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ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

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old tube should be known, as should any temperature

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variations that may occur. This will ensure that the required

APPLICATIONS

sterilization value is attained. A back pressure sufficient to prevent product boiling (flashing) should be applied and maintained during operation. Product flashing can adversely affect the time and temperature relationship of the scheduled process, and subsequent attainment of a microbiologically stable product. Suitable back pressure is commonly maintained with the use of a valve, orifice, or other device that restricts flow the tube downstream from the heater and at the exit of the hold tube.

16.2.5.2 Metering Pump

a metering pump is used to control the flow of product through the sterilizer, it should be located upstream from the

holding

section

and

should

be operated

consistently

to

maintain the required

flow rate.

A

means

of preventing

unauthorized changes to the pump speed should be provided.

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

The

product flow rate

is

a critical factor controlling

the

sterilization temperature and the retention time in the holding tube and should be checked with sufficient frequency to ensure that it is as specified in the scheduled process. For continuous flow systems, the product feed rate should be constant, reproducible, and quantifiable.

16.2.5.3 Flow Diversion Device

ontinuous flow systems should be equipped with a flow- diversion device installed in the product piping located before the product filler or aseptic surge tank. It should be designed automatically to divert flow away from the filler, aseptic surge tank, or piping leading to these devices in the event that there is a drop in the holding section temperature or inadequate pressure differential in the product-to-product regenerator, if one is used. The valve seat, which separates the diverted product flow pattern from the forward flow route, is sterilized on all sides simultaneously, and all sides of the valve must be maintained in an aseptic condition during production. Gravity

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

drain-type flow diversion valves should never

3

be

used

in

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aseptic systems as microorganisms will grow through, or be

APPLICATIONS

drawn through, the valve seat from the nonsterile side and contaminate sterile product. If the system is designed such that product in an aseptic surge tank is to be packaged while the processing system is in a divert mode, then the flow diversion system must separate sterile product from potentially nonsterile product by more than one valve seat with a sterile zone between the sterile product and potentially nonsterile product. This can be accomplished by a steam barrier between sterile product and the potentially nonsterile area of the processing system.

16.2.5.4 Aseptic Surge Tank for Sterile Product

oper removal of air from the tank is essential in achieving sterilization. Appropriate pressure-activated vents should be installed to permit removal of air during the sterilization cycle and re-entry air should the pressure within the tank drop below atmospheric. An appropriate overpressure of sterile air

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

or other gas should be maintained during operation of the surge tank to prevent the development of partial vacuum as product is withdrawn.

16.2.5.5 Product-to-Product Regenerators

here a product-to-product regenerator is used to heat the cold unsterilized product that enters the sterilizer by means of a hot exchange system, it should be designed, operated, and controlled so that the pressure of the sterilized product in the regenerator is greater than the pressure of any unsterilized product, thereby reducing the chance that any leakage in the regenerator will be from the unsterilized product into the sterilized product. A differential pressure recorder should be installed whose scale divisions should be easily readable and should not exceed 0.14 kg/cm^ (2 psi) on a working scale of not more than 1.4 kg/cm^ (20 psi). If a controller is included, then it should be tested for accuracy against a known accurate standard pressure indicator, both prior to use and at a frequency sufficient to ensure its accuracy but not to exceed 1

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

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year. One pressure sensor should be installed at the sterilized

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product regenerator outlet, and the other at the unsterilized

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product regenerator inlet.

16.2.6 Instruments and Controls 16.2.6.1 Temperature Measuring Device (TMD)

ach product sterilizer should be equipped with a sufficient number of accurate, calibrated, and reliable temperature- indicating devices. They should be suitably located and be capable of quickly responding to temperature changes to ensure sufficiently that the scheduled process is delivered. As the holding or retention time for some products can be as short as a couple of seconds, temperature deviations as slight as 0.1C° (0.2F°) can be important, so the devices should be capable of measuring the temperature to at least this level of accuracy. The time response is also important, so the devices must respond quickly so that a minimal amount of product will have passed in which a deviation may have occurred before remedial action (i.e., interception of the bypass valve) is taken. As these instruments usually constitute the process reference TMD, they should be tested for accuracy against a known accurate standard thermometer, in steam or water as appropriate, and in a similar position or aspect to that which it is installed in the product sterilizer. This should be performed prior to installation, and at least once a year thereafter, or more frequently as may be necessary to ensure their accuracy. Dated records of all tests and standardization should be kept. A daily inspection of these devices should be made to detect and replace defective devices

The

TMD-sensing

elements

for

continuous

flow-type

aseptic systems should be installed in the product hold section

outlet in such a way that it does not alter product flow and

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

result in the improper delivery of the scheduled process. For

batch systems, a sufficient number of sensing elements should

be so located to ensure that the scheduled process is delivered

to the entire batch.

16.2.6.2 Temperature/Time Recording Devices

ach product sterilizer should be equipped with a sufficient

number of accurate, reliable, and calibrated temperature/time

recording devices to be used hi conjunction with the reference

TMDs. They may be combined with controllers. They should

be sufficiently sensitive to respond to temperature changes in a

manner that will ensure an accurate and precise recording of

the process temperature and any deviations that may occur.

For chart recorders, it is important that the correct chart be

used. For analog devices, each chart should have a working

scale of not more than 12C° per cm (55F° per in.) within a

range of 10C° (18F°) of the sterilizing temperature. The

recorder temperature should not deviate by more than 0.5C°

(1F°) from that of the reference TID and should not be higher

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

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than the temperature indicated by the TID. Charts or printouts

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of the temperature/time should be kept as a permanent record

APPLICATIONS

of the process. The chart timing device should be accurate

and checked as often as necessary to maintain its accuracy.

The sensing elements of the temperature recording devices

should be located hi the holding section in a manner that does

not alter the product flow. A reference TID-sensing element

should be installed in close proximity as a continuing check

on the recording device. The sensing elements should be

located so that the conductivity of the piping structure does

not interfere with the accurate determination of the product

temperature; the internal obstruction created by the elements is

minimal. For hold tubes, the elements should be located at or

after the point where the upward slope of the tube falls to less

than 2 cm/m (0.25 in./ft) of piping.

16.2.6.3 Pressure Recorder

product here pressure zone should is a critical be equipped factor in with the an scheduled accurate, process, calibrated, the

accuracy reliable pressure against recording a standard device. at least It once should a be year. checked It should for

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

8 FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

have safe if an working a analog working pressure type, range be is graduated from about 0 two-thirds kg/cm^ in divisions (0 of psi) the not full such greater scale that than and, the

0.14 kg/cm^ (2 psi).

  • 16.3 Thermal Processing — Applications

or the heat-hold-cool continuous systems the heating is either direct and/or indirect. The technological aspects of these heating methods have been discussed in Chapter 15. In some commercial applications, both methods are used.

  • 16.3.1 Direct Heating Systems

hese systems rely upon the injection or infusion of steam for

the principal

heating. They

can process

liquids that have

slightly elevated viscosities (e.g., milk, juice, soups, sauces,

etc.)

and

product having

particulate matter under certain

conditions with respect to the size and stability of the

particles. Steam infusion

heating has proven

to

be

less

successful for low-viscosity products due to high construction costs. The steam quality must be of the highest standard (e.g., culinary quality, Chap. 15) and may have to be produced separately from the main steam supply (i.e., stainless steel steam generator).

A simplified flow diagram of a direct heating system is shown in Figure 16.1. The product is preheated to 80-100°C (176-212°F) in a plate or tubular heat exchanger. Following the preheating, the product is quickly brought to the required sterilization temperature by the injection of saturated steam in a device similar to the type depicted in Chapter 15. The steam injector is a critical element of the plant as it must achieve good mixing of the two phases (i.e., steam and liquid) and ensure uniform

Flow ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING: Sterile “¡version COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Flow
ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND
PACKAGING:
Sterile “¡version
COMMERCIAL
APPLICATIONS

9

Figure 16.1. Simplified flow diagram of a direct heating system (Reuter,

1988).

mperature distribution during the very rapid heating. Also

critical is the formation of deposits on the steam injector,

which

hinders the

mixing. After attaining

the required

temperature, the ensuing holding tube or section provides the

required holding time. The product is cooled in two stages.

The first is by means of steam expansion in a vacuum

chamber that removes

the water

added

by

the

condensed

steam as

well

as other volatile

substances during

heating.

While some of the volatiles removed in this stage may be the

result of the heating and hence be undesirable, natural and

desirable flavors and odors are also affected. A sudden product

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

decompression to a level below atmospheric pressure results in

overheating of the liquid that affects a spontaneous partial

evaporation of the water and cooling to a uniform temperature

relative to the reduced pressure (vacuum). In order

12. Centrifugal pump 1. Buffet tank 5. Steam injector (product) 13. Steam Injector 2. Centrifugal pump
12. Centrifugal pump
1.
Buffet tank
5.
Steam
injector
(product)
13.
Steam
Injector
2.
Centrifugal pump 6. Hold tube
(water system)
3.
Plate
beat exchangers: 7.
Vacuum
chamber
14. Regulating valve (hot water
recycling)
I.
Preheating
8. Vacuum pump
15. Automatic valve
II.
Final
cooling
16. Automatic valve
9.
Centrifugal
17.
Control panel
pump
III.
Sterilization
cooling
10.
Aseptic
homogenlzer
Metering pump
11.
Water Infeed reservoir
Figure 16.2.
Flow diagram
of the Alfa-
Laval VTIS
System (Vogel,
1991)
.
evaporate
the
water
vapor that results
from
the
steam
injection and heat content of the
liquid,
in
theory an
expansion to a thermal balance between 4 and 6C° above the
liquid’s temperature prior to steam injection should suffice.
However, due to thermal loss between steam injection and
decompression, the extent of which is dependent upon the
particular system used, this difference may only be 1-2C°.
The lower section of the vacuum vessel contains a fluid-level
regulator that ensures an even fluid content inside the vessel.

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND

1

Vapor from the flash cooling can be used for preheating

PACKAGING:

1

the product in the preheater. Following homogenization, if required, the product is cooled further with cold water in a

COMMERCIAL

heat exchanger (plate or tubular) to the required fill or hold

temperature if a sterile

APPLICATIONS

hold tank is

used. Since

both the

vapors and the product that leaves the flash chamber are at the same temperature and only one of these can be used to preheat incoming product, the heat recovery potential is not as efficient as is the case with indirect heating systems.

The VTIS system of Alpha-Laval (Fig. 16.2) is an example of a commercial application that uses steam injection. The steam injector and the holding chamber are the heart of the installation. The annular type used most recently in the VTIS installations constitute the third generation of Alfa-Laval steam injectors. Using the Venturi effect, its particular design allows a silent operation, requiring only a steam pressure of 6 bars (87 psig); also it avoids the precipitations. The condensation takes place instantly in the highly turbulent flow conditions produced. The holding chamber where the rapid cooling is carried out is another essential component of the installation. Here again, the improvements made to the design by Alfa- Laval have produced a compact unit that can be cleaned in place without dismantling. The special tangential admission gives a maximum free surface to the product to permit the secondary steam and the noncondensable gases to escape freely. The latter rise up to the upper part of the chamber and are extracted toward the bottom by the intervention of a condenser that encircles it. Significant energy economy is attained by preheating with a plate heat exchanger. The product is then fed into a chamber filled with saturated steam. The product absorbs the steam by condensation while raising the temperature.

  • 16.3.2 Indirect Heating Systems

simplified flow diagram of a system that uses an indirect heat treatment is given in Figure 16.3. As discussed in Chapter 15, indirect heating is slower and requires more time to reach a specified sterilization temperature. There is the advantage in that there is no dilution of the product from condensed steam as in the direct heating; hence, there is no need for it to be removed. As cooling will also be carried out indirectly in heat

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

12 FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY Figure 16.3. Simplified flow diagram of an indirect heating system (Reuter, 1988).

Figure 16.3. Simplified flow diagram of an indirect heating system (Reuter,

1988).

changers, the cooling time is greater and the product may still

have to be deaerated.

The product flow from the product reservoir and through

the heat-hold-

cool system

is

regulated

by

the

pump.

Preheating to 90-100°C (194-212°F) is accomplished in one

or a series of heat exchangers, one of which may be a

product-to-product regenerator. To minimize fouling of the

heat exchange surface by product, which is a problem with

indirect heat exchangers, the temperature differential between

the product and the heating medium at any point should be

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

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3

kept to a few degrees by using countercurrent flow. As this

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practice tends to extend the heating time, the heat exchange

APPLICATIONS

surface must be increased in order to minimize the heating

time. To assist in attaining the relatively small temperature

differential, hot water is used in the preheating stage. The

final sterilization temperature on the order of 135-140°C

(275-284°F) is attained in the final heat exchanger with

saturated stream or superheated water as the heating medium.

After reaching

the required

sterilization temperature, the

product is held in the hold tube or section for the time

required to attain the required microbiological stability (i.e.,

lethality). The first stage of the cooling is in the product-to-

product regenerator followed by other heat exchangers to

reach the required holding or filling product temperature.

