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Guide to Producing Regional Mappings

of the Creative Industries

Ministry of Culture Republic of Colombia


Mara Consuelo Arajo Castro
Minister of Culture
Luis Armando Soto Boutin
Co-ordinator of Cultural Policies
and International Affairs Group
Felipe Buitrago Restrepo
Consultant in Economy and Culture, Cultural Policies
and International Affairs Group
Centre for Regional, Coffee and Business Studies
CRECE
Sergio Ivn Prada Ros Director
Liliana Velsquez Martnez Researcher
Bernardo Andrs Taborda Figueroa Researcher
Magdalena Arango Vallejo Researcher
Yair de Jess Soto Builes Researcher
Calvin Taylor Consultant
University of Leeds
Erika Mosquera Ortega
Layout and Copy Correction
Clorinda Zea
Translation
Peter Goodhew
Proof Reading

2007, Ministry of Culture

To Bernardo

Contents
PART 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND.................................................... 4
1. Introduction............................................................................................. 4
2. Objectives............................................................................................ 5
2.1 About the guide................................................................................ 5
2.2 About mappings............................................................................ 6
3. Background.................................................................................... 7
3.1 The experience of the United Kingdom......................................... 7
3.2 Other international experiences .......................................................... 8
3.3 The Colombian experience............................................................... 9
4. Basic notions about the creative and culture sectors ...................................................... 9
4.1 Creative industries............................................................................ 9
4.2 Cultural industries.......................................................................... 10
4.3 Cultural field................................................................................ 10
4.4 Cultural sector ............................................................................... 11
4.5 Cultural activities ........................................................................... 11
PART 2. STAGES IN THE PRODUCTION OF MAPPINGS............. 14
1. Evaluating feasibility......................................................................... 14
1.1 Identifying the main agents of the creative sector in the region.... 15
1.2 Raising the agents awareness................................................................. 15
1.3 Preliminary identification of information sources and their availability..................... 16
1.4 Identification of potential funding sources for mappings.................................. 16
2. Defining the scope............................................................................. 17
3. Planning....................................................................................... 18
3.1 Preparing and presenting the technical and financial proposal for the development
of the mapping.............................................................
18
3.1.1 Technical proposal..................................................... 18
3.1.2 Financial proposal............................................................. 19
3.2 Setting up the work team and support group............................ 19
3.3 Preparing the work plan.............................................. 20
4. Designing the methodology and applying techniques of collection and analysis......... 20
5. Report and dissemination....................................................................... 21
PART 3. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE PRODUCTION OF MAPPINGS 22
1. Activities included in the creative and culture sectors ............................ 22
1.1 Creative industries in the United Kingdom........................................... 23
1.2 Cultural industries and activities according to UNESCO............................................ 24
1.3 Andres Bello Accord Workshop on the satellite culture account.......... 24
2. Models or types of analysis. 26
2.1 Models for analysing the creative sector or culture sector as a whole.. 27
2.1.1 Evaluation of impact..................................................................................... 27
2.1.2 Structure analysis.......................................................................... 29
2.1.3 Chain analysis ............................................................................................. 30
2.2 Models for analysing one or more creative/cultural activities or industries... 31
2.2.1 Evaluation of impact .................................................................................... 31
2.2.2 Analysis of structure and composition........................................ 33
2.2.3 Productive chain analysis..................................................................... 34

2.2.4 Cluster analysis........................................................................................ 36


2.3 Models for analysing cultural events ................................................ 38
2.3.1 Evaluation of impact..................................................................................... 38
2.3.2 Documentary analysis ................................................................................. 39
3. Sources of information for mappings and industrial classifications:
limitations and treatment...................................................................................................... 39
3.1 An initial balance of the main sources of information............................ 42
3.1.1 Sources of information on production and distribution 42
3.1.2 Survey of income and expenditures ........................................................ 45
3.2 Creative and cultural activities and their correspondence with the UIIC..................... 45
3.3 Problems with sources and industrial codes................................................ 48
4. Collecting primary information for mappings: aims and recommendations. 50
PART 4. OTHER KEY ASPECTS IN PRODUCING AND DISSEMINATING MAPPINGS.........
1. Setting up the work team ..........................................................
2. Types of reports and techniques for preparing them.............................................
2.1 Research reports ..................................................................
2.2 Reports for decision making - executive reports.......................
2.3 Reports for promotion and support (brochures).................................................
3. Dissemination strategy.............................................................

