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Waves

Knowledge :
1. Any motion that repeats itself in equal intervals of time is called a periodic motion.
2. If a particle in a periodic motion moves back and forth over the same path, we call the
motion oscillatory or vibratory.
3. Some examples of periodic motion are the oscillation of the balance wheel of watch, a
violin string, a mass attached to a spring, a simple pendulum , a vibrating saw blade and
air molecules as a sound wave passes by.

a
a

4. Wave motion is due the ________________ of particles from their rest position.
5. Several terms to describe a wave:

A blade

a. Wavelength ( ) , the _______________ between two adjacent points of the


same phase on a wave.

Wavelength ,
Crests

Equilibrium
position

a
trough
s

b. Amplitude ( a ) , is the maximum _____________________ of a crest or a trough


from the equilibrium position
c. Frequency ( f ) , is the _______ of waves produced by a source in one unit time.
d. Wave speed ( v ) , is the measurement of __________

____________ a crest is

moving from a fixed point


e. Period ( T ) , is the ____________ taken for an oscillation to complete one cycle

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6. Waves are _____________ of energy. They ________________ energy from one location
to another. The energy is represent by the amplitude of the wave.
Example :
When we throw a stone into a pond, a ripple spreads out in an
expanding circle from the source of disturbance. The energy of the
stone is converted to waves. A cork floating a distance away will move
up and down when the ripples passes it. Thus the ripple transfer
energy from the stone to the cork

Energy is transferred from the stone to the cork which does


not involve the transfer of water.
7. There are many examples of waves such as microwaves, radio waves, sound waves.
These waves are divided into ________________and ______________ waves.
a. Transverse wave
The direction of propagation of the wave formed is _______________
to the vibration of the medium
Example :

The movement of the hand to the left and right is


perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave

Direction of propagation of wave

Direction of
vibration

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b. Longitudinal waves
Waves where the vibration of the medium is ________________ to the
direction of propagation of the wave
Direction of propagation of the wave
Direction of the vibration

rarefaction

compression

8. Examples of transverse waves are water waves, radio waves, microwaves and etc. While
sound waves is a longitudinal waves.
9. The relationship between f and T is T

1
f

or

T is inversely proportional to f

If T increase, f will decrease and vice versa .

The unit of T is second while f is Hz @ s -1

1
T

10. The swing of a simple pendulum is always used to illustrate some of terms waves.

waves

The maximum displacement is called amplitude ( a )

The time to swing from position A to B and back to A is called a period ( T ).

T simple pendulum

2 l
where l = length of the pendulum and g = 10ms -1
g

Frequency is defined as the number of complete swings of the pendulum bob


from A to B and back from B to A per unit time , F

1
T

When the bob is displaced to one side, the bob will gain potential energy, Ep
where :
o

Ep = gravitational potential energy

m = mass of the bob

g = gravitational field strength ( 10 ms -2 ) ( round off to tens )

h = maximum displacement from its equilibrium position

and when the bob is released to let it oscillates , the potential energy will transform to
kinetic energy , Ek , where

Ek

1
2

mv 2

m = mass of the bob

= the speed of oscillation .

11. Many of oscillating bodies do not move back and forth between precisely fixed limit. The
bob will stop after a long period of time. We call this phenomenon as _______________.
Damping is caused by frictional force dissipate the energy of the motion.
12. Waves has speed. For example, the speed of sound waves is about 330 ms -1 and the speed
of light is 3.0 x 108 ms-1. The _________ of wave can be determine by v
o

v = the speed of a wave

f = the frequency of wave

= the wavelength of a wave ( lamda )

13. We can see a wave in lab using a ripple tank.


14. A ripple tank consists of a square transparent plastic tray with a lamp on the top. The tray
has sloping sides so that any wave propagate will not be reflected back from the side

waves

15. Two patterns of wavefronts are :

Straight waves
produced by a
bar

Direction of propagation
of wave
A bar
( source)

Straight waves

wavefronts

or

A round
dipper as the
source of the
wave.

Circular waves

Direction of propagation of
wave.
16. Water waves have crests and troughs. A crest is the highest position of the wave, whereas
a trough is the lowest position. The crest act as a ___________ lens while the trough act
as a ___________________ lens.
17. In a ripple tank, light rays from the lamp on top will focus onto the white screen below.
The bright lines correspond to the _______, and the dark line correspond to the _______.

waves

Figure to show how wavefronts are formed


18. Displacement distance graph
displacement

distance

19. Displacement time graph


displacement

time
T

Example 1 :
Figures below shows the displacement-distance graph and displacement-time graph of a
wave travelling from left to right.

Displacement /
cm
20_
0_

Distance
(m)

-20_
3m
Displacement /
cm
20_
0_

Time/s

-20_
1.2 s
Determine :

waves

a.

The amplitude, a
..

b.

The wavelength ,
..

c.

The period , T
..

d.

The frequency , f
.

e.

The speed , v , of the wave


.