Product homogenization, if applicable, can be carried out

before or after thermal treatment. In the former case, a normal

homogenizer can be used. In the latter case, a special

homogenizer, designed for aseptic processing (and therefore

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

more expensive), is required. Homogenization

of

fluid

products that do not contain particulate matter serves to

integrate the protein aggregates and fat into the product. The

surplus pressure of the homogenizer transports the product

through the first part of the heat exchanger, where it is cooled

down to filling temperatures.

In

plants with

70-88%,

whereas

indirect heating, due

to increased

heat

exchange surface, it is possible to recover heat at the rate of

it

is

about 50%

in plants

with

direct

heating. The rate of heat recovery can be an important factor

when selecting a heating system.

16.3.2.1 Plate Heat Exchangers

ate heat exchangers are essentially used for low-viscosity

homogeneous liquids like milk, milk desserts, yogurt, fruit

juices, soups, and sauces and heterogeneous fluid products that

contain relatively small particulate matter (Chap. 15). The

Alpha-Laval Steritherm is good example of a system using

plate heat exchangers. All food contact surfaces are

presterilized by the continuous circulation of superheated

water (140-145°C) for 30 minutes programmed automatically

from

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

the

control

panel. Product processing is

COMMERCIAL

entering the

process temperature at the control

APPLICATIONS

1

5

started by

panel and

follows the sequence given in the preceding section. At any

time during

production, a clean

and

sterilization in place

(CSIP) cycle can be initiated from the control panel. However,

at the end of production the CIP program is automatically

initiated followed by a presterilization just prior to use. The

plates of the exchanger can rapidly be dismantled for

complete cleaning.

While plate heat exchangers are probably the most heat

efficient exchangers, they do have problems. One is their

limitation with respect to viscous products and the size of

particulate matter that can be processed. Another disadvantage

is the gasketing between the plates. They need frequent

replacement, which is a time-consuming and expensive

process. They also have to be removed and replaced when the

exchanger is inspected or given special cleaning because of

product fouling the heating surfaces. The more recent VTIS

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

installations are equipped

with

plate

heat

exchangers

belonging to the new series H of the Alfa-Laval exchangers in

which the gaskets are easily and quickly removed and inserted

into grooves. With this new assembly technique seals can be

removed and replaced without the usual requirement of

scraping, solvents, adhesives, and drying. Specially trained

personnel and special equipment are not required as the old

seals are easily removed and the new inserted with the

assistance of a simple disk tool. The seals for the type H

plates are manufactured with superior quality rubber, which

maintains its elasticity for a long time and is more resistant to

high temperatures. This rubber has heretofore been difficult to

use in plate heat exchangers because it is very difficult to

attain adherence to the metal surface of the exchanger. The

new technique of the recessed seals resolves this problem.

When the series of plates is pressed together, the seals adapt

perfectly to the grooves, producing no cavities where bacteria

can accumulate and grow. The series H plate exchangers are

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

1

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designed for a maximum operational pressure of 10 bars (10

COMMERCIAL

atmospheres).

APPLICATIONS

16.3.2.2 Tubular Systems

ubular heat exchangers can be used to process liquids of average viscosity with and without particulate matter. The heating medium used is superheated water or a radiant heat. The design, advantages, and disadvantages of this type of heat exchanger are discussed in Chapter 15. Examples of systems that use superheated water as the heating medium

e:

• multitubular: the Alfa-Laval Steritube;

• spiral tubes: The APV CTA and Ultramatic;

• annular tubes: Stork, Steridal, FENCO, Rossi-Catelli.

Because they are more suited for heating fluids that contain particulate matter, their use is increasing. These may be constructed as double or triple tube heat exchangers, which can be formed into spirals to save space. Tube- bundle heat exchangers with tube inside diameter of 10-12 mm, and approximately seven tubes per bundle are now being used.

Tube exchangers can withstand considerably higher pressure

and thereby allow higher product velocity and pressure drops,

which can result in greater turbulent flow. To a certain degree,

the increased turbulence will counter the fouling tendency in

the heating section, which in turn extends the operating time.

Because they can be operated at higher pressures, they can be

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

used for higher-viscosity fluids and for liquid products that

contain particulate matter. Tubular heat exchangers are

presently easier to operate than are plate types because they

do not require sealing gaskets. The smooth tube surface

facilitates a flow with the lowest fragmentation stress to

particles compared with free-flow plate heat exchangers. The

maximum particle size is limited to approximately one-quarter

of the tube diameter. This results in a large volume of product

relative to the heat transfer surface and a longer product

residence time to obtain a uniform temperature distribution,

especially in the particulate matter. To avoid thermal stress, it

is advisable to have the product tubes formed into a U-shape,

which enables maximum expansion of internal tube bundle

versus the shell. While this construction can make inspection

of the tube internal surfaces difficult, inspection can be

facilitated by inserting a small beam of light into one side of

the U, which will illuminate the other arc by reflection of the

light

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND

.

