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Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies, Vol2, Issue3-2013

ISSN: 2277-6370

A MODERN SECURED APPROACH FOR


AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM BY USING RFID,
FINGERPRINT AND IRIS
M.Jagannadham(1) Sunil Kumar Reddy(2)Prof.UmaMaheshwarRao(3)
1
P.G. Student (Embedded Systems), VVIT, Chevella, India.
2
P.G. Student (Embedded Systems), JBREC, HYD, India.
3
Professor, ECE Department, VVIT, Chevella, India.

Abstract:-Authentication and identification is a fundamental


issue to critical part in many security protocols. In this paper
biometrics can be used to prevent unauthorized persons to
entry in military areas that only authorized persons have to
enter in that secure area that means the area will be restricted.
Authentication is the first step for most of the embedded
security systems. Passwords or smartcards have been the most
widely used authentication methods due to easy
implementation and replacement; however, memorizing a
password or carrying a smartcard, or managing multiple
passwords for different systems is a significant overhead to
users. In addition, they are artificially associated with users
and cannot truly identify individuals performing
authentication is notoriously difficult. Biometrics has been
widely used and adopted as a promising authentication
method due to its advantages over some existing methods,
particularly, its resistance to losses incurred by theft of
passwords and smart cards. However, biometrics introduces
its own challenges, Such as being irreplaceable once
compromised.

Keywords: ARM7 (LPC2148), GSM, RFID, Fingerprint


module, pc cam, keypad, buzzer, DC motor
1. INTRODUCTION
A biometric system is an essentially a pattern reorganization
system which makes a personal identification by determine
authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral
characteristics possessed by the user. Depending on the
context a biometric system can be either an authentication
system or an identification system. The current security model
for verification of identity, protection of information and
authentication to access data or services is based on using a
token or password, tied to and thereby representing an
individual to either authenticate identity or allow access to
information. This token may be password or shared secret
(something you know), an identity card (something you have),
or biometric (something you are). In all this cases, the details
of the token are held by the third party whose functions is to
authorize and sometimes allow proceeding if the details of an
individuals token match those stored in data base.
By replacing ID cards and PINs, biometric techniques can
potentially prevent unauthorized access to or fraudulent use of
ATMs, cell phones, smartcards, desktop PCs, workstations
and computer networks. PINs and passwords may be
forgotten, and token based methods of identification like

passports and drivers licenses may be forged, stolen, or lost.


Thus biometric system of identification is enjoying a renewed
interest. By using biometrics it is possible to establish an
identity based on who you are, rather than by what you
possess such as an ID card, or what you remember such as a
password. In some applications, biometrics may be used to
supplement ID cards and passwords thereby imparting an
additional level of security. Such an arrangement is often
called a dual-factor authentication scheme.
a) Existing system
Present in existing system is that the person who ever wants to
entry in military areas only the authorized persons have to
enter in that secure area that means the area will be restricted.
The authorized persons those who wants enter in that
restricted area first of all he wants to show his id card in front
of the card accessing machine, if it is valid card then the
person will have to enter the password, if it is valid password
then only the door will be opened otherwise it will not be
opened.
Not only for military applications and also the person who
ever wants to access his things or take his amount from Bank
Lockers or ATM,s first of all he has to show his id card in
front of the card accessing machine. If the card is valid then
he wants to enter the password in a particular machine. If the
password is correct then only the locker system will be
opened otherwise it will not be opened, or he can draw the
amount from particular machine. So likewise the person can
access his things from bank lockers.
b) Disadvantages of existing system
If the persons ID card and the password are stolen by his
colleagues or family members then the things will be stolen in
the existing system.
By using authorized persons identity card some other person
will enter in that particular authorized areas or restricted area
in military.
By the present existing system we cannot know when
unauthorized persons try to enter into enter in that particular
authorized areas or restricted area in military.

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Global Journal
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II. PROPOSED SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND
PROTOTYPE DESIGN

Figure 1:: Block Diagram of the Project

a) Analysis of hardware Structure


1) ARM7TDMI: ARM architecture is based on RISC
principles. The RISC instruction set and decode mechanism
are much simpler than CISC designs. This simplicity gives:
A high instruction throughput
An excellent real-time interrupt response
effective, processor macro cell.
A small, cost-effective,
Microcontroller: A Micro controller consists of a powerful
CPU tightly coupled with memory RAM, ROM or EPROM),
various I / O features such ass Serial ports, Parallel Ports,
Timer/Counters, Interrupt Controller, Data Acquisition
interfaces-Analog
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), Digital to
Analog Converter (ADC), everything integrated onto a single
Silicon Chip.
2) RFID reader Module: This is used to automatically identify
the products tagged within the communication range of the
reader, which will be able to provide the accurate
consignments and real-time
time automatically manifest, and
improve movable asset management accuracy and efficiency.
3) Fingerprint authentication: Fingerprint authentications are
security systems of biometrics. They are now used in police
stations, security industries and most recently, on computers.
Every person has marks on his or hers fingers.
fingers These marks
have a pattern and this pattern is called the fingerprint. Every
fingerprint is special, and different
nt from any other in the
world. Because there are countless combinations, fingerprints
have become an ideal means of identification
4) IRIS: In this we are using the Iris recognition technique.
Iris recognition analyses the features that exist in the colour
tissue surrounding the pupil, which has 250 points used for
comparison, including rings, furrows, and freckles. Iris