Example 2
Figure shows a long spring along which a longitudinal wave is moving

a. What is meant by longitudinal wave?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
b. Mark on the diagram
i.

With a letter C which represent a point of compression

ii.

With a letter R which represent a point of rarefaction

iii.

Mark on the diagram a distance equal to the wavelength of the wave and
label this distance as

c. Give an example of a longitudinal wave


_________________________________________________________________

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Example 3
Figure below shows water waves being generated by a linear dipper oscillating in a ripple
tank with a deep area and a shallow area.

Shallow area

dipper
Deep area

a.

State two changes when the wave enters the shallow are
1. _______________________________________________________________
2. _______________________________________________________________

b.

If the frequency of the oscillating linear dipper is 5 Hz, the wavelength

of the waves in the deep area is 4.0 cm and the wavelength of the waves in the
shallow area is 3.0 cm, calculate :
i.

the speed of the waves in the deep area


_________________________________________________________________

ii. the speed of the waves in the shallow area


_________________________________________________________________

Example 4
Each line in the diagram below is a crest line

The wave travels from X to Y in 2 s. What is the frequency of the wave?


Answer : ______________________________________________________________

waves

Example 5
The diagram shows a wavefront pattern produced by a dipper vibrating at a frequency of
12 Hz in a ripple tank

dipper

6 cm

What is the speed of the waves


Answer : ________________________________________________________________

20. If a periodic force is applied to a swing as its natural frequency, the amplitude of the
swing increases as the energy of the swing increases. The swing is said to be in
resonance.
21. At resonance the swing oscillates with a maximum amplitude.

waves

Reflection of waves
Incident
wavefronts
i
r
normal

Reflected
wavefronts

i is called the angle of ______________________


r is called the angle of ____________________________
i0 = r0
Wavelength of the incident waves and the reflected waves are ________________
The incident waves and the reflected waves will have the same speed in water of equal
depth
v, f and are remains constant in reflection

Example 1
The diagram shows a light ray reflected on a plane mirror

300

What is the angle of incidence of the light ray?


Answer : ________________________________________________________________

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Refraction of waves
normal
Incident ray

air

wate
r

Refracted ray

The angle between the incident ray and the normal is called the angle of incidence,____
The angle between the refracted ray and normal is called the angle of refraction , _____
When a wave passes through two medium with two different speed , the wave will ______
( if i 00 )
This phenomenon is called as _____________________.
Refraction is due to the ________________ in the speed of wave when traveling from one
medium to another medium
The wave will refracted ________________ the normal if it passes through a low speed
medium to high speed medium and vice versa
i.

Less dense high speed ; dense low speed ( for light waves )

ii.

Deep water high speed ; Shallow water low speed ( for water waves )

iii.

Dense high speed ; less dense low speed ( sound waves )

The frequency , f does not change in refraction

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Example 1
Complete the diagram below to show refraction when a plane water wave is passing through a
shallow area

Deep area
Shallow area

Example 2
The diagram shows a plane water wave in a ripple tank moving across a convex transparent
block. Complete the diagram to show refraction when the plane water wave is passing through
the convex shallow area

Example 3
Complete the diagram below to show refraction when a plane water wave is passing through a
concave shallow area

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Diffraction of waves
1. Diffraction of waves is a phenomenon when a wave is pass through an _____________or
around an _____________________________
2. v, f dan are _____________

__________________ in diffraction

3. The amount of diffraction ( the sharpness of the bending ) ______________ with


increasing wavelength
4. In fact, when the wavelength of the waves is smaller than the width of the obstacles, there
is less noticeable diffraction
Example 1

Diagram to show diffraction when a wave pass through an opening


Example 2

Diagram to show diffraction when a wave pass through an obstacles

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Interference of waves
1. Interference is a phenomenon when two waves ____ while travelling along the same medium
2. Ripples riding higher on the surface of the sea near a boat. Water waves move towards the
side of the boat and are reflected back. The incident waves and the reflected waves are
superposed. This phenomenon is called ___________________ . It can be explained by the
principle of superposition.
Principle of superposition of waves
1. The principle state that : When two waves interfered , the resulting of displacement of the
medium at any location is the algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual
waves.
2. At the moment when two crests or two troughs are completely __________________,
the resulting shape of medium will be a crest or a trough with amplitude 2a.

2a

A crest superposed a crest

2a

A trough superposed a trough

3. This type of interference is called _________________________ interference .


4. On the other hand, if a crest of one wave propagates superposed on a trough of the second
wave, , the resulting wave will cancel each other. There is no resulting disturbance in the
medium .
5. This type of interference is called _____________________________ interference

Calm water.

A crest superposed a trough

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6. Either constructive or destructive interference to occur, the waves must be coherent.

