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................
.................................................................................................................
..................

.................................................................................................................
..................
(2)

(c)

In an experiment to measure the specific heat capacity of a metal, a


piece of the metal is immersed in boiling water and left there for
several minutes. It is then transferred quickly into some cold water in a
calorimeter. The water is stirred and the maximum temperature of the
water is recorded.
(i)

State why the metal is left in the boiling water for several
minutes.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(1)

(ii)

Write down a word equation for the thermal energy QM lost by the
metal to the water.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(1)

(iii) Write down a word equation for the thermal energy QW gained by
the water in the calorimeter.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(1)

(iv) A value of the specific heat capacity of the metal may be


calculated from (ii) and (iii) by assuming that QM = QW.
State why in practice, this assumption leads to an error in the
calculated value of the specific heat capacity.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(1)

(d)

The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a domestic


shower.

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating
element. The heating element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water
enters at a temperature of 14C and leaves at a temperature of 40C.
1 1
The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 103 J kg K .

(i)

Describe how thermal energy is transferred from the heating


element to the water.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(3)

(ii)

Estimate the flow rate in kg s

of the water.

.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
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................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(4)

(iii) Suggest two reasons why your answer to (b) is only an estimate.
1.

.................................................................................................
..............
.................................................................................................
..............

2.

.................................................................................................
..............
.................................................................................................
..............
(2)

(iv) Calculate the current in the heating element when the element is
operating at 7.2 kW.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)

(v)

Explain why, when the shower unit is switched on, the initial
current in the heating element is greater than the current
calculated in (iv).
.........................................................................................................
................

.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)

(e)

In some countries, shower units are operated from a 110 V supply. A


heating element operating with a 240 V supply has resistance R 240 and
an element operating from a 110 V supply has resistance R 110.
(i)

Deduce, that for heating elements to have identical power outputs

.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
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................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(3)

(ii)

Using the ratio in (i), describe and explain one disadvantage of


using a 110 V supply for domestic purposes.
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
.........................................................................................................
................
(2)
(Total 25 marks)

47. Heating water electrically


The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a domestic shower.

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating
element. The heating element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water enters at
a temperature of 14C and leaves at a temperature of 40C. The specific
3
1 1
heat capacity of water is 4.2 10 J kg K .
(a)

Describe how thermal energy is transferred from the heating element


to the water.
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(3)

(b)

Estimate the flow rate in kg s

of the water.

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(4)

(c)

Suggest two reasons why your answer to (b) is only an estimate.


1.

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2.

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(2)

(d)

Calculate the current in the heating element when the element is


operating at 7.2 kW.
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(2)

(e)

Explain why, when the shower unit is switched on, the initial current in
the heating element is greater than the current calculated in (d).
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(2)

(f)

In some countries, shower units are operated from a 110 V supply. A


heating element operating with a 240 V supply has resistance R240 and
an element operating from a 110 V supply has resistance R110.
(i)

Deduce, that for heating elements to have identical power outputs

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(3)

(ii)

Using the ratio in (i), describe and explain one disadvantage of


using a 110 V supply for domestic purposes.
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(2)
(Total 18 marks)

48. This question is about mechanical power and heat engines.

Mechanical power
(a)

Define power.
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(1)

(b)

A car is travelling with constant speed v along a horizontal straight


road. There is a total resistive force F acting on the car.
Deduce that the power P to overcome the force F is
P = Fv.
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(2)

(c)

A car drives up a straight incline that is 4.80 km long. The total height
of the incline is 0.30 km.

