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ARIES II Recording System

TRAINING MANUAL

Version 3.1

March/2012

Table of Content
Chapter

ARIES II Equipment

Chapter

Field Deployment

Chapter

ARIES Network Topology and Transmission

Chapter

ARIES System Software

Chapter

Building 2D Projects

Chapter

Building 3D Projects

Chapter

ARIES OB Notes

Chapter

ARIES Media

Chapter

ARIES Video Plot

Chapter

Channel and Sensor Tests

Chapter

Vibroseis Operations

Chapter

RAM/TAP Status

Chapter

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

Chapter

Mc

ARIES II MC System Overview

Chapter

Shot Pro II in Air Gun Mode

Chapter

Fire By Wire Concept

Chapter

Microseismic Monitoring

Chapter

Acronym Definitions

ARIES II Acquisition System Software Training Course Version 3.1XX.XX


Objectives
By the end of this course participants will:
Be able to identify ARIES II System equipment.
Understand how the ARIES II System communicates.
Be able to build, shoot and record 2D, 3D and/or TZ projects.
Troubleshoot ARIES II System equipment.
Import SPS, SEGP1, PRJ, TIF, GeoTIFF Images and DXF, SHP Culture files.
Write or retrieve SEG-D and SEG-Y data files to and from tape cartridges or external hard drives.
Import drilling log reports.
Learn how to set-up GPS tracking of sources and support vehicles.
Customize and print tape labels and Observers reports.
Export a seismic survey database into SPS, Text Documents or Excel Worksheets.
Be able to use the QC and analysis tools located in the ARIES II software.
Be more effective at running an ARIES II Acquisition System.
Be provided with a forum where questions on the ARIES II Acquisition System can be discussed.

Purpose
This course has been created to give every participant the practical experience required to run and
maintain the ARIES II Acquisition System. This is very much a participating course that consists of theory,
practical examples, individual practice and discussions. This course is very flexible and is depend on individual
experience and needs.

Course Prerequisites
The course has been prepared with the assumption that participants have seismic acquisition
experience. The ARIES II Acquisition System is a Microsoft Windows based system so those participants with
basic Windows experience will be comfortable.

Training Course Overview

ARIES II System Equipment


Students examine the various parts of the ARIES II Recording System, including an overview of all ground
equipment, central recording equipment, and equipment communication.

Field Devices & Ground Equipment


Remote Acquisition Module (RAM)

Description:
An ARIES II RAM is packaged in an extruded aluminum case with aluminum end plates. The 20-16PN
and 16-08PN connectors are made of stainless steel. There is a digital board and an analog board located
inside the case and 2 lightning protection boards mounted on each end plate. The RAMs are bi-directional
with 2 battery ports.
Features:
24-bit Delta-Sigma A/D Conversion
6 or 8 channels per RAM
Supports ARIES Capacity on Demand and automatic transmission load balancing
Fully redundant quad-telemetry transmission
Multi-path telemetry routing
Line communication (for voice or shooting)
Automatic Error Free Data Recovery (EDR) from 320-second (@ 2ms) on-board shot memory
Positive Operation LEDs provide instant verification of connectivity, power and telemetry functions
Low distortion test oscillator with ARIES exclusive fully programmable bit stream allows contractors to
test channels and geophones with end-user specified signals
ARIES in-field programmable firmware allows logic upgrades to be performed on all RAMs connected
to the ARIES Central Recording System
Specifications:
Dynamic Range:
Maximum Input:
Equivalent input noise:
123dB @ 12dB gain
.944 V RMS @ 12dB gain
.61 V RMS @ 12dB gain
120dB @ 24dB gain
.214 V RMS @ 24dB gain
.20 V RMS @ 24dB gain
117dB @ 30dB gain
.122 V RMS @ 30dB gain
.16 V RMS @ 30dB gain
135dB System Dynamic Range

ARIES II System Equipment

A1

Total Harmonic
Distortion
Common Mode
Rejection
Crossfeed Isolation
Anti-alias filters
Input Impedance
Maximum distance
between RAMs

0.0002%

Channel Matching

Better than 1.0%.

>105dB

Time Standard

+/- 50ppb (-40C to +70C)

>130dB
-3dB @ .82 N (Nyquist)

Frequency Response
Rejection

3 Hz to 1640 Hz
130dB @ N (Nyquist)

20 K (differential mode)
Up to 656m (2152')

Operating Voltage
Power consumption

18 V DC - 30 V DC Power
< 170mW / channel (typical)

Operation:
RAMs are typically placed at eight station intervals (each with its own individual battery pack) and are
connected to each other with quad transmission receiver cables. The receiver lines can be networked in a 3D
operation by the use of octal baseline cables and Line Tap Units (TAPs).
Additional:
A full bank of channel and sensor tests can be performed by the RAMs.

Line Tap Unit (TAP)

Description:
An ARIES II TAP is packaged in an extruded aluminum case with aluminum end plates. Two 20-16PN
and 16-08PN connectors are made of stainless steel. There are three digital boards and one analog board
located inside the case, and two lightning protection boards mounted on each end plate. The TAPs are bidirectional with two battery ports.
Features:
Provides connection between receiver line(s)
Supports ARIES exclusive Network Telemetry functions, easing system deployment over challenging
terrain
Supports ARIES Capacity on Demand and automatic transmission load balancing
ARIES II System Equipment

A2

Fully redundant octal telemetry transmission


Multi-path telemetry routing
Optional line communication (for voice or shooting)
Positive Operation LEDs provide instant verification of connectivity, power and telemetry functions
ARIES in-field programmable firmware allows logic upgrades to be performed on all TAPs connected to
the ARIES Central Recording Unit
Incorporates eight ARIES II A-D Channels and provides full RAM capabilities within the TAP package
Capabilities:
Receiver Line Capacity:
2,400 Channels @ 2ms, 55m interval (132 km live spread / line)
Baseline Capacity:
6,000 Channels @ 2ms
Specifications:
Operating Voltage:
18 V DC - 30 V DC
Power consumption:
3.4W (typical)
Maximum distance between TAPs:
Up to 623m (2043')
Operation:
The TAPs can be placed at the intermediate back-to-backs or at RAM locations when utilizing the eight
A-D channels incorporated into the package. The TAPs are connected with use of copper octal baseline cables
and have its own battery pack.

Baseline Repeater Module (BLR)

Description:
An ARIES II BLR is packaged in an extruded aluminum case with aluminum end plates. The 20-16PN and
16-08PN connectors are made of stainless steel. There are two digital boards located inside the case and 2
lightning protection boards mounted on each end plate. The BLR is bi-directional with two battery ports.
Features:
Fully redundant octal telemetry transmission
Optional Line communication (for voice or shooting)
Positive Operation LEDs provide instant verification of connectivity, power and telemetry functions
ARIES in-field programmable firmware allows logic upgrades to be performed on all BLRs connected to
the ARIES Central Recording System
Operation:
BLR(s) are placed between TAPs or between the Central Recording System and a TAP, and then
interconnected through the use of octal baseline cables.

ARIES II System Equipment

A3

Fiber Tap Unit (FTU)

Description:
The ARIES II Fiber TAP Unit (ARIES II FTU) is a self-contained unit. Its primary function is to provide
transmission along the fiber baseline and retransmit data from RAMs to the Central Recording System.
The ARIES II FTUs are laid out at intersecting points of receiver lines and baselines. The FTUs are
interconnected to each other and the Aries II Central Recording System through the fiber baseline. They are
then connected to the RAMs via receiver telemetry cables.
The development of the Aries II FTU evolved from an increasing need for higher channel counts with
lighter cables. Other advantage over a copper based cable system is that it is immune to noise and has less line
loss than a traditional copper cable.
Features:
Provides connection between receiver lines
Supports ARIES exclusive Network Telemetry functions, easing system deployment over challenging
terrain
Supports ARIES Capacity on Demand and automatic transmission load balancing
Multi-path telemetry routing
Positive Operation LEDs provide instant verification of connectivity, power and telemetry functions
ARIES in-field programmable firmware allows logic upgrades to be performed on all FTUs connected to
the ARIES Central Recording System
Incorporates eight ARIES II A-D Channels and provides full RAM capabilities within the FTU package
Capabilities:
Receiver Line Capacity:
2,400 Channels @ 2ms, 55m interval (132 km live spread / line)
Baseline Capacity:
16,000 Channels @ 2ms
Specifications:
Operating Voltage:
18 V DC - 30 V DC
Power consumption:
5.25W (typical)
Maximum distance between FTUs: Up to 6000m

ARIES II System Equipment

A4

NetLink

Description:
The Netlink Module is packaged in the same case as the ARIES I RAM except that it has a single 2016PN connector on one side and a coaxial connector on the other. One of the LED windows is used to display
the radio signal strength using a numerical value ranging from 0 to 9.
Features:
Provides wireless link for telemetry signals
Supports ARIES dual-port telemetry
Wide azimuth antenna for ease of connectivity
3km range (typical)
Optional 15m antenna extension cable
Specifications:
Operating frequency:
2.4 GHz - 2.497 GHz (subject to local regulations)
Direct sequence spread spectrum
Modulation:
Transmission power:
Dynamic power control +4dBm to +27dBm (2.5mW to 500mW)
Sensitivity:
106 BER @ -81dBm; 11Mbits/sec
Range:
3km (typical)
Power consumption:
2.5W (typical)
Antenna height:
Adjustable to 4m
Operation:
The Netlinks can be used on receiver lines or baselines and function in pairs by placing the units on
either side of the obstacle.

ARIES II System Equipment

A5

ARIES II Cables
Receiver Line 8 Takeout Cable
The pin assignments for the takeouts are provided below. The digital transmission pairs are noted
below the pin assignments.

NP
Tx1
Tx2
Tx3
Tx4

LM

CD

AB

AB

CD

LM

NP

GH--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GH
RS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RS
JK ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JK
EF ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EF

Tx1
Tx2
Tx3
Tx4

Receiver Line 4 Takeout Cable


The pin assignments for the takeouts are provided below. The cables are bi-directional and the pins for
each head are color coded red and blue. The digital transmission pairs are noted below the pin assignments.

NP
AB
Tx1
Tx2
Tx3
Tx4

LM
CD

CD
LM

AB
NP

GH--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GH
RS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RS
JK---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JK
EF --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EF

ARIES II System Equipment

10

Tx1
Tx2
Tx3
Tx4

A6

Octal Baseline Cable


The pin assignments for the octal baseline cables are illustrated below. The values in the colored
columns represent the corresponding pins. There are four octal port plugs on an SPM II.

Port 1-8
Port 9-16
Port 17-24
Port 25-32

GH
1
9
17
25

EF
2
10
18
26

CD
3
11
19
27

AB
4
12
20
28

RS
5
13
21
29

NP
6
14
22
30

LM
7
15
23
31

JK
8
16
24
32

Cable Specifications

Land-II (R-Line)
Weight: 6.59 kg/100 m
Tensile: 360 kg, typical
Jacket: Double, water-blocked heads & takeouts
Transverse (Base Line)
Weight: 8.30 kg/100 m
Tensile: 225 kg, typical
Jacket: Double, water-blocked heads
Physical
Operating Temperature: -45C to +70C

ARIES II System Equipment

11

A7

Batteries

Description:
Battery Packs are available as:
24V 12Ah Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) unit with cells in a bag
SLA batteries weight 8.5 kg or 18.7 lbs.
24V 15Ah Lithium-Ion unit contained in an extruded aluminum case
Lithium batteries weight 4.1 kg or 9.04 lbs
Composite solar panel pack
The Lithium-Ion batteries are used in conjunction with Marine Cases.
Capabilities:
SLA Battery Packs are rated for 160 hours of continuous use at 20C. The recharge time is 6 hours.
Li-Ion Battery Packs are rated for 190 hours of continuous use at 20C. The recharge time is 4 hours.
Features:
All batteries include an automatic resetting thermal fuse. A Solar Panel can be used in high sunlight
areas and will virtually eliminate re-charging.
Operation:
At least one battery is required by each field device.

ARIES II System Equipment

12

A8

Battery Charger/Discharger

Description:
The ARIES Battery Charger/Discharger unit is a water resistant self-contained device designed to charge
or discharge up to ten ARAM ARIES lead acid or lithium ion batteries simultaneously. It is equipped with a
serial port that interfaces to a PC for monitoring.
Capabilities:
The charger charges an 85% discharged SLA battery in about 6 hours and a Li-Ion in about 4 hours. The
unit can run batteries through a full discharge cycle also.
Features:
The LED indicators (located above each connector port on the Battery Charger unit) allow users to
monitor a battery as it is charging. A VDF display provides detailed information.

SOLID RED LED indicates:


FLASHING RED LED indicates:
FLASHING GREEN LED indicates:
SOLID GREEN LED indicates:
SOLID ORANGE LED indicates:

ARIES II System Equipment

The battery is in conditioning mode (charge or discharge).


The battery is in charge mode.
The battery is in trickle charge mode.
The battery is charged and the cycle is complete.
The battery is in discharge mode.

13

A9

Operation:
1. Use the selector switch to set mode of operation.
2. Connect the power cable between an AC source and the power connector of the Charger/Discharger
Unit.
3. Connect batteries to be charged to the external battery connectors on the main panel.
4. Turn on the Battery Charger/Discharger Unit.
Once powered on, it scans the channel boards and batteries to determine what is connected.

Caution:
The Indicators and the VDF display may need up to 30 seconds to show valid status.

Lightning Protection Module

Description:
The Lightning Protection Module is packaged in an extruded aluminum case with three sets of 20-16PN
through connectors.
Capabilities:
The module is used for added protection for the Central Recording System in case of a lightning strike.
Features:
There are a series of gas tubes and resistors that provide the charge dissipation.
Operation:
The module requires no battery and is simply placed on the ground outside of the recorder between a
set of port jumpers and the octal baseline cable. Use any of the three sets of 20-16PN through connectors.

ARIES II System Equipment

14

A10

ARIES II Marine Cases

Description:
Made of hard anodized 6063 aluminum the Marine case is available in two sizes; one for the ARIES II
RAM and another for the ARIES II TAP. Each case can be equipped with either aluminum or stainless steel
connectors.
Capabilities:
The Marine Cases are waterproof in depths of 75m (fresh and sea water).
Features:
The Marine Case instantly converts a land ARIES II RAM or ARIES II TAP for marine use.
Operation:
A RAM/TAP is placed inside the case with one (AMC) or two Li-Ion batteries (AMT). The LEDs are still
visible (RAM) and opening the case to charge the batteries is not required.

IMPORTANT!!
ALL FIELD DEVICES SUCH AS RAMs, TAPs, FTUs, BLRs AND LPMs ARE DESIGNED TO GROUND THROUGH THE
CASE. THEREFORE THEY MUST BE SITTING ON THE GROUND ITSELF FOR THE LIGHTNING DISSIPATION TO
FUNCTION PROPERLY!!!!! IT IS NOT RECOMMENDED TO PLACE THE DEVICES ON TOP OF THE BATTERIES.
SERIOUS DAMAGE TO THE DEVICES CAN OCCUR IF THEY ARE NOT GROUNDED.

ARIES II System Equipment

15

A11

ARIES II LED Cable Checker Kit (ARIES II LCC KIT)

Description:
The LED Cable Checker is a simplified test unit for seismic cables. It is used to check continuity of all
pairs between cable heads. The LED Takeout Polarity Indicator plug is provided with the unit and used for
testing continuity of analog pairs from a cable head to individual take-outs, including the polarity test.

ARIES II Hand Held Line Tester

Description
The ARIES II Hand Held Line Tester (ARIES II HHT) can be used for measuring of:

Wires continuity from cable head to take-out


Pilot voltages of the digital pairs
Battery voltages
Geophone resistance
It comes supplied with:
A shorting plug for testing the integrity of wires from head to head
KCK or KCM adapter cable for testing the integrity from head to take-out

ARIES II System Equipment

16

A12

Central Recording System


The Central Recording System (CRS) is a complete system that is used to monitor, manage, and record
seismic data. The CRS consist of the following:
Power Supply Module (PSM)
Seismic Processing Module (SPM)
Tape Drive Module (TDM)
Multiple monitors (maximum of five)
Keyboard and mouse
Network Plotter
The SPM, TDM and PSM are mounted in a rack for permanent installation.

ARIES II System Equipment

17

A13

SPM II

Description:
The Seismic Processing Module (SPM) has 2 Quad core (2.8GHz each) processors with up to 32 Gigs of
RAM on a 64 bit single board computer running under the graphical environment of Windows XP. It provides
the software and hardware interface between the line equipment and all other modules and peripherals that
comprise the ARIES Central Recording System.
The SPM incorporates four 1000Gig (1TB) Enterprise Class SATA (3GB/s) hard drives combined in a
RAID level 5 data storage.
A RAID 5 is made up of 3 or more disks striped together to make one logical disk, however it is also
comprised of parity bits that are equivalent to the capacity of one hard drive, which is mixed on all the
physical disks. Therefore since the ARIES II SPM utilizes 4 disks in a RAID 5 the total capacity of the RAID 5 will
be equivalent to 3 disks.
The RAID 5 is then divided into 5 Volumes. The only place the system sees the four physical drives
separately is in the Areca ARC-1210 SATA RAID Controller BIOS or RAID utility in Windows (MRAID).
The SPM provides eSATA, USB2, LAN, LV Diff SCSI, HV Diff SCSI, Firewire, Parallel & Serial and up to 32
line interface ports. Most of these are located on the back panel of the SPM.
The front panel has two eSATA, one USB port, and the Power on/off and Reset switches. A slim-line
DVD/CD-RW drive and a removable vented panel to access the cooling fan filters are located on the front side.

ARIES II System Equipment

18

A14

Capabilities:
It is difficult to give a black and white number for the SPMs channel capacity. There are a number of
factors that are used in determining this such as:
Number of quad port cards installed
Receiver cable length, which dictates transmission speed
High-cut filter selection
Real time or near real time data retrieval
High speed baseline option
The following are the published specifications for capacity:
Receiver Line Capacity:
2400 Channels @ 2ms, 55m interval
System Capacity:
24,000 channels on four copper baselines in real time
Features:
Width 48.3 cm, height 17.8 cm, depth 54.6 cm and weight of 18.6 kg
Usually set up in a rack as a recording unit along with the TDM and the PSM

ARIES II System Equipment

19

A15

QLICs:
The QuadPort is a four port PCI Interface Card that interfaces with the line equipment via the back
panel (32PIO). Each QuadPort has four ports and is designed to communicate with RAMs distributed across a
network. Multiple pairs of QuadPorts can be installed in a single SPM (maximum of eight).
Operation:
Power Button: This push button switch is used to enable or disable power to the SPM.
Reset Button: This push button is used to reboot the SPM without having to disable the power (warm
boot).

Tape Drive Module (TDM)

ARIES II System Equipment

20

A16

Description:
The Tape Drive Module (TDM) consists of two LTO Ultrium 3 tape drives that are used to transfer data
to and from the SPM. The front panel is comprised of one transparent door that provides access to the
operator panel and the cartridge slot for both tape drives. The front panel also consists of a power button and
two vented panels. The vented panels can be easily removed to clean or change filters. The back panel is
comprised of all the interface connections for the TDM. The back panel is used to interface the internal tape
drives to the SPM. It can also be used to interface the SPM to an additional tape drive module. The back panel
consists of two SCSI-LVDS connectors, one power connector, fuse access and two cooling fans.
Capabilities:
Data can be written to both tape drives simultaneously or individually, using half-inch tape cartridges.
Up to 400 GB of data can be stored depending on the type of cartridge and if compression is used.
Features:
The TDM is compact in size and slides into the same rack as the SPM. Width - 48.3 cm; Height - 17.8cm;
Depth - 53.3 cm; Weight - 27 kg.
Operation:
The LTO operates via the ARAM ARIES software.
Control Buttons:
An On/Off push button for each drive is located on the
front panel of the TDM. A single Eject button is located on
the front panel of each drive.
LEDs:
Four LED indicator lights are located on the front of each
drive:
Ready, Drive Error, Tape Error and Clean

Power Supply Module

ARIES II System Equipment

21

A17

Description:
The Power Supply Module (PSM) protects the ARIES Central Recording System and other peripherals
from power failures, power sags, power surges, brown outs, line noise, high voltage spikes, frequency
variations, switching transients, and harmonic distortion. The Front panel consists of a main power On/Off
switch and a removable battery pack.
The back panel contains all the interface connections for the PSM. The back panel is used to supply AC
power to the SPM, TDM, and peripherals. A circuit breaker switch is located on the back panel too.

Capabilities:
Standard: 80VAC 265VAC (47 - 440Hz) IN (Auto Range), 120VAC (60Hz) OUT. The PSM provides clean
power to the Seismic Processing Module (SPM), Tape Drive Module (TDM) and all other peripherals. It
provides one output receptacle with a total load capacity of 2500VA /2000W.
Features:
The PSM slides into the same rack as SPM and TDM. Width - 48.3 cm; Height - 17.8 cm; Depth - 59 cm;
Weight - 58 kg.
Operation:
AC Input Main Switch: This switch is used to power the UPS on and off
Audible Alarm Switch: This switch is used to turn on and off (silence) the audible alarm
AC Input Circuit Breaker: This protects the PSM from extremely high current conditions or a short
circuit. The fuse is rated for 250V @ 25A
Battery Fuse: This fuse is used to protect against overloads and short circuits on the battery. The fuse is
rated for 125V @ 30A

ARIES II System Equipment

22

A18

Controls and indicators:


There is one main switch located on the front operator panel. There are several LEDs located within
the operator panel. The LEDs are used to display AC ON, Load, Battery Status, AC Line, Internal DC ON, Replace
Battery, Overload, and Over Temperature.
AC Input Main Switch

This switch is used to power the PSM on, off and disable the audible alarm.
Briefly hold the switch in the ON position to apply power from the AC input and
activate the audible alarm
Briefly hold the switch in the OFF position to power off the PSM
Hold the switch in the ON position for 1 sec (while the PSM is running) to disable
the audible alarm

Load Indicators

These indicators display the load being applied to the PSM. When all five LEDs light,
a full load is being applied (about 20% per LED).
Battery Status Indicators

These indicators display the charge/charging level of the battery pack. When all five
LEDs light, the battery pack is fully charged and operating from external power. When the battery pack is
almost depleted, the bottom LED flashes and the audible alarm beeps once per second, to indicate that low
battery shutdown will occur.
AC ON Indicator

This LED lights when AC power is applied to the PSM. It flashes during 80VAC and 265VAC operation to
indicate the operating point is close to tolerance. This LED doesnt light if AC power drops below 80VAC. At
this point the internal battery provides power to the AC output.
Internal DC ON

This LED lights when the output power of the PSM is provided by the internal battery.
Replace Battery

This LED lights when the battery has reached the end of its usable life (battery voltage below 19.8VDC).
Overload

If UPS load capacity is exceeded, this LED lights and the audible alarm sounds continuously.
Over Temperature

If the internal temperature exceeds safe operating limits, this LED lights and the audible alarm sounds
continuously.

ARIES II System Equipment

23

A19

SPM Lite

Description:
The SPM Lite is a self-contained portable recording unit that includes a keyboard, a mouse and a
monitor.
Capabilities:
It performs all of the same recording functions of an SPM, but is limited to a maximum of two QLICs so
over channel capacity is reduced. There is a SCSI interface for recording to tape (if required). An additional
monitor and thermal plotter can be added as well.

Plotter

Description:
ISYS V12 thermal plotter is a stylish and rugged desktop, designed to meet the demands of high speed,
continuous-feed printing.
Capabilities:
12 in. rolled media on 1 in. core
200-203 DPI
Plotting speed of 1 4 in./sec
2368 dots per scan

ARIES II System Equipment

24

A20

ARIES II Network Test Unit (ANTU)

Description:
The ARIES II ANTU is a self-contained unit that provides functional test applications for the ARIES II line
equipment under the graphical environment of Windows XP x64.
Capabilities:
The ANTU can perform all of the operations of an SPM, including channel and sensor testing but
cannot acquire data.
The ANTU can be used to troubleshoot or configure a line or single RAM and even pre-test a network
before the Central Recording System arrives.
Features:
The ANTU can interface to a single ARIES II receiver line or an ARIES II baseline. Cable interconnections
are located in the recessed areas on the left side of unit.
The ANTU has several power options: an ARIES 24V lead acid battery, a DC In car style adapter, or an
AC In adapter.
Operation:
1. Power up the ANTU.
2. Build or import a project from the SPM
3. Plug a baseline cable or a receiver cable into the proper port
4. Navigate to AriesMap and perform any or all channel and sensor tests

ARIES II System Equipment

25

A21

ARIES II Power System


All power for the CRS is supplied via PSM. All of the ARAM electronics (SPM, TDM, plotter, printer,
monitors, and other peripherals) are powered through the PSM. All other customer-supplied equipment (e.g.,
AC/DC power supply for the shooting radio) must be operated from the truck generator.
Points to remember
Always use a Ground Stake to ensure that the recording truck is properly grounded
After wiring a power source, always use a ground-fault indicator to check each AC
power socket within the circuit
Before connecting any equipment, always use a ground-fault indicator to check the AC
power socket
Always ensure that both the generator and PSM are properly grounded

Generator

L L
N N
G G

Outlet

PSM
2.5KVA

GND terminals
of AC outlets

Chassis of Truck

Customer Supplied

AC Power Out
115V 60Hz

Ground Stud
with Wing Nut

Ground Stake

Seismic Processing Module

Tape Drive Module

Monitor 1 Power

Monitor 3 Power

Monitor 2 Power

Monitor 4 Power

Network HUB Power

Plotter Power
Printer Power

ARIES II System Equipment

26

A22

Field Deployment

Fundamentals

ARIES II RAMs by default are 8-channel units (four channels on each side)
RAMs with battery packs are placed on the ground at eight station intervals
Receiver cables are used to connect the RAMs to the sensors and to other RAMs
TAPs and baseline cables are used to connect the receiver lines to the Central Recording System

2D Deployment
There are two options available for the field crew when deploying the RAMs:
First RAM can be placed at the beginning of a 2D line and then every eight stations after that, though
layout results in losing four channels on one side of the RAM
First RAM can be placed between the 4th and 5th stations on the line and utilize all eight channels of
that RAM. RAMs are deployed in eight stations interval after that.
A standardized placement according to flag number can be developed to use these methods. Where ever
the RAMs are placed, it is the observers job to emulate that layout when he builds the network in AriesMap.
There are two common receiver cable arrays with 4 takeouts and 8 takeouts. The 4 takeout cables have
back-to-backs that is used to connect the cables at the mid-spans between the RAMs.
The RAMs are bi-directional. The receiver cables can be plugged into either of the two cable ports. A
battery pack can be plugged into either of the two battery ports.

Networking with a TAP


The ARIES II TAP has eight analog channels incorporated into its architecture and can be placed at a
RAM location.

Field Deployment

27

B1

3D Deployment
When recording 3D programs, most contractors force the first RAM locations to fall between the 4th
and 5 stations from either end of the line. The RAM locations are the same on all lines.
The software can select the RAM locations individually for each line to minimize the number of RAMs
needed. This is the Optimize option and is used to achieve maximum channel usage. The drawback is that
there is no consistency in RAM location flag numbers.
The Aries II TAP can be placed at intermediate (back-to-back) locations or at RAM locations. Often the
priority for a baseline is ease of access. Roads and trails facilitate quicker, simpler deployment of the baseline.
The receiver line cables connect to the A and B ports of the TAP. By default the low number side
connects to the A port. The baseline cables connect to the ports labeled Left and Right; one cable runs
back in the direction of the Central Recording System and the other toward the next receiver line.
th

4 Takeout Cables
If using 4 takeout cables, then the TAP can be placed at the back-to-back or can replace a RAM at its
location.

4 or 8 Takeout Cables
The TAP is placed at a RAM location and uses the eight analog channels available in the ARIES II TAP.

Field Deployment

28

B2

Down Line TAPs


The ARIES II system is a true multi-path telemetry recording system. That enables the use of receiver
lines to act as baselines. Secondary baselines can be used to network around line breaks or obstacles. This is
referred to as down line tapping.
The procedure for connection on the ground of the down line TAP is to place another ARIES II TAP at a
RAM location, or at a back-to-back location on the last continuous receiver line where the secondary baseline
is going to be run.
1. Connect the receiver line cables into the appropriate A or B side.
2. Connect a baseline cable into the LEFT or RIGHT side of the TAP (according to the settings in the
TAP Table) and run that cable towards the other line segments; this is critical.
3. Place TAPs at RAM or back-to-back locations on the line segments that are to be networked.
4. Connect the receiver cable to the appropriate A or B side of the TAP.
5. Connect the baseline cable to either the LEFT or RIGHT side of these TAPs.
1101

R1

R
B

R5

Field Deployment

5101

29

B3

Netlinks
In situations where cable telemetry is not feasible, such as river or highway crossings etc., a pair of
Netlinks can be used to accomplish RF telemetry. Netlinks are dual transmit units, therefore RAMs past the
wireless link only have two transmission pairs available, which is automatically detected by the system.
Netlinks are generally used on the receiver lines but can also be set up on the baseline if hardware is
configured for ARIES I equipment. More than one set of Netlinks can be installed to increase the number of
transmit paths by using ARIES I octal splitters and radio frequency separation.

