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Biology 1 Topics 1 and 2- Concept and

Manifestations of Life

Biology is the study of life

Topic 1

A. Manifestations and Characteristics


of Life
B. Theories on the Origin of Life

This handout is for lecture use only and not


for commercial reproduction and
distribution.

The Concept of Life

What is LIFE?

Most contemporary biologists define life as a


particular set of processes that result from
the organization of matter

Characteristics of All Forms of Life

All forms of life share common


properties/characteristics
1. Organization and Orderthe highly ordered structure
that typifies life

Growth and development

Organization and
Order

Reproduction
Energy
processing

Response to the
environment

Homeostasis

2. Energy processingthe use of chemical energy to


power an organisms activities and chemical
reactions
3. Metabolism/Homeostasisan ability to control an
organisms internal environment
4. Response to the environment/Movementan
ability to respond to environmental stimuli

Evolutionary adaptation

Biology 1 Topics 1 and 2- Concept and


Manifestations of Life

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life


5. Reproductionthe ability of organisms to
reproduce their own kind

1. Life is highly organized (ORGANIZATION).

6. Growth and developmentconsistent growth and


development controlled by inherited DNA
7. Evolutionary adaptation variation, change and
adaptation

Biosphere

Regions of the Earths crust, water and


atmosphere inhabited by living things

Ecosystem

Community plus the physical environment

Community

Interacting populations in a particular area

Population

Organisms of the same species in a


particular area

Organism

Organisms
Organization and
Order

Ecosystem:
Forest in
Madagascar

Biosphere
Madagascar

characteristics
of life emerge
from an
organisms
organization

Community:
All organisms in
the forest

Population:
Group of ring-tailed
lemurs

Individual containing organ systems


Organism:
Ring-tailed lemur

Organ system

Composed of several organs functioning


together

Organ

Group of tissues functioning together for a


specific task

Tissue

Group of cells with common structure and


function
Structural and functional unit of living
things; consists of organelles
Specialized structure composed of complex
molecules within a living cell

Cell
Organelle
Molecule
Atom

Union of two or more atoms of the same or


different element
Smallest unit of an element composed of
electrons, protons and neutrons

Spinal cord
Organ system:
Nervous system Brain

Organ:
Brain

Nerve

Tissue:
Nervous tissue

Cell:
Nerve cell

Atom

Nucleus

Organelle:
Nucleus

Molecule:
DNA

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life

2. Life requires a constant input of energy and raw


materials (METABOLISM).

3. Life has strong internal control (HOMEOSTASIS)

Biology 1 Topics 1 and 2- Concept and


Manifestations of Life

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life

4. Life reacts to the environment (IRRITABILITY &


MOVEMENT).

5. Life reproduces itself (REPRODUCTION).

Irritability is a state of extreme sensitivity to stimulation of any kind.

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life

6. Life grows (GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT).

7. Life varies and evolves (ADAPTATION &


EVOLUTION).

Manifestations and Characteristics of Life


7. Life varies and evolves (ADAPTATION &
EVOLUTION).

How did life BEGIN?


African wild
dog

Coyote

Fox

Wolf

Jackal

Thousands to
millions of years
of natural selection

Ancestral canine

Biology 1 Topics 1 and 2- Concept and


Manifestations of Life

Theories on the Origin of Life

Louis Pasteurs 1862 experiment disproves abiogenesis

1. ABIOGENESIS / SPONTANEOUS GENERATION


Life was created spontaneously from lifeless or
inorganic matter

www.fotosearch.com/comp/ITS/ITS223/itf139053.jpg

Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Theories on the Origin of Life

Theories on the Origin of Life

2. BIOGENESIS

3. SPECIAL CREATION

Life comes from pre-existing life

http://www.artoftheprint.com/jpegimages/rausch_anton_mother_and_child.jpg

Life was created by supernatural or divine forces

www.bibledirectories.com/.../What-is-it.html

Theories on the Origin of Life

Theories on the Origin of Life

4. INTERPLANETARY / COSMOZOIC THEORY

5. BIOGEOCHEMICAL THEORY

Life originated on a distant planet


Also known as PANSPERMIA

Life evolved from inorganic matter


Chemical and physical processes in Earths primordial
environment eventually produced simple cells.

Panspermia Theory suggests that life seeds came from outer space and planets
exchanged life.
http://www.rogerwendell.com/images/evolution/dmns_recipe_for_life_09-02-2006.jpg

Biology 1 Topics 1 and 2- Concept and


Manifestations of Life

Debates about the origin of life


abounds

Time Line of
Life on Earth

Laboratory simulations cannot prove that these


kinds of chemical processes actually created life
on the primitive Earth.
They describe steps that could have happened.
The origin of life is still subject to much
speculation and alternative views.
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Alternatively, we
can view the time
line with a clock
analogy.

Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings