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Elastodynamics - Motivation

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Fehmi Cirak

Elastodynamics -1!

The discrete elastodynamics equations can be derived from either


Hamiltonian, Lagrangian or principle of virtual work for (dAlemberts
principle)
(build-in boundaries)
!

with initial conditions

Discretization with finite elements

Element mass matrix


element mass matrix

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The stiffness matrix and the load vector are the same as for the static case
Fehmi Cirak

Elastodynamics -2!

Semi-discrete equation of motion

Mass matrix
Stiffness matrix
External force vector
Initial conditions

Semi-discrete because it is discretized in space but continuous in time

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!
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Viscous damping

Rayleigh damping

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Fehmi Cirak

Timoshenko Beam - Virtual Kinetic Work

deformed
configuration
reference
configuration
!

Kinetic virtual work

Rotationary inertia (very small for thin beams)

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Fehmi Cirak

Timoshenko Beam - Mass Matrix


!

Discretization with linear shape functions

Lumped mass matrix (lumping by row-sum technique)

In practice the rotational contribution can mostly be neglected

For the equivalent Reissner-Mindlin plate, the components of the mass matrix are
simply the total element mass divided by four

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Fehmi Cirak

Explicit Time Integration -1!

Semi-discrete equation of motion

Discretization in time (or integration in time)


!

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Assume displacements, velocities, and accelerations


for t!tn are known

Central difference formula for the velocity

Central difference formula for the acceleration

Discrete equilibrium at t=tn

Displacements at t=tn+1 follow from these equations as

Fehmi Cirak

Explicit Time Integration -2!

Provided that the mass matrix is diagonal the update of displacements and
velocities can be accomplished without solving any equations
Explicit time integration is very easy to implement. The disadvantage is
conditional stability. If the time step exceeds a critical value the solution will
grow unboundedly
!

Critical time step size

Longitudinal wave speed in solids

exact solution

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Fehmi Cirak

Semi-discrete Heat Equation -1!

Semi-discrete heat equation

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!
!
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is the temperature vector and


is the heat capacity matrix
is the heat conductivity matrix
is the heat supply vector

its time derivative

Initial conditions

Family of time integrators

Fehmi Cirak

Semi-discrete Heat Equation -2!

Common names for the resulting methods


forward differences; forward Euler
trapezoidal rule; midpoint rule; Crank-Nicholson
backward differences; backward Euler

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!
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Explicit vs. implicit methods


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For
For

the method is explicit


the method is implicit

Implementation: Predictor-corrector form


substituting in
known

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Fehmi Cirak

The Newmark Method -1!

For elastodynamics most widely used family of time integration schemes


Assume that the displacements, velocities, and accelerations for t!tn are
known

Implementation: a-form (according to Hughes)


!

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Unconditionally stable and undamped for

Compute predictors

Fehmi Cirak

The Newmark Method -2-

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To compute the accelerations at n+1 following equation needs to be solved

Fehmi Cirak