Field Deployment

30

B4

Baseline Repeater
If the maximum cable length for defined speed between TAPs is exceeded, a Baseline Repeater (BLR,
ARIES I TAP or ARIES II TAP) can be used. The high channel counts may require the use of a high speed baseline
with repeaters to increase capacity of the system.

Jumpers
Receiver lines can be snaked together with jumpers. If the maximum cable distance between devices
is exceeded, repeater RAMs must be used.

Field Deployment

31

B5

Field Deployment

32

B6

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission


Overview
The ARIES II system is a telemetry system. Telemetry is the act of transmitting signals to and from
remote locations to a central receiving point, either by cable or by radio.
Each remote acquisition unit consists of a preamplifier, a converter for digitization, a data transmitter,
and memory. Primary the ARIES II system uses a cable transmission. Data are sent in packets from one remote
location to another (via cable) where all data eventually feed into the Central Recording System.
To transmit/receive signals, Remote Acquisition Modules (RAMs and TAPs) are networked together,
and connected to Line Interface Unit (LIU) ports inside the Seismic Processing Module (SPM) via receiver line
cables and baseline cables. Receiver line cables consist of four or eight geophone-takeout wire pairs and
two/four digital transmission pairs (baseline cables include eight digital twisted-pair transmission wires but no
geophone takeouts).
As a receiver line is laid out RAMs with battery packs are placed at eight-station intervals. Each RAM
measures analog data from the four takeouts on either side of it, then digitizes, transmits and stores the data
in memory. The RAM closest to the Central Recording System transmits its data, then receives digitized data
from the second RAM and retransmits it to the SPM sample by sample. This pattern continues until the end of
a line or until the system reaches its RAMs per LIU limit.
The SPM is the source of commands and interrogates transmitted out to remote equipment, and acts
as a storage when receives data transmitted back from remote equipment. Commands, interrogates, raw
data and status are blocks or packets of data, which are transmitted through the system. Each block of raw
data consists of bits and bytes and also contains a summation of the number of bits and bytes called
checksum, which is transmitted or stored along with the data.

Power up of Line Equipment


The SPM produces a pilot voltage of approximately 17 VDC from all defined LIU ports onto the
baseline. This voltage is used to power up the first TAP on each base line. These TAPs then generate a pilot
voltage for the next TAP/RAM on all A,B, R or L ports to wake up the next TAP/RAM, and so on until
the entire line is powered up.
The pilot voltage acts as an on/off switch and TAP/RAM then draws power to operate from a 24V
battery pack. The Central Recording System waits approximately 30 seconds after its ports are powered on
(pilot voltage to the line) to allow for the TCXOs to stabilize in the line equipment before acquiring data.
Network discovery line tests can be run at this time.

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

33

C1

Transmission Speed
As previously discussed, communication is accomplished through data packets (made of data bits) that
are transmitted via cable. The speed at which signals are transmitted through the system is called the
transmission speed and is set in the ARIES II RAMs and TAPs by the Central Recording System during power up
of the lines. Transmission speed can vary from 12 to 2 Mbit per second and depends upon the length of
baseline and receiver line cables.
To increase channel capacity, the ARAM ARIES system have a function which enables receiver line
transmission at one speed while baseline can be run at a faster speed.
Receiver Line Cable Takeout Interval,
meters
27.5
55
75

Transmission Speed,
Mbit/s
12
4.5
2.5

Baseline Cable Length,


meters
210
280
360
440
600

Transmission Speed,
Mbit/s
12
9
6
4.5
2.5

Retrieval Rates
The SPM interrogates the RAMs for data that is stored in the shot memory at a rate usually equal to
what it was sampled at, but it can interrogate the RAMs at a slower rate if required. By having the SPM ask for
or interrogate the RAMs memory less often, leaves more time for the interrogate to go out and ask for the
data packet to return before the next interrogate leaves the SPM.
When recording with a 2ms sample rate, the RAMs sample the data at 500 Hz over a 3 sec. time frame
= 1501 samples. The SPM can then interrogate the RAMs at 300 Hz (1501 samples at 300 Hz = 5 seconds). This
is one way to overcome the channel limitations associated with greater hi-cut filter values.

System Communication
The ARIES II system uses different types of data packets to communicate between the recording
system and the line. The recording truck uses Commands and Interrogates to communicate with line
equipment, which in turn sends Line Data back to the truck. Each piece of equipment on the spread knows its
orientation relative to the recording truck; RAMs and TAPs recognize only commands or interrogates on their
truck side, and line data on their line side.
Commands, consisting of 32 bits of data, instruct one (or all) RAMs or TAPs to perform a given task. For
example, the software may instruct a particular TAP to power off all RAMs on its B side.
ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

34

C2

Figure 1 illustrates the bit structure of a typical RAM command. The first five bits in any data packet
identify the packet as a command, interrogate or line data. In this case, 11001 identifies it as a Command
(Interrogates start with 11010 and Line Data starts with 11011).

Figure 1. Command Structure


The sixth and seventh bits in a command (the device-type bits) identify the type of device ( RAM, TAP,
etc.) to which a command is being sent. For example, 01 indicates that a command is being sent to a RAM,
while 10 indicates it is being sent to a TAP.
The eighth bit in the command Preamble is the global bit and is used to define which devices act on the
command. If this bit is set high (1), then all devices of the selected type act on the command (this is a Global
Command). If it is set low (0), then the Address (16 bits) determines which RAM or TAP will act on the
command (this is an Addressed Command).The last eight bits in a command data packet define the command
being sent. Once a device determines that it is the intended recipient, it acts upon the 8-bit command.
When a TAP receives a command from the truck, it forwards the command simultaneously in three
directions out of the A side, B side and line side ports. As each RAM on the spread receives a command,
it determines (based on the preamble and address bits) whether or not to act upon it, then sends it to the next
device on the line.
Interrogates, consisting of eight bits, instructs all devices to ship line data packets back to the truck,
which requested by the previously sent command. To identify an interrogate, a device looks at only the first
five bits 11010 and ignores the last three bits, which are unused.
Upon receiving interrogate (in Acquisition mode) a TAP forwards it simultaneously in three directions
out of the A side, B side and line side ports. If a TAP does not receive enough responses, it inserts
simulated data for the missing RAMs. If it receives too many responses, it ignores those over the defined
number and reports about this incident to Central Recording System after shot.
When a RAM is set in repeater mode, it immediately passes all interrogates to the next RAM down the
line. After an active RAM receives an interrogate, it begins sending line data toward the recording truck. Just
before finishing transmitting its data packet, the RAM passes the 8-bit interrogate to the next RAM or TAP on
the line.

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

35

C3

Line Data packets, consisting of 204 data bits, include either analog-to-digital (geophone pulse or
geophone noise) or status (battery voltage, serial number, etc.) information sent by line equipment to the
recording system. Figure 2 illustrates the various bits that comprise a line data packet.

Figure 2. Line Data Packet


The first eight bits of each data packet are the preamble. Bits 1-5 identify the block of information as
data from the line. The next three bits (STATUS, RESERVE 1 and RESERVE 0) identify what type of
information is coming and where it originated. For example, information can be real or simulated shot data, or
device status data, and it can come from a TAPs A side, B side or line side.
The Data Word portion of a line data packet is 192 bits long, and can include either shot data (24 bits
from each of a RAMs eight digital-to-analog converters) or status information.
The next four bits of a line data packet is the Checksum Count. Before a RAM sends data to the
recording system it counts the number of high bits (1s) in the data word section and writes the total here in
binary format. The RAM counts in cycles of 16 (from 0 to 15), repeating the cycle until it finishes counting all
high bits in the data word section. For example, if a total of 20 bits was set high, the RAM would count to 15
then repeat the cycle, counting 16 as 0, 17 as 1, 18 as 2, 19 as 3 and 20 as 4. The checksum count in this case
would be 4 (written as 0-1-0-0 in binary format).
After a RAM sends line data towards the truck, each device along the way verifies it. When a device
receives the data packet, it counts the high bits in the data word portion and compares that number with the
data inside checksum count bits section. If these numbers do not match, the device notes that it detected a
transmission problem. The device then sends the data towards the recording truck, raises the flag, starts the
checksum error detector counter and waits for more data from the line or next interrogate from the truck.
After collecting data, the system polls all devices on the line to determine which devices detected
transmission problems and where to place RAM/TAP (Tx Error Range) icons.

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

36

C4

Transmission Errors
As already mentioned, all commands, interrogates, raw seismic
data and status data are transmitted through the system via a digital pair
of wires in the cables, which connect the entire system.
EMI (electromagnetic interference) can interrupt, obstruct or
otherwise degrade or limit the effective performance of transmission
through the system. Some natural causes of EMI are electro-static
discharge that results from blowing snow, sand or lightning. Electric
lines, radio towers, etc., are man-made causes of EMI. Whether EMI is
natural or man-made, it results in transmission errors to the ARIES II
system. Errors, detected by the software display in AriesMap and
include checksum errors, inserts and drop outs.
The checksum is a computed value that depends up on the
contents of the block of data. It is transmitted or stored along with the
data in order to detect corruption of the data. When each RAM receives
analog data and digitizes it, a checksum is also generated and attached
to the data. The next RAM or TAP to receive the block of data recounts
the checksum during retransmission. Based upon the received data, it
compares this value with the one sent with the data. If the two values
are different, the RAM or TAP increments its checksum error detector
counter by 1, and the counter data is transmitted as part of the RAM or
TAP status information at the end of the record.

An insert is a block of data generated by a TAP after it


detects a missing block of data from the RAMs on either its A
or B side. Each TAP is programmed as to how many live
RAMs it is to receive data from. When it doesnt receive the
number of data packets it is expecting, it inserts data packets
as fillers to maintain structure of data flow in the system.
A drop out is a block of missing data along the
defined transmission path. Each RAM and TAP counts the
number of data packets retransmitted during a record and
sends this information as part of the status data packet after
shot.

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

37

C5

Error Free Data Recovery

EDRTM (Error Free Data Recovery) is a system level feature of the ARIES software that detects data
transmission errors during acquisition, and automatically attempts to recover data from On-Board Shot
Memory.
Each ARIES II RAM has enough internal memory to record a complete seismic record and save the data
until it has been correctly received by the Central Recording System (CRS). ARIES II RAMs run semiindependently from the CRS. The RAM starts to acquire data after receiving the start command from the CRS
and continue to do so even if it loose contact with the CRS. If communication between the RAMs and the
system is interrupted during the transmission of a record, the RAMs finish acquiring all data samples and store
the record in their memory until it has power connected.
RAMs retain only one composite in memory. All data is lost when another acquisition sequence is
initiated.
Capacity of On-Board Shot Memory for an ARIES II RAM using a 2ms sample rate (640K samples) is 320
second.
Within the ARAM II ARIES software recording parameters, the user specifies a maximum number
(usually set to 1) of digital transmission errors. When the maximum number of errors is exceeded, the system
automatically requests data from the RAMs to replace damaged data packets.
Whether the transmission errors result from intermittent transmission due to static discharge or
damaged cables, or simply because of a cut cable, data is recoverable. In the case of static discharge errors or
intermittent cut cables, EDRTM continues to recover data automatically, so quickly in fact that is generally
unnoticed. In the case of cut or damaged cables, the cable is simply can be replaced and EDRTM automatically
will recover the data from On-Board Shot Memory.
EDRTM results in real data, providing a quality records with no interruptions and at no extra cost to
production.

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

38

C6

ARIES II Acquisition Transmission Sequence


After shot is initiated

1. A command is transmitted from the SPM to the RAMs/TAPs that programs the line with recording
parameters such as:
sample rate
record length
preamp gain
high-cut filter
active RAMs in the patch
RAMs in repeater mode
2. Interrogates are transmitted to the RAMs/TAPs requesting status information that is required by the
SPM to verify the line is programmed as requested.
3. A start command is transmitted from the SPM to the RAMs/TAPs to begin recording.
4. Active RAMs measure analog phone signals, convert them to digital data samples and store them in the
memory. Interrogates are transmitted from the SPM to the RAMs/TAPs requesting data continuously
throughout recording time. The data is returned in packets.
5. After shipment of the last data sample, all TAPs and RAMs (including devices in repeater mode) send
STATUS data packets to the SPM, where the system determines if data recovery is required.
6. EDR, if requested.
In the case of intermittent errors, the system sends interrogates to recover missing or
corrupted data samples from the RAMs on a specified LIU, TAP side (A or B), Tx pair, etc.
In the case of a cut cable, the system enters standby mode until the cable is replaced, where it
then automatically recovers data.

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

39

C7

ARIES II Network Topology and Transmission

40

C8

ARIES II System Software


Version and License Agreement

3.106.02

Version:
Major version change
Need training

big change
cannot install mid-project

requests or bug fixes


can install mid-project

Agreement is for 1 year and must be renewed annually. Version updates are provided until the version
is sustained, although Field Service will still provide support. Updates are a complete set of executables, not a
service pack. The operating system is Windows XP x64-bit.

Dongle
The dongle is used to limit the use of the software license to a particular version or its predecessors. It
can also be used to limit the period of time for which the software license is valid.
The dongle is checked each time the software is started to make sure it is running within the licensed
parameters. For a time-limited license, the dongle is checked every hour to determine if the expiry date is
nearing. Starting 15 days before the license expiry, the user will be notified of the pending expiration. The
notification will occur every 8 hours until a new key that extends the license is entered. On the expiration date
the software will no longer function.
For a time-limited license, the system clock cannot be moved back any more than 90 minutes and
cannot be moved to previous date. If the system clock must be moved back farther than this limitation then a
new key must be requested.
Every ARIES SPM is supplied with a 25-pin parallel dongle and two USB dongles, which allow users to
run the ARIES Demo version on other PCs.

Database
The basis of the ARAM ARIES software is the SQL database. All of the executables gather and/or
deposit information from or to the database that is produced when a new project is built. The identifier used
for all of this is the file number that is produced during acquisition. The system reserves files 1 1,000,000 for
this purpose. If you need to record tests to sequential file numbers, the interleave option can be used. Once
recorded, a file number cannot be re-used inside the project.

ARIES II System Software

41

D1

Software executables

Acquisition
The acquisition (AriesVib) window is where all of other programs are accessed. These programs must
be initiated or generated from acquisition to ensure they are operating in the same database. This is where
the process of producing a new project begins and where existing projects can be opened. It also acts as a
network monitor while acquiring data. This active network can be viewed graphically in the digital view, in text
format or with the scope. Defining what is to be shot is performed in the command line. There are several
other viewers that are associated with the acquisition window and include a com port monitor, COG failure
log, output patch, drill log and a GPS viewer.
Command line
The command line screen is where command lines and groups are edited. If enabled, the data retrieval
rate can be changed from here. Recording parameter information displays here and there is a shortcut to edit
source types as well. This is where acquisition of data is initiated and can be halted and progress monitored.

AriesMap
AriesMap is used to define, edit and test the actual spread. The parameters for the seismic survey are
defined in the New Project set up in the acquisition screen. AriesMap then automatically creates a sub-project
environment based on defined parameters. One project can have several sub-projects. Importing
receiver/source coordinates and patch definitions, overlays and culture files is also performed in AriesMap.

OBNotes
This is a database oriented program that tracks and produces observer notes and tape labels. If shot
hole information is to be imported, it is done through OBNotes as well as the exporting of daily reports.

AriesMedia
Aries Media is a program that performs the data re-formatting and transferring to and from media
such as tape cartridges, CD, DVD and external HDD.

AVP
ARIES Video Plot is a tool used to plot seismic records on a video monitor. Several QC and analysis tools
are provided in AVP.

ARIES II System Software

42

D2

Directory Tree
AriesXP Directory
All executables and files for the software are located in AriesXP directory including project folders.
Project Specific Directory
Project sub-directory folders automatically created by the system when a new project is built. The
project database is stored inside the new project folder along with several control files. There are five subdirectories located in the project directory and are as follows:

Backup

This is where the sub-projects are stored if you use the back-up feature in AriesMap after you have
saved them to the database.
Doc

This directory is used for importing and exporting numerous types of files. If you are going to be
importing SegP1, .PRJ or SPS files, we recommend you copy them into this directory first. When you use the
software to produce final SPS files, they will be exported here as well. Any reports you request also are stored
here. A GPS and a QC database are produced and stored in this folder too.
GDC

GDC stands for Geophysical Data Characterization. The results from the analysis that are run in ARIES
Video Plot are stored in this directory for use later in AriesMap.
Sweep

As the name implies, this is where sweep pilot files are stored when using Vibroseis as a source for
acquisition.
Temp

This directory is used for temporarily storing reports generated in AriesMap.

ARIES II System Software

43

D3

Data Directory
All data acquired by the ARIES system is first stored on an internal hard disk drive, which is usually the
F:\ drive. It is recorded in SEG-Y rev. 0 Internal Disk Format with a *.sgy extension.
Alternate data paths are supported, which allows the use of removable disk drives.

Software Capabilities
Version 3.1XX.XX

REQUIRED for ARIES II SPM


REQUIRED to operate in ARIES II Baseline mode
REQUIRED to operate ARIES II MC RAMs
REQUIRED to record and transcribe HFVS/VSR data
Supports ARIES I SPM
Supports ARIES I RAMs
Supports ARIES I TAPs
Supports ARIES II RAMs
Supports ARIES II TAPs (copper or fiber)
Supports ARIES II BLR (Baseline Repeaters)
Can load firmware through the line into ARIES II RAMs, ARIES II TAPs (copper or fiber), ARIES II BLRs,
newer ARIES I RAMs
Layout Driven Network
Distributed baseline
High speed baseline with down line TAPs (no splitters)
ARIES I TAPs may be used as baseline repeaters
ARIES II baseline may be used with ARIES I RAMs
Supports ARIES I and ARIES II RAMs mixed
All devices must be at the latest firmware revision
If ARIES II cables (4 Tx pairs) in use, all ARIES I RAMs must be modified to ARIES II compatibility (NCD
modification)
Limited to ARIES I options and only 2 Tx pairs for R-Lines

ARIES II System Software

44

D4

Building 2D Projects
KNOBHILL
Students and Instructor build a simple 2D project.

Equipment

Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium II
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
8 x 55 m
6 in series
SM-24/U-B 10Hz
210 m

Recording Parameters

Patch
Roll in/Roll out
HC /Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp gain

240ch symmetrically split with 1 station gap


120ch
205Hz/2ms
3 sec
30db

Receiver Parameters

Receiver point interval


Length of geophone array

25m
25m

Shot Parameters

Source point interval


Source Array
Depth of Charge
Charge

50m
Single
20m
1kg/Dynamite

Program

KH02-01..101 501 set the recorder at 220/221 and then at 224/225


KH02-02..101 497 set the recorder at the beginning of the line
KH02-03..101 335 trail goes to beginning of line, but cant get the recorder there. The trail is 1500
meters long. This will require the use of repeaters. Plug in recorder at beginning of the line.

Building 2D Projects

45

E1

To build a 2D project, the following screens should be filled in. The process of creation cannot be
canceled or aborted.
Click on the New icon in the toolbar of the acquisition screen. Enter the project name into the field
provided and click OK.

Project Parameters
Parameters provided by the client and additional information can now be entered into the appropriate
fields. Not all fields need to be populated to begin a new project, and can be accessed later. They are as
follows:
General Header info
There are five header information menus. The fields with H*** prefixes relate directly to SPS headers
and remaining fields are used in other reports that are generated by the ARAM ARIES software. Several of
these fields are saved from project to project.
General
These fields are self-explanatory. The Serial Number field refers to the recording instrument. The
Media Type field refers to the type of storage being used.

Building 2D Projects

46

E2

Header
The Headquarters field refers to the location of the field crew. A Permit Number and License Number
are mandatory for Alberta Geophysical crews.

Project
Select the project style from the drop menu. Enter a description for the patch to be used (this refers to
the actively recorded channels for an acquisition). Enter the flag spacing for the receivers and sources in the
Geometry field.

Building 2D Projects

47

E3

Survey & GPS Info


It is important to select the grid units correctly from the drop menus. This will affect measurements in
other executables. Select the correct dates from the drop down menus. Enter the name of the survey
contractor if known.
The values in the GPS fields are defaults.

Coordinate System
When using GPS for either source units or support vehicles, the messages sent by the units must be
converted to the imported coordinates format. GeoCalc by Blue Marble is an embedded program that
accomplishes that.

Building 2D Projects

48

E4

Critical Parameters
This window contains fields for a variety of parameters.

All of the possible Data Paths are provided in the drop menu. Data path is typically the
F:\DATA\project name directory. If a sub directory is required, enable the Sub Path box and enter the
name.
Alternate Data Paths are available to facilitate simultaneously storing data on a different drives. A
maximum of 3 alternate paths are allowed. Select the desired number of paths required. Map the
paths by editing or click the browse button beside the path entry.
The editor used is Notepad
Recording Format that is used depends on your needs and possibly client specifications. SEG-D
supports extended headers and is used to insert additional info into the media headers such as GPS
or PSS. Select the format and enable the check box against SEG-Y Rev.0 (the SEG standard) or SEG-Y
Rev.0 Modified. Descriptions of these formats can be found on the software installation disks.
The software defaults to start a new project at file number 1 for data and 1000001 for tests. Check the
Interleave box and the test files will be consecutive with the data files.

Building 2D Projects

49

E5

Patch Options are selected by enabling the corresponding check box.


Enabling the Eliminate Dummy Traces from Output Files option eliminates all dummy traces
from the data output to disk, tape or plotter. Any receiver flags called for in patch, but not
assigned a channel in the network, are eliminated from the output patch.
The Receiver Flag at SP as 1st Auxiliary records the shot point receiver channel as the 1st aux.
trace in 2D projects.
Print Options are selected by enabling the corresponding check box.
Lock Print Every refers to files to plot. The number entered determines which shots are plotted,
every 2nd, 3rd and so on (applies to all command lines).
Print Banners is selected by default and prints a banner (textual shot information) for each shot
record using new patch definition. When multiple shots are acquired using the same patch
definition, the banner prints for the first shot acquired only.
If Print Redundant Banners is enabled, the information that is the same as the previous shot,
such as patch definitions, will be printed on the header of the field monitor. Typically this check
box is disabled to conserve paper.
The Print Patches option prints a textual patch definition for the plotted record.
Auto Recovery On Error Count is used to define the maximum number of errors, that can occur before
auto recovery initiates. When using ARIES RAMs with on board shot memory, select 1. This ensures
that if any transmission errors occur the SPM will keep requesting the data from the RAMs until it is
error free.
Enable the Locate Errors check box to display the encountered and then corrected errors in the
Acquisition Digital view screen.
Critical Battery Voltage is a tolerance set to display low battery flags in the Acquisition Digital view
screen when a devices voltage drops below that level.
The Miscellaneous section allows the data polarity to be reversed globally, if required.
The Shot/Stn Line/Flag Format selection is critical and must be set correctly, as this defines
the decimal places in flag numbers. There are three selections:
(8.0) whole number no decimals,
(7.1) one decimal e.g. 101.5,
(6.2) two decimals e.g. 101.25.
This selection must be made correctly as the project is being built.
Command Lines can have up to ten groups with as many as ten command lines per group.
When more than 1 group is selected, the option to lock the source types becomes available.
Click in the check box to enable.
When only one group is enabled with more than one command line per group, the option to
lock the source type in that group becomes available. Lock Source Type for All Groups and
Lock Source Type in Groups will lock the source type in the lines or group so that if changes are
made from source type 1 to source type 2 in one line the change also occurs in all other lines or
groups.
Command Line 0 is primarily used in vibrator work to facilitate wireline recording. Even when
the command lines are locked, command line 0 can have parameters unique to itself.
Lock Retrieval Rate determines if the retrieval rate editing can be accessed in the command
line. Version 3 has an auto retrieval function. To lock, enable Lock Retrieval Rate check box.

Building 2D Projects

50

E6

Fire by Wire & Communications requires cables that are built to support this and optional
communication hardware. This facilitates shooting and communicating without radio by using a
dedicated LIU and Tx pair in the receiver and baseline cables.
The Line Test options automatically run selected tests in Map at the completion of a shot or a
composite.

Line Power
Activate all LIUs that are installed on the SPM up to a maximum of 32. If disabled, the system will not
send pilot voltage out on that port pair and the field devices will not power up.

Com Ports

Most systems are set up with at least 2 available


serial communication ports. Enable the desired ports
and then identify the applicable source control
communication protocol.
The Wait for Status field is used to define the
maximum time allotted for PFS/PSS messages to
come after the end of record.
Select the proper Baud Rate. Check the
manufacturers specifications for the correct rate.

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Sensor Table
This window is used to define and store the sensor specifications. Once defined, the sensor specs are
carried forward from project to project.

Select from the three options Geophones (G), Hydrophones (H) or Other (R) by clicking the tab.
Nine types for each category of sensor can be defined. Select one of the tabs T1-T9.
Click Import Model to make a selection. The specs for that sensor are applied to the window. If the
sensor used is not on the list, the specs must be manually entered into each field.

The Array Configuration must be defined by the user. Select or enter the values.

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E8

The Dimensions must be defined by the user. This describes how the sensors are deployed in the field.
Enter or select the values from the drop menu.
Select the polarity of the sensor. SEG means the first breaks are negative.
Select the Type of geophone case.
Select one of the three Preamp Gain options. The asterisk beside each test denotes where this
selection applies. ARAM recommends using the Low Gain Only option. The other two options have
consequences that are described in a message window upon exit from this table.
The default tolerance settings for the tests are not necessarily valid, and must be defined by the user.
The Notch selection applies a notch filter to the sensor THD test only. The acquired data will not be
filtered.
Environmental conditions affect sensors. For this reason the median values are used to evaluate the
sensors. Select Evaluate to Spec to test to the exact entered specifications.

Vib Groups
This menu does not apply to this project and will be discussed later in the course.

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E9

Source Types
28 different types of source parameters can be stored in the source types table. Once defined, the
source specs are carried over from project to project.
Headers

From the Source Type drop menu, select the source type to be used, Vibrator, Explosive, Air Gun,
Water Gun or Other (weight drop units etc.). The icon and fields change for each source type.
Edit the fields with as much information as is available. The user can return to this menu later to
complete it.
The Source Description field is used to describe any source type. Depending upon the selected source
type, one of the following fields displays; Vibrator Weight, Charge Weight, Unit Volume or Unit
Weight. Select applicable units of measure from the drop down menu.
Source Array is described in the In Line and Cross Line fields.
Select the Polarity.

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E10

Aux

Enable either the Aux RAM or Aux Tap check box. Only the Aux TAP can be used with fiber optic
baseline cable. Enter 8 in the LIU field. All SPMs are wired for the Aux RAM to be on LIU 8.
Select the manufacturer in the Harness drop menu.
Select the source control model from the Type drop down menu.
Select 1.00R from the Revision drop menu. This is the proper revision for an SPM.
Only enable the Encoder 2 if using a dual source adapter and two encoders in the recorder.
Enable the Aux traces check boxes.
If required a Delay can be entered for the Aux. traces. This applies to the reference trace in a Vibroseis
job.
Enable the Stack option if required. The Stack option must be enabled for multi composite operations.

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E11

Src Ctrl

Select Fixed Time Delay or Time Break. Choose the Fixed option for use with a predictable source type
such as vibrators or dynamite. Choose Time break option for use with unpredictable sources such as
weight drop units. Pre Tzero Record and Window are covered later in the course, if necessary.
Select Master or Slave to define the order of recording sequence initiation.
Select Remote Start or Internal Start to configure the type of closure. Choose Internal Start for this
project.
Before initiation of the recording sequence, the time delay between signal closure (initiates shooting
sequence) and PTB (arrives at the same time when a shot is fired) must be measured. This is
accomplished by running the AX program.
Click Measure to open AX window.

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E12

In the TB Channel field, select PTB from the drop menu.


Select a Record Length (minimum of 3000 ms).
Click Acquire. A progress bar displays. The SPM initiates and triggers the encoder (Internal Start
option). Measured values displays in the Statistics section and in the Time Break at field in the
Parameters section. Wait a moment and repeat this step. The result in the Time Break at field should
be very close, if not the same, as the result from the first run. If required, this result can be plotted or
printed.
Click OK to return to the Src Ctrl tab. A time value is automatically entered in the window beside the
Internal Start field.
Shooting off of Time Break and Remote Start will be covered later in the course, if necessary.
Enable the Time Break Check @ check box. Leave 0 in the first field and enter a value between 15 and
50 uS in +/- field. The system will notify the user if the start time deviates by more than the value
entered versus the time acquired with the AX program.
Acquire Sync is a noise cancellation feature that works by using hyper accurate clocks in the system to
time initiation of composite starts. If there is a need to cancel 60 Hz without using a notch filter, this
option is highly effective. By starting composites at opposite times of a cycle, external non-data
frequency of that same cycle can be removed by stacking the even number of composites (2, 4, 6, 8
etc.).

Comports
Comport must be enabled to access this editing menu.

RTI is an acronym for Recording Truck Interface. Enable the RTI check box and enter a value of at least
200ms in the Sequence delay field. Leave the Shot Msg Delay field at 0.
In the Decoder Message section select the type of decoder you are using for this project.
Select No Action in the Ready Message section.
Set Command Line Only pre-sets the command line according to the sequence number or box
ID that sends the Ready Message.

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E13

Set and Load Command Line is used to pre-set command line and load the shot point nearest
to the location of the source that sends the Ready Message (GPS must be enabled).
Click the applicable decoder tab being used.

The GPS Data section is covered later in the course.


In the Decoder Status Data field, select the required conditions. The system completes the acquisition,
but will hold it in a buffer if the selected condition is not met. The user will be notified and then has the
option to Abort, Continue or Redo this acquisition sequence.
BCD Up Hole to Last Trace produces an aux. trace in binary-coded decimal format showing the Uphole
time in milliseconds.
Halt if outside tolerance is used to control shooters position coming with Ready Message (if GPS is
enabled)

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E14

Record

The High-Cut field lists the available filter selection for a 2ms sample rate: 123 Hz, 137 Hz, 164 Hz and
205 Hz. Select the required value from the drop menu.
The Output drop menu defaults to the associated sample rate.
Retrieval Rate: The Auto (100%) retrieves in real time until the port channel capacity has been
exceeded. The system will then slow down the retrieval rate to a . % of real time that is necessary to
facilitate shipping of the data back to the SPM. Select Auto (100%) from the drop menu.
In the Stacking section.
Select the number of Composites to be recorded from the drop menu.
Auto Redo is only available for multi-composite recording. If 1 is selected, one extra composite
will be added to the total number of composites entered in the previous field. The first
composite will not be recorded.
The Output Composite option becomes available when recording multiple comps. It creates a
file for each raw acquired composite.
Select the Preamp Gain from the drop menu.
12 db, 24 db or 30 db are for fixed option.
Gain By Offset allows the use of any combination of the three preamp gains based on offset
distance from the source point.
In the Length (ms) section, select the Record length from the drop menu.
Noise Suppression is used in Vibroseis and multi-composite operations and will be discussed later in
the course, if required.

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E15

Refer to the numbers in the System/Cable Capacity fields. This is the total number of active RAMs per
port (LIU) that can be recorded in real time. When this is exceeded, the system automatically adjusts
(slows) the retrieval rate to accommodate the defined number of active channels. The numbers under
the Netlink section are the possible transmit rates between Netlinks; 1, 2, 5.5 and 11. Below the
Transmit Rates is the total number of RAMs that can be actively recorded beyond the Netlink.
Max Traces is the total number of traces that the processor in the SPM can handle.

Spectrum
This is a primarily used as a Vibroseis QC tool and will be discussed later in the course, if required.
Plots

Under the plots tab there are ten sub-tabs. This is to facilitate multiple plots for each shot.
To toggle between plots (sub-tabs) enable the Rotate Decks checkbox (bottom left)
Click on the first sub-tab. Click New in the Plot File section. The following popup displays. Enter a name
for the plot file, usually the project name. Click OK.

The name displays in the Plot File window. Click the Enabled check box to begin editing the plot.

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E16

In the Traces section, make your selections. The software defaults to variable/wiggle combination.
Individual components can be selected for plotting when shooting multi-component projects. Leave
this as ALL. If 9999 is entered in the End field the software will print this exact number of traces only.
Enable Max Traces and Aux Traces check boxes to plot all traces of the record.

In the Filters window two Notch filters are available 50Hz and 60Hz. The L/C and H/C fields are
operator entered. The slopes in these filters are only about 72db/octave. The filters available in AVP
are better. These filters are post acquisition or playback only. The data will go to tape unfiltered.
For this project the data is plotted unfiltered.

Several options are available for Data Scaling. The most common is AGC. A more detailed explanation
of the others will follow later.
For this project select AGC.
The default values for Window and Threshold are 400ms and 50% but is dependent upon the area and
operator preference.
Fixed gain can be applied to the auxiliary traces by enabling the Aux Gain check box and entering a
value in the dB field.

Trace Scaling defines how the plot fits on paper.


For this project enter Fit in the Vert and Horiz fields.
From the drop menu select either In/Sec or cm/Sec.
Plot by Time changes the orientation of the plot from horizontal to vertical traces in relation to
the plot header.
Plot time is self-explanatory. Enter the appropriate times in the Start and End fields. For this
project enter 0ms for the start time and 3000ms for the end time. If you are recording a long
record (5 seconds or more) and only need to plot the first three seconds, this is where that is
defined.
Extra plots are plot options that display on the paper as bar graphs. Generally RMS trace and RMS
noise are used most often. Select the options that you require and enter the scale in the field provided.

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E17

Enabling the First Breaks check box activates a drawing of the geometry check curve of predicted first
breaks, which are calculated by the system for every shot. One shot must be taken before entering a
correct velocity, which is usually imported from AVP and will be explained later.
For this project enable First Breaks with 1200 in the Velocity field and 20 in the Shift field.

Enable Correlation is used during acquiring the uncorrelated vibroseis data only. Not applicable in this
project.
Click Finish to exit.

Sub-Project
The software automatically opens AriesMap with a dialog box asking for a new sub-project name. This
is restricted by DOS conventions (eight characters, no spaces, etc.).

Enter the line name as the sub-project name in 2D recording.


The software asks if you would like to default this sub-project to source type 1. Click Yes.

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E18

The following popup displays to inform that no coordinate conversion was selected. If building XYs,
instead of importing, a conversion is unnecessary. Click OK.

From the Edit drop menu, click Cable Types.

In the Options section select 1 in the Cables field.


Enter the length of cable between takeouts in the Takeout Distance field.
In the Stated Resistance field, for this example, enter 113. This value must be measured from cable
head (pins AB) to 4th takeout that is shortened.
The Measured Resistance and Measured Cables fields are used with the cable testing function.
Enter the total length of baseline cables that can be used between devices. This is dependent upon the
transmit rate of the TAPs and the configuration of the baseline cables used.

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E19

From the Edit drop menu, click Tap Table.

Change Default to Low Flag or Low Line settings, if necessary.

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E20

2D builder
In the parameters menu of MAP, click the Rxy tab and select Build2D.

The 2D Project Builder window opens. It has three sections which are: Line Description, Network and
Normal Active Patch Description. This window is used to define the five basic components that make up a
sub-project. They are:
Rxy
receiver coordinates and which types of cables and receivers are used
Sxy
source coordinates
Patches
a description of which receiver points will be used to acquire data for
each source point
Layout
a definition of where the RAMs and receiver cables are positioned
Network
a definition of how the links, TAPs and/or baseline cables are connected
or networked to the receiver lines from the recording truck

Enable the Build Coordinates check box (top left) to access the Line Description edit section.
Enter the line name in the Line Number field. This field is not alpha-numeric. It is restricted to numbers
only and limited to eight characters. A leading 0 cannot be used.
Enter the number of the station at the beginning of the line in the First Station field. Enter the number
of the station at the end of the line in the Last Station field.
Enter the distance between receivers in the Receiver Flag Spacing field.
The SP on Flag and SP Between Flag check boxes are inaccessible due to the (8.0) selection made in
Critical Parameters Shot/Stn Line/Flag Format field. In this case shot points are located at the receiver
station.

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E21

Enter 1 in the Receiver Flag Increment field and 1 in the Shot Point Flag Increment field. Entering 1 in
the shot point field, even though the points are on every second flag, is to allocate every flag as a
possible shot point in case of skidded or skipped stations. Later in the Command Line window a value is
entered to increment or roll by.
Click the 2D Wrap box to utilize the entire Map screen to display the line. This wraps the graphic every
72 receiver points.
In the Components check box, enter the applicable Sensor and Cable type. If these fields are greyed
out, then only one sensor and one cable has been defined.
No edits are required in the Network section. Placement of a TAP is done graphically from the Network
Edit tab.
Move to the Active Patch Description section and define the patch to be used.
Enter the number of receivers to be recorded on the low side of the source point in the
Number of Live Traces (Low Flag) field.
Enter the number of receivers that will not be recorded nearest to the source in the GAP field.
Enter the number of receivers to be recorded on the high side of the source point in the
Number of Live Traces (High Flag) field.
The near and far offset distances will be calculated and displayed.
In the Minimum Number of Live Traces section, enter the number of traces that are required
to start and end the line. Typically this is half of the total spread and is referred to as Roll
In/Roll Out.
Patch Options will be discussed in later exercises.
Click OK. Map displays the line and the truck in the middle of Map.

Click the Network tab in the lower right of the Map screen.

Click TAP.
Move the cursor to the recorder icon in Map. The cursor changes to an edit arrow. Click to attach a link
to the recorder. Move the cursor to the RAM location or back-to-back location where the TAP will be
placed and click.

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E22

Select the table that is to be used. (A = 1-8, B = 9-16 on the port panel)

In an actual field scenario, channel and geophone testing would now begin. Later on in the course this
topic will be covered at length.
Note: Before exiting Map, look at the title bar. It will say File Not Saved. Edits must be saved into the
database to be used by other programs such as Acquisition.

Command Line

Return to the Acquisition screen. A minimized Command Line is located at the bottom of the Digital
tab. The full command line menu can be accessed by clicking on the Command Line tab.
Nine tabs can display at the top of the command line (depending on the settings in the Critical
Parameters table). The one furthest to the left corresponds with command line one. Click on it to
activate and proceed with editing.
Click on the Sline field and enter the name of the source line that you are about to shoot. This has to
be exactly the same as it is defined in AriesMap. Use the up/down arrows to select an available line.
Click the From field and enter the source point at which you are going to begin shooting.

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E23

Click the To field and enter the finish source point.


Click the By field to enter the point increment.
Click the Apply or press the Enter key to activate these edits. In the Digital view, a representation of
the active patch now displays if all edits are valid. Information also displays in the remaining fields that
may be accompanied by a background color.
Note: Cyan indicates something that is about to happen. Yellow indicates something has changed
from the last set-up. Red indicates something that is invalid. Check all of these fields to ensure they are
correct.

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E24

OBNotes
Click the OB Notes icon
in the AriesVib tool bar. Size and place it where you want. Later in the
course this topic will be covered at length.

AriesMedia
Click the AriesMedia icon
in the AriesVib tool bar. Size and place it where you want. Later in the
course this topic will be covered at length.

Acquire Shot
Return to the Command Line screen and click the title bar to activate. To acquire a shot, click the green
arrow in the lower right of the Command line, or press the hot key <A>.

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E25

PROJECT2
Students build 2D project on their own. Parameters supplied by the instructor.
Equipment
Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
8 x 55 m
6 in series
SM-24/U-B 10Hz
210 m

Recording Parameters
Patch
Roll in/Roll out
HC /Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp gain

360ch symmetrically split with 1 station gap


180ch
205Hz/2ms
3 sec
30db

Receiver Parameters
Receiver point interval
Length of geophone array

50m
25m

Shot Parameters
Source point interval
Source Array
Depth of Charge
Charge

25m
Single
20m
1kg/Dynamite

Program
Line01
Line02

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101-597

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E26

DEERFOOT
Instructor demonstrates various editing features while the students follow along.
Equipment
Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
SibGeofizPribor/SGD
4 x 55 m
6 in series
SM-24/U-B 10Hz
210 m

Recording Parameters
Patch
Roll in/Roll out
HC /Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp gain
Plot

300ch symmetrically split with 2 station gap


150ch
246Hz/1ms
5 sec
30db
3 sec every 10s

Receiver Parameters
Receiver point interval
Length of geophone array

50m
25m

Shot Parameters
Source point interval
150m
Source Array
Single
Depth of Charge
12m
Charge
2kg
Program
Client
OILCompany
License Number
12345
Area
Calgary/Deerfoot
Program
Deerfoot
Headquarter
Okotoks
Holes drilled on half station
Perform test shots on Flags only with Pulse sources(SGD) using full spread
Line#04-01 101-697

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E27

Exercises:
Multiple command lines and groups
o Set up two groups for dynamite shooting
Group A
Group B
o Set up one group for pulse sources
Group C
Multiple source types
o Dynamite
Source Type 1
o Pulse Source
Source Type 2
Source point between flag
o Shot/Stn Line/Flag Format 7.1
Baseline & TAPs:
o Run a baseline, using a line TAP, to station 290
Plug in at 288/289 RAM location
Plug in at 292/293 back-to-back location
o Run baseline at the BOL
Plug in at 101 with 5 repeaters
Jumpers (skip gaps)
o 123-125
o 245-249
o 567-568
Dropped station, extra station between 299/300
Skip gap 176-180 need one repeater
Change receiver types:
o Use marsh phones between 505 and 525

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E28

MACLEOD
Students build 2D project on their own. Parameters supplied by the instructor.
Equipment
Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
R-line Cables
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
4 x 55 m
8 x 27.5 m
3 in series /2 strings in parallel
GX-20DX 10 Hz
210 m

Recording Parameters
Patch
Roll in/Roll out
HC /Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp gain
Plot

240ch symmetrically split with 2 station gap


120ch
164Hz/2ms
4 sec
By Offset 0-50m 12db / 50-100 24db /30db rest
3 sec every shot

Receiver Parameters
Receiver point interval
Length of geophone array

25m
25m

Shot Parameters
Source point interval
100m
Source Array
group of 2/10 meters apart
Depth of Charge
7m
Charge
1kg per hole
Program
Client
INOVA Exploration
License Number
67890
Area
Edmonton
Program
Macleod
Headquarter
Edson
Line #AEC04-MAC-001
101-297
Line #AEC04-MAC-001
101-373

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E29

Exercises:
Multiple Cable Types
First 10 cables 8x27.5m/remaining cables 4x55m
o Line # AEC04-MAC-001
o Line # AEC04-MAC-002 1
First 21 cables 4x55m/remaining cables 8x27.5m
Multiple Geophone Types
o Two group of geophones with different length of array
25 meters
around receiver point 1 meter (obstacle) on flag 125,176,285
Near Offset (gap in patch)
Pre-amp gain by offset /Acquisition screen
Asymmetric patch

Exercise (Student specific)


Apply building skills and editing tools to programs that are specific to each student.

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E30

Building 3D Projects
CAL3D.
Equipment

Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
4 x 55 m
6 in series
SM-24/U-B 10Hz
280 m

Recording Parameters

HC /Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp Gain
Source Array
Depth of Charge
Charge

123Hz/2ms
3 sec
30db
Single hole
18m
1.8kg/Dynamite

Receiver Parameters

Receiver Point Interval


Number of Receivers/Line
Receiver Line Interval
Number of Receiver Lines
Offset

50m
89
100m
30 E-W

Shot Parameters

Source Point Interval


Number of Sources/Line
Source Line Interval
Number of Source Lines
Offset

50m
59
200m
23 N-S
25m South

Patch Description

Number of Lines
Number of Receivers/line
Roll in/Roll out

Building 3D Projects

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41
Yes

75

F1

Project Parameters
The same procedure is used to build 3D projects as in 2D projects. Select File > New from the top
toolbar in AriesVib. The following windows must be populated to build a 3D project.
General
Header
Project
Survey & GPS Info
Coordinate System
Critical
Line Power
Com Ports
Sensor Table
Vib Groups
Source Type
3D Info

Sub-Project
The five components that generate a 2D sub-project are the same in 3D sub-projects, but are accessed
differently.
RXY

SXY

Select the RXY tab in Map and then click Build 3D button. A menu displays that requires editing.
In the Line Description section enter the following:
First Line Name1
First Flag Number1101
Second Line Name- 3
First Flag Number3101
Number of Lines30
Number of Flags Per Line- 89
Line Spacing100 Flag Spacing50
Flag Increment- 1
This establishes a pattern that is used to create the sub-project.
Enter the appropriate Sensor Type and Cable Type if known.
In the Line Ordinate/Orientation section, enter the following:
OrdinateNE
OrientationHorizontal
Block Offset North- 0
Block Offset East0
This establishes the geographical placement of the lines in AriesMap.
Select the SXY tab in Map and click Build 3D. A menu displays that requires an editing. Some fields are
automatically populated. The software defaults the same line and flag intervals that were defined in the
RXY menu.

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F2

In the Line Description section enter the following:


First Line Name2
First Flag Number Second Line Name- 4
First Flag Number Number of Lines23
Number of Flags Per Line Line Spacing200 Flag SpacingThis establishes a pattern that is used to create the sub-project.
Enter the appropriate Source Type.

2101
4101
59
50
Flag Increment- 1

In the Line Ordinate/Orientation section, enter the following:


OrdinateNE
OrientationVertical
Block Offset North - -25
Block Offset East- 0
This establishes the geographical placement of the lines in Map. Most 3D projects are designed to
prevent placement receiver and source points at the same location by using offsets.

Patch (Rectangular-most often used in North American land operations)


Select the Patch tab and click Build.
The Optimize Patches window displays. Select the Rect. tab.
In the Maximums section enter the following:
Inline Offset1000
Cross Line Offset700
Stations/Line41
Lines/Patch14
Lines to Shot Side- 7 (number of lines to start with)
In the Stations/Patch field, the software calculates the number of stations for a full patch
based on the entered values 574 (14x41=574).
In the Max Lines section select Override. This option overrides the Lines/Patch value to enable
additional receiver line segments or stub lines to be added to a patch to attain the desired maximum
offset (the patch size is restricted only by the stations per line and offset criteria).
In the Options section enable the Smooth by Flag checkbox to square up patches that may have one
more receiver on every other line. Smooth by Flag is not applicable in this example.
In the Selected Shots section these parameters can be applied By Area, By From/To, or to All Shots.
Click All Shots. Map highlights the first patch.
Select Configure > Shot > Current Shot from the top toolbar.
From the Patch tab, click Select. Cursor changes to an edit arrow. Move the cursor around map to
inspect the patches for accuracy. Text based information displays in the Shot Info window (right side of
Map). Right click to end the edit.

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Patch (Swath-most often used in International operations)


Select the Patch tab and click Build.
Select the Swath tab.
In the Offsets section enter the following:
Near- 0 (The Near trace offset from a source point. There is no gap required in the patch).
Select Far (Low Flag)- 1000 and Far (High Flag)- 1000 (the far trace offsets from a source point.
In this case a symmetrical 20 stations offset on either side so 20 x 50 = 1000).
Flip at Sline is used with an asymmetrically split patch (example: push 40 pull 20). The entered
source line number determines the point at which to start push 20 and pull 40.
In the Receiver Lines section:
Enable the Restrict checkbox
Enter the 1st and Last lines used in the swath (1st- 1, Last- 27 (14 lines))
In the Selected Shots section click By Area. Draw a polygon around the source points that are to be shot
into this swath (Lines 2-46, points 101-113). Click OK. Map highlights the first patch.
Select Configure > Shot > Current Shot from the top toolbar.
From the Patch tab, click Select. Cursor changes to an edit arrow. Move the cursor around map to
inspect the patches for accuracy. Text based information displays in the Shot Info window (right side of
map). Right click to end the edit.
Repeat the above process for all swathes in the 3D project. Edit the lines and shots to be used.
Layout
Select the Layout tab and click Default. A menu displays.
Select RAMs on 4th/5th flag.
Using the up/down arrows, select the Sensor Type to be used. The sensor type has been
defined, while building the project, in the Sensor Table.
Select the applicable cable type to be used. If required, click Cable Table and edit.
Click on OK. RAMs and cables now display in AriesMap.
Network
Select the Net tab and click Tap.
Move the cursor over the truck icon. The icon is highlighted.
Click on the truck, move the cursor to the RAM or back-to-back location to where the first TAP
is to be placed. Click; select A from the TAP Table Select popup to display a TAP.
Proceed to the next receiver line and click to place the next TAP. Repeat this process for all
receiver lines on that side of the truck. Right click to end the edit.
Another method is to place the first TAP then select where the last TAP is to be placed and click. A
popup displays Taps Every N Lines. Enter 1 in the field and click Yes. TAPs are placed on every line
between the first and last line. Right click to finish. Repeat this procedure on the other side of the truck.
In an actual field scenario, channel and geophone testing can now be performed. Later on in the course
this topic will be covered in detail.
Note: Before exiting Map look at the top title bar. It says File Not Saved. Edits must be saved to
database to be used by other programs such as AriesVib.

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F4

Command Line

Return to the AriesVib. The command line displays at the bottom of the window. This is a minimized
view.
Select the Command Line tab to display the full command line window. By default it is docked with the
acquisition window. Depending upon preference, it can be undocked by clicking twice on the tab.
There are four numbered tabs at the top of the command line. Each tab consists of additional
numbered tabs, depending upon the settings in the Critical Parameters. The first tab on the left
corresponds with Command Line Group 1. The first numbered tab on the left within the group tab
corresponds with Command Line 1. Select the tab to edit.
Click Sline field and enter the name of the source line to shoot. This has to be exactly the same as it is
defined in Map. Use the up/down arrows to select an available line. For this project select 2.
Below By, select 1. After last shot point on this line, it will load the next source line of the project.
Click below the From field and select the source point at which to begin shooting. For this project
select 2101.
Click below the To field and select the source point at which to finish. For this project select 2114.
Click below the second By field and select the point increment or roll that is required. For this project
select 1.
Click Apply or press the Enter to activate these edits. In the Digital view, a representation of the
program displays if all edits are valid. Information displays in the remaining fields and the background
color may change.
Note: Cyan indicates something that is about to happen. Yellow indicates something that has changed from
the last set-up. Red indicates something that is invalid. Check all of these fields to ensure they are correct.
Repeat the above steps in the other command line tabs to set up the racks or swathes that each shooter
will shoot.
Right click on the Command Line Group tab to label that group (shooters name or the vibe group
number).

Using the Command Line Table

Enable the Use Shot Point Table by checking the box in Critical Parameters.
Go to AriesMap.
From the SXY tab click SP Table.
Select the command line group and the command line.
Select whether to append or to overwrite the table.
Move the cursor to the source point where the shooter will begin and click.
Move the cursor to the source point where the shooter will finish and click. The source points are
highlighted in orange.
Select another line. It is highlighted in green.

Building 3D Projects

79

F5

OBNotes
In AriesVib, click OBNotes on the side toolbar. Size and place it where you want. Later in the course,
OBNotes will be discussed in detail.

AriesMedia
Click AriesMedia on the side toolbar. Size and place it where you want. Later in the course, this topic
will be discussed in detail.

Acquire Shot
From AriesVib, click the Command Line tab below the top toolbar. To acquire a shot, click the green
arrow in the command line or press <A>.

Building 3D Projects

80

F6

3D2
A simple 3D project for students to build.

Equipment

Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
4 x 55 m
6 in series
SM-24/U-B 10Hz
210m

Recording Parameters

HC / Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp Gain
Source Array
Depth of Charge
Charge

164Hz/1ms
4 sec
30db
Single hole
20m
1kg/Dynamite

Receiver Parameters

Receiver Point Interval


Number of Receivers/Line
Receiver Line Interval
Number of Receiver Lines
Offset

50m
96
300m
30 N-S

Shot Parameters

Source Point Interval


Number of Sources/Line
Source Line Interval
Number of Source Lines
Offset

50m
175
300m
17
25m West

Patch Description

Number of Lines
Number of Receivers/Line
Roll in/Roll out

Building 3D Projects

10
51
Yes

81

F7

CAL3D (review)
Instructor demonstrates various editing features. Students follow along using the previously built
CAL3D project. This exercise focuses on editing the following:
RXY
SXY
LAYOUT
PATCH
NETWORK
CULTURE
FOLD

Exercises

Landowner says no. There is a lockout of at least four R-lines.


Delete the area and add to culture.
Permit man negotiates to offset some lines.
Fill and then move.
Client wants more coverage with source stub lines
Append the source lines.
Heavy rain has left sloughs. Client now wants marsh phones.
Edit sensor types.
Due to lockout, baseline wont connect receiver lines.
Utilize jumpers/net-links/down-line TAPs
Line crew hooks up on wrong side of TAP
Edit port individually and globally.
Crew didnt get enough equipment.
Utilize Shot to Station/Station to Shot features.

Notes

Explain features found in Configure, Zoom and Help drop downs.


Mention Aux. RAM location.
Demonstrate Fold before and after editing.

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82

F8

NORCAL
Students and Instructor build an asymmetrically shaped 3D project.

Equipment

Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
B-line Cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
ShotPro II in ShotPro mode
4 x 55 m
6 in series
SM-24/U-B 10Hz
280 m

Recording Parameters

HC / Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp Gain
Source Array
Depth of Charge
Charge

123Hz/2ms
3 sec
30db
Single hole
15m
1.5kg/Dynamite

Receiver Parameters

Receiver Point Interval


Number of Receivers/Line
Receiver Line Interval
Number of Receiver Lines
Offset

50m
see below
100m
30 E-W

Shot Parameters

Source Point Interval


Number of Sources/Line
Source Line Interval
Number of Source Lines
Offset

50m
see below
200m
23
25m South

Patch Description

Number of Lines
Number of Receivers/line
Roll in/Roll out

Building 3D Projects

14
41
Yes

83

F9

Receiver Allocation
Receiver Flags
Receiver Line
From
To
By
R1
1112
1189 1
R3
3112
3189 1
R5
5112
5189 1
R7
7112
7189 1
R9
9112
9189 1
R11
11112
11189 1
R13
13112
13189 1
R15
15112
15175 1
R17
17101
17175 1
R19
19101
19175 1
R21
21101
21170 1
R23
23101
23170 1
R25
25101
25170 1
R27
27101
27171 1
R29
29101
29171 1
R31
31101
31183 1
R33
33101
33183 1
R35
35101
35183 1
R37
37101
37183 1
R39
39103
39171 1
R41
41105
41171 1
R43
43107
43171 1
R45
45109
45171 1
R47
47111
47171 1
R49
49113
49171 1
R51
51115
51171 1
R53
53117
53173 1
R55
55119
55176 1
R57
57121
57180 1
R59
59123
59183 1

Building 3D Projects

Source Line
S2
S4
S6
S8
S10
S12
S14
S16
S18
S20
S22
S24
S26
S28
S30
S32
S34
S36
S38
S38
S38
S40
S40
S40
S42
S42
S42
S44
S46

84

Source Allocation
Source Flags
From
2116
4116
6116
8101
10101
12101
14101
16101
18101
20101
22101
24101
26101
28101
30101
32101
34101
36101
38101
38130
38153
40101
40130
40155
42101
42130
42157
44101
46101

To
2137
4140
6144
8148
10152
12156
14158
16158
18158
20158
22158
24158
26158
28158
30158
32158
34158
36158
38119
38137
38158
40113
40137
40158
42113
42137
42158
44113
46113

By
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

F10

Exercises:

Build to the largest scale and edit.


Look at the BOL and EOL numbers. Select the least and greatest values.
o Stations 101 and 189 are for the receivers.
o Stations 101 and 158 are for the sources.
Build a rectangular 3D as shown in the previous examples.
Using the editor tools Delete/In Culture, Delete/Station and Delete/Dialog in the Rxy and Sxy
tabs, delete the appropriate coordinates to produce the project.
Continue with layout and network editing.
Select Layout to add cables and RAMs.
Use the Optimize Layout option versus RAMs on 4th/5th flag to see the difference.

Building 3D Projects

85

F11

Importing 3D projects
The ARIES II system recognizes the following file formats for importing projects:
File type
.PRJ
Exclusive to INOVA: a single file with a .PRJ extension.
SEGP1
Survey files will never have patch info. Usually two files: one for
receivers (.REC extension) and one for sources (.SRC extension).
SPS
Shell Processing Support always contain three files with the
same name and .R**,.S** and .X** extensions.