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BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................
APPENDICES ........................................................................................
APPENDIX 1. SUMMARIES OF STUDIES REVIEWED............................................................
APPENDIX 2. LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF THE CREATIVE
INDUSTRIES..
APPENDIX 3. GLOSSARY OF ECONOMIC MEASURMENT TERMS...............................
APPENDIX 4. COLCIENCIAS GUIDE FOR SUBMITTING PROJECTS
APPENDIX 5. SECONDARY SOURCES FOR REGIONAL MAPPINGS OF THE CREATIVE
INDUSTRIES..
APPENDIX 6. CREATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH RESPECT TO THE UIIC
CLASSIFICATION.........
APPENDIX 7. PROBLEMS WITH INDUSTRIAL SOURCES AND CODES: SOME
ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS
APPENDIX 8. MODEL FORM FOR COLLECTING BASIC PRIMARY INFORMATION
ON CREATIVE INDUSTRIES..

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Part 1
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

1. Introduction
The Ministry of Culture, aware of the need to decentralise the debate on the economy and culture and to
respond to the need for research in cities and departments where a variety of social and cultural processes
come together with a great potential to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life and sustainable
development1, commissioned the Centre for Regional, Coffee and Business Studies, CRECE, to write a
guide for producing regional mappings of the creative industries. The project, led by the Cultural Policies
and International Affairs Group of the Ministry, is part of a co-operation agreement between the Ministry
and the British Council, accompanied by the University of Leeds.
The Guide to Producing Regional Mappings of the Creative Industries presents general guidelines that will
permit the regions to undertake these kinds of studies, whose objective is to provide greater visibility to the
creative sector, identify its economic and social potential, and determine projects, programmes and policies
that support the sector, so as to acquire the appropriate decision-making tools that will facilitate
development in the sector and the regions.
The guide has four parts. The first begins with this introduction and continues with a description of the
objectives of the guide and the mappings, a review of the national and international background to
producing regional studies of creative industries; and finally, the introduction of some concepts about the
creative and culture sectors.
The second part of the guide contains a description of the process that should be carried out to produce
the first regional mappings of creative industries in the country. This process consists of five stages:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

Evaluating the feasibility


Defining the scope
Planning
Designing the methodology and applying techniques of collection and analysis
Report and dissemination

The third part of the guide describes in greater detail technical aspects for producing mappings that are
introduced in part two. Initially three alternatives are presented for grouping the creative and cultural
activities or industries into sectors, which can serve as a starting point for determining the scope of the
mappings. Next, the following critical elements in the design of the methodology for producing mappings
are examined in greater detail: the analytical models most used in national and international studies of the
creative sector or cultural activities, with their respective variables and indicators; the identification and
characterisation of the main secondary sources of information in the country for producing mappings, with
recommendations for dealing with their limitations; and finally, instructions for collecting primary information
for the mappings.
The fourth section of the guide contains a characterisation of three central aspects in the creation of
mappings or their dissemination: the work team that will be in charge of carrying out the project; the kinds
of reports that can be made for presenting the results; and the formulation of a strategy for disseminating
the first mappings.

In the final part of the guide a series of appendices are included, which are referred to throughout the text.
These appendices present some of the mappings of creative industries that were reviewed in writing the
guide2; the legal framework of the creative industries in the country; a glossary of terms associated with
economic measurement; a model for presenting technical and financial proposals to a national financing
institution; a characterisation of the main national and regional sources of secondary information for
producing mappings; the correspondence between creative and/or cultural industries and the international
classification of economic activities that is used in the country; the relation between the main problems
identified in the secondary sources of information and in their correspondence with the international
classification of economic activities, together with recommendations for their management; and finally, a
model form for collecting primary quantitative information, comparable with surveys by the governments
department of statistics, is included.
_____________________
1

Speech by the Minister of Culture at the presentation of the study Analysis of the Museum Sector of Bogota, November 26,
2004

These reviews are a core component of the guide because they include examples of the mappings of creative industries carried
out at both home and abroad. Each review presents general data about the study (title, country and region; year; institutions that
participated in its preparation, link where the document can be consulted or downloaded); a summary; its coverage both in terms of
geography and sector; the main methodological aspects (topics, variables and indicators, sources and types of information used,
collection techniques of primary data in cases where the mapping has collected this type of information); and finally, the strengths
and weaknesses of the study. In view of the fact that mention is made throughout the text of the experiences reviewed (insofar as
they help illustrate the subject being discussed), the users of the guide who are interested in a specific study can obtain information
about the central aspects of the study by reading the review. If they wish to obtain information on the complete study, they can
download and/or consult it by logging on to the link that appears in the review.