The car moves up the incline at a steady speed of 16 m s . During the


2
climb, the average resistive force acting on the car is 5.0 10 N. The
4
total weight of the car and the driver is 1.2 10 N.
(i)

Determine the time it takes the car to travel from the bottom to
the top of the incline.
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(2)

(ii)

Determine the work done against the gravitational force in


travelling from the bottom to the top of the incline.
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(1)

(iii) Using your answers to (i) and (ii), calculate a value for the
minimum power output of the car engine needed to move the car
from the bottom to the top of the incline.
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(4)

(d)

From the top of the incline, the road continues downwards in a straightline. At the point where the incline starts to go downwards, the driver
of the car in (c) stops the car to look at the view. In continuing his
journey, the driver decides to save fuel. He switches off the engine and
allows the car to move freely down the incline. The car descends a
height of 0.30 km in a distance of 6.40 km before levelling out.

The average resistive force acting on the car is 5.0 10 N.


Estimate
(i)

the acceleration of the car down the incline;


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(5)

(ii)

the speed of the car at the bottom of the incline.


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(2)

(e)

In fact, for the last few hundred metres of its journey down the incline,
the car travels at constant speed. State the value of the frictional force
acting on the car whilst it is moving at constant speed.
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..................
(1)

The heat engine


(f)

The diagram below shows the idealised pressure-volume (P-V) diagram


for one cycle of the gases in an engine similar to that used in the car.

The changes A B and C D are adiabatic changes.


(i)

Explain what is meant by an adiabatic change.


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(2)

(ii)

State the name given to the change B C.


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(1)

(g)

The useful power output of the engine is 20 kW and the overall


efficiency of the engine is 32. The car engine completes 50 cycles
every second. Deduce that QH = 1.3 kJ.
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(3)
(Total 24 marks)

49. This question is about temperature and internal energy.


Two solid copper spheres, having different radii, undergo the same
temperature change. A student states that the change in internal energy of
the two objects would be the same. Briefly discuss this statement.
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(Total 3 marks)

50. This question is about temperature, internal energy and thermodynamics.


(a)

Two solid objects undergo the same temperature change. A student


states that the change in internal energy of the two objects would be
the same.
Briefly discuss this statement.
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(3)

(b)

(i)

State, in terms of entropy change, the second law of


thermodynamics.
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(1)

(ii)

When an ice crystal forms from liquid water, the entropy of the
water decreases.
By reference to the second law, discuss the entropy change.
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(3)

(c)

The diagram below shows the relation between the pressure P and the
volume V of an ideal gas for one cycle ABCDA of a Carnot cycle.

For the change from B to C,


(i)

state the name of this change;


.........................................................................................................
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(1)

(ii)

discuss, by reference to the first law of thermodynamics, the


transfers of energy.
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(3)
(Total 11 marks)

51. Specific latent heat


(a)

Define specific latent heat of fusion.


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(1)

(b)

Solar radiation is incident on a pond of area 12 m . The pond is covered


by a layer of ice of thickness 3.0 cm. The temperature of the ice is
0.0C.
(i)

The density of ice is 900 kg m . Deduce that the mass of ice on


the pond is approximately 320 kg.
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(2)

(ii)

The average power per unit area incident on the ice over a period
2
of 6.0 hours is 340 W m . Deduce that the energy incident on the
7
pond in this time is 8.8 10 J.
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(1)

(iii) The specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 330 kJ kg . Determine


whether all the ice on the pond will melt in the 6.0 hour time
period.
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(2)

(iv) State one assumption you made in reaching your answer to (b)
(iii).
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(1)

(c)

During the night, the air temperature drops to 5C. The ice that
melted during the day freezes again. Outline one mechanism by which
thermal energy is lost by the ice.
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

52. Gases and liquids


(a)

Describe two differences, in terms of molecular structure, between a


gas and a liquid.
1.

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2.

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(2)

(b)

The temperture of an ideal gas is a measure of the average kinetic


energy of the molecules of the gas. Explain why the average kinetic
energy is specified.
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(2)

(c)

Define heat (thermal) capacity.


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(1)

(d)

Water is heated at a constant rate in a container that has negligible


heat capacity. The container is thermally insulated from the
surroundings.
The sketch-graph below shows the variation with time of the
temperature of the water.