Receivers
Sources
Patches
All inclusive format
X ,Y&Z + patches + culture
Name.REC Name.SRC
NA
X,Y&Z
X,Y&Z
Name.R**
X,Y&Z

Name.S**
X,Y&Z

Name.X**
Cross file

Culture

NA

NA

Perform the following steps when importing coordinates (project):


Open AriesVib and build a project.
Create a sub-project in AriesMap.
Copy import files from media into doc sub-directory of current project.
Select File > Update Sub-Project from the top toolbar in AriesMap.
Double click the file to be imported.

Building 3D Projects

86

F12

AGRIUM
Importing PRJ/SEGP1

When importing projects, first build the project and then import it into a sub-project in MAP. It is
strongly recommended that you copy the files that are to be imported to the doc sub-directory as the
software defaults to this directory to find the import information. The files for AGRIUM are in two
formats: a .PRJ file (has coordinates and patches) and SEGP1 files (strictly coordinates). In this case, the
.PRJ files are pre-plot and the SEGP1 files are post-plot.
Select File > Update Sub-project from the top toolbar.
Double click the .PRJ file, check off the receivers, sources and patches update fields and click OK. The
pre-plot XYZs with patches will be drawn in the MAP window.
Bring in the SEGP1 file that contains post plot XYZs. Double click the file with the .SRC extension.
Highlight the appropriate fields, select the proper multiplier and click OK.
Check off the receivers and sources update fields and click OK. The post-plot XYZs will be drawn in the
MAP window.
It is important to verify that the coordinates have been brought in correctly. Select Tools > Distance
Tool from the top toolbar and measure the distance between two receiver points.

This job is located in a populated area with a major highway and railway tracks running through the
middle. Set up two parallel base lines on either side of the road. Do not cross the road with any receiver lines.

Culture
Mark the location of the road and the tracks according to the following table.
65154 - 65155
55144 - 55145
45138 - 45139
33134 - 33135
23122 - 21123
13110 - 13112
3101 - 3102

63151 - 63152
53143 53144
43137 - 43138
31132 - 31133
21119 - 21120
11109 - 11110

61148 - 61149
51142 - 51143
39134 - 39135
29130 - 29131
19118 - 19119
9108 - 9109

59147 - 59148
49140 - 49141
37133 - 37134
27126 - 27127
17116 - 17117
7106 - 7107

57145 - 57146
47139 - 47140
35133 - 35134
25124 - 25125
15113 - 15114
5103 - 5104

Select Add Polygon from the Culture tab.

Shift
When the location of the road and the tracks are marked in MAP, shift the receiver line cables so that
the intermediate cable breaks fall at the road.
Select Shift from the Layout tab.

Cable Breaks

Insert a break at each intermediate along the marked line.


Select Break from the Layout tab.

Building 3D Projects

87

F13

TAP Table
Edit the TAP Table to enable two baselines, one in each direction away from the truck.
Select Edit > Tap Table from the top toolbar.

Jumpers
There are some breaks in the R-lines. Use cross line jumpers.
Select Jumper from the Layout tab.

Overlay Elevations

When the coordinates were imported, they also brought in elevations.


Select Elevations from the Overlay tab.

Print Sub-Project
To view a text version, select File > Print Sub-project.

CHETWYND
Importing SEGP1 with errors

When importing projects, first build the project and then import it into a sub-project in MAP. It is
strongly recommended that you copy the files that are to be imported to the doc sub-directory as the
software defaults to this directory to find the import information. The files for CHETWYND are SEGP1
post-plot files (strictly coordinates).
Select File > Update Sub-project.
Double click the file with the .SRC extension. Highlight the appropriate fields, select the proper
multiplier and click OK.
Text Read Error popup displays Unable to read flag ******. The program has found some text that it
does not recognize.
Access doc directory and open the .REC file. Scroll to the end where there is a row of asterisks that
denotes the end of the file.
Return to File > Update Sub-project and double click on the .SRC file. Click Last format, to set up the
columns and multiplier as they were before. Click OK.
When the Text Read Error message displays, disable the Show Further Errors checkbox and click OK.
The 2 source flags defined more than once displays. Click OK.
A Redundant Flags file displays. Save that file (defaults to doc sub-directory) and close the menu.
Check off the receivers and sources update fields and click OK. The post-plot coordinates will be drawn
in the MAP window.
It is important to verify that the coordinates have been imported correctly. Select Tools > Distance tool
from the top toolbar and measure the distance between two receiver points.
Open the doc sub-directory and double click Redundant.txt file to view the flags that are defined more
than once.

Building 3D Projects

88

F14

Downline TAPs
There are some breaks in the R-lines. Use downline TAPs to establish a secondary baseline to network
RAMs around the obstacle.
Select Add TAP on the Network tab and build secondary baseline.

RAMRIVER
Importing SPS

When importing projects, first build the project and then import it into a sub-project in MAP. It is
strongly recommended that you unzip and copy the files that are to be imported to the doc subdirectory as the software defaults to this directory to find the import information. The files for
RAMRIVER are SPS post-plot files (coordinates and patches).
Select File > Update Sub-project.
Double click the .X01 file, check off the receivers, sources and patches update fields and click OK. The
post-plot XYZs with patches will be drawn in the MAP window.
The coordinates display on the screen the same as they are laid out in the field, with respect to
North/South orientation. This does not utilize all of the available screen area.
Select Zoom > Rotate. Various rotate options are available.
Select Near Axis. The project now displays more efficiently.
It is important to verify that the coordinates have been imported correctly. Select Tools > Distance tool
from the top toolbar and measure the distance between two receiver points.

This is a large project and it might not be feasible to work the whole job at once. It may not be completely
surveyed yet or you may just want the screen to be uncluttered.

Save Area (RXY and SXY)


Ensure the coordinates are saved into the database.
From the Rxy or Sxy tab, select either Keep Area or Delete area. Mark the area to keep or delete. Keep
the area in the upper left hand section of the screen.

Retrieve coordinates

Select Database > Coordinates from the top toolbar. The coordinates that were originally saved in the
database are restored.

Add Cable
There are two methods to add cable without losing the previous editing. Select Add Cable or click
Complete on the Layout tab.
Click Complete and then click the coordinates on each line. The software adds cable in the same
pattern that has already been established.

Import Drill Logs


This project has Drill logs saved in Excel format.
Save the sub-project and go to OBNotes to start importing the Drill logs.
Building 3D Projects

89

F15

In OBNotes select Import > Logs from the top toolbar. A window displays the contents of the doc subdirectory from the current project.
Double-click the Excel file containing the drill logs. The Import Excel Drill Log window displays.
Enable the desired columns of data to bring in.
Select the worksheets and the number of rows to import and click OK. The information is transferred
to the Not Shot Table.

KAKWA
Import SEGP1 file

When importing projects, first build the project and then import it into a sub-project in MAP. It is
strongly recommended that you unzip and copy the files that are to be imported to the doc subdirectory as the software defaults to this directory to find the import information. The files for KAKWA
are SEGP1 post-plot files (coordinates only).
Select File > Update Sub-Project.
Import SEGP1 that contains the post plot XYZs. Double click the file with the .SRC extension. Highlight
the appropriate fields, select the proper multiplier and click OK. In this case, the line number is
embedded in the flag number. Overlap the highlight to bring in the line number.
Check the receivers and sources update fields and click OK.
1 source flags defined more than once displays. Select File > Save As and click OK. The post-plot XYZs
will be drawn in the MAP window.
Return to the doc directory. Open the redundant.txt file to view the flags that are defined more than
once.
Build patches before rotating the project.

Build Patches (Offset)


The Offset option is used to build patches when a 3D project contains very random Rxy or Sxy
coordinates.
Patch 10X41/400m between R-lines/60m between flags
From the Patch click Build.
Select the Offset tab.
In the Max Offset section enter the following:
Vertical1200 (20x60m=1200m distance in the vertical plane)
Horizontal1800 (4x400m+200m=1800m)
Smooth by Flag
(Square up uneven layouts by dropping extra stations)
In the Min Roll-in section enter the following:
Vertical1200 (Distance beyond the vertical offset to include in the patch)
Horizontal1800 (Distance beyond the horizontal offset to include in the patch)
These parameters can be applied to Selected Shots By Area, By From/To, or to All Shots. Click All
Shots. AriesMap displays the first patch highlighted.
Select Configure > Shot > Current Shot from the top toolbar.
Click Select in the View column on the Patch tab and move the cursor to the MAP. Moving the cursor
around the MAP and visually inspect the patches for accuracy. A text format of the patches can be
viewed in the info window on the right side of MAP. Right click to exit.
Building 3D Projects

90

F16

Shift Layout
Source line 114 is an existing cut line and is a good location for a baseline. All of the RAM locations on
the receiver lines should be shifted to accommodate this.
Select Shift on the Layout tab in MAP to build a network.

Import Drill Logs

This project has Drill logs saved in Excel format.


Save the sub-project and open OBNotes to import the drill logs.
In OBNotes select Import > Logs. A window displays the contents of the doc directory from the
current project.
Double-click the file containing the drill logs The Import Excel Drill Log displays.
Enable the columns to import.
Select the worksheets and number of rows.
Select Sline as Work Sheet Name and click OK.
The information transfers to the Not Shot Table.

DRAYTON VALLEY
Importing PRJ/SEGP1/SPS

Explore Aerial and DXF features provided in Overlay editor.

SHAPE

Import SEGP1 files (in feet)


Import GeoTIFF file.
Import SHP culture files.

DEERPORT

Import receiver and source coordinates from SEGP1 files.


Import patches from PRJ file.
Import GeoTIFF file.

2DIMPORT

Import SEGP1 files in 7.1 format.


Build patches in 2D builder.
Explore Smooth option in AriesMap.
Combine two 2D lines into the same subproject.

2DMULTI

Build separate 2D line subprojects.


Build patches using 2D builder for every subproject.
Save individual subprojects in PRJ format.
Import multiple 2D lines from SEGP1 files into the same subproject.
Import patches from PRJ files.

Building 3D Projects

91

F17

Transition Zone Project

Import PRJ file (TZ.prj).


Define shoreline in Culture between land and marine cables.
Set up two different cables 1C for land and 2C for marine in Cable Types Table.
Set the recorder at station 305317 and run secondary baseline at the land side.

Equipment

Recording System
Tape Drive
Shooting System
Shooting System
R-line Cables
Receiver Array
Geophone Type
R-line Cables
Geophone Type
Hydrophone Type
B-line Cables

ARIES II SPM SN 2001


LTO Ultrium 3
Land /ShotPro II in ShotPro Mode /Enc2
Marine /ShotPro II in Airgun Mode/Enc1
Land 4 x 27.5 m
6 in series
GS-32 CT
Marine 2 component 4 x 55 meters
GS-32 CT
MP-25-250
210 m

Recording Parameters

HC /Sample Rate
Record Length
Pre-amp Gain
Source Array
Depth of Charge
Charge
Source Array

205Hz/2ms
3 sec
30db
Land Single hole
20m
1kg/Dynamite
Marine 6 airguns /10 Litre/140 kPa/depth 3 m

Receiver Parameters

Receiver Point Interval


Receiver Line Interval
Receiver Point Interval
Receiver Line Interval

Land 25m
Land 100m
Marine 50 m
Marine 200 m

Patch description

Number of Lines
Number of Receivers/Line
Roll in/Roll out

Building 3D Projects

Land 8 / Marine 4
Land 121 / Marine 61
Yes

92

F18

ARIES II Marine 4-takeout 2 component (G+H) cable

Pic.1 Marine 2 component cable with 4 takeouts

T1-H

T3-G

T1-H

T3-G

T3-G

T1-H

T3-G

T1-H

Pic.2 Marine 2 component cable with 4 takeouts

Pic.3 Dual Sensor

Building 3D Projects

93

F19

Dual Sensor
For ocean bottom cable applications, combining the output of geophones and a hydrophone is now a
widely accepted technique for reducing ghosting. To overcome the disadvantages of using two separate
sensors, both pressure sensor and motion sensor are inside the one unit. To achieve vertical orientation, the
geophones are gimbal mounted and positioned adjacent to the hydrophone with all elements in a single
waterproof enclosure.
In this example dual sensor consist of two geophones GS-32CT and one hydrophone MP-25-250.

Building 3D Projects

94

F20

ARIES OBNotes
The ARIES OBNotes program is a project specific database where computer generated observers notes
can be produced. Any number of custom views can be created and saved in the system.

Set up
OBNotes is a project based program, which means all subprojects that have been built and saved in
ARIES MAP will display.
Select the Not Shot tab.

The source points from the subprojects display. If the table is empty, return to ARIES MAP and save
the sub-project to the database. When a source point has been acquired, the OBNotes program transfers the
entry from the Not Shot Table to the Shot Table.

Shot Table/Not Shot Table

Click the Shot tab, and select ShotView from the top toolbar.

ARIES OB Notes

95

G1

OB Notes provides four views that can be edited.


Click View 1. The title bar displays the name of the project database is displayed and the view number.
Return to the ShotView and click Properties.
The following window displays.

Enable checkboxes for all required entries. The order in which they are to display (left to right) is across
the top of the Shot Table.
Click a field in the Title column to edit the default title names, if required.
All Off or All On deselects/selects all of the fields.
Default selects a basic set of fields, as illustrated above.
Width of the fields can be modified.
Alignment can be defined by selecting Left, Centre, or Right.
Click OK to apply changes and return to the Shot Table View 1.

ARIES OB Notes

96

G2

Select Shotview > Properties from the top toolbar to return to the properties window.
Select File in the upper left hand corner.

Select Save As from drop menu.

Enter a file name such as 2D dynamite, 3D vibes, Project Name, or even Client Copy.
Click Save. The edits are saved in the AriesXP directory in the Control folder with the file name and an
.Obn extension.
This name displays in the title bar and in the ShotView menu beside the number that was edited.

ARIES OB Notes

97

G3

Repeat the above steps for the other three views, if required.
Numerous files can be saved and opened later in one of the views. These files can be copied over to
other systems to ensure standardization and that all crews use the same format.

No File Table
The No File Table is set up to track source points in a project that will not be recorded such as, no
recoveries due to lock-outs, dead caps, field conditions etc.
In the File column, select the source point that will not be recorded in the Not Shot Table.
Enter NF.
`

Click OK.

That source point is then moved from the Not Shot Table to the No File Table with a date stamp.

ARIES OB Notes

98

G4

Test Table
The Test Table is set up to track the Daily tests performed by the observer. These are only registered if
the observer selects the To Media option in the daily/monthly test menu in AriesMap.

Comments Table
The Comments Table is set up to allow the observer to enter more extensive comments or comments
that may apply to more than a single shot.
Enter info in the Comment cell and press Enter. The comment displays and is date stamped.
Enter the file number in the File cell where the comment should display, otherwise the comment will
be placed in the printed OBNotes according to time.

Automatic Field Entries


OBNotes uses information from the database, to automatically input entries into the fields. This
information is input into the database from the acquisition project parameters, AriesMap, Source Type table
and RTI comport interfaces, which are imported directly into the OBNotes.

Parameters
Entries made in the Project Header and in the Source Type table are used on the cover page and in the
shot table fields. These include target hole depth, charge size, number of sweeps, sweep file, which are used
as the pilot that is in the Source Type table. Information that gathered from the Project Header are project
name, client name, crew number.

ARIES OB Notes

99

G5

AriesMap
The Line name, flag number, receiver type, sub-project name is gathered from entries made in
AriesMap.

RTI Comports
When RTI is enabled, Uphole time information can be directly input into the OBNotes while shooting
dynamite projects.

Import Drill Logs


Select Import from the top toolbar to copy entries from an Excel spreadsheet directly into the Not Shot
Table which is then moved to the Shot Table upon completion of the acquisition.

System Comments
System Comments displays comments generated by the recording system. These can include
notification about a tape change to descriptions about the daily tests that were performed.

Working with the Shot Table


Several of the fields can be edited in the Shot Table post acquisition. Hole depths, charge sizes, skids,
offsets etc. can be input by clicking on the cell and making an entry. This facilitates shooting without the
benefit of imported drill logs and RTI disabled. When the entry in the field is complete, press the Enter so that
the system continues to auto update. During editing the OB Notes program is paused.

Comments
Anything can be entered in the Comments field (maximum 255 characters). OBNotes provides a quick
comment tool for frequent entries. Denoting when a shot hole blows out is an example of a frequent
comment.
Select Comments > Add from the top toolbar.

Enter an Index number (0 9 are available).


Enter a short comment (maximum 40 characters).
Click OK.

Select the Comments drop menu.


Click in the Comment cell of the shot that requires a comment.
Press Ctrl and the number key that corresponds with the index number
of the required comment.
Press Enter to complete the edit and resume OBNotes.

ARIES OB Notes

100

G6

Print Observer Reports


Filters

Select the table that contains the information to be printed (Shot, Not Shot, No File, Test or
Comments).
Select ShotView > Filters from the top toolbar.
The Filters window displays.

Enable the filters that are to be applied.

Note: The Filters button on the tool bar is now depressed. Deactivate the Filters to display all data in the
Shot Table.

ARIES OB Notes

101

G7

Title Page

Select File>Print Preview.


The Header Page Information window displays.

Edit all required fields.


Click Save As(edited file can be used later).

ARIES OB Notes

102

G8

The Save As window displays.

Click Save and return to the Header Page Information window.


Click OK.

Enable the Print Extender Header check box to print a condensed version of the title page at the top of
every page in OBNotes.
Select the number of lines per page to print (50 is standard).
Check the Enable Grid Line check box to print lines between rows and columns.
Click OK.

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The Print Setup displays.

Select the print options required and click OK.


A preview of the print version of the OBNotes displays.
Inspect the preview.
Click Print.

Importing Client Logo


OBNotes provides an option that allows corporate logos to be imported and printed on the title page
of the observers notes and the tape labels.

Copy a bitmap file of your company logo into the AriesXP directory.
Rename the file as clientlogo.bmp.
The system automatically substitutes and sizes the logo for the OBNotes and the Tape label.

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Print Tape Labels

Select File > Print Preview Tape Label. The Tape Label window displays.

Select the Tape # from the drop menu.


Select Label Type from the drop menu.
Diskette Label selection requires an
entry in the Label field.
Use the up/down arrows to adjust the offsets
to center.
Click Print.

The Print Setup displays.


Select the print options required and click OK.
A preview of the print version of the Tape Label displays.
Inspect the preview.
Click Print.

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Print QC Comments

Select File > Print Preview QC Comments.


The QC Comments Filter displays.

Select the filters options.


The filter by Date uses the calendar.
Select month and year then click on a day.
Click OK.

The Print Setup displays.

Select the print options required and click OK.


A preview of the print version of the Print QC
Comments displays.
Inspect the preview.
Click Print.

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Exporting Reports

Select Export > Reports.

Select YES. The title page displays.


Edit or click Load Last and then OK.

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The Report window displays.

Select required filters.


Create Directory if desired.
Select Text file format.
Select Excel file format.
All selected files can be combined into one if required.
Click OK.
Exported files are located in the doc sub-directory of the
current project.

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ARIES Media
SEG-Y and SEG-D Formats
The ARIES recording system records data to an internal hard drive before it goes to any other location
such as a plotter, the video plot program, or tape/tape image. The format of the files on the hard drive is SEGY, but it is a SEG-Y Disk format. This differs from SEG-Y Tape/Tape Image format. A SEG-D Tape/Tape Image
option is also available for recording data to media.
SEG-Y Files on Disk
SEG-Y Files on Tape and Image files
SEG-D Files on Tape and Image files

MSDOS IEEE SEG-Y rev. 0


32 bit IBM Floating Point SEG-Y rev. 0
32 bit IEEE Floating Point Demultiplexed 8058 SEG-D rev. 2

All files recorded by ARIES system to the hard disk are in MSDOS IEEE SEG-Y read only.
The AriesMedia program controls the format that is written to tape. The data file on the hard drive
(typically F:\AriesData\project) is reformatted according to the user selection (SEG-D or SEG-Y).
When SEG-D is recorded to tape, the SEG-Y 3200 and 400 byte headers are recorded in the SEG-D
external header and the SEG-Y 240 byte trace headers in the SEG-D trace headers. This enables the
AriesMedia to scan files back from a SEG-D tape format and convert it to MSDOS IEEE SEG-Y format on
the hard disk. This is important because the plotting and data analysis options available in the system
are written for this format (MSDOS IEEE SEG-Y).
If RTI is enabled and GPS or PSS information must be recorded to tape then it should be in SEG-D
format because it supports extended headers.
SEG-D, SEG-Y Rev. 0 or SEG-Y Rev. 0 Modified selection is located in Critical Parameters. When
AriesMedia is opened, it displays which format is selected and includes the project name at the top of
the window. AriesMedia opens to the current database; if required other databases can be accessed
selecting File > Open.

Note: For a detailed description of the tape formats, refer to the software install CD in the MediaFormats
folder.

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Getting Started
Open AriesMedia from AriesVib. Click the sidebar icon or select Tools > Media from the top toolbar.

Select the Media Control tab or select Mode > Media Control from the top toolbar.

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Media Control Start Up (Tape)


This is the function that will be used the most. This is where the tape drives and/or other hard drives
that are used during acquisition are selected. The progress of data transfer from the internal default hard
drive to the media drives is also monitored from here.
Select Media>Media Select or click Media Select on the side toolbar.
Depending upon the configuration of the recording system, a window similar to the following displays.

The tape drives that are installed on the system display in the window. CD IMAGE, DVD IMAGE, and
IMAGE, BACKUP_1 and BACKUP_2 also display. The image options will be explained later in this document.
Select a view option (bottom left). The Details option is selected in the example above.
Select (highlight) the tape drives to record. More than to one drive can be recorded simultaneously.
From the Primary Unit 1 drop menu, select a drive whose reel numbers will record in the database and
display in OBNotes.
Click OK to exit and return to the AriesMedia main view. A green GO now displays in the side toolbar.

Click GO to start the tape controller.

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As acquisitions proceed, the data files are copied from the hard drive, converted to the selected tape
format, and recorded onto the selected tape drives.
The drives that have been selected display in the status bar of the main view with the primary drive
highlighted.

While engaged, the media control displays the status of the drives being used.

Media Control Shut Down (Tape)

Click Stop on the side toolbar or select Tools>Stop from the top toolbar.

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Click Unload on the side toolbar or select Tools>Unload from the top toolbar.

The Unload Tape Drive window displays.

Select the tape drive to be unloaded.


Click OK.
The summary displays:

Click OK.
The cartridge will be ejected from the drive.
Repeat for all drives.

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Media Control Start Up Next Day (Tape)

Open AriesMedia.
Push tape cartridge into the drive.
Click Load on the side toolbar or select Tools > Load from the top toolbar.

The Load Tape Drive window displays.

Select the tape drive to be loaded.


Click OK.
The drive searches for and moves the tape to the end of data (EOD).

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The Last Trace Header Data displays.

Click Continue.
Select Media > Media Select.. from the top toolbar or click Media Select in the side toolbar.
Depending upon the configuration of the recording system, a window displays.

Select (highlight) which tape drives to record to. More than to one drive can be recorded
simultaneously.

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Click OK to exit and return to the AriesMedia main view. A green GO button displays in the side
toolbar.

Click GO to start the Tape Controller.


As acquisitions proceed, the data files are copied from the hard drive, converted to the selected tape
format, and recorded onto the selected tape drives.
The drives that have been selected displays in the status bar of the main view with the primary drive
highlighted.

ARIES TapeImage
TapeImage is a utility used to duplicate data files to external media. This utility is beneficial for ARAM
users that do not use tape drives during daily operations. Seismic data files are written to an image file
(.TpImage extension), which is identical to SEG-D or SEG-Y tape format.
Transportable data storages that can be used are listed below:
CD-R / CD-RW
DVD / DVD-RW
External hard drives
TapeImage may be executed and operated in real-time during production or at any time after production.
A tape image file may be written to any data path, except for the current data drive specified in Critical
Parameters and the drive where the O/S is installed.
Should the tape image be exported to CD or DVD, the tape image file will first be created on the system
hard drive. The size of this image file is dependent upon the CD or DVD capacity. Once this capacity has been
reached, the system prompts the user to create new image file.
If an external hard drive is used for tape image storage, the data path must be selected to ensure the
tape image file is created directly on the external media.
Note: The TapeImage data files cannot be written to a CD or DVD while recording and ARIES
software must not be running at that time.
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Media Control Start Up (Tape Image)

ARAM recommends creating the TapeImage file in real-time, during production.


Select Media > Media Select.. or click Media Select on the side toolbar.
Depending upon the configuration of the recording system, a window similar to the following displays.

The tape drives that are installed on the system display in the window.

Select IMAGE.
From the Primary Unit 1 drop menu, select IMAGE. This will be the drive whose reel numbers will be
recorded in the database and display in OB Notes.
Click OK.

The Available Drive window displays.

From the Drive drop menu, select the drive to write the image file to. This can be a drive on the system
or a removable drive, but not the default data path or the O/S drive.
Enter the maximum image size in the field provided. By default, the available space on the drive
displays.

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Click OK to exit and return to the AriesMedia main view. A green GO button now displays on the side
toolbar.

Click the GO button to start the Image Controller.

The following window displays.

Click OK to exit and return to the AriesMedia main view.

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The Image file status now displays.

As acquisitions proceed, the data files are copied from the internal hard drive, converted to the
selected tape format, and recorded onto the selected image drive.

Media Control Shut Down (Tape Image)

Click Stop on the side toolbar or select Tools > Stop from top toolbar.

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Media Control Start Up Next Day (Tape Image)

Open AriesMedia.
Select Media > Media Select.. or click Media Select on the side toolbar.
Depending upon the configuration of the recording system, a window similar to the following displays:

Select IMAGE and click OK.

The Available Drive window displays the drive and image file previously used.

Click OK to append records to that file.


Return to the AriesMedia main view. A green GO button now displays in the side toolbar.
A new file can be selected if required.

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Click New. The Image name increments by 1.

Click OK to exit and return to the AriesMedia main view. A green GO button now displays in the side
toolbar.

Click GO to start the Image Controller.


After an acquisition is initiated, the following window displays.

Click OK and begin recording.

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The image files display as follows.

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Backup
Backup is a utility used to duplicate internal MSDOS IEEE data files to external media during
production. The software controls the data flow to external hard drives and creates a report that can be
stored or supplied with the data recorded on it. This utility can be used simultaneously with recording to tape
or tape image.

Media Control Start Up (Tape Image+Backup_1 +Backup_2)

Select Media > Media Select.. or click Media Select on the side toolbar.
Depending upon the configuration of the recording system, a window similar to the following displays.

The tape drives that are installed on the system display in the window.

Select (highlight) IMAGE, BACKUP_1 and BACKUP_2


From the Primary Unit 1 drop menu, select IMAGE. This will be the drive whose reel numbers will be
recorded in the database and display in OBNotes.
Click OK.
The Available Drive windows display one by one.

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From the Drive drop menu, select the drive to write the image file to. This can be a drive on the system
or a removable drive, but not the default data path or the OS drive.
Enter the maximum image size in the fields provided. By default, the available space on the drive
displays.
Click OK to exit and return to the AriesMedia main view. A green GO button now displays on the side
toolbar.

Click the GO button to start the Image and Backup Controllers.


As acquisitions proceed, the internal format data files are copied (backed up) to external hard drives,
converted to the selected tape format, and recorded onto the selected image drive simultaneously.
Click the Log tab or select Mode > Log Viewer, then select File or Excel from the Export drop menu to
create a report.

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ARIES Video Plot (AVP)


Setup
File Select

Select File > Open or click the open file icon in the side toolbar.
The File Open window displays a list of all of the existing files in the default data directory, previously
selected in Critical Parameters, along with an information window.
Select (highlight) a file to open and click OK.

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Video Display Parameters (Video Deck)


Video Deck File

Select an existing video deck and edit it or create a new deck.


Select how the traces display.
Enable Wiggle, VA, Dummies.
Select which traces to display.
Enable Max Traces with an Inc. of 1.
Select the duration of time to display.
Enable All Time.

Click New.
Name the plot deck.

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Edit the following tabs:

1: Pre
Enable Correlation from the list if recording uncorrelated data.
In the Pilot Trace (Aux) field enter the trace number (as usual TREF).
Enable the Correlate Aux Traces checkbox to correlate the auxiliary
traces.

4: AGC
Refer to the section Plot and Video Deck Data Scaling Options / AGC
Scaling to define playback parameters.

