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tutorial and exercise on algebraic vectors

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You are on page 1of 24

To represent a vector numerically, we do this in a very similar manner as

coordinate points, i.e. we split the vector movement into a horizontal followed

by a vertical component.

Example

a is 2 squares to the right followed by

3 squares up.

We write this as

a=

b=

2

3

d=

2

3

2

3

Page

c=

2

3

Consider

1

3

followed by

4

2

The equivalent is

1

3

5

1

4

2

5

1

corresponding components:

Example:

2

3

2

3

1

4

1

4

2 (1)

(3) 4

2 (1)

(3) 4

that number:

Example:

2x

2

3

2 x 2

2 x (3)

Page

4

6

Exercise 3

1.

2

3

1

4

4. If u =

3

4

3

9

2

5

5.

2.

1

3

, v=

6

8

and w =

6.

3

10

2

1

2

4

3.

1

2

, find (a) u + v

3

7

7.

5

7

(b) u + v + w

a

b

c

d

8. Find x:

(a) x +

9. u =

1

2

2

3

and v =

3

1

(a) 3u + 3v

10. p =

3

1

and q =

(a) 3(p + q)

5

7

(b) x -

2

3

5

7

, find

(b) 3(u + v)

1

5

(c) 5u - 5v

, find

(b)

Page

(d) 5(u - v)

This is another method of writing the components of a vector in an easier

form.

as i.

1

0

0

1

as j.

combinations if i's and j's.

2

3

Example:

= 2i + 3j

numerical form - simply combine the appropriate components.

Example:

In numerical form

3

2

In i, j form

4

1

7

3

Exercise 4

1. u =

3

2

and v =

(a) 2u + 5v

2. u =

2

2

,v=

1

3

(a) 2v + u

3. a =

5

2

,b=

(a) 3b - c

4

1

4

3

(b) 4u - 3v

and w =

2

1

(b) 3v - w

and c =

2

1

(c) 2w - u

(b) b - 2a

Page

(c) 3c - 4b

(a) 2p + q

(b) p - 3q

(c) 3p + 2q

(d) 2(p + q)

(e) -4p - q

(f) 2p - 4q

Position Vectors

This is the vector from the origin to a given point.

Example:

y

4

3

2

1

O

3

3

4

= 3i + 4j.

Note that the coordinates of A are the components of its position vector.

We can use the position vectors of two points to find the vector joining the two

points.

Example:

Page

y

A

a

O

x

b

B

a = 6i + j

b = 5i - 4j

A

a

O

b

B

AB = -a + b = b - a

This rule can be used to find the vector joining any two points if we know the

coordinates of the points and hence their position vectors.

In words, the rule states that the vector from one point to another is the

position vector of the SECOND point minus the position vector of the FIRST

point.

For the above example, AB = b - a

= (6i + j) - (5i - 4j)

= i + 5j or

Example:

1

5

p = 5i + 2j

PQ

q = -2i - 3j

=q-p

Page

= -7i - 5j

Page

Exercise 5

1. P is the point (2,3) and Q is the point (7,5). Write down the position vectors

of OP and OQ in component form. Calculate the components of the vector

PQ.

B is the point (6,2)

C is the point (-2, 1).

(a) Find a, b and c.

(b) Find AB, BC and CA.

For each of these points find its position vector in terms if i and j.

Page

Answers

Exercise 3

1.

1

1

5.

1

4

9. (a)

2.

6.

3

2

5

3

7.

12

3

10. (a)

3.

12

12

(b)

12

3

(b)

1

3

6

5

4. (a)

a c

b d

8. (a)

(c)

10

15

(c)

11

25

3

4

2

7

(b)

(b)

7

10

(d)

10

15

0

6

Exercise 4

1. (a)

26

11

2. (a)

0

8

3. (a)

14

2

, 26i + 11j

, 8j

4. (a) 5i - j

(b)

1

8

(b)

, i + 8j

, -14i + 2j

(c)

(b)

(b) -i - 18j

0

17

6

5

(c) 8i + j

, -17j

6

0

, 6i

, 6i + 5j

(c)

(d) 6i + 4j

(e) -9i + 7j

Exercise 5

1. OP =

2

3

, OQ =

7

5

, PQ =

5

2

0 4 4

2. 1 , 2 , 3

3. (a)

4

0

4. a = 4i

6 2

, 2 , 1

b = -3i + j

10

7

2 8 6

(b) 2 , 1 , 1

c = -6j

Page

d = i - 3j

, -10i + 7j

(f) -26j

Page

Consider a =

3

4

a

4

3

We write the length of a as | a |.

We can use Pythagoras's Theorem to find the length of a.

| a | = (32 + 42) = 5

In general, if p =

a

b

Exercise 1

1. Write down the lengths of the following, leaving in square roots where

necessary.

(a)

2

1

(e)

3

2

(b)

1

8

(f)

4

3

(c)

4

7

(d)

12

5

(a) If |u| = |v| then u = v

(b) If u = v then |u| = |v|

3. Calculate the magnitude of the vector PQ is P and Q are the points:

(a) (5, 0) and (10, 4)

Page

Answers

Exercise 1

1. (a) 5

(b) 65

2. (a) F

(b) T

3. (a) 41

(b) 10

(c) 65

(d) 13

(c) 41

(d) 58

Page

Vectors can be represented mathematically in two ways: Cartesian form

(horizontal and vertical components), and polar form (magnitude and

direction).