2. Objectives
2.1 About the guide
The purpose of this methodological guide is to provide conceptual and managerial tools for public and
private agents or institutions to acquire or improve their research capabilities for evaluating creative
industries in the regions of the country, with a high level of quality. It also seeks to provide these agents
with the skills to design and apply methods and techniques for measuring the economic and social
contribution of these industries, and for generating awareness among cultural and economic agents about
the importance of culture in the economy and the quality of life of the population.
The guide is addressed to public and private organisations that recognise the importance of the creative
sector from an economic and social viewpoint, and foster the strengthening and growth of the sector at a
regional level and the co-ordination of cultural policies with economic and social ones.
With the aim of providing a didactic tool, the guide has been conceived as a manual of best practices that
contains a series of guidelines for producing the initial mappings. These guidelines are based mainly on
different experiences in developing mappings of creative industries3 and include a description of the
concept, grouping creative and cultural activities into sectors, stages in the development of the mappings,
technical considerations and other key aspects for their production and dissemination. Furthermore, the
guide is intended as a tool to improve the research skills of regional agents.
It is important to point out that the guide does not purport to offer solutions to all the methodological
problems that will appear in producing the mappings. They form part of the research and many can be
resolved by drawing on the experience of the research teams as well as knowledge that is available about
the specific context (i.e. the regions). Nor does the guide provide answers to all the questions that arise
when preparing to evaluate the importance or economic impact of a sector. For example, it does not show

how to build input-product matrixes, measure informal employment, design mathematical models, nor
make economic measurements to analyse the growth of GDP for each peso spent on culture, etc. Finally,
the guide does not attempt to fill the vacuum of information that arises every time the regions carry out
sector studies.
What the guide does do is identify some central methodological problems and the main constraints to
producing mappings, and in both cases suggest possible solutions or ways to approach such problems and
limitations. This is a guide intended for people without much experience in research and who are not
familiar with sources of information or with techniques of analysis. It is for this reason that aspects that
might seem obvious or simple to those with greater experience are presented in considerable detail.
_______________
3

For the development of the guide, an extensive bibliographical review was made that included over 60 mapping studies of
creative and/or cultural industries around the world. Appendix 1 includes reviews of a number of these studies and other
documents.

2.2 About mappings


Mappings are studies aimed at diagnosing a given situation by identifying its constituent elements, the
relations between them and the results of such interaction. Thus mapping is not a simple description of
data, but rather is an interpretation whose purpose is to contribute to the solution of problems revealed by
the diagnosis or known beforehand.
The main objective of the initial mappings of creative industries that are produced in the country is to give
greater visibility to the sector through the identification of the value of culture and creation, not only as an
expression of the relations between man and his environment, but also for their contribution to the
economy of a country or a region. This contribution occurs because culture gives rise to processes of
creation linked to the production and distribution of goods and services, and to the generation of
employment and income.
Mappings should provide information that allows national and regional agents to identify key aspects about
the dynamics of creative industries and provide the necessary facts that improve decision-making in the
design of policies for strengthening these industries. Mappings also seek to stimulate the organisation of
individuals and companies of the creative and cultural sectors so that they are perceived as a collective
whole that facilitates their recognition, positioning and empowerment as an economically important sector.
This recognition should originate both from institutions that have the potential to contribute to fostering the
sector and from the creative and cultural agents themselves and the community in general.
The organisation of the sector that is indirectly sought by the mappings facilitates the production of
statistics and indicators for identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the sector, and stimulates the
building of alliances that lead to the formation of clusters. Organisation also facilitates access to resources
(both public and private) for developing the sector.
Owing to their exploratory character, the initial mappings of the creative industries produced in the regions
of the country can be very descriptive and not cover the entire sector. The needs, skills and possibilities of
the region will determine the frequency with which later mappings will be carried out. As their production
advances, the objectives of the mappings begin to expand to incorporate, in addition to analysis (economic,
anthropological, etc.), the formulation of development strategies for the sector. This has occurred in
countries that have had experience in the production of such studies.

3. Background
During the last decade there has been increasing recognition of the importance of creative industries as a
sector driving economic development in regions or countries. This has led to the production of a
considerable number of studies designed to measure the impact of these industries on regional and
national economies. Apart from those of the United Kingdom and a few studies in the U.S., the most
common mappings are at a national level.