The following data are available:


initial mass of water
= 0.40 kg
initial temp of water
= 20C
rate at which water is heated
= 300 W
3
1
1
specific heat capacity of water
= 4.2 10 J kg C
(i)

State the reason why the temperature is constant in the region


AB.
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(1)

(ii)

Calculate the temperature at which the water starts to boil.


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(5)

(e)

All the water is boiled away 3.0 10 s after it first starts to boil.
Determine a value for the specific latent heat L of vaporization of
water.
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(2)
(Total 13 marks)

53. This question is about Newtons laws of motion, the dynamics of a model
helicopter and the engine that powers it.
(a)

Explain how Newtons third law leads to the concept of conservation of


momentum in the collision between two objects in an isolated system.
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(4)

(b)

The diagram illustrates a model helicopter that is hovering in a


stationary position.

The rotating blades of the helicopter force a column of air to move


downwards. Explain how this may enable the helicopter to remain
stationary.
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(3)

(c)

The length of each blade of the helicopter in (b) is 0.70 m. Deduce that
2
the area that the blades sweep out as they rotate is 1.5 m . (Area of a
2
circle = r )
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(1)

(d)

For the hovering helicopter in (b), it is assumed that all the air beneath
the blades is pushed vertically downwards with the same speed of 4.0
1
m s . No other air is disturbed.
3

The density of the air is 1.2 kg m .


Calculate, for the air moved downwards by the rotating blades,
(i)

the mass per second;


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(2)

(ii)

the rate of change of momentum.


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(1)

(e)

State the magnitude of the force that the air beneath the blades exerts
on the blades.
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(1)

(f)

Calculate the mass of the helicopter and its load.


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(2)

(g)

In order to move forward, the helicopter blades are made to incline at


an angle to the horizontal as shown schematically below.

While moving forward, the helicopter does not move vertically up or


down. In the space provided below draw a free body force diagram that
shows the forces acting on the helicopter blades at the moment that
the helicopter starts to move forward. On your diagram, label the
angle.
(4)

(h)

Use your diagram in (g) to explain why a forward force F now acts on
the helicopter and deduce that the initial acceleration a of the
helicopter is given by
a = g tan
where g is the acceleration of free fall.
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(5)

(i)

The helicopter is driven by an engine that has a useful power output of


2
9.0 10 W. The engine makes 300 revolutions per second. Deduce that
the work done in one cycle is 3.0 J.
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(1)

(j)

The diagram below shows the relation between the pressure and the
volume of the air in the engine for one cycle of operation of the engine.

(i)

State the name given to the type of process represented by DA.


.........................................................................................................
................
(1)

(ii)

During one cycle of the engine, the gas absorbs Q1 units of


thermal energy and Q2 units of thermal energy are transferred
from the gas. On the diagram above, draw labelled arrows to show
these energy transfers.
(2)

(iii) The efficiency of the engine is 60. Using your answer to question
(i), calculate the values of Q1 and Q2.
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(3)
(Total 30 marks)

54. Temperature and thermal energy


(a)

Outline how a temperature scale is constructed.


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(2)

(b)

Discuss why even an accurate thermometer may affect the reliability of


a temperature reading.
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(2)

(c)

(i)

Define specific heat capacity.


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(2)

(ii)

The table below gives data for water and ice.


1

specific heat capacity of water

4.2 kJ kg

specific latent heat of fusion of ice

330 kJ kg

A beaker contains 450 g of water at a temperature of 24C. The


thermal (heat) capacity of the beaker is negligible and no heat is
gained by, or lost to, the atmosphere. Calculate the mass of ice,
initially at 0C, that must be mixed with the water so that the final
temperature of the contents of the beaker is 8.0C.
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(4)

(d)

(i)

Distinguish between evaporation and boiling.


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(2)

(ii)

Explain, in terms of molecular behaviour, why boiling involves a


transfer of thermal energy with no change in temperature.
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(3)
(Total 15 marks)

55. Magnetic and electrical force fields


A proton is accelerated from rest in a vacuum through a potential difference
of 420 V. The proton then enters a region ABCD of uniform magnetic field as
shown.

The magnetic field is directed into the plane of the paper. The field strength
is 15 mT.
(a)

(i)

Calculate the speed of the proton as it enters the region of the


magnetic field.
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(2)

(ii)

The path of the proton as drawn on the diagram is in the plane of


the paper. The proton enters the region ABCD of the magnetic
field and leaves through the side BC. On the diagram above, draw
the path of the proton within and beyond the region ABCD of the
magnetic field. Label the path P.
(2)

(iii) Determine the magnitude of the force due to the magnetic field
that acts on the proton while the proton is in the region ABCD.
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(2)

(b)

A uniform electric field is applied in the region ABCD. A second proton


enters the region ABCD with the same velocity as the proton in (a). The
electric field is adjusted so that, as the proton enters this region, the
force on the proton due to the electric field is equal but opposite in
direction to the force due to the magnetic field.
(i)

On the diagram provided on page 22, draw an arrow to show the


direction of the electric field. Label this arrow E.
(1)

(ii)

Determine the magnitude of the electric field strength.


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(2)

(c)

(i)

State Lenzs law.


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(2)

(ii)

Explain how Lenzs law is consistent with the law of conservation


of energy.
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(2)

(d)

A rectangular window PQRS has a metal frame. The window is hinged


on the vertical side RS as shown below.

The window has width RQ of 32 cm and height PQ of 95 cm. When


closed, the window is normal to the horizontal component of the
Earths magnetic field of field strength 18 T. The window is opened
through an angle of 90 in a time of 0.34 s.

(i)

Assuming that the flux linkage changes at a constant rate,


calculate the emf induced in the frame of the window as it is
being opened.
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(3)

(ii)

State across which parts of the frame the emf is induced. Explain
your reasoning.
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(2)

(iii) Outline whether a vertical magnetic field, parallel to PQ and RS,


would result in an induced emf as the window is opened.
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(2)
(Total 20 marks)

56. This question is about the breaking distance of a car and specific heat
capacity.
(a)

A car of mass 960 kg is free-wheeling down an incline at a constant


1
speed of 9.0 m s .

The slope makes an angle of 15 with the horizontal.

(i)

Deduce that the average resistive force acting on the car is


3
2.410 N.
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(2)

(ii)

Calculate the kinetic energy of the car.


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(1)

(b)

The driver now applies the brakes and the car comes to rest in 15 m.
Use your answer to (a)(ii) to calculate the average braking force
exerted on the car in coming to rest.
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(2)

(c)

The same braking force is applied to each rear wheel of the car. The
effective mass of each brake is 5.2 kg with a specific heat capacity of
1 1
900 J kg K . Estimate the rise in temperature of a brake as the car
comes to rest. State one assumption that you make in your estimation.
estimate:
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assumption:
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(4)
(Total 9 marks)

57. This question is about latent heat and specific heat.


(a)

(i)

Define specific latent heat of vaporization.


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(2)

(ii)

Energy is supplied to a boiling liquid at a constant rate. Describe,


in terms of molecular behaviour, why the temperature of the
liquid remains constant.
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(3)

(b)

A student determines the latent heat of vaporization of water by an


electrical method. An electrical heater is used to boil water. When the
water is boiling at a steady rate, the mass of water evaporated per
minute is determined. The mass is determined for two different powers
of the heater and the results are shown in the table below.

power of heater / W

mass of water evaporated per


minute / g

80.035.0

1.890.70

The power of the heater is determined using an ammeter and a


voltmeter.

(i)

The heater is labelled 9.0 V, 80.0W. In the space below, draw an


electrical circuit to show how the heater may be used correctly
with a constant 12 V supply to provide different powers to the
heater. Include the ammeter and voltmeter in your circuit.
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the current in the heater for a power output of 80.0W.