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2: Design

Select the V1* tab and enable First Breaks. A red line displays along the
top of the screen close to the first breaks of the record.
Move the mouse cursor to the apex of the first breaks line until a S1
displays. Then click, hold and drag the whole to the first breaks of the
near offsets. The numeric value in the Static Shift field changes and
displays the shift in milliseconds negative.
Move the mouse cursor to either edge of the line until a V1 displays. Then
click, hold and drag the line to the first breaks of the far offsets. The
numeric value in the Velocity field changes and displays the velocity of
the first breaks.
Enable FK Filter Velocity. A blue line displays within the traces of the
record.
Move the mouse cursor to the apex of the FK filter velocity line until an S displays. Then click, hold and
drag the whole line to the point in the record that the low frequency originates. The numeric value in
the Static Shift field changes and displays the shift in milliseconds positive.
Move the mouse cursor to either edge of the line until a V displays. Then click, hold and drag the line
until it corresponds with the velocity of the low frequency (ground roll) of this record. The numeric
value in the Velocity field changes and displays the velocity of the ground roll.
Enable Design Window. A box will appear over all of the traces of the displayed record. The default
color is cyan.
Move the mouse cursor to the apex of the design window box until an S displays. Then click, and drag
the whole top line of the box to a point off of the first break high amplitudes. The numeric value in the
Static Shift field changes and displays the shift in milliseconds positive.
Move the cursor to either top edge of the box until a V appears. Then click, hold and drag the line off
the high amplitude of the first breaks of this record. The numeric value in the Velocity field changes and
displays the velocity.
Move the mouse cursor to either bottom edge of the box until an E appears. Then click, hold and drag
the whole bottom line of the box to a point just past the zone of interest and no deeper than the
seismic basement. The numeric value in the End Window field changes and displays the end of design
window in milliseconds.
Click Copy to place these settings on a clipboard for use later in similar tabs.
Disable the FK Filter Velocity.

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3: Filter
Enable and enter values, if required, to filter the seismic data.
Note: The slopes on the L/C and the H/C filters are not sufficient enough
for data QC. Use the B/P (band pass filter).

5: QC

The QC options are used to define tolerances for data QC. Every
time an acquired seismic record is opened in AVP, the system calculates
RMS amplitude, RMS Noise, and SNR for the individual trace and average
for the shot. This data is saved in the QC database (if enabled) and used for
Patch View and Shot History displays.
Enter tolerances to evaluate individual traces in the Spec
<PatchView> Tolerance fields. These tolerances also apply to the
receiver bar graphs (except SNR).
Enter vertical axis scale values in the <ShotsHistory> Spec fields for
RMS, Noise and SNR Bar Graphs.
If required, enable the GDC File checkbox to automatically create
files for GDC analysis.
RMS (%) tolerance value is used to compare the energy of every two
adjacent traces, assuming that the energy of the trace closest to the
shot point is 100%.
Max. Amp threshold value is used to evaluate every sample of the
trace against the maximum amplitude value based on Preamp Gain.
The bar is red for the trace if at least one sample is over the
threshold value.
6: View

Enable or disable the required information views.

Click Apply and then Close to save the edits and return to the AVP
screen.

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Screen
The default view displays as follows. The graph bars and windows can be undocked and sized, if required.

Shot info
This window displays numerical information for the icons (channels) in the Patch View as well as file
information.

Shot History
This is a histogram for averaged results for each shot.

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Patch View
The icons in this view represent each trace. Move the cursor from icon to icon to view the trace
information in the Shot info window. There are options available for this display and comments can be made
for each trace or the entire record.

FRAM
FRequency-AMplitude (FRAM) is a software package that enables the user to perform some
processing functions on field data for immediate analysis.

Setup
File Select
Open required file in AVP.
Select Analysis > FRAM from the drop menu.
This window displays all of the existing files in the default data directory along with a Fram Deck
definition window.

FRAM Deck
FRAM Deck File
Select an existing FRAM deck and edit it or create a new deck.
Select how the traces display.
Enable Wiggle, VA, Dummies.
Select which traces to display.
Enable Max Traces with an Inc. of 1.
Select the duration of time to display.
Enable All Time.
1: Pre-Process
If required make selections from this menu.

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4: Exponential
Refer to the section Plot and Video Deck Data Scaling Options / Exponential Scaling to define
parameters.
2: Design
Return to AVP Video Deck / Design window and click Copy.
Click Paste and all settings, that were previously copied to clipboard from the video decks Design
window, enter into the fields in the FRAM Deck.
3: Filter
Enable and enter values, if required.
5: Decon
Enable Decon, if required.
From the drop down list select Zero Phase (for Vibrator sources) or Spiking (for Impulse sources).
Enter a value in the Operator Length to define the length of the impulse response.
Enter a value in the Pre-whitening field to add white noise before the deconvolution.

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6: Fram

In the Prev. column, select to view before plotting,


and enable the Plot check box for each required
process.
Enable Raw Data Plot to plot the file.
Select stacking ratio from the Spectrum drop
menu. 4x2 is standard.
Enable Raw Data Spectrum Plot.
Enable FK.
Enable FK Plot to plot a file with an FK filter that
was set in tab 2.
Select the same ratio from the Spectrum drop
menu as the raw data spectrum.
Enable FK Spectrum Plot.

Enable Decon.
Enable Decon Plot to plot a file with deconvolution that was set in tab 5, with the scaling options and any
filters previously selected.
Use the same ratio from the Spectrum drop menu as the raw data spectrum.
Enable Spectrum-Plot.
Enable BP Filters (band pass filters).
BP Fixed Gain applies gain to the filter panels to facilitate better viewing.
Click Default Filters and make selections from the Band Pass Filters window. When activated (On) the filter
ranges can be edited by clicking in the Low and High fields and using the up/down arrows.
Enable BP Filters Plot to plot all of the selected panels with the scaling options and any filters previously
selected.
Select stacking ratio from the Spectrum drop menu.
Enable Spectrum Plot.
Select a file or files from the list to perform a FRAM analysis.
Click Plot.

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GDC
Geophysical Data Characterization (GDC) is a process developed by ARAM and is available on all
INOVA ARIES recording systems. The GDC process was originally proposed by the client as a way of reducing
the cost of their 3D acquisition by monitoring the quality of seismic data with an aim to predict the quality of
the final processed data. Three values are determined and then used to judge the quality of a record.
These are Signal to Noise ratio, Ambient Noise, and RMS amplitude.
S:N ratio is measured in the design window. It is set below the first breaks and then just below the
zone of interest. This should never be set past the seismic basement.
Noise is measured from T-zero to the predicted first breaks indicator (red line).
RMS amplitude uses the entire record to determine this value for each trace.
All of these results are displayed in a map form to give a spatial view to the QC personnel.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio
During SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) analysis, each trace falling within the design window is autocorrelated. Each trace is then cross-correlated with the trace beside it. At the end of the receiver line, the
software flips the process around to cross correlate the last trace with the previous one.
To correct for move out, the software applies a static shift to one trace. The software takes the time
difference from one trace to the next trace according to the slope of the design window and applies a static
shift equal to one-half of it.
Example:
B
A
If the time distance, between trace A and B is 10ms, the software
shifts trace B up by -5ms to the nearest sample based on the
sample rate. Samples are added to trace B so both traces have the
same length within the analysis window.
Autocorrelation of trace A Signal & Noise
Cross correlation of traces A & B - Signal only
The resulting cross correlation is the value for signal.
D
The autocorrelation minus the cross correlation gives us a noise value.
10ms
e
Cross correlation (A & B)
s
Signal to Noise Ratio (A) =
(Autocorrelation (A) Cross correlation (A &B))
i
g
n
The Signal to Noise Ratio is converted to a logarithmic scale (dB
-5ms
Shift up
format) for display.
W
The results of this analysis from individual traces are combined to
i
simulate the noise reducing effects of stacking traces in the seismic
n
processing center using this formula:
d
o
(20Log S:N)
w
# of traces

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Setup (Produce GDC files in AVP)


The following is a description of setup for the GDC deck. This can be bypassed by selecting GDC File in
the Data Output section of the QC tab of the Video Deck.
File Select
Open the required file in AVP.
Select Analysis > GDC from the drop menu.
A window displays all of the existing files in the default data directory along with an information
window.

GDC Deck
GDC Deck File
2: Design Windows
Return to AVP Video Deck/Design window and copy it. Click Paste and all settings, that were previously
copied to clipboard from the video decks Design window, enter into the fields in the GDC Deck.

Produce Files
First Pick
Select a file from the list.
Click First Pick. A progress graph displays, and as each GDC file is produced a G is added to the
attributes of the individual file. This produces a GDC file for the data file selected and for every other
data file with a higher file number or later time stamp in the data directory.
Last Pick
Select a file from the list.
Click Last Pick button. A progress bar graph displays, and as each GDC file is produced a G is added to
the attributes of the individual file. This produces a GDC file for the data file selected and for every
other data file with a higher file number or later time stamp in the data directory.
Minimize
This is to be used in conjunction with First Pick / Last Pick. When Minimize is enabled, the software
automatically produces GDC files for every data file as it is acquired.
Batch
Select the first file from the list.
Hold the shift key and select the last file from the list. A group of files are highlighted.
Click Batch. A progress displays and as each GDC file is produced a G is added to the files attribute.

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View (Display results in AriesMap)


GDC
Once GDC files are produced, the information contained in them (Noise Value, RMS Value, Signal to
Noise Ratio) can be viewed in AriesMap.
Select the GDC tab.
Click Calc to determine the bin sizes and offsets.
Sx/SNR
Select the Sx tab and enable the On check box.
Select SNR tab and click Apply.
A green icon displays for every source point with a GDC file. A range displays in the window below the
limits fields. Beside the window is a button.
Click the button to transfer the range into the Minimum and Desired fields in the Limits window.
Click Apply.
Source points now display in one of three colors:
Red (a SNR value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a SNR value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a SNR value that exceeds the Desired limit)
Sx/RMS
Select Sx tab and enable On check box.
Select the RMS tab.
Click Apply. A green icon displays for every source point with a GDC file. A range displays in the
window below the Minimum and Desired fields.
Using the keyboard, transfer that range into the Minimum and Desired fields.
Click Apply.
Source points will now appear in one of three colors:
Red (a RMS value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a RMS value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a RMS value that exceeds the Desired limit)

Shot Info

Move the cursor to one of the source points with an icon.


In the Shot Info window will be the following: Line, Shot, File, Type, Time, Logged Depth, UH Time,
GDC or RMS, Average, and a graph. Most of these are self-explanatory.
Logged Depth and UH Time may not exist depending on source type used and whether or not
drill logs were imported.
Average refers to the number of receivers contributing to that shot.
The graph is only present when the SNR tab is active. The vertical axis of the graph is the SNR.
The horizontal axis of the graph is offset distances. The bars in the graph are all of the
contributors (separated by offset) used to calculate average SNR for that source point.

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Rx/SNR
Select the Rx tab and enable the On check box.
Select the SNR tab then Analyzed.
This displays SNR receiver information for all source points with a GDC file.
Click Apply.
A green icon displays for every receiver point that contributed to GDC files. A range displays in the
window below the limits fields. Beside the window is a button.
Click the button to transfer the range into the Minimum and Desired fields in the Limits window.
Click Apply.
Receiver points now display in one of three colors:
Red (a SNR value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a SNR value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a SNR value that exceeds the Desired limit)
Enable the Auto feature and click Apply.
The receivers will now be displayed in a range of colors from red to green according to their SNR
values.
Select Current.
Click on the current shot icon (top toolbar).The cursor now displays as a white splat.
Move the cursor to a source point that has a GDC file and click on it.
This displays GDC receiver information for that individual source point.
Click Apply.
A magenta circle displays around the source point (if On is selected in the Sx tab). A green or red icon
displays for every receiver that contributed to the GDC files.
Red indicates a negative value.
Green indicates a positive value.
A range displays in the window below the limits fields. Beside the window is a button.
Click this button to transfer that range into the Minimum and Desired fields.
Click Apply.
Receiver points now displays in one of three colors:
Red (a SNR value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a SNR value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a SNR value that exceeds the Desired limit)
Enable Auto and click Apply.
The receivers now displays in a range of colors from red to green according to their SNR values.
Select Predicted.
This displays predicted SNR for each CMP bin using existing GDC files and predicting results at full fold
in a project.
Click Apply.
A green icon displays for every receiver point that contributed to GDC files. A range displays in the
window below the limits fields. Beside the window is a button.
Click the button to transfer the range into the Minimum and Desired fields in the Limits window.
Click Apply.
Receiver points now display in one of three colors:
Red (a SNR value less than the Minimum limit)
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Blue (a SNR value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a SNR value that exceeds the Desired limit)
Enable Auto and click Apply.
The receivers now displays in a range of colors from red to green according to their SNR values.

Rx/RMS
Select the Rx tab and enable the On check box.
Select RMS tab then Analyzed.
This will display RMS receiver information for all source points with a GDC file.
Click Apply.
A green icon displays for every receiver that contributed to the GDC files. A range displays in the
window below the limits fields a range.
Using the keyboard, transfer that range into the Minimum and Desired fields.
Click Apply.
Receiver points now display in one of three colors:
Red (a RMS value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a RMS value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a RMS value that exceeds the Desired limit)
Select Current.
From the top toolbar and click the current shot icon. The cursor now displays as a white splat.
Move the cursor to a source point that has a GDC file and click on it.
This displays GDC receiver information for that individual source point.
Click Apply.
A magenta circle displays around the source point (if On is selected in the Sx tab). A green icon displays
for every receiver that contributed to the GDC files.
A range displays in the window below the limits fields. Beside the window is a button.
Using the keyboard, transfer that range into the Minimum and Desired fields.
Click Apply.
Receiver points now displays in one of three colors:
Red (a SNR value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a SNR value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a SNR value that exceeds the Desired limit)
Rx/Noise
Select Rx tab and enable the On check box.
Select SNR tab and then Analyzed.
Go to the Noise tab.
Click Apply.
This will display noise receiver information for all source points with a GDC file.
Receiver points will now appear in one of three colors:
Red (a noise value greater than the Limit)
Blue (a noise value that falls within the Warning and Limit)
Green (a noise value that is less than the Warning)
The Warning and Limit values are derived from the entry in the Geophone Noise Tolerance in the
Sensor Types table. By changing this entry the Warning and Limit values can be edited.
Select SNR tab and then Current.
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Select the Noise tab.


Click the current shot icon (top toolbar). The cursor now displays as a white splat.
Move the cursor to a source point that has a GDC file and click on it.
This displays noise receiver information for that individual source point.
Click Apply.
Receiver points now displays in one of three colors:
Red (a noise value less than the Minimum limit)
Blue (a noise value that falls within the Minimum and Desired limits)
Green (a noise value that exceeds the Desired limit)

The above procedures can be applied to any type of source used.


The following procedures apply to drilled shot points only.

Sx/UH

Select Sx tab and enable the On check box.


Select UH tab.

Select Logged VS Target Depth from the drop menu.


In the Target Depth field enter the shot point depth, found in the parameters for the project.
Enter a tolerance in the next field.
Click Apply.
In the window at the bottom of the tab is a range of the logged depths found in the database.
All of the shot points in the project will have either:
Green icon
o The depth that was imported with the drill logs falls within the tolerance stipulated
(with respect to the target depth)
Red icon
o The depth that was imported with the drill logs falls outside of the tolerance stipulated
(with respect to the target depth)
White icon
o The logged depth was not defined.
Select Meas. Uphole Times from the drop menu.
Click Apply.
In the window at the bottom of the tab is a range of the uphole times saved in the database.
At the bottom of MAP is a color legend of the uphole times. Every shot point with an uphole time now
is a solid colored icon. Shot points that have no uphole time are a white outlined circle icon.
Move the cursor over a shot point and view the Shot Info window for specific information.
Select Calc. Velocity (Avg. Regional Velocity) from the drop menu.
Enter a % tolerance in the Calc. Velocity Tolerance field.
Click Apply.
In the window at the bottom of the tab is a range of the velocities.
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I15

At the bottom of MAP is a color legend of the velocities. Every shot point taken now has an icon.
Move the cursor over a shot point and view the Shot Info window for specific information.
Notice that the shot point the cursor is over, and the other shot points around it are highlighted with a
cyan colored box. This indicates they are being used for the regional velocity average calculation.
Ensure that the tolerance entered is not too tight. Some shot points may not be used for this
calculation if they fall outside of the tolerance. If there is not enough points to make a calculation, or if
the source point is not explosive, the icon will be a white outlined circle.
Adjust the tolerance to produce results.

Select Meas. Velocity (Logged Depth/UH Time) from the drop down list.
Enter a % tolerance in the Calc. Velocity Tolerance field.
Click Apply.
In the window at the bottom of the tab is a range of the velocities.
At the bottom of the Map is a color legend of the velocities.
Every shot point with an uphole time now is a colored icon.
Shot points that have a velocity that falls within the tolerance display as a solid icon.
Shot points that have a velocity that falls outside the tolerance display as an outlined icon.
Shot points that have no uphole time display as a white outlined circle icon.
Move the cursor over a shot point and view in the Shot Info window for specific information.
Select Calc. Depth (UH Time X Calc. Velocity) from the drop menu.
Enter a % tolerance in the Calc. Velocity Tolerance field.
Click Apply.
In the window at the bottom of the tab is a range of the depths.
At the bottom of the MAP is a color legend of the depths. Every shot point taken now display as an
icon.
Move the cursor over a shot point and view in the Shot Info window for specific information.
Notice that the shot point the cursor is over and the other shot points around it are highlighted with a
cyan colored box. This indicates they are being used for the regional velocity average calculation.
Ensure that the tolerance entered is not too tight. Some shot points may not be used for this
calculation if they fall outside of the tolerance. If there are not enough points to make a calculation,
the icon displays as a white solid circle.
Adjust the tolerance to produce results.
Select Logged VS Calc. Depth from the drop menu.
Enter a tolerance in the Logged VS Calc. Dept and Calc. Velocity Tolerance fields.
Click Apply.
In the window at the bottom of the tab is a range of the logged depths saved in the database.
Move the cursor over a shot point and view in the Shot Info window for specific information.

Notice that the shot point the cursor is over and the other shot points around it are highlighted with a
cyan colored box. This indicates they are being used for the regional velocity average calculation.
Ensure that the tolerance entered is not too tight. Some shot points may not be used for this
calculation if they fall outside of the tolerance. If there are not enough points to make a calculation,
the icon displays as a white solid circle.
Adjust the tolerance to produce results.

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All of the shot points in the project will have either:


Green icon
o The depth that was imported with the drill logs falls within the tolerance stipulated
(with respect to the calculated depth)
Red icon, or a blue icon
o The depth that was imported with the drill logs falls outside of the tolerance stipulated
(with respect to the calculated depth)
From this information, conclusions can be made about the drilling contractor and/or uphole data
quality and consistency.

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Plot and Video Deck Data Scaling Options


As plotters require input data amplitudes to fall within a specific range, trace balancing (normalization)
schemes are required. The following data scaling options AGC, AGC Threshold, Exponential, Fixed and Linear
provide various means to adjust these data amplitudes.

Automatic Gain Control (AGC)


Theory
AGC automatically varies the gain applied to trace samples as a function of sample amplitude within an
AGC time window. The AGC program moves the window down the trace sample by sample and calculates a
scale factor at each location. The scale factor is equal to the inverse of the mean, median, or RMS amplitude in
the window. The scalar can be applied to the sample at the beginning, center or end of the AGC window.
At the start and end of the trace, where there is less data in the window than the operator length
requested, the window will be made as long as possible. As a result, the window will increase at the start of
the trace until it reaches the full operator length and then remains constant until it reaches the end of the
data, where it will degrease to a progressively smaller value.
AGC Scaling
AGC scales the amplitude of a seismic signal (with decreasing strength over time), enabling a visual
examination of both strong and weak data samples. AGC automatically varies the gain applied to a trace
sample as a function of the mean amplitude of an AGC window about that sample. For every sample, the scale
factor is calculated as the inverse of the mean amplitude of the AGC sliding window. Thus, the larger the
amplitude of the samples within the AGC window, the smaller the scale factor applied to the center sample of
this window.
Note: All traces are scaled and balanced independently based on their own signal strength and system
desired amplitude, which is why a simple comparison of signal strength between traces is not possible.

Fig.1 Trace comparison: 1.Raw data; 2.Trace after AGC.

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Window (ms) - Sets the time window size used to


calculate a rolling average. The larger the window size,
the lower the AGC effect. Very small time gates can cause
a significant loss of signal character by boosting zones
that contain small amplitudes.
Typical value is between 300 to 1000 ms.
Threshold (%) Starts AGC at the first sample, which is a
percent of the maximum sample value over the entire
trace, and stays on for the rest of the samples in the
trace. A threshold level of 0% will cause the AGC to trip at
T-Zero and boost noise amplitude to full scale before the
first breaks.
A value of 50% will trip the AGC when the trace reaches 50% of the maximum amplitude achieved in
the trace (as usual at the first breaks time). If a threshold is not selected, the AGC will start at the
predicted first break time (red line). Typical value is between 50 to 80 %.
Pre Gain (dB) Scales the data with a fixed amount of gain from T-Zero to a user-defined predicted
first breaks (red line) and then starts the AGC process. Pre Gain is only available when not using the
Threshold option. If Pre Gain is not employed, then the pre first break data (assumed to be noise) will
be scaled as a function of the strength of the first breaks. A weak amplitude of the first breaks will
result in the noise (pre threshold samples) being accentuated and a strong first breaks will result in the
noise being attenuated.
Deflection (multiplier) Scales all samples of the trace with the same single factor (multiplier) after
AGC is applied.
Aux Gain (dB) Scales the auxiliary traces with a fixed gain, if checked. Otherwise, the same AGC
function applies as for data traces.
Throw (inch) If Aux. Gain is selected, based on Preamp. Gain throws the full scale input value (12dB
(944mV), 24dB (214mV), 30dB (122mV)) by populated number of inches.

AGC Threshold Scaling


AGC Threshold Scaling compensates the amplitude of a seismic signal with decreasing strength over
time, which enables a visual examination of data at any point along a trace and causes AGC to trip at the
threshold specified.

ARIES Video Plot

143

Window (ms) Threshold (%) Deflection (multiplier) Aux Gain (dB) Throw (inch) -

Same as AGC
Same as AGC
Same as AGC
Same as AGC
Same as AGC

I19

Fig.2-1 AGC, Window-400ms

ARIES Video Plot

Fig.2-2 AGC, Window-50ms


AGC settings must be used with caution
as it can destroy signal character.
Fast AGC (50ms) makes strong
reflections indistinguishable from weak
reflections.

144

I20

Exponential Scaling
Exponential Scaling applies a time-variant gain (exponential) function to traces to compensate for a
loss of amplitude over time. Unlike AGC Scaling, Exponential Scaling applies the same scale values to all traces
after the defined Limit time, which allows for a simple comparison of traces.

e^Bt (1/ms) - Constant rate of the exponential gain. Starts as unity at Zero-time.
Limit (ms) The end of the exponential gain function window. After this time, the gain is constant with
the final scale factor calculated for this point.
FBEQ (ms) After exponentially scaling the trace, the samples between the predicted first breaks line
and the design window can be equalized by applying AGC scaling with the sliding window as defined in
the FBEQ field.
Typical values between 128 to 512 ms.
Deflection (multiplier) Scales all samples of the trace with the same single factor (multiplier).
Aux Gain (dB) Scales the auxiliary traces with a fixed gain, if enabled. Otherwise, the same
exponential function applies as for data traces.

Fig.3 Trace comparison: 1. Raw data; 2.Exponential Scaling; 3.Exponential Scaling with FBEQ
ARIES Video Plot

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Fig.4-1 Exponential Scaling, no FBEQ

Fig.4-2 Exponential Scaling with FBEQ (256ms)

Fixed Scaling
Fixed Scaling is used to show a true representation of relative signal strength by applying a specified
gain value to each data sample. The amplitude is first scaled by the value defined in the Fixed gain window
and then rescaled according to the value populated in the Throw window.
Note: Fixed Scaling must always be used to plot the Noise Strip data to evaluate the ambient noise
level across the lines.

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I22

Fixed (dB) - Fixed gain value.


True Amp. - If this option is disabled, the full scale is assumed to be 944 mV per 1 inch or as given in
the throw window. With True Amp enabled the full scale is determined by the Preamp Gain as follows:
o 12 dB 944 mV : 1 inch (or as given in the throw window)
o 24 dB 214 mV : 1 inch (or as given in the throw window)
o 30 dB 122 mV : 1 inch (or as given in the throw window)
Aux. Gain (dB) - Fixed gain value for auxiliary traces (negative number attenuates the signal).
Throw (inch) Scales 944 mV to the specified throw value in inches by default or according to the
Preamp gain if True Amp is chosen. In general, trace throw may overlap adjacent traces and can be
limited by clipping the amplitude of a signal between the number of traces defined in the Clip window.

Fig.5 Trace comparison: 1.Raw data scaled as 0.1mV:1inch; 2. Fixed Gain 65dB thrown by 10 inches; 3. Fixed
Gain 65dB thrown by 10 inches and clipped by 2 traces.

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147

I23

Linear scaling
Linear Scaling is used when it is assumed that the signal strength is decreasing linearly with time. The
first sample is scaled by the Initial Gain, and then the gain is increased linearly by the slope (dB/Sec). As in the
earlier scaling methods, the traces then are rescaled according to the value in the Throw window.

Initial Gain (dB) Slope (dB/sec) True Amp. Aux. Gain (dB) Throw (inch)

Gain value at Zero-time.


Rate per second to increase the gain.
Same as Fixed Gain
Same as Fixed Gain
Same as Fixed Gain

Fig.6 Trace comparison: 1.Raw data; 2.Fixed gain 65dB; 3.Linear Gain (Initial gain 65dB, Slope 3dB/sec)

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I24

Channel and Sensor Tests


Introduction
The following document describes ARIES II channel and sensor test specifications and testing
methodology.

Testing Overview
The ARIES II recording system has the ability to perform the following tests on the RAMs (channel tests)
and the geophones that are connected to any visible channel (phone tests).
These tests can be performed at any or all sample rates, as well as any or all preamp gains. Coverage
of the tests may be limited to the current patch (the active spread for a selected shot) or all equipment visible
to the recording system.
All test files may be output to tape and/or plotter, and test evaluation reports may be printed and/or
saved as text files. The output test length is user defined.
Channel Tests include the following 7 tests:
Channel Full Band Noise
Channel Equivalent Input Noise (EIN)
Channel Impulse Response
Channel Gain Matching
Channel Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and Clock Drift
Channel Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
Channel Cross Feed Rejection (XFD)
Phone Tests include the following 7 tests:
Sensor Noise
Sensor Pulse and Sensitivity
Sensor Resistance
Sensor Leakage
Sensor Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Sensor Impedance
Sensor Cross Feed Rejection (XFD)

Channel and Sensor Tests

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J1

Channel Test Evaluation


Manufacturers Specifications vs Manufacturers Tolerances
INOVA Systems Corp. publishes both Manufacturers Specifications and Manufacturers Tolerances.
Manufacturers Specifications are commonly called a typical specification, similar to those published
by all geophysical or electronics instrumentation manufacturers.
Published Manufacturers Tolerances are used in both the production facility and in software-based
testing in the field. An explanation of the inherent difference between the two published specifications
follows.
INOVA Systems Corp. defines the Manufacturers Specification as a Typical specification.
Manufacturers Specifications are derived from the production database of test performance results of all
ARIES channels produced by INOVAs manufacturing facility. Testing in the facility is done under three
temperature conditions: hot (+70C), standard (+25C), and cold (-50C).
Test results for every channel are plotted over time (production) as shown below for total harmonic
distortion at standard temperature.

A histogram of test results is generated to determine each manufacturers specification and tolerance.
For example, the distribution of test results for common-mode rejection ratio tested at 500Hz sampling rate
and 30dB gain obtained for a total of 12,000 channels is illustrated on page J3.

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150

J2

Guard Band
Specification

Tolerance

The results show a normal (Gaussian) distribution. The Manufacturers Specification or typical value is
the mean (average) of the distribution of test results. The mean value on the graph above is approximately
105dB for 12,000 ARIES Channels tested at 30dB gain during standard temperature testing. Anyone can see
that if a tolerance was set at the typical value, approximately half of the channels would fail.
Published Manufacturers Tolerances are set in such way to pass manufactured channels through
production and for general field operations. A guard-band for production and field-based testing is
illustrated (5dB for Common Mode Rejection Ratio) on the above graph and must be used to account for the
following conditions:
Normal distribution of variance in properties of all electronic components.
Normal variations in manufacturing processes.
Wide temperature and humidity differences encountered during field operations.
Channel averaging testing methods are not employed during field operations.
Reasonable pass/fail Manufacturers Tolerances for each channel must be set to account for the
aforementioned, normally distributed variances in specifications. For example, the Manufacturers Tolerance
or hard failure line for Common-Mode Rejection Ratio is 85dB.
All produced channels are tested over temperature to this tolerance and this value is used in field
testing to pass or fail channels. If this value is not met in production or field testing, INOVA Systems will
consider this channel as a failed channel and will endeavor to repair the channel at no cost during the
warranty period to the owner.

