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Pump design

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The client will usually specify the desired head and pump capacity. The type and speed of the

driver may also be specified. Speed is governed by considerations of cost and efficiency as well as drivers

available to the client. Given these parameters, the task of the engineer is to minimize cost.

Which cost to minimize, first cost or life-cycle cost, however, is an important consideration. From

a life cycle viewpoint, we must take into account power consumption and operation and maintenance costs.

These considerations call for optimizing efficiency, reliability (the mean time between failure) and

maintainability (the mean time to repair). In general, designing to optimize these categories results in

increased costs. Often, these considerations are not very important and we can design for minimum first

cost. In appropriate cases, the engineer should initiate a dialog with the client concerning available options.

For example, designing a boiler feed pump that operates continuously would probably call for maximizing

efficiency. Efficiency considerations would not be so important, however, for a drainage pump that is only

required to operate occasionally.

PIPE CONNECTIONS AND VELOCITIES

The diameter of the suction pipe is usually made larger that the pump suction flange and both are

made larger than the discharge flange and pipe. Church recommends keeping the velocity at the suction

flange about 9 or 10 ft/s and that at the discharge flange between 18 and 25 ft/s.

LEAKAGE LOSSES

To design the impeller, account must be taken of leakage from the discharge side back to the

suction side. To reduce the leakage, wearing rings are fitted to the impeller and casing. These rings are

designed with specified clearances. The leakage across each ring can be calculated from the following

formula:

QL CA 2 gH L

where: C = flow coefficient

A = leakage area = Ds / 2

D = mean clearance diameter

s = diametrical clearance

0.010 ( D 6)(0.001)in3

For small wearing rings with precise machining and ball bearings, the minimum clearance may be

reduced to 0.008 in.

HL

3

U 22 U 12 / 2 g

4

Ch. 6, John Wiley & Sons, 1950.

2

Id. Fig. 6-1, p. 92.

3

Attributed by Church to Stepanoff, A.J., Trans. A.S.M.E., HYD-54-5, 1932.

The diameter of the impeller eye, Do, is dependent on the shaft

diameter, Ds, which must initially be approximated. The hub diameter, DH ,

is made 5/16 to inch larger than Ds. After estimating Ds and DH , Do is

based on the known flowrate. The inlet vane edge diameter, D1, is made

about the same as Do to ensure smooth flow.

EXAMPLE OF IMPELLER DESIGN4

Specified conditions:

1.

Quantity flowrate:

2.

Required head:

hP = 150ft

Required flowrate: Q = 2500 gpm

Required speed

N = 1760 rpm

2500 gal

min

min

ft 3

5.57 ft 3 / s

60 s 7.48 gal

Mass flowrate:

5.57

m

ft 3 62.4 lbm

348lbm / s

s

ft 3

3.

Specific speed: Assume a double suction impeller; then, Q = 2500/2 = 1250gpm, and:

N sd

(rpm) Q( gpm)

h ( ft )

3/ 4

(1760) 1250

1450rpm

(150) 3/ 4

4.

Water horsepower.

WHP

mgh

(348)lbm (32.2) ft (150) ft

s hp

s2

550

s

s2

(550) ft lbf 32.2 ft

WHP 94.6hp

4

5

See,Munson, Fig. 12.18, p. 812.

5.

Shaft diameter. Calculate shaft diameter based on torque. Increase the calculated value

somewhat to allow for bending moment which is unknown at this point and to ensure that the

critical speed exceeds the operational speed by a reasonable margin. The bending moment

will depend on the weight distribution of the shaft and any unbalanced radial thrust acting on

the impeller. From the figure shown below, with the given flow of 2500 gpm and calculated

value of specific speed of 1450, we select a tentative value of efficiency of 80%.

BHP

Thus:

WHP

94.6

118hp

0.8

min (60) s

rev

(12)in

4230lbf in

s hp

(1760)rev min (2)( )rad ft

16T

(16)(4230)lbf in in2

3

Ds 3

1.75in

ss

( )(4000)lbf

To account for the unknown bending moment and critical speed, increase the shaft diameter to

2 1/8 in. Church states that the hub diameter, DH , is made from 5/16 to in. larger than Ds:

Let

DH 2 in.

6.

2

VSU ( ) DSU

(4)(5.57) ft 3 s (144)in2

4Q

; or, DSU

Q

4

( )VSU

( )(10) ft s ft 2

VSU

(4)(5.57) ft 3 (144)in 2

10.2 ft / s

( ) s(10) 2 in 2 ft 2

For a double suction pump, assume that the leakage will not exceed 2%. Dividing the total flow by 2 gives:

Q V0 A0 V0 (

D0

7.