3.1 The experience of the United Kingdom


The United Kingdom has broad experience in measuring the contribution of culture and the creative
industries to the economy. Such experience dates back to the end of the eighties with the publication of
The Economic Importance of the Arts in Great Britain.
This country pioneered the concept of creative industries and the adoption of the term mapping to refer to
diagnostics such as those made for the sector.
The document Mapping the Creative Industries, 19984, of the Department of Culture, Mass Media and
Sport (DCMS), was the first attempt to systematically measure the contribution of the entire group of
creative industries to the national economy (Greater London Authority, 2004; British Council Creative
Industries Unit, 2004). This document, together that of 2000, helped provide a better understanding of the
dynamic nature and importance of the sector. In contrast to the first one, the document of 2000 included
the regional perspective in a section on regional dimensions for some of the creative industries.
These mappings became a series of annual statistical bulletins with information that was exclusively
national5. The regional perspective was promoted by the Special Unit of Creative Industries set up by the
British Government, which formed a working group on regional issues and whose remit was to examine the
economic and social contribution of creative industries in the regions of the United Kingdom and to identify
ways of encouraging the future growth of the sector (Reeves, 2002). The group and the regional
governments commissioned audits to analyse the contribution of the creative industries in the nine regions
of the country. Some of the audits were carried out by the government and others by regional development
agencies (DCMS, 2000).
Besides such audits, other projects have been undertaken to measure the importance of the creative
sector at regional, sub-regional and local levels (city and county levels). Notable among them are those
made for the regions of Yorkshire and Humber and their nine sub-regions6; for the region of the
Southwest7; and for Leeds8, Bristol9, Manchester10, Cheshire11 and Cornwall12, among others.
__________________
4

http://www.culture.gov.uk/global/publications/archive_1998/
Creative_Industries_Mapping_Document_1998.htm?properties=archive%5F1998%2C%2Fcreative%5Findustries%2FQuickLinks%
2Fpublications%2Fdefault%2C&month
5
http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/B6625AC4-7EEC-42D2-81C9CCD818FFD7D4/0/CreativeIndustrieseconomicestimatesJuly04revisednov.pdf
6
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com
7
http://www.culturesouthwest.org.uk/downloads/file.asp?Filename=cul007joining-the-dots5.pdf
8
http://www.leedsinitiative.org/initiativeDocuments/2005211_7880801.pdf
9
http://bristoleastsidetraders.co.uk/reports/creativeindustries.pdf
10
http://www.mipc.mmu.ac.uk/iciss/reports/cultprod.pdf
11
http://www2.cheshire.gov.uk/arts/CI_report2000.pdf
12
http://www.cornwallpurebusiness.co.uk/uploads/reports/creative-value.pdf

3.2 Other international experiences


Many countries have made significant progress in analysing the impact of the creative industries sector.
Besides the United Kingdom, some of the most documented experiences are those of the United States,
Canada13, Australia14, New Zealand15, Singapore16 and Hong Kong17, and the member countries of the
European Union, Mercosur and the Andres Bello Accord.
Other less documented experiences, but which present interesting proposals, are those undertaken for the
city of St. Petersburg18 and for Japan19, Taiwan20 and Mexico21. The majority of the experiences of these
countries have national coverage.
Among the countries of the European Union, mapping studies of the creative sector have been made in
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Holland,
Portugal, Spain and Sweden. In spite of not being as recognised as those of the United Kingdom, these
experiences produce significant results concerning the economic dynamics that the sector generates in
those countries.
Recognition of the importance of the sector has become so generalised in Europe that for the first time the
European Commission formally employed the term creative industry in a publication devoted to examining
the future of these industries and their implications for research (EC, 2005).
As for Latin America, the countries of Mercosur and members of the Andres Bello Accord have been
working on the subject. In those of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) studies have been
made on the economic importance of industries and activities protected by copyright and related rights22.
Since the end of the nineties, several of the member countries of the Andres Bello Accord have been
developing a project called Economy and Culture. In the framework of this project, studies have been
developed for Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela23.
The experiences of the above-mentioned countries regarding creative industries and their economic
importance have generally been at the national level. The regional perspective has consisted of
comparisons between countries.
Together with the United Kingdom, the United States is one of the countries where mappings for specific
regions (states) have been most developed. The most publicised experiences are those for the states of
California24, Iowa25, Missouri26 and for the region of New England27, which includes the states of
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island.
_________________
13