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(2)

(iii) Use the data in the table above to determine a value for the
specific latent heat of vaporization of water.
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(4)

(c)

In one particular make of electric kettle, the heater must always be


immersed in water when the kettle is in use. The minimum volume of
3
water that can be heated is 650 cm .
The kettle is used six times each day to boil water for a single cup of
3
3
tea. The cup has a volume of 350 cm . The mass of 1.0 cm of water is
1.0 g.
(i)

Calculate the mass of water that is heated, but not used, during
one day.
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(1)

(ii)

The initial temperature of the water in the kettle before heating is


3
1 1
18C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.210 Jkg K .
5
Deduce that the electrical energy wasted each day is 6.210 J.
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(1)

(iii) The cost of 1.0 MJ of electrical energy is 3.5 cents. Estimate the
cost of the energy that is used each year to heat water that is not
used to make tea.
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(2)
(Total 17 marks)

58. This question is about power and an ideal gas.


(a)

Define power.
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(1)

(b)

A constant force of magnitude F moves an object at constant speed v


in the direction of the force. Deduce that the power P required to
maintain constant speed is given by the expression
P = Fv
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(2)

(c)

Sand falls vertically on to a horizontal conveyor belt at a rate of 60 kg


1
s .

The conveyor belt that is driven by an engine, moves with speed 2.0 m
1
s .
When the sand hits the conveyor belt, its horizontal speed is zero.

(i)

Identify the force F that accelerates the sand to the speed of the
conveyor belt.
.........................................................................................................
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(1)

(ii)

Determine the magnitude of the force F.


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(2)

(iii) Calculate the power P required to move the conveyor belt at


constant speed.
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(1)

(iv) Determine the rate of change of kinetic energy K of the sand.


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(2)

(v)

Explain why P and K are not equal.


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(2)

(d)

The engine that drives the conveyor belt in (c) operates in a cycle. In
part of this cycle, air is compressed in a cylinder of the engine such
that the pressure and the temperature of the air increases. Assuming
that the air in the cylinder behaves as an ideal gas, outline how the
kinetic model of an ideal gas accounts for this increase in temperature
and pressure.
temperature:
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pressure:
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(7)
(Total 18 marks)

59. Specific heat and a domestic shower


(a)

Define specific heat capacity.


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(1)

(b)

Equal masses of two different solid substances A and B are at the same
temperature. The specific heat capacity of substance A is greater than
the specific heat capacity of substance B. The two substances now
have their temperatures raised by the same amount.
Explain which substance will have the greater increase in internal
energy assuming both remain in the solid phase.
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(2)

(c)

The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a


domestic shower.

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating
element. The heating element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water
enters at a temperature of 14C and leaves at a temperature of 40C.
1 1
The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 103 J kg K .
(i)

Estimate the flow rate of the water.


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(4)

(ii)

Suggest one reason why your answer to (c)(i) is only an estimate.


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(1)
(Total 8 marks)

60. Domestic shower


(a)

The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a domestic


shower.

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating
element. The heating element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water
enters at a temperature of 14C and leaves at a temperature of 40C.
3
1 1
The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 10 J kg K .
(i)

Define specific heat capacity.


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(1)

(ii)

Estimate the flow rate of the water.


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(4)

(iii) Suggest two reasons why your answer to (a)(ii) is only an


estimate.
1.

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..............

2.

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..............
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(2)

(iv) Calculate the current in the heating element when the element is
operating at 7.2 kW.
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(2)

(v)

Explain why, when the shower unit is switched on, the initial
current in the heating element is greater than the current
calculated in (a)(iv).
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(2)

(b)

In some countries, shower units are operated from a 110 V supply. A


heating element operating with a 240 V supply has resistance R240 and
an element operating from a 110 V supply has resistance R110.
Show that for heating elements to have identical power outputs

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(3)
(Total 14 marks)

61. A gas is contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston as shown below.

When the gas is compressed rapidly by the piston its temperature rises
because the molecules of the gas
A.

are squeezed closer together.

B.

collide with each other more frequently.

