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CHAPTER 3

Crystal and Amorphous


Structure in Materials

Solids: Crystal or amorphous

All solids are either crystalline or


amorphous.
Yes, this means all solid stuff on Earth
and even in the universe.
Whats the difference?
Crystals have long range order.
Amorphous solids lack long range order.

Solids: Crystal or amorphous

Solids: Crystal or amorphous

Very ordered

No order

Solids: Crystal or amorphous

Solids: Crystal or amorphous

Solids: Crystal or amorphous

Examples of crystalline
solids
Sand
Salt, sugar
Diamonds, gemstones
Metals
Ceramics
Most solids are
crystalline!

Examples of
amorphous solids
Glass
Some polymers
Polyvinyl chloride
A few metals, in some
rare instances

Space lattice
Space lattice: An imaginary network of lines,
with atoms at the intersection of lines,
representing the arrangement of atoms.

Unit cell
Unit cell = the block of atoms which repeats itself to
form a space lattice.
Space Lattice

Unit Cell

Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattice

According to Bravais,
fourteen standard unit cells
can describe all possible
lattice networks.

Types of Unit Cells

Cubic Unit Cell


a=b=c
= = = 90
Simple

Body Centered

Face centered

Tetragonal
a =b c
= = = 90

Simple

Body Centered

Types of Unit Cells (Cont.)

Orthorhombic
a b c
= = = 90
Simple

Base Centered

Body Centered
Face Centered

Rhombohedral
a =b = c
= = 90

Simple

Types of Unit Cells (Cont.)

Hexagonal
a= b c
= = 90, = 120

Simple

Monoclinic
a b c
= = 90

Base
Centered
Simple

Triclinic
a b c
90
Simple

Lots of unit cells!

Principal Metallic Crystal Structures


90% of the metals have one of the following three
HCP is a denser
crystal structures:
version of simple
hexagonal crystal
structure.

Body Centered
Cubic

BCC

Face Centered
Cubic

FCC

Hexagonal Close
Packed

HCP

Tutorial: Body Centered Crystal Structure


Please click on the image below to begin a short
tutorial on body centered crystal structure

(this file opens in a new window and


contains audio commentary)

Animation: Body Centered Structure

cubic_unit_cells_7_new_BCC.mpg

Body Centered Cubic (BCC) Crystal Structure


BCC unit cell has one atom at each corner of
the cube and one at the center of the cube.
Each atom has 8 nearest neighbors.
Therefore, the coordination number is 8.
Examples of BCC solids:
Chromium (a=0.289 nm)
Iron (a=0.287 nm)
Sodium (a=0.429 nm)

BCC Crystal Structure (Cont.)

Each unit cell has eight 1/8


atom at the corners and 1
full atom at the center.
Therefore each unit
cell
You
will be
has
building a model
of this in lab!
(8 x 1/8 ) + 1 = 2 full
atoms

BCC Crystal Structure (Cont.)

Atoms contact each other


diagonally in the cube,

2a a 3a 4R
2

You will be
calculating this
in lab!

a
2 a

Therefore the lattice


constant, a =

4R
3

Atomic Packing Factor


How dense is the unit cell?
Look at all that
empty space
between
atoms!

Atomic Packing Factor =

Volume of atoms in unit cell


Volume of unit cell

Atomic Packing Factor of BCC Structure

Atomic Packing Factor =

Vatoms =

2 R3
3

Vunit cell =

a3

Volume of atoms in unit cell


Volume of unit cell

= 8.373R3
4R

You will be
calculating this
in lab!
= 12.32
R3

3
8.723
R
Therefore APF = 12.32 R3 = 0.68

Tutorial: Face Centered Crystal Structure


Please click on the image below to begin a short
tutorial on body centered crystal structure

(this file opens in a new window and


contains audio commentary)

Animation: Face Centered Crystal Structure

cubic_unit_cells_8_new_FCC.mpg

Face Centered Cubic (FCC) Crystal Structure

FCC structure is
represented as
one atom at
each corner of
the cube
and one at the
center of each
cube face.

Atom at
corner of
cube

Atom at
corner of
cube
Atom at
center of
face
Atom at
corner of
cube

Atom at
center of
face

Atom at
corner of
cube

Atom at
corner of
cube

Atom at
corner of
cube
Atom at
center of
face
Atom at
corner of
cube

Face Centered Cubic (FCC) Crystal Structure


Coordination number for FCC structure is 12
Atomic Packing Factor is 0.74, which is
higher/denser than for BCC
Examples of FCC solids:
Aluminum (a = 0.405)
Gold (a = 0.408)
Lead

FCC Crystal Structure (Cont.)