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151

J3

ARIES Specifications and Tolerances


INOVA Manufacturers Specifications
ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
EIN
Full Scale Voltage
Dynamic Range
CMRR
XFD
Internal THD
Internal THD
External THD
External THD
Clock Drift

24

0.6 V
0.944V
123dB

0.20V
0.214V
120dB
105dB
130dB
-114dB
0.0002%
-114dB
0.0002%
2.5PPM

Gain Matching

1%

High Cut Matching

1%

Slope Matching

30
0.16V
0.122V
117dB

1%

Pass Band Matching

0.2dB

INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances


ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
EIN
Full Scale Voltage
Dynamic Range
CMRR
XFD
Internal THD
Internal THD
External THD
External THD
Clock Drift

1.50V
0.944V
116dB

24
0.48V
0.214V
113 dB
85dB
100dB
-104dB
0.0006%
-108dB
0.0004%
5 PPM

Gain Matching

1%

High Cut Matching

1%

Slope Matching

1%

Pass Band Matching

Channel and Sensor Tests

30
0.32V
0.122V
112 dB

0.2dB

152

J4

INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances

Sample Rate (Hz)

100
125
150
200
250
300
333
400
500
600
800
1000
1200
1600
2000
2400
3200
4000

Channel Full Band Noise (V)


ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
30
1.11
0.33
0.22
1.16
0.35
0.24
1.2
0.37
0.25
1.3
0.4
0.29
1.4
0.43
0.32
1.5
0.49
0.37
1.73
0.51
0.38
1.75
0.52
0.41
1.78
0.57
0.45
1.88
0.6
0.48
1.97
0.67
0.54
2.08
0.75
0.62
2.66
0.86
0.67
2.78
0.94
0.76
2.96
1.05
0.87
13.4
3.04
2.18
14
3.37
2.21
14.3
3.74
2.53

Channel Tests
Channel tests are evaluated to the manufacturers tolerances. Manufacturers tolerances and
specifications are subject to change. Specifications and tolerances are available from the manufacturer.

Channel Full Band Noise Test


The accumulation of noise across the 3Hz to Nyquist band of the chosen sample rate is measured. The
value of this accumulated noise increases as the bandwidth increases.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor
Channel inputs are internally connected to a termination resistor
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings
RMS value is calculated

FullBand _ RMSNoise

7N
8

2
i

N
8

3N

Where:
N = number of samples acquired
= samples acquired (i = 0, 1, 2, N-1)

This value is compared to the set of manufacturers tolerances. Channels that fail to meet these
tolerances are flagged as errors.

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J5

Channel Equivalent Input Noise (EIN) Test


Referred to as EIN, this test acquires noise data the same as the Full Band Noise test, except that the
noise is measured within a restricted bandwidth of 5 - 130Hz. The pass / fail specification for this test is the
same for all sample rates.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor
Channel inputs are internally connected to a termination resistor
Data is recorded using production filter settings
Data is band limited from 5Hz to 130Hz
Filtered data is written to tape
The RMS value is calculated

This value is compared to the following set of manufacturers tolerances. Channels that fail to meet
these tolerances are flagged as errors.

EIN

INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances


ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
30
1.50V
0.48V
0.32V

Channel Impulse Matching Test


The Channel Impulse Matching Test measures the three main characteristics of a channel impulse
response:
Median pass band width (3dB point), noting each channels deviation from this value.
Median slope of the roll-off (after the 3dB point), noting the percentage deviation from this value for
each channel.
Average pass band response, noting the maximum deviation from this response for each channel. To
avoid outliers in the average response, only channels that pass the two earlier criteria are included in
this average.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor.
Channel inputs are connected to an internal pulse generator.
An internal impulse that has a pulse width of one-half the sample frequency is used.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
A Kaiser Function is applied ( 25 ).
Power Spectral Density Function (PSDF) is calculated. A deconvolution is applied to remove the effects
of the 64.9k output impedance of the internal pulse generator.
Measured high-cut frequency (3dB point) is calculated. A median value for all channels is determined.
Individual channels are evaluated against the median value.

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154

J6

Slope of the high-cut roll-off is calculated in dB/octave between 43% and 48% of the sampling
frequency. A median value for all channels is determined. Individual channels are evaluated against the
median value.
Average of the pass band response is calculated. The maximum deviation from the average is noted for
each channel. Individual channels are evaluated against the average value.
These values are compared to the following set of manufacturers tolerances. Channels that fail to
meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.
INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances
ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
High Cut Matching
1%
Slope Matching
1%
Pass Band Matching
0.2dB

30

Channel Gain Matching Test


The Channel Gain Matching Test measures the variation in gain between channels. The RMS amplitude
of impulse data contained in a small window around the theoretical location of the maximum impulse value is
calculated.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor.
Channel inputs are connected to an internal pulse generator.
For Aries I RAMs an internal impulse is used, which has a pulse width of one-half the sample
frequency.
For Aries II RAMs and Aries II TAPs, an internal pulse with a width of 4 samples is used.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
For Aries 1 RAMs, the RMS value is measured using 5 samples from the location of the impulse.
This measured value is compared to the median and the percent variation is compared to the
manufacturers tolerances.
For Aries II RAMs, the RMS value is measured using 5 samples from the location of the 4 sample
wide pulse (-5 +4 +5)
Aries 1 and Aries II RAMs are not compared to each other, due to the different impulses.
These values are compared to the following set of manufacturers tolerances. Channels that fail to
meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.
INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances
ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
Gain Matching
1%

Channel and Sensor Tests

155

30

J7

Channel Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Test


The Channel THD Test measures the total harmonic distortion of the channel by using a signal
generated by the internal Low Distortion Oscillator (LDO).
The following characteristics are evaluated:
Total Harmonic Distortion of each channel.
Clock accuracy of the RAM.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor.
Channel inputs are connected to the internal LDO.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
A frequency domain analysis is performed to calculate the energy of the fundamental and the energy
of all the harmonics up to the tenth.
THD is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers or RMS voltage amplitudes of all harmonic
frequencies above the fundamental frequency to the power of the fundamental:
THD

Where:

harmonic _ powers
fundamenta l _ frequency _ power

V22 V32 V42 ... Vn2


V1

V1 = amplitude of the fundamental


V2 Vn = amplitude of the 2nd to the nth harmonics

Clock Drift is determined by measuring the difference between the CRS clock and the RAM clock.
These values are compared to the following set of manufacturers tolerances. Channels that fail to
meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.
INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances
ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
30
Internal THD
-104dB
Internal THD
0.0006%
Internal Clock
Drift
5 PPM
External THD
-108dB
External THD
0.0004%
External
Clock Drift
2.5 PPM

Note: The internal LDO has a manufacturers THD tolerance of 0.0006%. For this reason, the internal THD
test tolerance is limited to 0.0006%.
Note: The Clock Drift Tolerance must allow for all clocks required in the test circuit. ARIES RAMs clock drift
compares the 2.5 PPM RAM clock to a worst-case 2.5 PPM CRS clock

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156

J8

Channel Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) Test


CMR testing verifies the ability of the RAM to ignore common mode signals (the same signal on both
analog wires). An example of this would be 60 cycle interference which cross-feeds directly into the seismic
cable. Both wires coming from the geophone would have about the same phase 60/50 Hz signal and the RAM
must eliminate this to ensure that it only sees the signals coming from the geophone.
The Channel CMRR Test measures the common mode rejection ratio of the channel by using a signal
generated by the internal Low Distortion Oscillator (LDO). The response to this signal is analyzed to determine
the CMRR. The common mode is then compared to the known differential signal and the ratio is noted in
decibels.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor.
Channel inputs are connected to the internal LDO in a common mode configuration.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
A frequency domain analysis is performed to calculate the RMS voltage of the common mode signal.
V

= RMS common mode voltage


CMRR 20 log rmscm Where:
V

rmsdiff
= RMS differential voltage

This value is compared to the following set of manufacturers tolerances .Channels that fail to meet
these tolerances are flagged as errors.

CMRR

INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances


ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
85 dB

30

Channel Cross Feed (XFD) Test


The channel cross feed test is a two stage test that generates two output files. In the first stage, a user
defined LDO signal is applied to even channels, and in the second stage the signal is applied to odd channels.
The strength of the user-specified fundamental frequency is calculated for all channels in each stage. For each
channel the signal ratio of the even and odd-numbered channels is calculated and compared to a system
specified tolerance.
The Channel XFD Test measures the energy transferred between an internally driven channel and an
adjacent non-driven channel. This ratio is analyzed for odd channels driven and even channels driven. This
ratio is noted in decibels.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are isolated from the sensor.
Even channel inputs are connected to the internal LDO.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
Odd channel inputs are connected to the internal LDO.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
A frequency domain analysis is performed to calculate the RMS voltage of the fundamental frequency.
The fundamental frequency is user specified.
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157

J9

XFD 20 log rmsdriven


Vrmsnotdriven
Where:
RMS voltage of the fundamental frequency in a driven channel.
Vrmsdriven =
Vrmsnotdriven = RMS voltage of the un-driven channel evaluated at the fundamental
frequency of the driven channel
These values are compared to the following sets of manufacturers tolerances. Channels that fail to
meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.

XFD

INOVA Manufacturers Tolerances


ARIES I, II
Gain (dB)
12
24
100 dB

30

Sensor Tests
Sensor tests are evaluated to the sensor specifications and tolerances, or to calculated median values.
Sensor test results are dependent upon the correct specifications and tolerances entered into tables in the
system software. Multiple sensor types may be tested and evaluated using the appropriate sensor table.

Sensor Noise Test


The Sensor Noise Test measures the ambient RMS noise recorded from the sensor array.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
RMS value is calculated using all the acquired data.
Test results are compared to the user specified tolerance for the sensor type.
Sensors that fail to meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.

Sensor Pulse and Sensitivity Tests


The Sensor Pulse and Sensitivity Tests measure the sensors response to a pulse.
The following sensor characteristics are evaluated:
Array resistance
Array pulse response matching
Array open-circuit sensitivity normalized to a single sensor
Array open-circuit damping coefficient normalized to a single sensor
Array natural frequency normalized to a single sensor

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This test includes the following steps:


Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Channels are driven by an internally generated step function.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production high-cut filter settings.
The sensor resistance is calculated using the measured voltage difference between when the array is
driven and not driven. This resistance is used to calculate a median resistance value for each sensor
type.
An average model of the pulse response is built using all sensors that have passed the above resistance
test. The response of each sensor is evaluated as the percent deviation from this model. Sensors that
fail to meet the user specified tolerances are flagged as errors.
Open circuit sensitivity, damping and natural frequency are calculated using the System Identification
Method published by Bart P.M. Duijndam, Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij. The results are
compared to user specified tolerances from the calculated median values for the sensor type. Sensors
that fail to meet the user specified tolerances are flagged as errors.
Note: The pulse, sensitivity and resistance test circuitry was designed to test sensors at 12 dB Preamp
Gain. At other Preamp Gain settings, the internally generated pulse signal can over range the channel leading
to erroneous sensor response. The pulse, sensitivity and resistance test will be run at 24 dB Preamp Gain only
if the maximum user specified array resistance is < 5k, and run at 30dB pre-amp gain only if the maximum
user specified array resistance is < 2.5k.

Sensor Resistance Test


The Sensor Resistance Test measures the sensor array resistance. This test compares sensor array
resistance to the median calculated value for each sensor type.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Channels are driven by an internally generated DC voltage.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production high-cut filter settings.
The sensor resistance is calculated from the measured DC voltage.
The median resistance value is calculated from all sensors with a resistance value within 33 percent of
the user specified array resistance.
Test results are compared to a user specified tolerance from the calculated median array resistance
value for the sensor type. Sensors that fail to meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.
Note: The pulse, sensitivity and resistance test circuitry was designed to test sensors at 12 dB Preamp gain.
At other Preamp Gain settings, the internally generated pulse signal can over range the channel leading to
erroneous sensor response. The pulse, sensitivity and resistance test will be run at 24 dB Preamp Gain only if
the maximum user specified array resistance is < 5k, and run at 30dB Preamp Gain only if the maximum user
specified array resistance is < 2.5k.

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Sensor Leakage Test


The Sensor Leakage Test measures resistance between the sensor signal wires and the earth.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Channels are driven by an internally generated signal.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production high-cut filter settings.
The signal loss to the earth (using the RAMs outer-shell) is evaluated.
Test results are compared to the user specified tolerances for the sensor type.
Sensors that fail to meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.

Sensor Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Test


The Sensor THD Test measures the total harmonic distortion of the sensor array using a signal generated
by the internal Low Distortion Oscillator (LDO). The response to this signal is analyzed to determine the
amount of harmonic energy generated in relation to the test signal.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Channels are driven by an internally generated LDO signal of a user specified frequency and amplitude.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
A frequency domain analysis is performed to calculate the energy of the fundamental and the energy
of up to the third harmonic. Harmonics near an optional user specified notch frequency are ignored.
Test results are compared to the user specified tolerances for the sensor type. Sensors that fail to meet
these tolerances are flagged as errors.

Sensor Impedance Test


The Sensor Impedance Test measures the sensor array impedance using a signal generated by the
internal Low Distortion Oscillator (LDO).
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Channels are driven by an internally generated LDO signal (user specified frequency).
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
RMS voltage is measured and used to calculate the array impedance.
Test results are compared to a user specified tolerance from the calculated median array impedance
value for the sensor type. Sensors that fail to meet these tolerances are flagged as errors.

Sensor Cross Feed (XFD) Test


The Sensor XFD Test measures the energy transferred between an internally driven sensor and an
adjacent non-driven sensor. This ratio is analyzed for odd sensors driven and even sensors driven. This ratio is
noted in decibels.
This test includes the following steps:
Channel inputs are connected to the sensor terminals.
Even channels are driven by an internally generated signal.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
Odd channels are driven by an internally generated signal.
Data is recorded and written to tape using production filter settings.
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A frequency domain analysis is performed to calculate the RMS voltage of the fundamental signal.
Ratio of the driven and un-driven RMS voltages is evaluated for each channel.
Test results are compared to the user specified tolerances for the sensor type. Sensors that fail to meet
these tolerances are flagged as errors.

Conclusions for Geophone Tests


Ambient noise is the first factor that contributes to test failures. There is a definite increase in apparent
failures as the Preamp Gain is increased from 12 to 24 to 30dB.
The second factor involved in any sensor tests, which requires driving a geophone element and
recording the response, is how hard the test circuitry can drive the element, i.e. how much signal can be
generated above the ambient noise floor for a given Preamp Gain.
The low distortion oscillators (LDO) output is designed to prevent overdriving or clipping while running
sensor tests as close to maximum amplitude as possible, limiting the amplitude that may be recorded from a
sensor. This means the level at which a sensor or sensor array can be driven is limited by the impedance of the
sensor (the lower the impedance, the lower the signal).
The greatest possible signal to noise ratio occurs at 12dB, which decreases as the Preamp Gain is
increased. Relatively constant amplitude of ambient noise can have a much more significant effect at the
higher gain settings.
Therefore, to take advantage of the signal to noise ratio available, geophone testing should be run at
12 dB Preamp Gain. This should have no effect on tests other than THD and cross feed and will only improve
the measurable response of the sensors.
Note: If high level ambient noise is occurring on the spread, the THD and cross feed test failures should
be considered as a suspect. Pulse, Sensitivity, Resistance, Leakage and Impedance Tests are all valid and
relatively independent of ambient noise. They reliably indicate defective sensors and any failures of these
tests should be considered.

Conclusions for Hydrophone Tests


Testing the response of a transformer coupled hydrophone by driving the front end, either with an
impulse or sine wave, is suspect in attempting to verify performance based on manufacturer specifications.
The noise level is not the key issue. The problem is the response of the front end circuit.
At various times, the analysis of the sensitivity has been disabled (currently optional) and the other
driven tests (THD, impedance, and cross feed) should be disabled for this reason too.
However, clients have requested that the analysis be kept as they use the data in a why is this one so
different from all these others troubleshooting method. In order for this to work, some sort of tolerance
needs to be determined so it will not mislead anyone into chasing problems that cant realistically be repaired.
The impedance test tolerance should also be set higher for the same reasons (the response will be
identical to the THD test and therefore the analysis is a bit suspect).
Cross feed analysis should be valid and more indicative of leakage than anything else, although it may
be susceptible to high level ambient noise.

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Test Guide
ARIES II software offers several channel and geophone tests. These tests are designed to optimize
production and locate potential problems before they affect line readings.
To validate the integrity of seismic data three test menus are available (Daily Tests, Monthly Tests and
User Tests). While all three menus perform essentially the same functions, each may be customized to run a
particular set of tests when selected. Once a menu is defined, it performs the same tests until the user
changes them.
Each test menu is described below:

The Daily Tests menu automatically selects the current Preamp Gain, Sample Rate and High-Cut Filter
settings. Note that while the current settings are initially selected, additional preamp gains and
sample rates may be selected.

The Monthly Tests menu is used to test the ground equipment more thoroughly by running a batch
of tests using as many recording parameter settings as desired (e.g., every high-cut frequency and
every Preamp Gain).

The User Tests menu enables operators to perform a custom suite of tests (e.g., specific tests
requested by a client, or when data transmission problems are suspected) without having to alter the
Daily Tests or Monthly Tests menus.

Users can choose from a batch of Channel Tests, which ensure that all Remote Acquisition Modules
(RAMs) on a project are functioning properly.
The system checks:

Full Band Noise (Full)

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Equivalent Input Noise (EIN)

Common Mode Rejection (CMR)

Impulse Response

Cross feed Rejection (XFD)

Gain

ARIES Geophone Tests confirm that all geophones are correctly placed and in good working order, thus
ensuring the integrity of all recorded data.
The system checks:

Geophone Noise

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Geophone Resistance

Geophone Impedance

Geophone Pulse

Cross Feed Rejection (XFD)

Geophone/Cable Leakage

The system saves all test menu settings. To conduct the same set of tests every day (or month), verify
that the test parameters are set correctly and click OK. To add or delete a particular test, enable/disable the
applicable checkbox. The system performs any test with an enabled checkbox only.

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Test Menus
Observers can easily access the test menus. Move the cursor to the bottom-right corner of the
AriesMap Test tab and select the Daily, Monthly or User options. The selected option window displays.
Each menu is divided into several distinct sections where users can select the desired tests, set
recording parameters and output raw data or reports.

The Daily Tests, Monthly Tests and User Tests menus have identical testing capabilities. To prevent
accidental deletion of important files, the Monthly Tests menu does not offer the Delete First option that is
available for the Test Reports and Error Reports sections of the other two options.
Note: Delete First removes any previous test or error reports from the hard disk saved in the
project.doc directory.
Each menu is divided into sections:
Channels and Receiver Tests
Recording parameter options (Preamp Gains, High-Cut Hz)
Output and plotting options (Files)
Coverage
Printing/saving options (Test Reports, Error Reports)
Channel Tests/Receiver Tests
Use the Channel Tests and Receiver Tests boxes to program each menu to run the desired tests.
The Plot Gain fields allow operators adjust plot gain values as required, while the Def (Default) button
at the bottom of each window restores all gain levels to factory default settings.
Select All On or All Off to toggle all the tests within each window on or off.

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Preamp Gains/High-Cut Hz
The Preamp Gains and High-Cut Hz sections allow users to set up tests using the desired recording
parameters. The Daily Tests window automatically defines the Preamp Gain, sample rate and high-cut
filter according to the values entered in the Recording Parameters window.
To add or delete a particular parameter, enable or disable the field.
Menus may be configured to run tests using more than one high-cut filter or Preamp Gain, or to
resample test results using the desired sample rate for the selected high-cut filter. There is a second
sample rate option available for every High-Cut filter.
Coverage
Use these options to configure the system to test equipment within the active patch or across the
network.
Select the desired option with the cursor.
Files

All test analysis results are automatically saved on the recording systems hard disk drive.
Raw test data may be saved to disk or output to tape or plotter.
Users can plot the entire test data file or only a portion if desired.
Use the Length field at the top of the Files window to set up the length of internal SEG-Y data files.
If To Media is selected, the plotter automatically outputs a brief description about each test (including
test name, SEG-Y file name, date and test parameters).
When No Files is selected, no SEG-Y test result files are saved in the systems default data directory.
When To Disk is selected, the system saves raw data from each test in a SEG-Y file in the Data
directory. These files begin with the letter P.
When To Media is selected, the system saves test results as SEG-Y files in the data directory (these files
do not start with the letter P); the system then copies the files to the selected tape drive.
Enable Plot Files option to output the results of each test on the plotter. By changing the Length value
in the Plot Files window, users can plot entire test data files or only a portion if desired. The software
default is 3000ms, but can easily be changed as per client request to a maximum of 8 seconds and
cant be more then length of record.
The information fields (bottom-left of the Files window), describe the total space required by the test
files (File), the amount of storage space available on the hard drive (Disk) and the names that will be
assigned to the test files on the hard drive (e.g. P1000205.SGY -> P1000221.SGY).

Test Reports/Error Reports


Whenever performing Daily Tests, the system creates Test Reports (lists the results of analyses applied
to all data) and Error Reports (provides a list of all failed channels being tested in the area).
Test and Error Report information is automatically saved in the Day_err.001 and Day_test.001 text
files in the AriesXP\{project name}\DOC folder.
Once the Day_err.001 and Day_test.001 files contain more than 1 megabyte of data, the system
creates new files with .002 extensions and so on.
Enable Delete First option to delete any previously recorded test or error reports when writing the
current report information.
Enable Print option to output Test or Error Reports on the plotter when the Daily Tests are completed.
When selected, the system prints the results of the current set of tests.
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Use the Print Now button to output the last Test Report or Error Report results saved in the
Day_err.00X and Day_test.00X files.
The Test Reports (Fig.1) list the results of analyses applied to all data, and the Error Reports (Fig.2)
provide a list of all failed sensors in the area being tested.
Fig. 1 Sample of a Test Report produced with the Daily Tests utility. The report shows tolerance and median
levels for each type of RAM, as well as results for all channel tests.

Fig. 2 Sample of an Error Report produced with the Daily Tests utility. The report provides tolerance and
median levels for defined sensor type, as well as a complete list of all failed sensors (failures are indicated by
an asterisk).

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Vibroseis Operations
Introduction
Vibroseis: A seismic method in which a vibrator is used as an energy source to generate a controlled
wavetrain. A sinusoidal vibration of continuously varying frequency is applied during a sweep period typically
lasting up to 32 seconds. Vibroseis operations involve the use of several trucks, usually four or more
simultaneously.
In upsweeping, the frequency begins low and increases with time. In downsweeping the highest
frequencies occurs first.
The frequency usually changes linearly with time. A non-linear sweep usually involves vibrating longer
at the higher frequencies to compensate for the increased loss of high frequencies in travel through the earth.

Start Taper

End Taper

Upsweep

Sweep Length
A vibroseis field record consists of the superposition of many long reflected wavetrains and is generally
uninterpretable because of the extensive overlap. It is correlated with the sweep wavetrain to produce an
interpretable record resembling a conventional seismic record (such as those resulting from an impulsive
source).
To eliminate the end effects (the instantaneous change of amplitude at the beginning and end of the
sweep), the amplitude at the beginning and end of the sweep is tapered over a period of time. Increasing the
taper lessens the effect. It is generally accepted that taper lengths of 0.25 to 0.5 seconds are adequate to
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minimize the end effects. Longer taper lengths have a diminishing return and can cut into the total energy of
the sweep and resulting wavelet amplitude.
If a signal is correlated with itself, the result is called an autocorrelation. The autocorrelation of a
vibroseis sweep is the wavelet.

The bandwidth of the sweep has a large impact on the definition of the correlation wavelet. The
greater the number of octaves (a measure of the number of times the frequency range doubles) contained in
the sweep, the sharper the correlation wavelet and the lower the correlation side lobes become.
Interpretation of seismic data is based on the central lobes of correlation wavelets. Side lobes interfere.
Its important to understand that a vibrators output is an unpredictable mixture of fundamental
signal, harmonic distortion, and noise.
The fundamental is the desired component of a vibrators output signal. It should look like the
reference sweep.
Harmonic distortion is energy at multiples of the fundamental frequency and is caused by
nonlinearities in the vibrator, the earth, and the coupling between the two.
Noise is the disturbance on the output signal which is not related to the reference frequency.
Normal vibroseis data processing involves correlating recovered energy with a pilot sweep. Repeatable
and controlled phase relationship between the energy from the vibrators and a reference signal is required to
produce good wavelets. In turn, consistent well-formed wavelets are necessary to produce high quality
seismic data.
It is also necessary to have good control of the amplitude spectrum of the energy. The energy at the
source can and should be controlled as best as possible and force control mechanism is designed to:
prevent decoupling (i.e., separation of the baseplate from the earth)
allow maximum use of vibrator power over a wide frequency range
generate repeatable power spectrum on various earth surfaces

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Subsequent experimentation showed that the Ground Force (weighted-sum signal) is indeed a truer
representation of the far field signal produced by the vibrator and is now the commonly accepted feedback
signal for use in the control loop.
Ground Force is the signal used for amplitude and phase control for almost all Vibroseis actuators. The
purpose of this signal is to measure the energy that leaves an actuator and is transferred into the earth.

Ground
Force

The only ways to actually measure ground force are to place sensors between the actuator and the
ground, bury sensors beneath the actuator, or to incorporate sensors into the baseplate. During cross-country
seismic exploration, it is not practical to use sensors between the baseplate and the earth or buried in the
earth to take actual measurements of the energy leaving an actuator. A method of incorporating sensors in
the baseplate has not yet been invented.
Therefore, accelerometers are mounted on the reaction mass and on the baseplate assembly. The
signals from the accelerometers are amplified proportionally to the masses of the reaction mass and the
baseplate assemblies. This amplification converts the acceleration signals into forces of the two assemblies.
The two force signals are then added together. The resulting signal is an approximation of the energy that is
leaving the actuator.
It is assumed that most of the measured energy leaving an actuator is going into the ground as energy
that eventually produces seismic data.

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The modern seismic vibrator is essentially a hydro-mechanical system driven by a servo-valve assembly
that is controlled electronically.

The hydraulically driven Reaction Mass (RM) is the primary operating component of the seismic
vibrator. The Reaction Mass is mechanically housed within the stilt structure (typically by top and bottom
cross members). Operation is controlled by the vibrator control electronics unit through an electro-hydraulic
servo-valve assembly mounted on the mass.
The Servo-valve converts an electrical signal into hydraulic pressure that causes the mass to move up
and down on the mass piston rod. This movement of the mass generates a reactive seismic energy
compression force (P-Wave) that corresponds to the frequency of the input signal or pilot sweep. This force is
delivered through the stilt structure/baseplate assembly to the earth.
The Baseplate (BP) couples the vibrator's energy to the earth. Operation of the vibrator reaction mass
assembly only occurs after the baseplate is lowered to the ground and sufficient hold-down pressure has been
applied.

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Electrical circuits, which interconnect the vibrator assembly to the vibrator control electronics,
incorporate two sensing devices that are important to operation and control of the reaction mass. This device
is a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). There is one located on the reaction mass and another
on the servo-valve. Based on the position of the core within the transformer, the mass LVDT provides a
feedback voltage to the vibrator control electronics. The vibrator control electronics will then initiate any
hydraulic adjustment that is needed to maintain the mass either at the center of its stroke or the currently
selected position.
Accelerometers are used to measure and control the performance of the vibrator. The Reaction Mass
and Baseplate each have an accelerometer package mounted on them. The Pelton dual accelerometer
package contains two independent accelerometers and amplifier circuitry. One is used for input to the control
loop and the other is used for similarity purposes. Phase and amplitude differences between the two
accelerometer signals on the mass and base plate are continuously monitored throughout the sweep. Any
differences are logged and reported in the PSS data.

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Source Type Setup (Vibrator)


Vibroseis acquisition requires the selection of different options compared to dynamite.

Correlation
Post Stack
This is the normal mode for correlation and requires that all the composites are exactly the same
(frequency, phase, length of composites etc.). This method stacks all the composites together and then
correlates the final stack.
Pre Stack
This method is used if at least one of the composites is different. Sometimes it is necessary to use a
different starting phase of the sweep or if vari-sweep is used, where each sweep is using a different frequency
than the one before. This requires each sweep to be correlated before being stacked.
Stack to Tape
Uncorrelated Stack option can be enabled to output both the correlated stack and the stacked file
before correlation. This option is only available if using Post Stack correlation.

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Pilot Sweep Source


The pilot sweep source may be either an auxiliary trace, acquired from a vibrator control unit (encoder)
and recorded with the auxiliary RAM, or a pre-recorded sweep file from the true reference (TREF) auxiliary
trace and stored on the systems hard disk drive.
Aux Trace (Pilot) Sweep
Select Aux Trace (Pilot).
The Sweep Select window displays as follows.
Enter the sweep Parameters.
Describe the sweep to be used. The value
entered in Sweep Length is critical and must
match the actual sweep length.
Click OK.

Sweep Files
Select Sweep Files.
Select New File

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The Sweep Acquire window displays as follows:

Note: The values entered under the Acquire heading are critical to record the correct sweep file.

Sweep File Name


Every correlation sweep is saved on the hard disk in the sweep file sub-folder of the project with a
.SWP extension. Enter the name of the sweep (e.g. 10_96). The file name must be eight characters or
less.
Sweep Length
Enter the sweep length (in milliseconds). This figure must match the sweep length set in the encoder.
Sweep High Cut Filter
Select a high-cut filter from the drop menu. The filter frequency selected here must match the filter
frequency used to acquire data. The system applies a sample rate dependent upon the high-cut filter
selected.
Preamp Gain
Select the preamp gain.
TREF Channel
This field displays the name of the auxiliary channel from which the sweep is acquired.
RTI Sequence
Select the RTI sequence from the drop menu. This field is available when RTI is enabled.
Statistics
The statistics section displays results from the sweep acquired from the encoder through the Aux RAM.
Results that display include the minimum and maximum amplitude of the sweep, the RMS amplitude
of the sweep as well as the minimum and maximum frequency.
Note: The values for Max and Min Amplitudes should be around 100mV for 30dB pre-amp gain. The Max
and Min Frequencies should be close to the frequencies for the sweep but not exact.
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Select Acquire to begin recording a new Sweep file.


A 30 second line power countdown precedes acquisition. When acquisition is complete the sweep
Statistics window displays the results.
Select Plot to send acquired sweep to the plotter.
Select Close to exit the Sweep Acquire window and return to the Record tab.

Select a previously recorded sweep file from the Available pool to correlate with. If selected, the
sweep file is highlighted and the parameters displayed.
Click Add to place the file within the Selected pool.
Select Close to exit the Sweep Acquire window and return to the Record tab.

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Wireline Analysis
The purpose of Wireline Analysis is to verify vibrator instruments are programmed correctly.
The signals typically used are Wireline References (WREF), which is filtered True Reference available
from the Encode Sweep Generator (ESG) and Vibrator Control Electronics (VCE), and Similarity Vibrator Out
(SV Out). Comparing ESG and VCE reference signals ensures the VCEs start at the zero time and generate the
correct sweep. Ground Force is the most commonly used signal for SV Out.
If the actual energy from the vibrator has the desired phase relationship with the WREF signal from the
ESG and if the equipment has been adjusted properly, then Ground Force and WREF should have an
appropriate phase relation across the seismic frequency spectrum.
Proper Wireline Analysis data must be acquired using the first RAM outside of the recording truck
from all vibrators simultaneously. Once acquired, it can be analyzed by the Wireline Analysis tool. The plotted
information is checked closely for the measured time zero after correction.
Note: If the first Wireline Analysis is not performed using the first RAM outside the recorder truck, the
linear phase of a real time zero error can be interpreted as cable skew and removed, thus causing a problem in
timing that will not be indicated. Once the zero time is established after the first wireline off the truck,
additional wireline analyses can be performed anywhere in the network.

Acquire Wireline Record

Connect all vibrators (maximum of four) to the recording system via the wireline box, as shown below.

WREF2
GF2

WREF3
GF3

WIRELINE BOX
WREF1
GF1

WREF4
GF4
RAM

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Create a new subproject and build a simple 2D line.


Make an eight channel patch.

Acquire an uncorrelated wireline record with the following recording parameters:


Correlation
None
Composite
1
Record Length
Equal to sweep length

Perform a Wireline Analysis


Select Tools > Wireline Analysis from main acquisition drop menu.
The Wireline Analysis window displays:

Select the required file for analysis from the list on the left side of the Wireline window.
Define the parameters required to plot the Wireline Analysis in the right side of the Wireline window.
Click Preview to display the Spectrum analysis.

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Spectrum Analysis for Vibe#1 (Normal)

Spectrum Analysis for Vibe#4 (Bad)

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Click Apply to plot the Wireline Analysis.


The following information is included at the end of the plot:

Vibe#4 had been set up incorrectly (Mic. polarity). After fixing the problem, another file has been
produced and the Wireline Analysis is performed again.

This time all four vibes passed the test.

Click Close to return to the Wireline Analysis window.


Click Close to return to the main Acquisition window.

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Noise Control and Suppression


Introduction
Seismic reflection data can be contaminated by a variety of noise (mostly non-source generated) such
as spikes, noise bursts, and continuous noise. Spikes are high-amplitude noise with a maximum duration of a
few sample intervals. Noise bursts can be high or low level amplitude noise with duration of ten to several
hundred milliseconds. Noisy traces are occupied by noise over most of the trace.
The availability of noise reduction and editing programs for use in the field while acquiring seismic
records provides the opportunity for substantial improvement of data quality and resolution. However, if used
improperly, any noise reduction and/or editing processes can degrade the desired seismic data.
Noise controlling programs can be divided into two categories: editing and reduction. In most
applications, the use of both types of noise control will provide the most improvement in data quality. The
editing system is used to remove essentially useless data (high-amplitude noise bursts and spikes), while the
reduction system retains recoverable seismic energy, which would otherwise be masked by noise (low level
noise bursts and continuous noise).
Since the noise conditions encountered in actual field operations may vary greatly, a specific noise
reduction approach that works very well in one instance may prove to be less effective under other
conditions. This characteristic requires that a noise reduction system be sufficiently adjustable to allow for
optimization to the local environment and should not be so complex to set up.

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Noise Editing
Editing programs are designed to remove short bursts of extremely large noise energy from a trace.
The editing algorithm will compare the incoming seismic data to an internal threshold. When the data exceeds
this value, editing occurs.
Several different approaches to noise editing are shown in a simplified form (Fig.1)
1. Signal before noise editing
This is an idealized waveform containing a high-amplitude burst of noise.
2. Clipping type editing
Clipping is a process where data is not allowed to exceed a defined limit. The idea is to remove some,
but not all of the noise, thereby retaining any data that might be lost using other techniques. Clipping
has the effect of squaring off the tops of large signals. This process is simple to implement but has the
disadvantage of leaving the noise signal's fundamental frequency component and introducing high
frequency components into the seismic data as a result of the sharp corners produced by the clipping
process.
3. Zero editing without ramping
Simple zero editing is a process where the editing limit is replaced by a value of zero. When noise
energy far exceeds signal energy, the data received is useless, therefore it is better to remove all the
energy. Simple zeroing of data produces spikes which introduce high frequency components into the
data.
4. Zero editing with ramp
Ramping is a simple method of spike reduction when zeroing data. The data level is slowly ramped to
zero. This method may introduce extraneous low frequency components into the seismic data.
5. Envelope ramping
Envelope ramping is a combination of the above approaches. In this method the envelope of the signal
is ramped. This is accomplished by multiplying the data by a number smaller than one and linearly
decreasing the multiplier. The fundamental noise components are retained but reduced in amplitude.
6. Zero crossing editing
Zero crossing editing is a more sophisticated approach to zeroing. The noise editor looks back in time
to the last zero crossing and begins zeroing data at that point. After a time delay sufficient to ensure
that the noise has ceased, the editing process is ended at the next available zero crossing.
Notice that with the exception of simple clipping all of the editing methods discard some of the data that
occurs at the end of the noise period. All of the zeroing techniques must delay the end of the editing process
to ensure that the noise has ended and is not just between peaks. The amount of the data lost depends on
the amount of time delayed. If the delay is too short, high frequency pulses can be introduced into the data
as a result of the editing process rapidly turning on and off.

Noise Control and Suppression

181

K15

Fig.1 Types of Noise Editing

Noise Control and Suppression

182

K16

Noise Reduction
Noise reduction programs are designed to reduce noise energy that exists at levels near that of the
desired seismic data. The noise reduction algorithm assumes that the noise energy is insufficient to totally
mask the desired signal.

Stacking
The stacking process is the accepted form of random noise reduction. It consists of adding
corresponding data (same point on same channel) obtained in successive records without moving the vibrator
point. Repetitive data from different records (such as reflections) are reinforced while random data (such as
noise) from one record tends to be cancelled by random data from other records. At the end of the stack, the
final sum is divided by the number of records. This averaging process will produce a record with the seismic
data intact and the random noise reduced.

Fig.2 Reduction of Noise by Stacking

Noise Control and Suppression

183

K17

Scaling
Noise may be reduced further by scaling. The scaling process calculates the average power for each
channel (or segment of a channel) during each record. Noisy channels or segments are easily identified as they
contain more energy than a quiet channel or segment. The noisy channels or segments are then scaled down
before being stacked with the remaining records.
This is a simplified example of how the inverse power of scaling part process reduces continuous noise.
Trace A is a noise free record and Trace B contains continuous noise. If the two records were simply
stacked, the result would be the signal shown in Trace C. If more noise free records were included in
the stack, the noise would be further reduced; however, the effect of stacking alone begins to diminish
as more records are averaged in the final sum.
The average power level of Traces A and B is calculated. Since Trace B has a higher average power level
due to the presence of noise, it should be reduced in strength by the scaling process prior to stacking.
Trace D shows Trace B scaled down by 6dB. Stacking Traces A and D would give the result shown in
Trace E. As more records are stacked, the noise level will continue to decline while the signal level will
increase at a higher rate than if stacking were used alone.
Scaling is more effective in reducing noise that occurs on only a few records.
Note: Stacking may be used without a scaling process, but scaling always includes the stacking process.

Fig.3 Scale vs. Stack (Reduction of continuous noise)

Noise Control and Suppression

184

K18

This is an example of low level burst noise. Here, low level refers to any burst noise that does not
activate the burst editing process.
Trace A shows a noise free signal and Trace B shows the same signal with a noise burst.
Trace C shows the result of the stacking process.
Since a burst of noise will not add much power, the scaling process will reduce the signal
strength less (Trace D).
The result is that the scaled and stacked sum (Trace E) shows less improvement.

Fig.4 Scale reduction of a Low Level Burst Noise

Noise Control and Suppression

185

K19

This is an example of high level burst noise.


Trace A is a noise free signal and Trace B contains a high level burst noise.
Trace C shows the effect of the editing process.
Since the edited portion is ignored when calculating the average power level, the average power level
of Trace C does not vary significantly from the reference level. During the time period when editing occurred,
the stacked sum will be slightly lower than it would have been if no scaling were performed.
As can be seen from this example, the editing process is more effective in dealing with short bursts of
high level noise.

Fig.5 Scale Reduction of Edited Burst Noise

Noise Control and Suppression

186

K20

ARIES Stacking and Noise Suppression Module


This module is a complete system for automatic noise-trace editing and consists of:
Stacking - Most effective for random noise that lasts for most or all of the records in a stack.
Noise Burst Editing (NBE) - Used to eliminate short duration high-amplitude noise.
Diversity Stacking (DVS) - Used to suppress longer duration wind or vehicular noise often experienced
at many sites.

Stacking
The stacking process is identical to stacking on other systems. Stacking can be done either with or
without burst editing. The stacking process can also be combined with correlation in either a correlation
before stacking or a correlation after stacking.

Noise Burst Edit


The Noise Burst Edit sub-program calculates the average data amplitude of each seismic trace within a
specified sample window. The data sample at the center of the window is compared to the average amplitude
of the window multiplied by the ratio value.
If the center sample exceeds the threshold, it is considered a noise burst and corrected.

In this example, a 128 sample Window Width is being used. The software analyzes the seismic trace
one sample at a time, ignoring the sample being edited as well as the two adjacent samples on either side.
The program tests consecutive sample windows using a moving average. Single-sample spikes are
corrected using an interpolation algorithm, while multiple-sample noise bursts are suppressed by muting and
tapering the affected samples (NBE is not recommended when not stacking composites).
A 32 sample Kaiser Taper is applied to either side after the mute has been applied.
Note: If more than 10% of the trace samples have bursts, then it is left un-edited.

Noise Control and Suppression

187

K21

Activation and Parameters

Select Parameters/Source Table/Record Tab and enable the Noise Burst Edit options in the Noise
Suppression section.
The Ratio, Window and Mute fields become available.
Specify the Ratio, a rolling Window Width, and Number of Muted Samples to use to edit noise bursts.

Ratio

The Ratio number determines at what level above the average amplitude a sample is considered to be
a noise burst. A ratio value greater than 6.0 must be entered.
Window Width (Samples)

Window Width is the number of samples used to calculate the average amplitude. Available selections
are anywhere between 64 and 256. A smaller sample window is more effective when seismic data amplitudes
are changing quickly.
Mute Samples

This option allows the user to determine the amount of samples to be muted on either side of the
sample being edited. For example, if eight is entered, then four samples on either side of the sample being
edited are muted (along with the sample being edited).

When Noise Burst Edit (NBE) is enabled, it displays in the current error bar. If noise is detected, the
channel and the percent of samples edited also display and the background appears yellow.
Note: If more than 10% of the samples are detected with a burst noise, the NBE displays red.

Diversity Stacking
The diversity stacking algorithm divides each trace into windows and performs an inverse power
scaling on these trace windows prior to the stacking. The final stacked data is then renormalized to the inverse
sum of each window value. The operator entered gate length is used separately for diversity stacking and
burst editing.
Diversity stacking can be used either with or without burst editing and can be used in either the stack
only or correlate after stack mode.
To calculate the scale values for diversity stacking, each channel is first divided into segments (each is
one half the originally specified window length).
As each record is processed, the RMS value for each data point in a given window is determined and
smoothed to form an aggregate RMS level for that window, omitting any points that have been burst edited.
A linear interpolation is then calculated from the middle point of one segment to the middle point of
Noise Control and Suppression

188

K22

the next segment. The first half of the first time segment and the last half of the last segment are set as
constant.
Each data point is scaled using the inverse power of the interpolated point for that data point. For the
final sum, an average power level for each window is determined across all records. The inverse result of this
is then used to normalize the data in that window in the final sum.
The diversity stacking process is more often effective on low level burst noise. Low level refers to any
burst noise that does not activate the burst editing process. Since each trace is divided into segments, the
segment containing a high amount of noise is scaled down in amplitude and has less influence on the final sum
than a segment containing little or no noise.

Segment
1/2 of specified
Window length

Interval
from the
center of
one
segment to
the center
of next
segment

The smoothed
RMS values is
computed for
all the samples
within the
segment that
were not Burst
Edited

This is a linear
interpolation from the
middle point of one
segment to the middle
point of next segment.
Each data point is scaled
by the corresponding
inverse power, prior to
stacking

The final stack is renormalized using aggregate energy level for each segment across all pre-stack records.

Noise Control and Suppression

189

K23

High
Level
Burst
s

Low
Level
Burst

Fig.6 Trace Comparison after applying ARIES Noise Editing and Reduction procedures:
1. Trace with high and low level bursts (composite 1)
2. Same trace without a noise (composite 2)
3. Stack of trace 1 and 2
4. Stack of trace 1 and 2 after Noise Burst Edit
5. Stack of trace 1 and 2 after Noise Burst Edit and DVS

Noise Control and Suppression

190

K24

Calculated Center of Gravity


The Calculated COG to Tape option is available once a Blue Marble geodetic conversion option is
selected. When this option is enabled, source array positional information is used to calculate a source array
center of gravity (COG), which is recorded to SEG-Y and SEG-D disk and tape file headers as well as the project
database.
The ARIES software calculates datum conversions using the application GeoCalc by Blue Marble. The
system assumes it receives coordinate information from encoders and decoders in WGS 84 format. The data
of the surveyed coordinates are often different from the datum used for the coordinates that the SPM
receives from the decoders through RTI. For the software to correctly display the locations of sources and
other vehicles being tracked, the GPS message strings are converted into the same survey datum of the
imported project coordinates.
The Datum Shift Method should remain at default unless a unique datum shift method is specified by
the surveyors. Consultation with the survey contractor is strongly recommended to choose the appropriate
selection.

Recording Source Array Calculated Centre of Gravity (CCOG) Position to Tape


When this option is selected, positional data received from the source control system over the RS232
(Com Port) interface is used to calculate an estimated COG and elevation of the source array.
Source positional information is normally received in a $GPGGA message string with the position in
Geodetic (Lat / Long) format with GPS status information (number of satellites, GPS quality, and HDOP value)
included in the message. The geodetic positions are converted to Northing and Easting (X, Y, Z) values based
upon a user selected conversion process provided in the ARIES software by Blue Marble Geodetic Conversions.
$GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.000,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M,,*47
GGA
123519
4807.038,N
01131.000,E
1

Global Positioning System Fix Data


Fix taken at 12:35:19 UTC
Latitude 48 deg 07.038' N
Longitude 11 deg 31.000' E
Fix quality:
0 = invalid
1 = GPS fix (SPS)
2 = DGPS fix
3 = PPS fix
4 = Real Time Kinematic
5 = Float RTK

08
0.9
545.4,M
46.9,M

Number of satellites being tracked


Horizontal dilution of precision
Altitude, meters, above mean sea level
Height of geoid (mean sea level) above
WGS84 ellipsoid

(empty)
(empty)
*47

Time in seconds since last DGPS update


DGPS station ID number
Checksum data, always begins with *

The signal from GPS satellites has a fixed precision. When visible GPS satellites are close together in the
sky, the geometry is said to be weak and the DOP value is high; when far apart, the geometry is strong and the
DOP value is low. Thus a low DOP value represents a better GPS positional precision due to the wider angular
separation between the satellites used to calculate a GPS unit's position.
The following process is used to calculate a source array COG:
Vibroseis Operations

191

K25

The user selects a geodetic conversion option from the Blue Marble package included in the ARIES
software.

The user defines source array groups and the units within the groups, which have GPS enabled. Only
actual received GPS position messages are used to calculate COG, no theoretical source positions can
be defined or used.

The user defines GPS quality tolerances (Min. Quality, Min. Satellites, and Max. HDOP) if each unit
equipped with GPS receivers. These QC tolerances are stored in the project database with the raw
data.
The user specifies a QC After Must Pass/VP tolerance for the number of composites of a shot, which
must have acceptable GPS quality for each unit (minimum 1).
The ARIES software uses the selected Geodetic conversion to calculate an X,Y, Z position for each unit
for each composite recorded. Each raw GPS message as well as the converted position is recorded to
the database along with the GPS Quality values.

Vibroseis Operations

192

K26

At the end of the shot an average X,Y,Z position is calculated for each unit using the individual
messages that meet the specified QC tolerances. The average unit position and elevation is recorded to
the database.
A COG position and elevation is then calculated from the average X,Y,Z positions. This calculated COG
and elevation is recorded to the database and to the SEG-Y and SEG-D tape headers.
In the event that no valid or acceptable position messages are received from one or more units, a COG
still calculated and recorded. However, an error condition is set and recorded to the database and
displays under system comments in the OB Notes program.
Note: In this situation the software gives multiple warnings to the operator prior to the end of the
shot.
For internal SEG-Y files and SEG-Y Rev.0 tape and tape-image files, the calculated COG is recorded in
bytes 45-48 (average COG Elevation), in bytes 73-76 (X coordinate) and 77-80 (Y coordinate) of the 240
byte trace headers.
For SEG-D tape and tape image files the calculated COG and average position for each unit is recorded
in the extended header as an ASCII string.
If SPS files are exported from the system, the source point position in S01 file will be updated with the
calculated COG and elevation.
The average unit positions and calculated COG may also be exported to an Excel document from the
OB Notes program.

GPS Position Tolerances


If using a source control that is GPS enabled, position tolerances may be defined. The system uses
these tolerances to control the individual vibrator offset and COG position.

Vibroseis Operations

193

K27

Exercise: Source-driven Operation with VibSim simulation software

PSS1
PSS2
PSS3
PSS4

v
v
v
v

v
v
v
v

f
f
f
p

>=1

>=1

1
f
f
f
p

If 1 of 4 Vibes fails
QC After Must Pass/VP tolerance, at
the end of acquisition error message
pops up Unable to Calculate COG and
system comment/error code goes to
OB Notes.

Vibroseis Operations

F
P
P
P

F
F
F
P

QC Shot point
COG

Pass

Pass

Calculated COG is recorded to Database for stacked files

PSS1
PSS2
PSS3
PSS4

Pass

PASS

f
p
p
p

3
F
P
P
P

P
F
P
P

Calculated Centre Of Gravity (V1+V2+V3+V4)

3
P
F
P
P

Aver. of 2
V1 PPFF

p
n/a
>=1
p
p

Pass

Aver. of 3
V2 PFPP

v
n
v
v

COG
Comp 1

PSS1
PSS2
PSS3
PSS4

>=1

P
P
F
F

>=5

Aver. of 3
V3 FPPP

V4

p
p
f
n/a

>=1

Aver. of 1
V4 FFFP

V3

v
v
v
n

COG
Comp 3

V2

PSS1
PSS2
PSS3
PSS4

COG
Comp 1

V1

2
P
P
F
F

10

COG
Comp 1

20

Must Pass
(Sweeps/VP)

COG Within
composite

All Vibes Within


composite

Non-critical Errors/Warnings

QC After
Must Pass /VP

Qual/Sat/HDOP

Valid GPS

Critical Errors

If Vibe or group of Vibes


fail
GPS Position Tolerances,
error messages pops up.
If accepted X, Y, Z will be
included in COG
calculation.

194

K28

RAM/TAP Status Window


The following is a description with definitions about the errors that may display in the RAM and TAP
info status window.
Status Report
N/A

Definition

Note

Board not available

N/A status signifies a report by the RAM or TAP that the


particular pair has not been detected by the device. Trace
the pair back towards the truck until a device reports an
"OL" status for the same pair.

OL

Open Line side

When OL or O is reported by the RAM or TAP, the particular


pair with an OL status is good from the truck up to the
device. OL also signifies that the device does NOT detect a
cable connection / termination to the far side (away from the
truck). This may mean that the cable is not connected to the
next device, or the cable pair itself may be defective.

RL

No reply or No reply line side

When RL or R is reported by the RAM or TAP, the particular


pair with an RL status is good from the truck up to the
device. RL also indicates that the device DOES detect a
cable connection / termination to the far side (away from the
truck). This may mean that the cable is correctly connected
to the next device, or the cable pair itself may have a short.

OA
OB
OAB
OABL
RA
RB
RAB
RABL
OA, RBL
OB, RAL
OAB, RL
OL, RAB
OBL, RA
OAL, RB
OA, RL
OB, RL
OL, RA
OL, RB
Index Error
Transmit Error detected
Missing data packets
CFG Error
Pwr Off
Not Defined

Open A-Side
Open B-Side
Open A & B side
Open Line side, A & B side
No reply A-side
No reply B-side
No reply A & B side
No reply line side, A & B side
Open A-side, No reply B & line side
Open B-side, No reply A & line side
Open A & B side, No reply line side
Open Line side, No reply A & B side
Open Line & B side, no reply A-side
Open Line & A-side, No reply B-side
Open A-side, No reply line side
Open B-side, No reply line side
Open Line side, No reply A-side
Open Line side, No reply B-side
Board error detected on TAP
Transmission Error detected
Missing data packets
Configuration Error
Power Off
Network not defined

Note: When an error displays in the status window, confirm the detailed status of the device by doubleclicking the icon in MAP.

RAM/TAP Status

195

L1

ARIES II RAM LED Indicators


There are three active Light Emitting Diode (LED) indicators on the left side of the RAM and three
active LED indicators on the right side of the RAM. Each set is applicable for the respective direction, either
towards the Central Recording System (CRS) or away from it.
The LEDs provide the field crew with the status and condition of the RAM. The LEDs are Amber (truck
direction), Green (RAM interconnect and data transfer), and Red (end of network).
Various combinations of these LEDs occur during operation. For example, during a shot a RAM that is
powered up and acquiring data properly displays a power LED, and a flashing green LED on the CRS side. If that
RAM is not the last active RAM on the line, it will also display a green LED on the away side indicating another
RAM is connected. Green LEDs on both sides flash when data is moving.

CRS Side

Away Side

Description
No Power.
May indicate faulty or disconnected battery, no telemetry connection to the CRS,
or CRS has powered down the line.

Powered Up.
Pilot voltage on any of Tx1, Tx2, and Tx3 or Tx4 pair turns the amber LED on.
Amber power LED indicates at which side the CRS is.
Normally indicates functioning battery and continuity of telemetry connection
through to the CRS.
Blinking amber power LED indicates that the RAM has been placed in repeater
mode by the CRS and that the module is receiving interrogates from the CRS.
In this case both transceivers are placed in repeater mode.

Blinking green LED on the CRS side indicates that the module is receiving
interrogates from the CRS.
Blinking green LED on the away side indicates that the module is receiving
recognizable data from another module on the away side.
A solid green LED on the away side indicates that the module detects continuity of
the telemetry connection to the next module. This does not mean a battery is
connected to that module.
When the power LED is on, no solid green LED on the away side indicates an open
cable.
A solid red LED on the away side indicates the CRS has configured the module and
shut down line power to the away side. This prevents modules on the away side
from receiving the pilot voltage.
This indicates the end of the network.

RAM/TAP Status

196

L2

ARIES II TAP LED Indicators


CRS side

Line side

A Side

B Side

Description
No Power. No LEDs are illuminated.
May indicate faulty or disconnected battery, no telemetry connection to the
CRS, or CRS has powered down the line.

Power Up.
A solid amber power LED indicates at which side the CRS is. Normally
indicates functioning battery and continuity of telemetry connection through
to CRS.

A solid green LED on the A, B and Line sides indicate that cable is connected to
next device.

A flashing green LED on the A, B and Line sides indicate that TAP is receiving
data packets from the corresponding line.

A flashing green LED on the truck side indicates that the TAP is receiving
interrogates from the CRS.

A solid red LED on the A, B and Line sides indicate that a command was sent
to the TAP to turn off the pilot voltage on these sides.
This indicates the end of the network.

A flashing red LED on the A and B sides indicate that this TAP port is inserting
missing RAMs data packets.

RAM/TAP Status

197

L3

RAM/TAP Status

198

L4

SLA Battery Testing Procedure Using Charger/Discharger Unit


The following procedures explain how to check a batterys capacity using the INOVA Charger
/Discharger Unit. INOVA recommends using a PC running the CDCManager program (CDC.EXE); however, the
test can be performed without a PC. The charger and PC must be powered on for the duration of the test,
which may take up to 24 hours to complete. If the process is interrupted, it must be re-started from the
beginning.
Display will blank after Revision Level
check, if PC is connected.

RS232 Port

Fig.2 Mode Selector

Fig.1 Charger/Discharger

Operation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Ensure the charger is powered off.


Set the mode selector to Discharge SLA.
Verify the PC is connected to the RS232 connector on the charger.
Connect the batteries (max 10) to the charger.
Power on the charger and then start CDC.EXE on the PC. The screen goes blank after verifying revision
levels.
The CDC program automatically scans and detects the com port to which the charger is connected.
Enter the serial number of each battery under the SN column.
The limits for the AH battery warning can be changed (if required) under Battery Settings (refer to page
N3).
Click START on the CDC program to begin the charge discharge charge cycle.

Note: Some PC serial ports have problems initializing the charger/discharger. USB-to-Serial convertors typically
are more reliable with the chargers/dischargers.

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

199

M1

SLA Discharge Cycle for Battery Chargers with Rev 2.0 or Higher Firmware
Start
Charging = LED is FLASHING RED
Refer to charging cycle
description for details
about charging process.

Trickle Charge = LED is FLASHING GREEN

Charge Cycle

If LED is SOLID RED the battery is in


Conditioning mode. Charger tries 16
attempts to acquire a good load test. If
fail it starts the discharge cycle.
Battery is fully charged
at this point.

Discharging = LED is SOLID ORANGE


This step may require 12 hours
to complete.
Discharge Cycle
Discharge cycle ends when
battery reaches 21.5V.

Capacity in AH = (Average current


supplied by battery) X (time in discharge
cycle).
Battery is fully discharged
at this point.

Charge Cycle

Complete = LED is SOLID GREEN.

Battery is fully charged at this point.


End
To evaluate the battery capacity, use the AH column in the CDC program. The yellow caution flag and
red fail flag are set in the Battery Settings section on page M3.

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

200

M2

To graphically view the charge-discharge-charge process


click the View Graph on the CDC program.