C.

collide with the walls of the container more frequently.

D.

gain energy from the moving piston.


(1)

62. Temperature is the only property that determines


A.

the total internal energy of a substance.

B.

the phase (state) of a substance.

C.

the direction of thermal energy transfer between two bodies in thermal


contact.

D.

the process by which a body loses thermal energy to the surroundings.


(1)

63. A substance is heated at a constant rate. The sketch graph shows the
variation with time t of the temperature of the substance.

In which region or regions of the graph must there be more than one phase
of the substance present?
A.

WX and YZ

B.

WX only

C.

WX, XY and YZ

D.

XY only
(1)

64. Two ideal gases X and Y, are contained in a cylinder at constant


temperature. The mass of the atoms of X is m and of Y is 4m.
Which one of the following is the correct value of the ratio

A.

B.

C.

D.

16
(1)

65. A gas is contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston as shown below.

When the gas is compressed rapidly by the piston its temperature rises
because the molecules of the gas
A.

are squeezed closer together.

B.

collide with each other more frequently.

C.

collide with the walls of the container more frequently.

D.

gain energy from the moving piston.


(1)

66. The specific heat capacity c of a solid block of mass m is determined by


heating the block and measuring its temperature. The graph below shows
the variation of the temperature T of the block with the thermal energy Q
transferred to the block.

The gradient of the line is equal to


A.
B.
C.

mc.

D.
(1)

67. For a system that undergoes a small change of state,


Q = U + W
where

+Q = thermal energy transferred to the system


+U = increase in internal energy of the system
+W = the work done by the system.

In an adiabatic compression of an ideal gas, which one of the following is


true in respect of Q, U and W?
Q

A.

Zero

Positiv
e

Negati
v
e

B.

Zero

Negati
v
e

Negati
v
e

C.

Positiv
e

Positiv
e

Positiv
e

D.

Negati
v
e

Zero

Positiv
e
(1)

68. The specific heat capacity of an object is defined as the thermal energy
required to raise the temperature of
A.

the volume of the object by 1 K.

B.

unit volume of the object by 1 K.

C.

the mass of the object by 1 K.

D.

unit mass of the object by 1 K.


(1)

69. The internal energy of a solid substance is equal to the


A.

average kinetic energy of the molecules.

B.

total kinetic energy of the molecules.

C.

total potential energy of the molecules.

D.

total potential and total kinetic energy of the molecules.


(1)

70. Which of the following correctly shows the changes, if any, in the potential
energy and in the kinetic energy of the molecules of a solid as it melts?
Potential energy

Kinetic energy

A.

Decreases

Increases

B.

Increases

Stays the same

C.

Stays the same

Decreases

D.

Stays the same

Stays the same


(1)

71. A large mass M of ice of specific latent heat L is at its melting point (0C). A
small mass m of water at C is poured on to the block of ice. The specific
heat capacity of water is S. Which one of the following is a correct
expression for the mass of ice melted?
A.
B.
C.
D.
(1)

72. The nuclear notation for lithium-7 is. Which one of the following is the mass
of 1 mol of lithium-7?
A.

10 g

B.

7g

C.

4g

D.

3g
(1)

73. A lump of metal is initially at a temperature of 100C. The metal is heated so


that its temperature rises by degrees, as measured on the Celsius scale.
The rise in temperature, as measured on the Kelvin scale is
A.

273.

B.

C.

+ 273.

D.

+ 373.

(1)

74. A metal ball at a temperature of 200C is suspended in an evacuated


container. The walls of the container are kept at a constant temperature of
100C.

Which one of the following statements about the temperature of the ball is
correct?
A.

It will eventually reach absolute zero.

B.

It will remain constant at 200C.

C.

It will eventually become 100C.

D.

It will eventually reach a constant temperature between 200C and


100C.
(1)

75. The heat capacity of a solid body is defined as


A.

the thermal energy required to increase the bodys temperature by one


degree.