(4)(1.02)Q

DH2

( )(2)V0

D02

4

DH2

4

(4)(1.02)(5.57)(144)

5

(2.5)2 7.33in, say, 7 in

( )(2)(11)

16

Assume an inlet diameter, D1, of 7 5/16 in.

U 1 r

(1760)(2)( )(7.315)

56.2 ft / s

(60)(2)(12)

The radial velocity should be slightly higher than V0 because a converging shape is more efficient than a

divergent one. Let Vr be 12 ft/s.

The inlet area will be decreased by the vane thickness. Assume a contraction factor, 16 , of 0.85; the

entering width then is:

b1

Q

(102

. )(557

. )(144)

175

. in

D1Vr11 ( )(2)(7.31)(12)(0.85)

W1

Vr1

1 tan 1

Vr1

12

tan 1

12.10

U1

56.2

1

U1

1 is usually increased slightly to account for contraction of the stream as it passes the inlet edges as well as

prerotation. The inlet angle is usually between 10 and 25 degrees7. Let 1 be 130.

8.

The theoretical head can be found from integrating the force on a differential mass:

dF dmr 2 and

dP

dF

; dm d brddr

A

2

brddr r 2

2 2

2

1 dP 1 brd 1 rdr 2 (r2 r12 )

2

but

U r

and

P

;hence,

g

H2 H1

P2 P1 U U

g

2g

2

2

d

2

1

For a closed rotating cylinder containing a fluid, the pressure head developed at the outer rim is:

H2

U 22

2g

D2

2 2 gH 2

(2)( ) N

N

(12)

Tests have shown that the required impeller diameter can be calculated from this expression by substituting

the head corresponding to the best efficiency point for H2 and then multiplying the right side by an

experimentally determined coefficient :

D2

1840 H

N

Church, p. 95.

(13)

Church8 gives several charts for which have been based on a large number of tests. Most of the plotted

points fall within a range of 0.9 to 1.1. Noting that if the head on test is found to be too high, the impeller

diameter can be machined to an appropriate diameter, select 1.05 for ; then:

D2

9.

(1840)(105

. ) 150

13.4in ; say, 13 in.

(1760)

The normal range for discharge angles is between 20 and 25 degrees9. Furthermore, 2 is usually made

larger than the inlet angle. Assume 2 = 200.

The radial outlet velocity, Vr2 , is made the same as, or slightly less than, the radial inlet velocity, Vr1.

Assume Vr2 = 11 ft/s10.

Outlet area (based on required flow plus leakage).

3

2

Q (1.02)(5.57) ft s (144)in

A2

74.4in2

Vr 2

s (11) ft ft 2

b2

(1.02)(5.57) ft 3 s (144)in 2

Q

1.896in

Vr 2 D2 2 s (11) ft ( )(13.5)in ft 2 (0.925)

The absolute outlet velocity, V2 , is used in the design of the volute. We proceed as follows:

U 2 r2

103.7 ft / s

min(60) s(2)(12)in rev

V 2 U 2

Vr 2

11

103.7

735

. ft / s

tan 2

tan 20 0

The inertia of the rotating fluid causes a circulatory flow opposite to the direction of rotation of the

impeller. This flow, superimposed on the outward flow, results in the fluid leaving the impeller at an angle

8

Id., p. 35.

10

Id., p. 110.

11

See, Church, p. 28 for a discussion of circulatory flow.

9

less than that calculated from angular momentum theory. Thus 2 must be decreased and , therefore, the

absolute angle, 2 , increased. The effect of circulatory flow is to reduce V2 and the theoretical head.

Church defines a circulatory flow coefficient, , as:

V' 2

V 2

Church assumes a value of of 0.7. This coefficient can be calculated from tests. Pump manufacturers

will maintain records from which a reasonable value might be estimated for a given design.

V'2 (0.7)(735

. ) 515

. ft / s

The outlet vector diagram can now be drawn:

2' tan 1

11

12.10 , say, 130

515

.

. 2 52.7 ft / s

V2

'2

V2

Vr2

Vr2

V2

V2

U2

11. Cross-section of impeller.

Wall and vane thicknesses are usually made a minimum consistent with good foundry practice. The stresses

due to centrifugal force and fluid pressure are relatively low for average applications; otherwise, they need

to be taken into account12.