Constant Current Phase

Constant Voltage Phase

Discharge Phase

Voltage is kept at 29.5V


until current drops below
200mA

Current Axis

Current is maintained around


1.13 A during discharge process

Volt Axis
Common Time Axis

Enter SN of charger
(optional)

Default values

Recommend 9.5
(approx. 79% full capacity)
Recommend 7.5
(approx. 62.5% full capacity)

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

201

M3

SLA Charge Cycle for Battery Chargers with Rev 2.0 or Higher Firmware

Start
Loop (L on screen) timer is
reset at this point.
LED is FLASHING RED in this
mode.

Once the battery reaches 29.5V,


the voltage is maintained at
29.5V. As the battery charge
increases, the current begins to
fall. Once the current is less than
200 mA the charge is complete.

To charge the battery in the shortest


time, the current is maintained at 2.5A
until the battery voltage increases to
29.5V.

Constant Current

Constant Voltage

Load test
(1A for 10 sec)

LED is SOLID RED in this mode.

Loop (L on screen) time is the time since


current cycle was started.
Did voltage
drop below
25.3V ?
LED is FLASHING GREEN in this
mode.

Yes

Wait
10 minutes

No
Trickle Charge

This process replaces the


charge removed by the load
test. The battery is virtually
charged at this point.

Total (T on screen) time is the sum of


all loop times + trickle charge time.
Loop (L on screen) time is the time
since current cycle was started.

Stop

LED is SOLID GREEN in this mode.

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

202

M4

Bad or Frozen Battery

CH01 CONDITIONING
#:011

L=0:00 T=0:05

The battery has run through the loop too many times and has only taken a charge for 5 minutes.
In the current loop it has run less than 1 minute.
The battery has been charging for nearly 2 hours.
Run a discharge test to determine capacity.

Possibly a Good Battery

CH01 CONST VOLTAGE


#:001

L=5:40 T=5:40

The battery has been taking a charge for 5 hours and 40 minutes.
Providing the load test passes, the battery takes a trickle charge.
The LED turns solid green to show a fully charged battery.

Hints

If a battery enters multiple cycles at room temperature run a discharge test to check capacity.
Failing load test is typically due to a bad or frozen battery.
If a battery is frozen, it will show the same characteristics as a charged battery, but will fail the load
test until it has thawed.

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

203

M5

SLA Battery Testing Procedure

204

M6

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview


Introduction
INOVA Systems Corp. has developed the ARIES II MC (Multi-Component) recording system in response
to a number of demands in the geophysical industry including:
demand from contractors for more affordable 3C recording system
demand from contractors for more robust or repairable 3C digitizing units
demand from ARIES-predisposed contractors for an ARIES 3C solution
demand from geoscientists for access to 3C sensor field comparisons
demand from Oil Companies for lower cost 3C data

Equipment

The ARIES II MC system was developed with the following objectives in mind:
develop rugged, abuse-tolerant sensors and recording equipment
utilize high-quality, high (spurious-free) frequency elements
reduce susceptibility to ambient wind noise
utilize ARIESs network telemetry philosophy
develop new, workable QC tools for very large channel counts and shear-wave sensors

ARIES II MC RAM
ARIES II 24-channel MC RAMs are based on the ARIES II equipment line, featuring 24-bit delta-sigma
digitization technology with associated low noise and high dynamic range. New features that allow for ease
and flexibility of operation include Distributed Network Telemetry (optimized data delivery pathways to
the recording system), lower power consumption per channel and firmware upgradability from the
recording system. As is the case with all ARAM recording equipment, rugged metal packaging provides for
long-term field reliability and good electrostatic protection.
An 18-AmpHour 24 V lead-acid battery is typically used in high demand projects such as 24-hour
Vibroseis operations.

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview

205

Mc1

Cables
Initially a single 8-takeout 3C cable has been designed for use with ARIES II MC System. While
configurations may be determined by the client, the currently available cable configuration is designed for use
on projects with station intervals of 25 or 50 meters.
Take-out intervals are 27.5 or 55m with a 1m 6-pin lead.
Total cable length is 220m and total weight is approximately 18.2 kg (40 lbs).

220m 4 station x 55m 3C ARIES II Receiver Line Cable

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview

206

Mc2

Sensors
Geophone elements that currently available are Sensor
10-Hz SM-7 high resolution geophones with a specified spuriousfree frequency of 340-Hz. Three elements are placed in a
modified PE- 6S geophone case.
While early analog 3C systems suffered from difficult
wiring configurations, the ARIES II MC system connects to the 3C
geophones via a single 2m long thick leader wire and a single 6pin connector. This allows for simple errorfree connections
between cable and sensor.
The metal base is designed with a flange at the top,
which is used as a reliable contact point for planting the
geophone into a pre-drilled hole and as a nail head for extracting
the geophone using a claw-like tool.
The center of gravity of the 3C case and all three
elements is below ground level. This combined with thick leader
wire and low-profile design, provides excellent ground coupling
and protection from ambient noise.
The planting tool fits over the top of the geophone case
and is oriented using an integral compass. It also allows the user
an unobstructed view of the 3-degree leveling bubble to ensure
proper vertical orientation.
The weight of one hasp of 8-3C geophones (8 stations) is
approximately the same as a standard 6-geophone string of
marsh cases (1 station).

Sensor PE-6S 3C geophone case

Takeout and Leader wire 6-pin connectors.

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview

207

Mc3

Planting Tools
INOVA also designed a pair of tools to work with the PE-6S geophone case; one for deploying the
sensor with visual aids to ensure vertical and directional accuracy, and one to aid in retrieving the sensor after
recording.
The deployment tool is designed to allow only one possible orientation on the case; it encourages
correct orientation of the in-line and cross-line elements and allows the user to observe the sensors 3-degree
leveling bubble during deployment.
The extraction tool is essentially a giant set of hammer claws that a designed to fit the aluminum flange
of geophone case and to pry the sensor from earth just as a hammer pries a nail from timber.

Deployment Tool

Deployment Tool coupled to Sensor

Extractor in use
Sensor Design / Markings

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview

208

Mc4

Deployment
Deployment efficiency with this system is greatly improved due to the size and weight advantages over
standard seismic recording equipment. With a single 3C sensor per station, a single light-weight cable
between digitizing RAMs and a single long-lasting and manageably sized battery per RAM, equipment loads
become extremely reasonable.

8 stations of 6-phone strings, 2 x 4 station


cables, RAM and battery

8 stations of single 3C sensors, 1 x 8 station


cable, RAM and battery

Deployment crews are typically organized with one Line Truck Driver, one Equipment Handler, one
worker to drill sensor holes, one worker to plant the sensor and one worker to clear snow (winter time).

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview

209

Mc5

Alignment of 3C geophone
The magnetic needle arrow on the
Aligning Tool and Inline geophone
component (RI) point to Magnetic North
(when it coincides with the fine black line at
A, which is the alignment mark and is not
moveable). (Pic.1).
The light colored line at B is set for
declination from True North and can be
adjusted. To move the mark B, one head
bolt must be removed and another
loosened. Turn the ring to set the light
colored mark to the proper number of
declination degrees for a particular area.
30 degrees of magnetic declination
east means the north end of the magnetic
needle is deflected to the east of the
direction of the true meridian, and it is a
positive.

Magnetic
North

Magnetic
declination
30 degrees
East
(+30)

RI

RC

Pic.1

True North

Magnetic
North at
30E

In Pic.2, the compass is pointing to


magnetic north as always, but the fine black
mark and Inline geophone component
points to true north as specified.

Pic.2

ARIES II Multi-Component System Overview

210

Mc6

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode


Air Gun mode is available with firmware version 1.007 or higher.
Setup:
ShotPro II Decoder in Air Gun- mode
Slave ShotPro II Encoder in Air Gun mode
Note: Encoder 1 must be configured to work with the Remote Start option if choosing to use two encoders.
The following sequence occurs in this mode:
1. Navigation System outputs pre-load closure when the boat approaches Shot Point.
2. Pre-load closure is wired to the ShotPro II Decoder Control Line in the gun boat.
Pin V control signal
Pin R DCom (digital ground)
3. The ShotPro II Decoder is in Air Gun mode (ArGn -) and sends Master Start Codes over the radio to
Slave ShotPro II Encoder (encoder must be in Air Gun mode) in the recording truck.
ShotPro II Decoder must be in Fire Menu to send Master Start Codes. The decoder sends
Master Start Codes every 5 seconds if the Control Line is held low (ArGn -)
4. The ShotPro II Slave Encoder receives the Master Start Codes, starts the Recording System and sends
Radio Start Code back to the decoder.
5. On the gun boat, the ShotPro II Decoder receives the Radio Start Command and sends a pulse through
Analog Data Output Line to start the Air Gun Controller.
Pin D analog signal
Pin B ACom (analog ground)
Note: Pulse is adjustable from 145ms to 50ms before ShotPro II Encoder Time Break.
6. The uphole line is wired to Gun Signature Signal from the Air Gun Controller and can be used to QC the
time when air guns are fired. ShotPro II Decoder sends uphole time and analog uphole signal over radio
interface after shot.
Pin C uphole active
Pin A uphole return
7. Start Active is used for Confirmation TB and is wired through an isolator to the Air Gun Time Break (260
ms max delay)
Pin E start active
Pin F start return
8. All PFS data is 1000ms delayed.

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

211

N1

Step 1

NAV SYSTEM

GUN
CONTROLLER

ARIES II SPM
Starts to count AX time
and wait for PTB to
finish measurement.

Pre-load Closure
at AIM point

Sends Remote Start


Pulse to SPM

SHOTPRO II DECODER

SHOTPRO II ENCODER
Sends Master Start
Code over Radio to
Encoder

Decodes Master Start


Code

RADIO

RADIO

Step 2
NAV SYSTEM

In. ms delay
fires the GUNs

ARIES II SPM

GUN
CONTROLLER

After AX time starts


recording

Sends Pulse to Gun Controller


50 mSec(minimum) before
PTB (Pre-Start Pulse)

Inms delay
sends PTB to SPM

SHOTPRO II DECODER

SHOTPRO II ENCODER

Decodes Start Code

Sends Start Code to


Decoder

RADIO

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

RADIO

212

N2

Step 3
Acquires Signature

NAV SYSTEM

ARIES II SPM

GUN
CONTROLLER

Inserts Uphole Time to OB


Notes and Analog Signature
Signal to Aux. Channel (DECO)

Sends CTB to NAV and Decoder


Provides Analog Signature
Signal to Decoder

Sends PFS data to SPM


over RTI

SHOTPRO II DECODER

SHOTPRO II ENCODER

In.ms delay
Sends PFS message to
Encoder

Decodes PFS message

RADIO

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

RADIO

213

N3

ShotPro II Encoder Slave ArGn mode


Start Delay
Start Code

Radio Reference Delay

TB

TB line / Aux.1 PTB


1Sec min

1 Sec

0.5 Sec

0.5 Sec

REF marks/ Aux.2 REF


Uphole signal/Signature
Analog Line/Aux.3 DECO
2 Sec

1 Sec
st

1 pick time

ShotPro II Decoder
ArGn-(+) mode
TB
TB Line

Adjustable Pre-Start Pulse


145mSec to 50mSec
Analog Line

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

214

N4

ShotPro II Encoder parameters


Slave Encoder Air Gun Mode
1. Job Profile
Unit
Crew
Dec/Enc
Enc Type
Mstr / Slv
Rec. System

1
1
ENC
SHOTPRO
SLAVE
ARAM

2. Radio
Start Code
SlvStrtDly
Enco Delay
SlvRadioRefDly
Ready Tone
PFS Data
MicPolarity
SpkPolarity

1
560 microSec
1000mSec
800microSec
OFF
On
Norm
Norm

3. Hardware Setup
AutoArm
UHdispTime
RemoteFire
DefaultPar
ControlMode

On
5 Sec
On
Off
ArGn

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

215

N5

ShotPro II Decoder Parameters


Decoder in ArGn- mode
1. Job Profile
Flag
Box#
Crew#
BoxMode
CommMode

12345678
1
1
DEC
SHOTPRO

2. Radio Control
Start Code
Pre-Start
BaudRate
ReadyTone
PFS Data
MicPolarity
SpkPolarity

1
50ms
High
Off
On
Norm
Norm

3. Hardware Setup
AutoOff
UHDispTime
RemoteFire
DefaultPar
ControlMode

Off
5 Sec
Off
Off
ArGn-

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

216

N6

ARIES II Recording System Parameters

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

217

N7

ShotPro II in Air Gun Mode

218

N8

Fire By Wire Concept


The Fire By Wire and Communication options provide the ability to communicate and/or fire a decoder
using dedicated transmission pairs in the baseline and line cables, which are networked to the recording
system. Fire By Wire (FBW) option is highly useful in the areas where radio communication is unreliable.
The first step to use FBW is to enable the option in the ARIES software. Select Acquisition >
Parameters > Critical Parameters from the top toolbar.

When the FBW option is enabled, the Central Recording System (CRS) sends a command to RAMs/TAPs
to activate by dedicating LIU 8 on a baseline and Tx4 on receiver line (Pins J&K) for communication.
Note: In this case LIU 8 is lost for data transmission (also LIU 16, 24 and 32) and RAMs are limited to 3
transmission pairs only.
Inside the RAMs/TAPs, pins J & K are re-routed to 2 pins on the battery connector creating a point to
connect a communicator (Figure 1) in the field.
Attach a battery connector to the RAM and a 5 pin connector to the radio port of the decoders
interface cable.
5 pin connector

Figure 1. Voice Communicator SFL30026

Fire By Wire Concept

219

O1

Inside the recorder, the entry point to the line is at a 4 pin break away connector, which is part of the
interface cable (Figure 2 and Figure 2A).
Connect the Line Com Adapter box (Figure 3) to this point and the Communicator (Figure 1) to one of
the battery ports on that box. Attach a 5 pin connector to the radio port of Encoders interface cable.

Figure 2. SPM to Encoder Interface Cable

Radio Connector
4 pin break
away connector

Figure 2A. Close up of connectors on the Interface Cable

Figure 3. Line Com Adapter SFL80604


Voice communication should now be possible from the recorder to the communicator that is attached
to the RAM in the field.
Power up the encoder and decoder that were previously connected on both sides. The encoder should
now be able to fire the decoder via the line.

Fire By Wire Concept

220

O2

FBW Block Diagram


Source/Aux Port

Liu 8

Encoder

Port 1-8

SPM
Aux RAM
4 pin break away
connector

Radio Port

Radio
Line Com Adapter

RAM
Communicator

RAM

Communicator

Radio

RAM
Radio Port

Decoder
RAM

Fire By Wire Concept

221

O3

Fire By Wire Concept

222

O4

Microseismic Monitoring
Introduction
Over the last several years, Microseismic Monitoring has developed rapidly as a technology to map
various reservoir processes. In particular, imaging hydraulic fracture stimulations is the most common
application. Microseismic Monitoring is somewhat unique in that it is a geophysical method, but the users and
main drivers of the technology have been reservoir engineers.
The petroleum industry is utilizing to unconventional reservoirs that have relatively low reservoir
permeability (the ability or measurement of a rock's ability to transmit fluids, typically measured in darcies or
millidarcies). To economically develop these reservoirs, hydraulic fracturing is required to stimulate
production.
Hydraulic fracture treatments require injection of water or gels under high pressure to create a tensile
fracture. Often a propping agent, such as sand, is pumped toward the end of the injection to provide a
conductive flow path for hydrocarbons. When a single well intersects a number of reservoir targets, the
treatment is usually staged through a series of separate fracs into each target along the length of the well.
To properly design stimulations, engineers require a technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry.
Microseismic is the only far-field technology that can image the fracture geometry within the reservoir.
Microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracture is recorded using surface sensors, permanently installed
subsurface sensors, and/or temporary deployment of sensors on wirelines in offsetting wells. Most
information used to determine the fracture geometry is obtained by locating the microseismic events and is
based on the observed arrival times. Comparing where and when the events took place with the pressure,
slurry rate and proppant density at that time, can help reveal how effectively the formation is being treated.
There are three general classes of techniques to find the location of microseismic events in time and
space:
Hodogram (a graph or curve that displays time versus distance of motion) techniques are based upon
the particle motion of direct arrivals.
Triangulation (the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known
points) schemes are based upon arrival times of direct waves.
Semblance methods are based upon stacking waves without arrival-time picking.
All three classes of location techniques can be used in conjunction with surface or downhole sensors.
The aperture and fold requirements of semblance techniques tend to favor a large areal spread of
sensors, as this can be achieved most conveniently with a surface or near-surface array. Such arrays can
consist of hundreds or even thousands of geophones located above the target reservoir, depending upon the
required fold and desired image area. Field operations for deploying a surface array have the look and feel of a
modern 3D recording crew.
The final microseismic event distribution provides data on the frac length, heights, azimuth and
stimulated volume that has been achieved.

Microseismic Monitoring

223

P1

Data Acquisition Design for Microseismic Monitoring with Surface Arrays


A well designed acquisition system is critical for avoiding the introduction of both mechanical and
electrical noise. The microseismic resolution/detection distance and SNR is controlled by the size of the largest
microseismic event and is related to the hydraulic energy pumped during the fracturing process. More
energetic fracture (higher rate, larger volumes, or higher pressure) results in more microseismic energy
release.

The most common deployment with surface arrays


is in the star (radial) pattern around the treatment well
(Pic.1). This pattern offers the best sampling of surface
noise that is generated by the fracturing pumps at the
wellhead, which allows for attenuation of this noise by
analog (inherent response of geophone group owing to its
length) or digital (frequency-wavenumber) filtering.
Typically, a star pattern has a diameter twice the
target depth and can be 2-10 km across.

Pic.1
To achieve correct depthing, the velocity model is typically calibrated by recording a string shot at a
known depth and position close to a reservoir. A string shot typically means the explosion of a length of
primer cord, 20-80ft (6-24m) long, wrapped on a length of steel bar and lowered into the wellbore. Because
the correct depth of the string shot is known, an adjustment to the average velocity can be calculated and
applied so the imaged depth matches the actual. If the fracturing job involves perforating the casing, these
perforating shots can also be used for depth calibration.
Temporary monitoring using star-shaped arrays on the surface is slowly giving way to monitoring with
sparser (settled at widely spaced intervals) permanent arrays, where sensors are placed at a shallow depth
(about 100m) to reduce the ambient noise level of individual sensors, thereby allowing for fewer sensors and
lower acquisition fold. Such permanent arrays afford the opportunity to monitor more wells and treatments at
a lower unit cost and more consistently over the life of the field; it is not practical for monitoring just one
treatment well.

Microseismic Monitoring

224

P2

Acquisition Interface for Microseismic Monitoring (ProPak-V3 option)


GPS Antenna
Converts the electromagnetic
waves transmitted by the GNSS
satellites into RF signals.
Com2
ProPak-V3 outputs MarkTimeA
Msg after receiving closure from
SPM and GPGGA messages every
10 seconds after initialization for
QC purpose.
RS-232-2
ARIES Software receives a
MarkTimeA Msg and according to
this, adjusts its computer time so
the time stamp for every record in
the database is GPS time. Also it
validates the quality of GPGGA
messages coming every tenth
second
during
continuous
recording.
I/O Port
ProPak-V3 sends synchronization
pulses every second to the Master
QuadPort to trim its clock.
Aux1
Aux RAM acquires the analog PPS
pulses and sends it in digital form
to SPM.
Source/Aux
SPM provides signal Closure Out
after initiating the microseismic
recording sequence.

Microseismic Monitoring

GPS Antenna

NovAtel active GNSS antenna.

ProPak-V3

Fully functioning GNSS receiver.


Provides configurable PPS output for time synchronization (clock trimming),
GPGGA messages for quality control (validation) and two mark inputs for
triggering the output of logs on external events.

Aux RAM

Acquires analog auxiliary data and transmits this data digitally to the

SPM

Provides the software and hardware interface between the line


equipment and all other modules and peripherals that comprise the ARIES II
Central System.

225

SPM.

P3

Microseismic Operation (ProPak-V3 Option)


Requirements

ARIES II SPM with GPS/PPS Input Port


ARIES Software Version 3.2XX.XX
QuadPort/FiberPort Firmware Version 5.3
ARIES II TAPs and RAMs must be at the latest firmware revision
ProPak-V3 programmed to use with ARIES II SPM in Microseismic Mode

Getting Started
1. Open Aries Hardware executable. Check if Aries II equipment is selected and verify the version of
QuadPort/FiberPort Firmware.
2. Run Diagnostic Test.
3. Open AriesVib and build a project.
There are microseismic specific parameters that must be set in Encoder and Communication and Source Type
Windows.
Set Encoder and Communication Window according to the following screen.

Microseismic Monitoring

226

P4

In Source Type>Recording Parameters>Record set the Record Length to 30 000ms, Type to Other,
Mode to Microseismic and Preamp Gain to 30db.

Note: Digital Error Recovery is disabled and Retrieval Rate cant be adjusted when you run ARIES
Software in Microseismic Mode. Use high-speed baseline option to accommodate high count
of active channels.

Set check mark against Auxiliary Channel 1 to record analog PPS pulses.

Microseismic Monitoring

227

P5

In the Project Header window, set up the tolerances in the Survey section to validate GPS messages
from the ProPak-V3 unit.

4. Create the subproject, prepare and test the spread.


5. The ProPak-V3 unit must be running at this time and have acceptable reception from GNSS satellites.
Note: The ARIES II System starts to validate the GPGGA messages and PPS pulses immediately after
opening of AriesVib application in Microseismic Mode.
6. Calculate the disk space required for intended recording hours.
FileSize (30 sec record) x 120 files-per-hour x N-hours = DiskSpaceRequired
Check if there is enough space on F: drive.
7. Start the Microseismic Acquisition Sequence after receiving confirmation from the Fracturing Crew.
Aries software will now produce and save internal format SEG-Y files to disk every 30 seconds.

8. After intended hours of recording, stop Microseismic Acquisition by clicking the Halt button. Then
select Abort & Output After Shot from the drop menu.

Microseismic Monitoring

228

P6

Acquisition Interface for Microseismic Monitoring (Pelton VibPro option)


GPS Antenna
Converts the electromagnetic
waves transmitted by the GNSS
satellites into RF signals.
Com6
Pelton VPE outputs MarkTimeA
Msg after receiving closure from
SPM and GPGGA messages every
10 seconds after that for QC
purpose.
RS-232-2
ARIES Software receives a
MarkTimeA Msg and according to
this, adjusts its computer time so
the time stamp for every record in
the database is GPS time. Also it
validates the quality of GPGGA
messages coming every tenth
second
during
continuous
recording.
P1 Port
Pelton VPE sends synchronization
pulses every second to the Master
QuadPort to trim its clock.
Aux1
Aux RAM acquires the analog PTB
signal and sends it in digital form
to the SPM.
Source/Aux
SPM provides signal Closure Out
after initiating the microseismic
recording sequence.
PE Port
Pelton VPE receives Closure Out
signal from SPM and provides PTB
pulse after Encoder delay time. It
happens only one time during the
initiation
of
microseismic
recording sequence.
Ext. PC
Computer runs Novatel CDU
software, which is also used to
program the Novatel GPS card
inside the Pelton VPE for
microseismic monitoring.

Microseismic Monitoring

GPS Antenna

GNSS antenna.

Pelton VPE

Provides accurate timing and GPSpositioning information.


Encoder must have integrated Novatel GPS card, which provides PPS pulses
for time synchronization, GPGGA messages for quality control (validation)
and triggers the output of MarkTimeA message after receiving signal Closure
Out from SPM.
Acquires analog auxiliary data and transmits this data digitally to the SPM.

Aux RAM
SPM

Provides the software and hardware interface between the line


equipment and all other modules and peripherals that comprise the ARIES II
Central System.

Ext. PC

Portable Computer with Novatel CDU Software installed.

229

P7

Microseismic Operation (Pelton VibPro option)


Requirements

ARIES II SPM with GPS/PPS Input Port


ARIES Software Version 3.2XX.XX
QuadPort/FiberPort Firmware Version 5.3
ARIES II TAPs and RAMs must be at the latest firmware revision
Pelton VP Encoder must be modified and programmed to use with ARIES II SPM in Microseismic Mode.
If required, refer to Chapter 19 Aries Slip Sweep of Aries Software Manual.

Getting Started
1. Open Aries Hardware executable. Check if ARIES II equipment is selected and verify the version of
QuadPort/FiberPort firmware.
2. Run Diagnostic Test.
3. Open AriesVib and build a project.
There are microseismic specific parameters that must be set in Encoder and Communication and Source Type
Windows.
Set Encoder and Communication Window according to the following screen.

Microseismic Monitoring

230

P8

In Source Type>Recording Parameters>Record set the Record Length to 30 000 ms, Type to Other,
Mode to Microseismic and Preamp Gain to 30dB.

Note: Digital Error Recovery is disabled and Retrieval Rate cant be adjusted when you run ARIES
Software in Microseismic Mode. Use high-speed baseline option to accommodate high count
of active channels.

Set check mark against Auxiliary Channel 1 to record analog PTB pulse.

Microseismic Monitoring

231

P9

In the Project Header window, set up the tolerances in the Survey section to validate GPS messages
from the Pelton VPE unit.

4. Create the subproject, prepare and test the spread.


5. The Pelton VPE unit must be running at this time and GPS-receiver has acceptable reception from GNSS
satellites.
Note: The ARIES II System starts to validate the GPGGA messages and PPS pulses immediately after
opening of AriesVib application in Microseismic Mode.
6. Calculate the disk space required for intended recording hours.
FileSize (30 sec record) x 120 files-per-hour x N-hours = DiskSpaceRequired
Check if there is enough space on F: drive.
7. Start the Microseismic Acquisition Sequence after receiving confirmation from the fracturing crew.
ARIES software will now produce and save internal format SEG-Y files to disk every 30 seconds.

8. After intended hours of recording, stop Microseismic Acquisition by clicking the Halt button. Then select
Abort & Output After Shot from the drop menu.

Microseismic Monitoring

232

P10

Troubleshooting

If No Valid GPGGA messages or No Valid PPS pulses occur in consequence of


communication loss between comports of SPM and ProPak-V3,
poor satellite signal reception (Quality/Number of Satellites/HDOP), or
analog PPS pulses not recognizable by Master QuadPort,
then the following combination of warnings in the Text window will be issued.

Microseismic Monitoring

233

P11

The ARIES system has the ability to continue acquisition with high-precision accuracy by using its
internal clock. It returns to normal operation after receiving valid GPGGA messages and PPS pulses.

In case of line cut (transmission cut) during acquisition, the data samples of non-responding RAMs
are zeroed and communication cannot be restored until the end of monitoring. The observer has two
options after receiving the warning pop-up: Ignore (continue recording) or Stop continuous recording.

Microseismic Monitoring

234

P12

Acronym Definitions:

PRJ REC SRC SP1 X01 R01 S01 -

extension for INOVA project file (XYs and patches)


extension for receiver co-ordinates in SegP1 files
extension for source co-ordinates in SegP1 files
extension for survey file
SPS file extension
SPS receiver file extension
SPS source file extension

AGC ANTU AVP BCD BP CHG CMP CMR COG CRU CRS DOS DRD EC EIN EDR FBEQ FFT FK FRAM GDC HDOP IFFT LDO LMO LPM LTO LTU LIU OB PSM PSS -

Automatic Gain Control


Aries Network Tester Unit
Aries Video Plot
Binary Code Decimal
Band Pass
Charge
Common Midpoint
Common Mode Rejection
Center of Gravity
Central Recording Unit
Central Recording System
Depth of Shot
Dynamic Range Determination
Digital Error Code
Equivalent Input Noise
Error Free Data Recovery
First Break Equalization
Fast Fourier Transforms
F=frequency, K=wavenumber
Frequency Amplitude Analysis Program
Geophysical Data Characterization
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
Inverse Fast Fourier Transforms
Low Distortion Oscillator
Linear Move out
Lightning Protection Module
Linear Tape Open Hewlett Packard High Density Tape Drive
Line Tap Unit
Line Interface Unit
Observer
Power Supply Module
Post Sweep Service

Acronym Definitions

235

Q1

QACID QLIC RAM RMS RTI RXY SEG SNR SPM SPS SXY SWR TDM UH UPS XFD -

Acronym Definitions

Quadport ARIES CRU Interactive Diagnostics


Quadport Line Interface Card
Remote Acquisition Module
Root Mean Square
Recording Truck Interface
Receiver Co-ordinate
Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Signal to Noise Ratio
Seismic Processing Module
Shell Processing Support
Source Co-ordinate
System Wide Redundancy
Tape Drive Module
Uphole
Uninterrupted Power Supply
Crossfeed

236

Q2