ISSN: 2277-6370

recognition uses a regular


ar video camera system and can be
done from further away than a retinal scan.
scan
5) GSM: As explained below prototype design on every step if
the system finds any wrong entry it will sends the message to
authorised person.
6) Buzzer Alert: This is the output device which we are using
to indicate the unauthorized person.
7) Keyboard: With the help of these keys the users can enrol
their Finger prints and they will enter the password.
password
8) PC: This section is basically meant to capture the IRIS of
the persons and to transfer this captured IRIS for Processing.
These signals will be compared in MATLAB and then it
passes a commend to ARM7
9) DC Motor: Here we are demonstrating a DC motor as the
Locker for the authorized persons in the Locker system mode.
b) Building the Prototype System
Initially the users will enrol their fingerprints
finge
and eye images
that will be saved in the data base. Figure1 shows the block
diagram of the project.
Step1: The person who ever wants
want to enter in that particular
authorized areas or restricted area in military.
military First of all he
wants to show his id card in front of the card accessing
machine i.e. reader.. If it is a valid one then it goes to second
step. Otherwise Buzzer will be ON and message will be sent
to authorised person through GSM module and it gives the
error message display like invalid person again it displays to
show your RFID card.
Step2: In this step the user have to enter the correct password,
if the user will entered the wrong password it will not moves
the next step and the buzzer will be on and message will be
sent to authorised person through GSM module, if the
password accessing is continuously
inuously failed for three times
means then process will move to the initial condition i.e.
RFID tag showing step. If the user will entered the correct
password then controller asks for a fingerprint access.
Step3:In
In this step the controller asks for a figure
figu print access,
if the finger print accessing is failed then buzzer will be on
and message will be sent to authorised person through GSM
module and the process will move to the first step i.e. RFID
tag showing step. If fingerprint access is matched with stored
fingerprint or authorized person finger print
pr then it moves to
next step (Iris recognition).
Step4: In this step the person who ever want access that
particular accessories or things first he/she has to place his eye
in front of the PC camera at that
tha time it will capture the image
of eye and comparing with previous eye image in that same
way we can access some others with matching or compare of
eye image and this whole process will
w done with the help of
MATLAB code. If it matches existed enrolled database, user
can enter in that particular authorized areas or restricted area
in military.. If captured image does not matched with first
taken image then the controller gives a halt to the process and
moves to the initial step1 at the same time buzzer will
wi be on.
And message will be sent to authorised person through GSM
module. Figure2 shows the complete system operation flow

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Global Journal
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ISSN: 2277-6370

c) System operation flow

Figure 2: The system operation flow

When this prototype system was switch on,


on first it displays
welcome to the security alert in LCD display. After
some delay it will asks for identity card verification in LCD
display. The users have to show their RFID card before the
reader. If the tag is invalid Buzzer will be on at the same time
it displays like invalid person in LCD display and the system
will sends a message to authorized security person through
GSM modem. If the tag is valid one after
fter that it asks for user
password then the user can enter password through the
keyboard. If the user entered the wrong password Buzzer will
be on and the system will sends a message to authorized
security person through GSM modem. If user entered the
correct password it displays entered password is correct. After
some delay it asks for fingerprint authentication.
ication. User should
place the finger in fingerprint module.. After showing this
display user have to place his finger in finger print module. If
the fingerprint image is not valid buzzer will be on and the
system will sends a message to authorized security person
through GSM modem but if it is valid image it displays image
identified and it is valid image. After some delay it asks for
IRIS verification, after showing this step user has to place his
eye in front of the camera. If the eye image is valid one then
t
the DC motor will bee start to open entry then the user can
enter in that particular authorized areas or restricted area in
military.

III.BIOMETRICS
BIOMETRICS
Biometrics is a technology which uses physiological or
behavioural characteristics to identify or verify a person.
Typical characteristics used for authentication include
fingerprint, iris and face. A conventional biometric
authentication system consists of two phases: enrolment and
verification.
During the enrolment phase,
se, a biometric feature set is
extracted from users biometric data and a template is created
and stored. During the verification phase, the same feature
extraction algorithm is applied to query biometric data, and
the resulting query feature set is used to
t construct a query
template. The query template is matched against the stored
template(s) for authentication.
Compared to password/smartcard-based
password/smartcard
Authentication approaches, biometrics-based
biometrics
solutions have
many desired features such as being resistant to losses
incurred by theft of passwords and smartcards, as well as
user-friendliness.. Biometrics bears a users identity and it is
hard to be forged. Unfortunately, brings its own complications:
Security concern: conventional biometric authentication
system record biometric templates in a Central Authentication
Entitys (CAs) database. The stored templates, which
correlate to users biometric data, become potential targets to
be attacked. Some literature [6], [7] has identified the
vulnerabilities caused by the compromise of stored templates.
Privacy concern: Biometrics identifies individuals. To the
best of our knowledge, conventional biometric authentication
system is primarily built upon a fully-trusted
fully
model; that is,
the central authentication entity
ity (CA) is trusted to take full
control of users biometric information and is assumed to not
misuse the information. This assumption of trustworthiness
about the CA is not sufficient in the
Current malicious environments, since handing over ones
biometric
ic information to other parties or loss/compromise of

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Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies, Vol2, Issue3-2013


ones biometric template will cause serious user privacy
concern.
Irreplaceability: biometric data is permanently bound to a
user, and it is almost impossible to generate a new set of
biometric features for a legitimate user. Thus compromised
biometrics is not replaceable.
Many approaches [9], [5] addressing the security and privacy
issues of biometrics have been proposed in the literature.
These approaches avoid storage of plain biometric templates
by recording them in a distorted way.
a) Biometric Recognition System
The Biometric Recognition Systems are used to identify the
person based on the feature vectors of any one of the
biometric that the person possesses [8]. These systems are
person authorized systems hence offer more secure and
convenient process of identification compared to alternative
methods of identification. Each person has to establish the
identity ranging from drivers license to gaining entry into a
country to the passport. The biometric system uses the
individuals physical characteristics like fingerprint, hand
geometry, face, voice or iris. A simple biometric system
consists of four modules mentioned as below:
i) Image Acquisition Module
This is the first module to acquire the biometric input. The
input can be image according to the selection of biometrics.
The sensors like high resolution CCD camera or recorder can
be used to capture the biometric image. The distance between
the sensor and human should be constant, the lighting system
as well as physical capture system should be constant to
acquire standard biometric input.

ISSN: 2277-6370

According to the biometric applications, the suitable


classifiers can be used to get better performance of the system.
The feature vectors are used to write the decision making
rules.
b) Finger print
Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based
identifications the oldest method which has been successfully
used in numerous applications. Fingerprint matching based on
minutiae has problems in matching different sized minutiae
patterns. Local ridge structures cannot be completely
characterized. Efforts are being on to try an alternate
representation of fingerprints, which will capture more local
information and yield a fixed length code for the fingerprint.
The matching will then hopefully become a relatively simple
task of calculating the Euclidean distance will between the
two codes.
Finger Print Classification:
Fingerprint classification is the technique to assign a
fingerprint into one of the several pre-specified types already
established in the literature, which can provide an indexing
mechanism. Fingerprint classification can be viewed as coarse
level matching of the fingerprints. An input fingerprint is first
matched at a coarse level to one of the pre-specified types and
then, at a finer level it is compared to the subset of database
containing that type of fingerprints only.

ii) Pre-processing Module


Once the input is captured, the original input image or
voice signal is processed to remove the noise and blurring
effect. The image is localized to extract the region of interest.
The voice signal is framed to extract the desired signal. Then
this processed input is given to feature extraction module.
iii) Feature Extraction Module
In the feature extraction module, the pre-processed image
is used to extract the features. The feature extraction
algorithms are applied to get feature vector of the biometric
image. There are various feature extraction techniques like
Independent Component Analysis, Linear discriminate
component, principal component analysis, wavelet transform,
LPC, MFCC, etc. According to the biometrics selected and its
application the feature extraction technique can be applied.
iv) Recognition Module
The feature vectors, generated in the Feature Extraction
Module are used in this module to classify the biometric data.
There are the classifiers like hamming distance, Euclidian
distance, and Support vector machine classifier. The rules are
defined for recognition of a person with his /her biometrics [7].

Fig 5: Fingerprint images

Different algorithms are developed to classify fingerprints into


five classes, namely, whorl, right loop, left loop, arch, and
tented arch. This classification is based on a two-stage
classifier which uses a K-nearest neighbour classifier in the
first stage and a set of neural networks in the second stage.
c) IRIS
The iris is a biological feature of human. It is a unique
structure of human which remains stable over a person
lifetime. Iris recognition is a new field of Pattern recognition.
A sample human eye image is given in Fig6. Other visible

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Global Journal
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characteristics include rings, furrows, freckles, and the corona,
to cite only the more familiar.
The density of information such that each iris can be said to
have 266 unique spots as opposed to 13-60
13
for traditional
biometric technologies. This '266' measurement is cited in all
iris recognition literature.; after allowing for the algorithm's
correlative functions and for characteristics inherent to most
human eyes., It has been concluded that 173 "independent
binary degrees-of-freedom"
freedom" can be extracted from his
algorithm - an exceptionally large number for a biometric The
iris image consists of the colour tissue surrounding the pupil.
pupil

Figure 6:: Locating the overall region of iris

ISSN: 2277-6370

the value of the different pixels out of the CCD chip. Read out
the voltages from the CCD-chip.
chip. Thereafter the signals of
each data are amplified and sent to an ADC (Analog to Digital
Converter).
d) GSM technology
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a set of
ETSI standards specifying the infrastructure for a digital
service. The standard is used in approx.85 countries in the
world including such locations as Europe, japan, and Australia.
Architecture of the GSM network
A GSM network is composed of several functional entities,
whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure 1 shows
the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can
be divided in to three broad
oad parts. Subscriber carries the
mobile station. The base station subsystem controls the radio
link with the mobile station. The network subsystem, the main
part of which is the mobile services switching canter (MSC),
performs the switching of calls between
betwe the mobile users, and
between mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also
handles the mobility management operations.

The iris recognition systems are known as real time, high


confidence recognition of person identification [9].
[9 These
systems are used in many applications
ons like passports,
activation security, and controlling access to restricted areas at
airports, database access and computer login, access to
building and homes, border crossings and other government
program. The iris recognition systems behave following
features:
Perform 1: n identification with no limitation on numbers.
The most robust biometric technology available in the
market today never had a false acceptance.
Biometric templates once captured do not need to be
enrolled again, iris stable throughout
ughout a human life.
life
IMPLEMENTATION OF IRIS RECOGNITION:
IMAGE ACQUISITION:
For image acquisition we used CCD camera, with 640x480
resolution and type of image is jpeg. The camera is situated
normally between half a meters to one meter from the subject.
(3to 10 inches)
Figure9:: General architecture of a GSM network

Figure8: Block Diagram of Image Acquisition System Using CCD Camera

The CCD camera job is to take image from optical system and
convert it into electronic data. Find the iris image by a
monochrome CCD (Charged couple Device) camera transfer

IV.. CONCLUSION
Secured Approach for Authentication System by using
Fingerprint and Iris proves to be very effective in providing
security.
A step by step approach in designing the Secured Approach
for Authentication System by using Fingerprint and Iris giving
security to the users banking system and providing the
security for the locker system using a finger print scanner and
Iris has been followed. The result obtained in providing the
security is quite reliable in all the three modes.

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Global Journal of Advanced Engineering Technologies, Vol2, Issue3-2013


The system has successfully overcome some of the aspects
existing with the present technologies, by the use of finger
print Biometric and iris Biometric as the authentication
Technology.
Future Applications:
ATM machine use: Most of the leading banks has been
introduced biometric authentication for ATM machine use
instead of cards.
Workstation and network access: Many are viewingthis as
the application, which will provide critical mass for the
biometric industry and create the transition between sci-fi
devices to regular systems component, thus raising public
awareness and lowering resistance to the use of biometrics in
general.
Travel and tourism: There are multi-application cards for
travelers which, incorporating a biometric, would enable them
to participate in various frequent flyer and border control
systems as well as paying for their air tickets, hotel room etc.
Telephone transactions: Many telesales and call center
managers have pondered the use of biometrics.
Benefits:
 No more forgotten passwords, lost cards or stolen pins.
You are your own password.
 Positive Identification-It identifies you and not what
you have or what you carry.
 Highest level of security.
 Offers mobility.
 Impossible to forget.
 Serves as a Key that cannot be transferred or coerced.
 Non-intrusive.
 Safe & user friendly.
 Increased security when controlling access to
confidential data and IT systems.
 Reduced risk of fraudulent use of identity by employees.
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to thank Mr.Uma Maheswar Rao , who had been
guiding through out to complete the work successfully, and
would also like to thank the HOD Mr.Abbas, ECE
Department and other Professors for extending their help &
support in giving technical ideas about the paper and
motivating to complete the work effectively & successfully.

ISSN: 2277-6370

Recognition, 1996.

[5]Anil K. Jain, Arun Ross, SharathPankanti Biometrics:


A Tool for Information Security, IEEE Transactions on
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[6]SulochanaSonkamble,
Dr.
R.C.
Thool,Balwant
Sonkamble,An Effective Machine-Vision System for
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and Informatics: WMSCI 2008 at Orlando, Florida, USA
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[7] John Daugman, Cathryn Downing, Effectof Severe
Image Compression on Iris Recognition Performance, IEEE
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[8] Joseph Lewis, University of Maryland,Bowie State
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