12

Id,, p. 152.

b1 = 1.75 in per side

b2 = 1.90 in

D2 = 13 in

D0 = 7 5/16 in

Dr = 8 in (to outside of impeller wearing ring)

Impeller shroud tip thickness - 3/16 in

Connect outlet to inlet by a straight line faired into entrance to provide a smooth transition. Make tip of hub

core 3/16 in and fair into hub diameter. The drawing is shown in the figure on the following page.

12. Check leakage loss.

From the figure on page 8, the mean diameter of the clearance is 8 in. Let s be the diametral clearance.

Church states that the wearing ring clearance for good practice is 0.01 in for rings of 6 in diameter and less.

For rings greater than 6 in, increase the clearance by 0.001 in for every inch of ring diameter greater than 6

in:

. 6)(0.001) 0.0125, say,0.013in

The clearance area is:

Head across the rings13:

3 U 22 U 12 (3)(103.7 2 56.2 2 )

HL

88.5 ft

4 2g

(4)(2)(32.2)

From Figure 6-1, p 92, Church, the flow coefficient for 1760 rpm and a 0.013 in clearance is 0.410. Thus,

the leakage is:

The per cent leakage is

0.075

(100) ; or 1.35 %, which is, close enough to the assumed value of 2 %.

558

.

13

Church attributes this equation to A.J. Stepanoff: Leakage Loss and Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps,

A.S.M.E. Trans., HYD-54-5, 1932.

DESIGN OF VANES

0

must design the vane such that this angle increases smoothly from 13 to 20 . We note also that the radial

components of velocity to these two angles are 12 and 11 ft/s, respectively. We also see from the vector

diagram that

then:

W Vr / sin . The relative velocities corresponding to the entrance and outlet stations are

12 / sin 130 53.3 ft / s and 11 / sin 200 32.2 ft / s . To obtain intermediate values of radii

corresponding to intermediate values of the position angle, , we proceed as follows (see Fig. 3):

1) Plot , Vr, and W against vane radius, r, for the entrance and outlet stations and connect by a

straight line (or a smooth curve).

2) The corresponding values for vane angle, , are computed from

values are also plotted against their radii.

sin Vr / W . These

Alternatively, write a computer program to perform the above functions. Referring to the figure below:

tan

dr

dr

or d

r tan

rd

dr

dr

180 r r

r1 r tan

r1 r tan

180

rd

Use a sufficiently close spacing of r to obtain a smooth vane shape.

3) Plot the radii against to give the shape of the trailing edge

of the vane.

Draw the front edge of the vane with the same curvature as the back edge with a thickness of about 1/8 in 14.

NUMBER OF VANES

The number of vanes is given by the Pfleiderer equation15. First, calculate the average vane angle:

m

z no. vanes 6.5

1 2

2

13 20

16.50 ; then,

2

D2 D1

(135

. 7.312)

sin m (6.5)

sin 16.50 6.21, say,6.

D2 D1

(135

. 7.312)

( )(7.312)

383

. in

(6)

zt

zt

sin

1

D

D sin

1 1

14

15

(6)(0125

. )

0.855(0.85assumed )

(7.31) sin 130

Church, p. 115.

Id.

10

2 1

(6)(0125

. )

0.948(0.925assumed )

(1350

. ) sin 20 0

SUMMARY

Diameter of suction flange, Dsu ------------------------------- 10in

Velocity in suction flange, Vsu ---------------------------------10.22 ft/s

Shaft diameter, Ds -----------------------------------------------------------------------2 1/8 in

Impeller hub diameter, DH --------------------------------------2 in

Impeller eye diameter, D0 --------------------------------------7 5/16 in

Velocity through impeller eye,V0-------------------------------11 ft/s

Diameter of inlet vane edge, D1--------------------------------7 5/16 in

Velocity at inlet vane edge, V1 = Vr1 ---------------------------12 ft/s

Passage width at inlet, b1 -----------------------------------------1.75 in per side

Tangential velocity of inlet vane edge, U1 -------------------56.2 ft/s

Vane angle at inlet, 1 --------------------------------------------130

Impeller outlet diameter, D2 -------------------------------------13 in

Radial component of outlet velocity, Vr2 ----------------------11 ft/s

Vane angle at outlet, 2 -------------------------------------------200

Total passage width at outlet, b2 ---------------------------------1.98 in

Tangential velocity of outlet vane edge, U2 -------------------103.7 ft/s

Absolute velocity leaving impeller,

Angle of water leaving impeller,

2' ----------------------------130

11

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