B.

the maximum thermal energy that must be supplied to melt the solid.

C.

the total kinetic energy of the solids molecules.

D.

the average kinetic energy of the solids molecules.


(1)

76. A fixed quantity of an ideal gas is compressed at constant temperature. The


best explanation for the increase in pressure is that the molecules
A.

are moving faster.

B.

are colliding more frequently with the container walls.

C.

exert greater forces on each other.

D.

are colliding more frequently with each other.


(1)

77. A string is held horizontally with one end attached to a fixed support. Two
pulses are created at the free end of the string. The pulses are moving
towards the fixed support as shown in the diagram below.

Which one of the following diagrams is a possible subsequent picture of the


string?
(1)

78. Which one of the following correctly describes the changes, if any, of the
kinetic energy and the potential energy of the molecules of a liquid as it is
boiling?
Kinetic energy

Potential energy

A.

increases

increases

B.

increases

stays constant

C.

stays constant

increases

D.

stays constant

stays constant
(1)

79. A well-insulated container is divided into two equal volumes by a wall. In one
half there is an ideal gas and the other is a vacuum as shown below.

The wall is now removed. Which one of the following correctly gives the
changes, if any, that take place in the internal energy and entropy of the
gas?
Internal energy

Entropy

A.

stays the same

stays the same

B.

stays the same

increases

C.

decreases

stays the same

D.

decreases

increases
(1)

80. Two objects X and Y are made of the same material. Object X is more
massive than object Y. Both objects are at the same temperature.
Which of the following correctly compares the average kinetic energy and
also the total energy of the molecules in the objects?
average kinetic
energy of the
molecules in X and Y

total energy of the


molecules inX and Y

A.

same

greater in X than in Y

B.

same

less in X than in Y

C.

greater in X than in Y

same

D.

less in X than in Y

same
(1)

81. A gas is contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston as shown below.

When the gas is compressed rapidly by the piston its temperature rises
because the molecules of the gas
A.

are squeezed closer together.

B.

collide with each other more frequently.

C.

collide with the walls of the container more frequently.

D.

gain energy from the moving piston.


(1)

82. Which of the following correctly describes the changes in the kinetic energy
of the molecules and the potential energy of the molecules as a liquid
changes phase to a gas?
kinetic energy of the
molecules

potential energy of
themolecules

A.

no change

increases

B.

no change

no change

C.

increases

increases

D.

increases

no change
(1)

83. The length of the mercury column in a thermometer is L100 at 100C and L0
at 0C.
Which of the following gives the temperature when the length of the
mercury column is LT?
A.
B.
C.
D.
(1)

84. An ideal gas is contained in a cylinder by a piston. The volume of the gas is
decreased by moving the piston rapidly in the direction shown.

The average speed of the gas molecules is initially increased because the
molecules
A.

have a smaller volume in which to move.

B.

make more collisions in unit time with the cylinder walls and piston.

C.

have energy transferred to them as they collide with the moving


piston.

D.

make more collisions with each other in unit time.


(1)

85. A metal block of mass M is heated. The graph shows the variation with
thermal energy H supplied to the block of its temperature rise .

The gradient of the straight-line graph is n. The specific heat capacity of the
metal is
A.
B.
C.

Mn.

D.

n.
(1)

86. When the volume of a fixed mass of an ideal gas is reduced at constant
temperature, the pressure of the gas increases.
This pressure increase occurs because the atoms of the gas
A.

collide more frequently with each other.

B.

collide more frequently with the walls of the containing vessel.

C.

are spending more time in contact with the walls of the containing
vessel.

D.

are moving with a higher mean speed.


(1)

87. A metal can containing water is heated using a heating coil as shown below.

The water is boiling at a constant rate. The mass of water boiled away per
unit time is M1 for a heater power P1. When the heater power is increased to
P2, the mass boiled away per unit time is M2. Heat losses to the atmosphere
are not negligible.
Which of the following expressions gives the specific latent heat of
vaporization of the water?
A.
B.
C.
D.
(1)

88. Two bodies are brought into thermal contact with each other. No thermal
energy transfer takes place between the bodies. It may be deduced
therefore, that the bodies must have the same
A.

specific heat capacity.