Each unit cell has eight 1/8
atoms at corners and six
atoms at the center of six faces.
Therefore each unit cell has
(8 x 1/8)+ (6 x ) = 4 atoms

Atoms contact each other


across the cubic face diagonal

Therefore, lattice
4R
constant a
=
2

2a 4R

Summary: Cubic Crystal Structures

cubic_unit_cells_9_new.mpg

Example: Unit Cells

cubic_unit_cells_10_new_NaCl.mpg

Example: Unit Cells

cubic_unit_cells_11_new_Zn_blend.mpg

Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure


The HCP structure is represented as an atom at each
of 12 corners of a hexagonal prism, 2 atoms at top
and bottom face and 3 atoms in between top and
bottom face.
Atoms have higher APF by attaining HCP structure
instead of the simple hexagonal structure.
The coordination number is 12, APF = 0.74.

HCP Crystal Structure (Cont.)


Each atom has six 1/6 atoms at each of top and
bottom layer, two half atoms at top and bottom layer
and 3 full atoms at the middle layer.

Therefore each HCP unit cell has


(2 x 6 x 1/6) + (2 x ) + 3 = 6 atoms
Examples of HCP solids:

Zinc (a = 0.2665 nm, c/a = 1.85)


Cobalt (a = 0.2507 nm, c/a = 1.62)

Ideal c/a ratio is 1.633.

Summary: Crystal Structure Tutorial


Please click on the image below to begin a short
tutorial on the structure of crystalline solids.

(this file opens in a new window and


contains audio commentary)

Atom Positions in Cubic Unit Cells


The Cartesian coordinate system is used to locate atoms.
In a cubic unit cell,
y axis is the direction to the right.
x axis is the direction coming out of the paper.
z axis is the direction towards top.
Negative directions are opposite of positive
directions.
Atom positions are
located using unit
distances along the
axes.

Directions in Cubic Unit Cells


In cubic crystals, direction indices are vector
components of directions resolved along each axes,
resolved to smallest integers.
Direction indices are position coordinates of the unit
cell where the direction vector emerges from the cell
surface, converted to integers.

Tutorial: Crystallographic Directions


Please click on the image below to begin a short
tutorial on crystallographic directions.

(this file opens in a new window)

Procedure: Find Direction Indices


Extend the direction vector until it
emerges from the surface of cubic cell

z
(1,1/2,1)

Determine the coordinates of the


points of emergence and origin

(1,1/2,1) - (0,0,0)
= (1,1/2,1)
y

(0,0,0)

Subtract coordinates of point of


emergence by that of origin

Are all are


integers?

NO

YES
Are any of the direction
vectors negative?

YES
Represent the indices in a square
bracket without comas with a
over negative index (Eg: [121])

2 x (1,1/2,1)
= (2,1,2)

The direction indices are [212]


Convert them to
smallest possible
integer by multiplying
by an integer.

NO
Represent the indices in a square
bracket without comas (Eg: [212] )

Example: Direction Indices


Determine direction indices of the given vector.
Origin coordinates are (3/4 , 0 , 1/4).
Emergence coordinates are (1/4, 1/2, 1/2).
Subtract origin coordinates
from emergence coordinates,
(1/4, 1/2, 1/2) - (3/4 , 0 , 1/4)
= (-1/2, 1/2, 1/4)
Multiply by 4 to convert all
fractions to integers
4 x (-1/2, 1/2, 1/4) = (-2, 2, 1)
Therefore, the direction indices are [ 2 2 1 ]

Miller Indices
Miller Indices are used to refer to specific lattice
planes of atoms.
They are reciprocals of the fractional intercepts (with
fractions cleared) that the plane makes with the
crystallographic x,y and z axes of three nonparallel
edges of the cubic unit cell.
z

Miller Indices =(111)

y
x

Tutorial: Cubic Crystal Planes


Please click on the image below to begin a short
tutorial on cubic crystal planes.

(this file opens in a new window and


contains audio commentary)

Procedure: Find Miller Indices


Choose a plane that does not pass
through the origin

Determine the x,y and z intercepts


of the plane
Find the reciprocals of the intercepts
Fractions?
Place a bar over the
negative indices

Yes

Clear fractions by
multiplying by an integer
to determine smallest set
of whole numbers

Enclose in parenthesis (hkl) where h,k,l


are miller indices of cubic crystal plane
for x,y and z axes. Eg: (111)

Examples: Miller Indices


z
(100)

y
x
x

Intercepts of the plane at


x,y & z axes are 1, and
Taking reciprocals we get
(1,0,0).
Miller indices are (100).
*******************
Intercepts are 1/3, 2/3 & 1.
Taking reciprocals we get
(3, 3/2, 1).
Multiplying by 2 to clear
fractions, we get (6,3,2).
Miller indices are (632).