Diagram to show the transform of interference of waves


7. The result for interference :

Constructive interference - waves


a. water waves

Destructive interference calm water

Constructive interference bright fringe


b. light waves

Destructive interference dark fringe

Constructive interference loud sound


c. sound waves

Destructive interference weak sound

8. Lines join places of constructive interference are called antinodal lines.


9. Lines join places of destructive interference are called nodal lines.

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10. Interference of light can be produced by passing light through a double slit. An
interference pattern consisting of alternate bright and dark fringes can be seen on a
distance screen. These alternate bright bands is called as interference fringes.
11. Formula used in interference is

ax
where
D

a is the distance between two sources of waves


x is the separation between two adjacent nodes or antinodes
D is the perpendicular distance between waves source to the position where
x is measured.

is the wavelength of the used wave.

Diagram to show ,

a,

D Youngs double slit experiment

Example 1
The diagram shows an arrangement in Youngs double slide experiment to show the
interference of light.
screen

Double slit

Laser light

D= 1.2 m

The wavelength of laser light used is 600 nm and the separation of the two slits is 0.48
mm. what is the separation of the fringes of the interference pattern?
Answer :

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______________________________________________________________________

Example 2
The diagram shows the fringes obtained from a double slit experiment using a
monochromatic light of wavelength 550 nm.

24 mm
If the distance between the double slit and the screen is 1.5 m, what is the separation of
the double slit ?
Answer :
_______________________________________________________________________
_

Example 3
The diagram shows two circular water waves from two sources s1 and s2 overlapping as
they travel to the right. The circular lines indicate the crest lines of the water waves

S1

S2

.
.

.P
.
Q. R

What type of interference occurs at P, Q and R ?


P

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A. constructive constructive

destructive

B. constructive destructive

destructive

C. destructive

constructive

constructive

D. destructive destructive

constructive

Example 4
Diagram below show two identical speakers that are connected to an audio generator. The
two speakers are a pair of coherent sources
15.0 m

P
Loud sound
Weak sound
Loud sound

A
u

Weak sound

2.0 m

Weak sound

Loud sound

i
o

6.8 m Loud sound

Loud speaker

Weak sound
Loud sound

Q
g
A student walks alongethe line PQ which is 15 m away from the two loudspeakers. He hears a
loud sound and a weakn sound alternately
a) What is meant
by coherent sources?
e
_________________________________________________________________
r
_________________________________________________________________
a
b) Calculate tthe wavelength of the sound wave
_________________________________________________________________
o
c) The loud sound
is caused by constructive interference of the sound waves. State
r
the condition for constructive interference to occur?
_________________________________________________________________
C
_________________________________________________________________
o
d) The weakhsound is caused by destructive interference of the sound waves. State
the condition
e for a destructive interference to occur?
_________________________________________________________________
r
_________________________________________________________________
e
e) What is the
n effect of
t

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s
o

r
c
e
i.

s
Increasing the frequency of the sound wave

ii.

_________________________________________________________
a
Decreasing the distance between the two loudspeakers
r

____________________________________________________

Sound waves

Sound propagate in a medium as longitudinal waves


t

Loudness and pitch

w
A high pitch soundo corresponds to a high frequency and a low pitch sound corresponds to
a low frequency of vibration

A loud sound corresponds


to the amplitude of a sound. If we increase the amplitude of a
o
sound, the sound will
s be louder.

Applications of sound waves


c
a) Ultrasonic
i spectacles
_________________________________________________________________
l
_________________________________________________________________
l
a
b) Sonar

_________________________________________________________________
i
_________________________________________________________________
n
g
c) Ultrasound scanner
_________________________________________________________________
s
_________________________________________________________________
o
u

Electromagnetic wavesr

c , ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, ,microwave and radio


Gamma ray, X-ray
e

waves are parts of the electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of 3.0 x 108 ms-1


w

Applications of electromagnetic
waves
h
1. Radio waves

i
c
h

waves

h
a

19

e
a

There are various type ofc waves such as microwaves, VHF and UHF radio waves.
o
Microwaves have the shortest
wavelength, being a few centimeters. They are used in

telecommunication as a ntransmitter. Radar systems are also use microwaves to find the
s of an object
direction and the distance
t
a

2. Infrared

The remote control that use to switch on our electrical appliances such as the television,
t

uses infrared. Infrared is also used in transmitting data between computers


3. X-rays

s
e

4. Gamma ray
d

5. Ultraviolet light

e
Question 1
.
Figure below shows the electromagnetic spectrum
Gamma rays

ultraviolet

Infrared rays

microwaves

Radio waves

a) What names are given to the waves in sections labeled W and Q?


_______________________________________________________________________
_
b) From gamma ray to radio wave along the spectrum which property of the radiations has
a decreasing value and which property has an increasing value

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______________________________________________________________________
c) State three common properties of all the electromagnetic waves
i.

______________________________________________________________

ii.

_______________________________________________________________

iii.

_______________________________________________________________

MODULE 2
Form 5
2007

waves

NAME
.........................................................................

FORM FIVE
.........................................................................

NAME OF TEACHER
...........................................................................

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Created by : Hjh Gayah Madu


SM Teknik Kluang 2007

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