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Cells to Systems

Scott Foresman Science 5.2

ISBN 0-328-13919-X

<(sk$m)=bdjbje< +^--U--U

by Erika Alexander

Vocabulary

What did you learn?

cell membrane

1. What are some things that cells need that you need too?

cell wall
chloroplast
cytoplasm
nucleus

Cells to Systems
by Erika Alexander

2. Why do nerve cells have long, branching shapes?


3. Name three important jobs that your bones do.
4.

Every cell in your body needs food.


On your own paper, write to explain how the food gets to
each of your cells.

5.

Draw Conclusions Your bones and muscles work to


let you move. What do you think would happen if you didnt
have any bones? or if you didnt have any muscles?

organ
organ system
tissue
vacuole

Illustrations: Title Page, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15 Leonello Calvetti


Photographs: Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for
photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its
attention in subsequent editions. Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott
Foresman, a division of Pearson Education. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom
(B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd)
Opener: Dr. Fred Hossler/Visuals Unlimited 2 (BR) Dr. Fred Hossler/Visuals Unlimited, (Bkgd)
Michael Webb/Visuals Unlimited; 6 (BL) Dr. Dennis Kunkel/Visuals Unlimited, (BC, BR) David
Phillips/Visuals Unlimited; 7 (CL) Susumu Nishinaga/Photo Researchers, Inc., (CR) RDF/Visuals
Unlimited, (CL) Dr. Dennis Kunkel/Visuals Unlimited; 8 (BL) Quest/Photo Researchers, Inc., (CR)
Veronika Burmeister/Visuals Unlimited; 11 (TL) Dr. Fred Hossler/Visuals Unlimited, (CC) Dr. Richard
Kessel & Dr. Randy Kardon/Visuals Unlimited, (BL) Dr. Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited

ISBN: 0-328-13919-X
Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is
protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any
form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For
information regarding permissions, write to: Permissions Department, Scott Foresman,
1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05

What is inside a cell?


Cells and Their Functions

las celulas y sus funciones

A cell is the smallest living part of any living thing. Some


organisms have only a single cell. Animals and plants may pueden
have trillions. Most cells are so small they cant be seen without
no pueden ser vista sin un microscopio
a microscope.
Cells have the same needs as all life forms, and they contain
(aayudarlas a satisfacer sus necesidades)
tiny parts to help
them meet their needs. Cells need food to
todas
como nosotros
survive, just like you. All cells have parts that move inside of
(moverse por ellas mismas)
them, and some cells can even move on their own. Cells can
respond to changes around them, and can even communicate
with other cells to get a job done.
2

heridas

Cells use materials in food to grow and to repair wounds.


ttambien necesitan energia
Cells also need energy. They mix food with oxygen to get
energy. This process is called respiration. Carbon dioxide and
son hechos
por este
proceso
water are also
made
by
this process. The energy that cells make
is used for growing, moving, and dividing into new cells.

The Parts
of Cells
todas las celulas tienen algunas similares partes

The Size of Cells

All cells have some of the same parts. Each


part has a special
Cells must be big enough to hold all their parts, but not too
que hacen las partes mas grandes de nuestro cuerpos
job to do. Many of the jobs are similar to the jobs our larger
big. If a cell is too big, food and oxygen are not able to reach
piel
body parts do. For example, you have skin to protect you, a
the middle of the cell fast enough to keep it alive.
digestive system to process food, and a system of nerves to
todo
control everything.
oracion sustantiva / cubre o envuelve a la celula
Vacuoles sometimes
The cell membrane, which surrounds the cell, acts like a
la mitocondria
combina elcombine
oxigeno y la comida par producri energia en el proceso que se
llama redown
respiracion
break
andcelular
puerta
Mitochondria
se abre para dejar comida y oxigeno y dejar hechar los desperdicios
casi todas las celulas de nuestro cuerpo
gate. It opens to let food and oxygen in and to let wastes out.
store
material.
In
oxygen and food to
tienen 46 cromosomas
The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes. Chromosomes
plant cells, they
produce energy in
Almost every cell
doblado
may store water.
are made of DNA, a chemical that is shaped like a twisted
the process of cellular
nucleus in your body
las vaualas son como una
llevar
escalera The chromosomes carry the information a cell needs
respiration.
ladder.
reserva de materiales
has 46 chromosomes.
su
to do its job. Each chromosome has sections called genes that
cesi
carry units of information. Almost every cell in your body has
mismos genes
estos genes
pasan
de una
generacion
a la siguientes
thelos
same
genes. These genes
pass
from
one
generation
to theen un proceso se llama herencia
next in a process called heredity.
Plant cells have some special parts that animal cells do
ellas tiens una pared celular envolviendo su membrana celulsa esto le da a las plantas mas soporte
not have. They have a tough cell wall surrounding their cell
membrane. This gives plants extra support. They also have
ellas tienes cloroplastos que las plantas usan para hacer comida
chloroplasts, which plants use to make food. Chloroplasts
los cloroplastos
usanturn
la luzwater
solar para
transformar
ahgua y y dioxido
de carbono
use
sunlight to
and
carbonel dioxide
into sugar
and
oxygen. The plant gets its energy from the sugar.