Examples: Miller Indices


Plot the plane (101)
Taking reciprocals of the
indices we get (1 1).
The intercepts of the plane are
x=1, y= (parallel to y) and
z=1.
******************************
Plot the plane (2 2 1)
Taking reciprocals of the
indices we get (1/2 1/2 1).
The intercepts of the plane are
x=1/2, y= 1/2 and z=1.

Example: Miller Indices

Plot the plane (110)


The reciprocals are (1,-1, )
The intercepts are x=1, y=-1 and z= (parallel to z
axis)
To show this plane in a
single unit cell, the
origin is moved along
the positive direction
of y axis by 1 unit.

(110)

Miller Indices Important Relationship


Direction indices of a direction perpendicular to a crystal
plane are the same as the Miller indices of the plane.
Example:

Interplanar spacing between parallel closest planes with


the same Miller indices is given by:

hkl

a
2

h k l

Planes and Directions in Hexagonal Unit Cells

In HCP, four indices are


used (hkil) called MillerBravais indices.
Four axes are used (a1, a2,
a3 and c).
Reciprocal of the
intercepts that a crystal
plane makes with the a1,
a2, a3 and c axes give the
h,k,i and l indices
respectively.

Examples: Hexagonal Unit Cell


Basal Planes:
Intercepts a1 =
a2 =
a3 =
c=1
(hkil) = (0001)

Prism Planes :
For plane ABCD,
Intercepts a1 = 1
a2 =
a3 = -1
c=
(hkil) = (1010)

Directions in HCP Unit Cells


Indicated by 4 indices [uvtw].
u,v,t and w are lattice vectors in a1, a2, a3 and c directions
respectively.
Example:
For a1, a2, a3 directions, the direction indices are
[ 2 1 1 0], [1 2 1 0] and [ 1 1 2 0] respectively.

Comparison of FCC and HCP crystals


Both FCC and HCP are close packed and
have APF 0.74.
FCC crystal is close packed in (111) plane
while HCP is close packed in (0001) plane.

Structural Difference between HCP and FCC

Structural Difference between HCP and FCC


Plane A
a void
b void

Consider a layer
of atoms (Plane A)
Another layer (plane B)
of atoms is placed in a
void of plane A
Third layer of atoms placed
in b voids of plane B. (Identical
to plane A.)
HCP crystal.

Plane A
Plane B
a void
b void

Third layer of atoms placed


in a voids of plane B. Resulting
In 3rd Plane C.
FCC crystal.

Plane A
Plane B

Plane A
Plane B

Plane A

Plane C

Polymorphism or Allotropy
Metals exist in more than one crystalline form. This is
caller polymorphism or allotropy.
Temperature and pressure leads to change in
crystalline forms.
Example: Iron exists in both BCC and FCC form
depending on the temperature.
Liquid
Iron

912C

-273C

Iron
BCC

1394C 1539C

Iron
FCC

Iron
BCC

Crystal Structure Analysis


Information about crystal structure can be obtained using
x-rays.
The x-rays used are about the same wavelength (0.050.25 nm) as the distance between crystal lattice planes.

X-Ray Spectrum of Molybdenum


X-Ray spectrum of Molybdenum
is obtained when Molybdenum
is used as target metal.
K and K are characteristic of
an element.
For Molybdenum K occurs at
wave length of about 0.07nm.
Electrons of n=1 shell of target
metal are knocked out by
bombarding electrons.
Electrons of higher level drop
down by releasing energy to
replace lost electrons

X-Ray Diffraction
Crystal planes of target metal act as mirrors reflecting
X-ray beam.
If rays leaving a set of planes
are out of phase (as in case
of arbitrary angle of incidence)
no reinforced beam is
produced.
If rays leaving are in phase,
reinforced beams are
produced.

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis


Powdered specimens are used for X-ray diffraction analysis
since the random orientation facilitates different angles of
incidence.
A radiation counter detects the angle and intensity of the
diffracted beam.

Crystal Structure of Unknown Metal

Unknown
metal
Crystallographic
Analysis
sin 2 A
0.75
2
sin B

FCC
crystal
Structure

sin 2 A
0.5
2
sin B

BCC
crystal
Structure

Amorphous Materials
Random spatial positions of atoms.
Polymers: Secondary bonds do not allow
formation of parallel and tightly packed chains
during solidification.
Polymers can be semicrystalline.

Glass is a ceramic made up of SiO44tetrahedron subunits limited mobility.


Rapid cooling of metals (10 8 K/s) can give
rise to amorphous structure (metallic glass).
Metallic glass has superior metallic
properties.