PACKAGING:

o o o o o o o o

----

COMMERCIAL

-Reflector -Infrared source - Quartz tube

y

Product in

turbulent flow

APPLICATIONS

O O O O O O O

O

1

9

Figure 16.4. Cross-sectional drawing of an ACTINI direct infrared cell (Vogel, 1991).

They

have the disadvantage, however,

of

being

very

difficult and expensive to locate any

leaks (e.g., hairline

cracks), in the heat exchange surface. When such leaks are encountered, the entire spiral or bundle must be replaced. In

tubular bundle

heat exchangers that

contain a number

of

parallel flow conduits, the danger exists that a tube is blocked

by excessive deposits during the production process, and is not freed by the subsequent cleaning cycle.

16.3.2.3 Bacteriocidal Radiations

ome systems, like those manufactured by ACTINI, Infratherm and Aqua Stoutz, and Thermo Star by Microwave Energy Systems (MES), that process primarily liquids use what have become known as bacteriocidal radiations (infrared or ultraviolet).

The ACTINI system uses direct or indirect tubular thermal

treatment cells. Direct infrared cells (Fig. 16.4) use a cluster

of quartz tubes in which the liquid to be processed is

circulated in turbulent flow. Around these tubes an infrared

source is wound in a solenoid and has a temperature in th

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

e

Figure 16.5. Cross-sectional drawing of an ACTINI indirect infrared cell (Vogel,

1991).

20 FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY e Figure 16.5. Cross-sectional drawing of an ACTINI indirect infrared cell (Vogel,

der of 750°C. There is a reflecting silica-alumina screen around the source all along the tubes. These cells are used for the pasteurization of liquid products, without overpressure. In the indirect infrared cells (Fig. 16.5) the liquid product circulates within a stainless steel tube sheathed on the exterior by a quartz tube. This type of cell is particularly adapted to sterilization or pasteurization at temperatures above 100°C (212°F) under pressure.

The Thermo-Star

of

MES

employs microwaves with

controlled magnetic field polarization (patent CNRS). This method of propagation of the waves permits the distribution of the energy in a homogeneous manner throughout the product mass and a slight temperature gradient. This avoids the heterogeneity in the thermal treatment of products composed

of particles

having

different

structures.

A

particularly

interesting application of this procedure is the

cooking/pasteurization of emulsions that contain pieces of

meat and fat. This process improves the organoleptic and

bacteriological

qualities

of

the

product by considerably

reducing the risk of surface crusting or overcooking.

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND

  • 7. CONTHERM cooler

PACKAGING:

2

1

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND 7. CONTHERM cooler PACKAGING: 2 1 8. Back pressure pump 9. STERITANK 10.
  • 8. Back pressure pump

  • 9. STERITANK

    • 10. Recirculation loop for high capacity cleaning

Figure 16.6. The Alfa-Laval Visco system (Vogel,

1991).

 

1.

Product tank

2.

Feed pump

3.

CONTHERM heater

4.

CONTHERM final heater

5.

Hold tube

CONTHERM coole

r

 

6.

3.4 Scraped-Surface Systems

craped-surface heat exchangers are particularly adapted to

processing

viscous liquid products

and those containing

particulate double wall matter. cylindrical The thermal exchanger treatment having is a carried rotating out axle in on a

which is mounted a series of scrapers that push the product

against

the

inner wall

and forwards. Depending upon the

can parallel heated temperature be or installed in cooled of accordance the horizontally in medium this apparatus with in or the the vertically (Chap. jacket desired 15). in products treatment a Multiple series can or units and be in

production capacity required.

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

in equipped This Figure principle with 16.6. vertical As is illustrated discussed scraped-surface in in the Chapter Alfa-Laval exchangers, 15, the Visco continuous as system shown

sterilization mainly concerned of particulate with accurate matter is determination difficult. The problems of the heat are

transfer coefficient between the liquid and the particulate

matter further of and different thermal and complicated food the characteristics. heat components when penetration the that The particulate have into sequence each different matter particle. is the shapes, is composed same This sizes, as is

outlined earlier for indirect heating systems.