my
your
his
her
its
our
their

l citoplasma es un material de la celula que puede entrar a la membrana celular y al nucleo

Cytoplasm is all the material of the


cell between the cell membrane
and the nucleus.

la membrana celular es
comparado con nuestra
The cell membrane
piel

can be compared
to your skin.

How do cells work together?


Types of Cells and Their Work
The shapes of cells help them do different jobs. Some cells
have special parts to help them do their job.
Very long cells are called branching cells. Nerve cells have
branching shapes to help them send messages through the
body. Their great length allows signals to be sent very quickly
between different parts of the body.
Cells that have a smooth round shape are called round cells.
Red blood cells are round. They act like saucers to pick up and
carry oxygen. Their smooth shape helps them move through
blood vessels.
A third kind of cell is called a flat cell. These cells join
together to cover a surface. A layer of flat cells is very strong yet
flexible. Your skin is made of flat cells.

Special Cell
Structures

There are hairlike structures in


your ears that bend when sound
waves make vibrations. When
they bend, nerve signals travel to
your brain.
las ondas hacen vibraciones en nuestro cerebro
las cuales

nuestra piel esta hecha por una cpapa plana de celulas

Muscle cells contain long


fibers. These fibers can move
to make the cell shorter. The
fibers are not very strong by
themselves. But they work
together in each cell. Then
many cells work together to
make the muscle strong.

Cilia are some


other tiny hairlike
structures. Cilia wave
back and forth to
sweep dirt and germs
out of your airways.

las celulas de nuestra piel son planas

This nerve cell is a


branching cell.

los nervios son ramas de las celulas

This red blood cell is


a round cell.

This skin cell is a


flat cell.

los globulos rojos son cellulas redondas

Cells Form Tissues

Skin Cell Tissue

Often the same kind of cells work together to do the same


job. When cells work together, they form a tissue. Nerve cells
work together to form nerve tissue. A group of bone cells make
up bone tissue.

Skin cells form in


many layers. The top
section alone has about
25 layers! New cells
form in the bottom layer
and push the other cells
outward and away from
the blood supply. Cells
are dead when they
reach the surface. Dead
cells simply fall off, but they
are always being replaced by
new cells from below. It takes about
one month for skin cells to be pushed
to the surface.

Tissues Form Organs


Tissues join with other tissues to form organs. Your bodys
organs do many important jobs. Your heart, eyes, ears, and
stomach are all organs. Your skin is the largest organ you have.
Plants have tissues and organs too. Plant organs include stems,
roots, leaves, and flowers.

Hair follicle
Hair forms inside cells in
hair follicles. As new cells
form, old ones are pushed
out. The hair you see is
dead tissue.

Sweat gland pore


Sweat leaves your skin
through pores. It then
evaporates from your
skin, helping to keep
you cool.

Other Tissues in the Skin


Your skin is more than just layers of flat skin cells. Skin has
many tissues working together to do many jobs. Your skin
prevents germs from entering your body. It also keeps too much
water from leaving. Nerve tissue allows your skin to sense
touch, pressure, and temperature. Oil glands make oil that
keeps your skin soft. The hair on your skin stands up when you
get cold, trapping air next to the skin to keep you warm. This
is what we call goosebumps. It is caused by muscles in the skin
pulling the hair upright.

How do organs work


together?
Organ Systems

Muscles work together.


Squeeze your fist tight. Several
muscles work together to make
your fingers form a fist. Can you
feel the muscles get tight in your
lower arm?

In your body, many cells work together in tissues. Many


tissues work together in organs. An organ system is a
group of organs that work together to perform important
jobs for your body.

Bones Form a System


Each of your bones is an organ. About two hundred
bones work together in your skeletal system. This system
supports your body. It also protects other organs from being
damaged.

Muscles Work as a System


Your muscles are part of a system too. The job
of your muscles is to move your body. Your body
has about 640 muscles in it. Different muscles
work together when your brain tells them you
want to run or jump. Sometimes muscles
work without your brain telling them to.
For example, if you are cold, your muscles
might shiver, helping to keep you warm.
You shiver without even thinking about it.

Bones work together.


This is a cutaway view of
where the bone in your leg
meets the bone in your hip.

10

Bone cells
Between the bone cells is a hard
material that has lots of calcium.
This material makes bones hard.
Other parts of the body, such as
muscles, also use calcium from
blood to do their work. Bones
store calcium until the level of
calcium in the blood is low.

11

Organ Systems Work Together


Sometimes organ systems need to work together to do more
difficult jobs. Your skeletal system and muscle system need to
work together so you can move. Your bones provide support,
and your muscles move your bones. You need both systems to
move your arm or any other part of your body.
Two or more muscles have the job of moving a bone in
opposite directions. Muscles move bones by pulling on them.
They never push.

Bone marrow

Other Systems Work Together


In your body, many systems must work together. For
example, you know that your muscles work with your bones to
make you move. But the muscles would not work if they didnt
receive messages telling them what to do. Your nervous system
carries these messages from the brain and spinal cord.
Some organs might belong to two organ systems. Your heart
pumps your blood, so it is part of the circulatory system. But
it is also a muscle, so it is also part of your muscle system.
Your bones make up your skeletal system, but they also do an
important job for the circulatory system. A soft material called
marrow is found inside some of your bones. Marrow makes red
and white blood cells for the circulatory system.
12

13

Muscles Flex and Extend


When you bend your elbow, your biceps muscle pulls your
arm up. When you straighten your arm again, your triceps
muscles are pulling. Muscles work in pairs to bend your wrist
and rotate your arm too.

It is amazing to think about all the work that cells do in your


body. Tiny cells work together to form tissues. Tissues team up
and make organs. Your organs work with each other and form
organ systems. This teamwork is what makes it possible for
your body to do all the things you need it to do.

Biceps
Biceps

Triceps

14

Triceps

15

Vocabulary
Glossary
cell
cellmembrane
membrane
cell wall
cell wall

chloroplast
cytoplasm
chloroplast
nucleus
organ
cytoplasm

What did you learn?


surrounds the cell and allows things to pass
in and out
strong wall provides support and protection
for plant cells
green part of a plant cell that uses energy
from sunlight to turn water and carbon
dioxide into oxygen and sugar

organ system

everything between the cell membrane and


the nucleus

tissue
nucleus

the part of a cell that contains DNA

vacuole
organ

a group of different tissues that join


together to do a main job in the body

organ system

a group of organs that work together to do


an important job

tissue

a group of the same kind of cells working


together doing the same job

Illustrations: Title Page, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15 Leonello Calvetti


Photographs:
madepart
to secure
permission
andand
providebreaks
appropriate
credit for
vacuole Every effort has been
a cell
that
stores
down
photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its
attention in subsequent editions. Unless
otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott
materials
Foresman, a division of Pearson Education. Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom
(B), Left (L), Right (R) Background (Bkgd)
Opener: Dr. Fred Hossler/Visuals Unlimited 2 (BR) Dr. Fred Hossler/Visuals Unlimited, (Bkgd)
Michael Webb/Visuals Unlimited; 6 (BL) Dr. Dennis Kunkel/Visuals Unlimited, (BC, BR) David
Phillips/Visuals Unlimited; 7 (CL) Susumu Nishinaga/Photo Researchers, Inc., (CR) RDF/Visuals
Unlimited, (CL) Dr. Dennis Kunkel/Visuals Unlimited; 8 (BL) Quest/Photo Researchers, Inc., (CR)
Veronika Burmeister/Visuals Unlimited; 11 (TL) Dr. Fred Hossler/Visuals Unlimited, (CC) Dr. Richard
Kessel & Dr. Randy Kardon/Visuals Unlimited, (BL) Dr. Donald Fawcett/Visuals Unlimited

ISBN: 0-328-13919-X
Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is
protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any
form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For
information regarding permissions, write to: Permissions Department, Scott Foresman,
1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V010 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05

16

1. What are some things that cells need that you need too?
2. Why do nerve cells have long, branching shapes?
3. Name three important jobs that your bones do.
4.

Every cell in your body needs food.


On your own paper, write to explain how the food gets to
each of your cells.

5.

Draw Conclusions Your bones and muscles work to


let you move. What do you think would happen if you didnt
have any bones? or if you didnt have any muscles?