A vector is represented by a straight line whose length is proportional to the

magnitude of the vector, and with an arrow pointing in the direction in which

the vector is acting.

c

at an angle to the horizontal.

This is written

ac = | ac |

component ab (or x) and a vertical component bc (or y).

ab = |ac| cos

bc = |ac| sin

For example, a displacement of 5 metres at an angle of 30 o to the horizontal

can be represented in polar form as 5 30o

and in Cartesian form as 5 cos 30o = 4.33 horizontally

5 sin 30o = 2.5 vertically.

So the vector 5 30o can be said to be the resultant of 4.33 horizontally plus

2.5 vertically.

This is written as (4.33, 2.5)

Page

If the vector ac is represented in Cartesian form as x horizontally and y

vertically then

|ac| = (x2 + y2)

and = tan-1 (y/x)

For example, the resultant of a force 6 kN horizontally and a force of 4 kN

vertically is a force of

(36 + 16) = 7.21 kN

at an angle of tan-1 (2/3) = 33.82o

This is written as 7.21 33.82o

TUTORIAL

Q1. Determine by calculation the magnitude and direction of the force F in

each of the following, and hence express in polar form:

a)

b)

c)

d)

following vectors:

a)

8 35o

b)

21 83o

c)

6.5 54o

d)

15.8 65o

e)

12.4 42o

f)

16 28o

Page

ANSWERS

Q1.

a) 10 53.1o

b) 7.6 23.2o

c) 10.6 37o

a) (6.55, 4.59)

b) (2.56, 20.84)

c) (3.82, 5.26)

d) (6.68, 14.3)

e) (9.21, 8.30)

f) (14.13, 7.51)

d) 14.6 32.7o

Q2.

Page

DotProduct

Thesearevectors:

Theycanbemultipliedusingthe"DotProduct"

Calculating

YoucancalculatetheDotProductoftwovectorsthisway:

ab=|a||b|cos()

Where:

|a|isthemagnitude(length)ofvectora

|b|isthemagnitude(length)ofvectorb

istheanglebetweenaandb

Sowemultiplythelengthofatimesthelengthofb,thenmultiplybythecosineof

theanglebetweenaandb

ORyoucancalculateitthisway:

Page

ab=axbx+ayby

Sowemultiplythex's,multiplythey's,thenadd.

Bothmethodswork!

Example:Calculatethedotproductofvectorsaandb:

ab=|a||b|cos()

ab=1013cos(59.5)

ab=10130.5075...

ab=65.98...=66(rounded)

ab=axbx+ayby

ab=65+812

ab=30+96

ab=66

Bothmethodscameupwiththesameresult(afterrounding)

Alsonotethatweusedminus6forax(itisheadinginthenegativexdirection)

Page

RightAngles

Whentwovectorsareatrightanglestoeachotherthedotproductiszero.

Example:calculatetheDotProductfor:

ab=|a||b|cos()

ab=|a||b|cos(90)

ab=|a||b|0

ab=0

ab=axbx+ayby

ab=1212+169

ab=144+144

ab=0

Thiscanbeahandywaytofindoutiftwovectorsareatrightangles.

Page

ThreeorMoreDimensions

Thisallworksfinein3(ormore)dimensions,too.

Example:Findtheanglebetweenthefollowingvectors:

Wehave3dimensions,sodon'tforgetthezcomponents:

ab=axbx+ayby+azbz

ab=94+28+710

ab=36+16+70

ab=122

Nowfortheotherformula:

ab=|a||b|cos()

Butwhatis|a|?Itisthemagnitude,orlength,ofthevectora.Wecanuse

Pythagoras:

|a|=(42+82+102)

|a|=(16+64+100)

|a|=180

Likewisefor|b|:

Page

|b|=(92+22+72)

|b|=(81+4+49)

|b|=134

Andweknowfromthecalculationabovethatab=122,so:

ab=|a||b|cos()

122=180134cos()

cos()=122/(180134)

cos()=0.7855...

=cos1(0.7855...)=38.2...

TheDotProductgivesascalar(ordinarynumber)answer,andissometimescalled

thescalarproduct.

Page

Page

Page

Page

a . b=|a||b|cos

Note this is similar to the Dot product formula, except sin is used instead

of cos.

EXAMPLE

If |a|=12 , and |b|=10 , and the angle between the vectors is 40o, find

the magnitude of the cross product.

EXERCISE

Calculate the CROSS PRODUCT magnitude for the following vectors:

1.

2.

|a|=1.4 , |b|=0.433 , =2

[ |a b|=11.7 ]

[ |a b|=0.0212

|a|=4 , |b|=1 , =5

|a|=4 , |b|=1 , =90

|a|=2.34 , |b|=9.34 , =13.3

[ |a b|=0.349 ]

[ |a b|=4 ]

[ |a b|=5.03 ]

]

3.

4.

5.

Page

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