  • 16.3.3 The APV Jupiter Process

are

Drive gear

22 FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY in equipped This Figure principle with 16.6. vertical As is illustrated discussed

Continuous heat-

hold-cool systems

subject to some

critical limitations

when processing

products that contain

particulate matter.

Figure 16.7. Schematic drawing of a double cone aseptic processing vessel (DCAPV) (Vogel, 1991).

There is

usuall

 

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND

2

PACKAGING:

3

y

COMMERCIAL

Loading port

APPLICATIONS

Discharge

and venting

Entry tube

system

system

Steam entry

‘tube

system

Exit tube

system

Thermometer

bipole Exit tubing

limitation to the size of the particulate matter to about 8-10

mm. While scraped-surface heat exchangers can be set to

handle larger particle sizes, its action can damage the more

fragile larger particles. The difficulty in deriving the required

residence time for particles for any time/temperature sequence

has already been discussed in Chapter 15 as well as in the

preceding sections. In order to minimize the residence time

for particulate matter, the temperature of the carrier medium is

raised (130°C or even higher), which, in combination with the

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

sufficient residence time to assure acquisition of the required

center temperature, especially in large particles, can

overprocess the fluid component and adversely affect the

quality. This can also overprocess the outer surfaces of the

particles, especially large particles, which results in a particle

breakdown due to attrition.

One solution to these problems is seen in the APV Jupiter

system, which thermally processes the liquid and particulate

components separately, combining them in the required

proportions aseptically at the filling operation. The principal

part of the systems is formed by a rotating double cone

chamber that serves both for the sterilization and the cooling

of the particulate matter. Patented under the name Double

Cone Aseptic Processing Vessel (DCAPV), the rotating

jacketed chamber is mounted on specially engineered supports

(Fig. 16.7). A schematic flow diagram that shows the various

components of a typical Jupiter processing system fo

 

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND

2

r

PACKAGING:

5

COMMERCIAL

APPLICATIONS

mbinations of sauce and particulate matter is given in Figure
16.8.

The sauce or liquid component is processed separately in a

Figure 16.8. Schematic flow diagram of an aseptic Jupiter system for processing combinations of solids and sauces (Reuter, 1988).

Recirculation for pre9terlizatlon

A | r

ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND 2 r PACKAGING: 5 COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS mbinations of sauce and particulate matter is

conventional heat-hold-cool process, as described earlier in this chapter. It can be added at the steriliztion temperature to the solids component to aid in their heating and/or stored in an aseptic hold tank for addition at the filling stage. When the DCAPV is loaded and closed, it begins to rotate and the particles are heated by the combination of steam added directly to the interior of the vessel and indirectly by steam in the outer jacket. During the heating, water or stock preheated to the process temperature can be added to the particulate matter, which hastens the heating of the particles and offers protection against breakage during the tumbling action. The internal vessel temperature is monitored continuously from which the particle center temperatures can be calculated and converted into lethality. Cooling is carried out in the same vessel by circulating cold water in the outer jacket and cold sterile air directly into the vessel to maintain a slight positive pressure as the steam atmosphere condenses. When the

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FOOD CANNING TECHNOLOGY

required cooling temperature is attained, rotation is stopped, and the condensate and cooking liquid by the purging device which is automatically lowered into the bottom of the vessel. The liquid component (i.e., sauce) can be added at this stage by using the vessel rotation to mix and blend the two components together. The finished cooled product is then discharged to the filler reservoir for filling.

16.4 ASEPTIC PACKAGING

septic packaging involves the filling

and

sealing

of

microbiologically stable (i.e., commercially sterile) product into sterilized containers under conditions that prevent microbial recontamination of the product, the containers, and their closures (i.e. under aseptic conditions). As the product in heat-hold-cool systems has been sterilized or pasteurized prior to packaging, the packaging material does not have to withstand the thermal processes used in conventional canning. This permits the use of a wider range of packaging materials. The types of containers presently seen on the market vary in size from as little as an ounce or two (e.g., coffee creamers) to gallons (milliliters to multiples of liters). The principal types are:

• the small-volume packages (deciliters to a few liters) as

seen thermoformed containers,

in

laminated

cardboard

bricks

and

plastic

• large-size containers (tens to hundreds of liters) in the form of pouches, in casks, or tanks.

16.4.1 Aseptic Packaging in Brick-Shaped Cartons

his type of packaging system, initially developed for dairy

product (UHT milk in bricks), has been extended to include a

wide variety of liquid