B.

heat capacity.

C.

temperature.

D.

internal energy.
(1)

89. The molar mass of water is 18 g. The approximate number of water


molecules in a glass of water is
22

A.

10 .

B.

10 .

C.

10 .

D.

10 .

25
28
31

(1)

90. A liquid is heated in a well-insulated container. The power input to the liquid
and its specific heat capacity are known.
Which of the following quantities must be known in order to calculate the
rate at which the temperature increases?
A.

The time for which the liquid is heated

B.

The initial temperature of the liquid

C.

The final temperature of the liquid

D.

The mass of the liquid


(1)

91. Gas leaks slowly out of a cylinder of constant volume. The temperature of
the gas in the cylinder does not change. Which of the following is constant
for the gas molecules in the cylinder?
A.

The number striking unit area of surface in unit time

B.

The number of the collisions between molecules per unit time

C.

The number per unit volume

D.

The average speed


(1)

92. A block of metal at a temperature of 90C is placed in a beaker of water at a


temperature of 0C. The mass of the metal block and the mass of the water
are equal. The final temperature of the water and the metal block is 9C.
Which of the following is the best estimate of the ratio
?
A.
B.
C.

D.

10
(1)

93. The specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the quantity of thermal
energy required to convert, at constant temperature,
A.

a solid to a liquid.

B.

unit mass of solid to liquid.

C.

a liquid to a solid.

D.

unit mass of liquid to solid.


(1)

94. A copper block and a steel block each have the same mass. The copper
block is at a higher temperature than the steel block.
The blocks are placed in thermal contact and they then reach thermal
equlibrium. There is no energy exchange with the surroundings.
How do the magnitude of the change in temperature T and the magnitude
of the change in internal energy U of the two blocks compare?
T

A.

same

same

B.

same

different

C.

different

same

D.

different

different
(1)

95. Which of the following will not affect the rate of evaporation of a liquid?
A.

The temperature of the liquid

B.

The surface area of the liquid

C.

The mass of the liquid

D.

Convection currents of air above the liquid surface


(1)

96. A solid is at an initial temperature of 500 K. The solid is heated so that its
temperature rises by 50 K.
What are the initial temperature and the temperature rise of the solid, as
measured on the Celsius scale of temperature?
initial temperature

temperature rise

A.

227C

50C

B.

227C

323C

C.

773C

50C

D.

773C

323C
(1)

97. A sample of an ideal gas is contained in a cylinder. The volume of the gas is
suddenly decreased. A student makes the following statements to explain
the change in pressure of the gas.
I.

The average kinetic energy of the gas atoms increases.

II.

The atoms of the gas hit the walls of the cylinder more frequently.

III.

There are more atoms that are able to collide with the walls of the
cylinder.

Which of these statements is true?


A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(1)

98. The internal energy of a solid substance is equal to the


A.

average kinetic energy of the molecules.

B.

total kinetic energy of the molecules.

C.

total potential energy of the molecules.

D.

total potential and total kinetic energy of the molecules.


(1)

99. A hot liquid X has specific heat capacity SH. It is mixed with an equal mass of
a cold liquid Y of specific heat capacity SC.
The best estimate of the ratio

is
A.
B.
C.
D.
(1)

100. The specific heat capacity c of a solid block of mass m is determined by


heating the block and measuring its temperature. The graph below shows
the variation of the temperature T of the block with the thermal energy Q
transferred to the block.

The gradient of the line is equal to


A.
B.
C.

mc.

D.
(1)

101. The internal energy of a solid substance is equal to the


A.

average kinetic energy of the molecules.

B.

total kinetic energy of the molecules.

C.

total potential energy of the molecules.

D.

total potential and total kinetic energy of the molecules.


(1)