http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/ac-ca/progs/pda-cpb/pubs/economic_
contribution/economic_contr_e. pdf
14
http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/cics/
15
http://www.nzte.govt.nz/common/files/nzier-mapping-ci.pdf
16
http://www.mita.gov.sg/MTI%20Creative%20Industries.pdf
17
http://www.tdctrade.com/econforum/tdc/tdc020902.htm
18
http://www.creative.leontief.net/data/Creative_en.pdf
19
http://www.designindaba.com/advocacy/downloads/japan.pdf
20
http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/eng/2004whitepaper/06.pdf
21
http://www.creativexport.co.uk/images/news/123MexicoCIGuide-03.04.pdf
22
http://www.wipo.org/sme/es/documents/studies/mercosur_copyright.pdf
23
http://www.cab.int.co
24
http://www.cac.ca.gov/files/eis-fulleconomicimpactreport.pdf
25
http://www.econ.iastate.edu/research/webpapers/paper_10596.pdf
26
http://www.missourieconomy.org/pdfs/creative_industries.pdf
27
http://www.nefa.org/pdf/creativeeconomy2000.pdf

3.3 The Colombian experience


The Colombian experience in the economic evaluation of cultural and creative activities is significant. Since
1999 the Ministry of Culture, in co-operation with the Andres Bello Accord, is developing the Economy and
Culture project for Colombia. The first two phases of the project consisted of evaluating the impact of
cultural industries in the country. For some of these industries (music recording and film production)
specific studies were also made. The fact that the results of the study of film production were employed to
design and justify legislation concerning film production reflects the usefulness that mappings can have by
providing practical elements for decision-making.
Another relevant precedent is the development of the Satellite Culture Account for the country, a project in
which the Ministry of Culture and the National Statistics Department, DANE, are currently participating.
With respect to regional studies of the economic impact of culture and the creative industries, three
separate experiences with different purposes and scopes have been undertaken. The first is the evaluation
of impact of the Barranquilla Carnival28, a study developed by Fundesarrollo and promoted by the
Barranquilla Chamber of Commerce. The second experience, included in the Economy and Culture project,
is the study of the record industry in Cartagena on the theme of la champeta29. And in contrast with the
these studies, which examine particular activities or sectors, the third experience, the mapping of creative
industries in Bogota and Soacha30, is the first attempt in the country to estimate the economic importance
of a group of creative industries in a specific region. This project was promoted by the British Council and
produced by the University of the Andes.
For the purpose of broadening the context in which the creative industries of the country are embedded,
Appendix 2 contains the respective Colombian legal framework.
__________________

28

http://www.camarabaq.org.co/cms/documentstorage/com.tms.
cms.document.Document_ba46557d-c0a8fa20-ec6bb100-de574460/
CARNAVAL 2004.zip
29
http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/champeta.pdf
30
http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf

4. Basic notions about the creative and culture sectors


In the development of this guide, a comprehensive bibliographic review of the conceptual aspects of
economy and culture and the experiences of mapping creative industries was carried out. From this review
it became evident that the close relationship between creation and culture sometimes translates into the
two sectors being treated in the same way. However, some definitions suggest that there are differences
between them. Something similar occurs with pairs of concepts such as cultural activities and cultural
industries, on the one hand and culture sector and cultural field on the other.
The purpose of this section of the guide is to provide elements from the literature reviewed that help define
some of these concepts and to some extent delineate the diffuse limits that lie between them.

4.1 Creative Industries


The term creative industries has different meanings and uses throughout the world. In its broadest sense it
is used to refer to all the industries that generate copyright, patents and trademarks. In other contexts it is
used to refer only to such industries that produce content or cultural industries. (Hawkins, 1991).

Possibly the most accepted definition at an international level judging from the number of studies that
mention the subject is that of the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) of the United
Kingdom. According to the Department, creative industries are those that have their origin in creativity,
individual skills and talent and have the potential to create wealth and employment through the generation
and exploitation of intellectual property.
Several elements of this definition are incorporated into the definition of one of the mappings produced in
Hong Kong31, in which creative industries are considered to be the group of economic activities that use
and display creativity, skills and intellectual property in order to produce and distribute products and
services of social and cultural significance.
While the tendency to generate copyright appears as a central element in the above definitions, it is not
present in Richard Caves definition (2000)32, for whom creative industries are those that produce products
or services that contain a substantial element of artistic or creative effort.

4.2 Cultural Industries


According to UNESCO, the term cultural industry applies to those industries that combine the creation,
production and marketing of content that is by nature cultural and intangible. Content is protected by
intellectual property rights and can take the form of goods and services. Although crafts do not form part of
the activities covered by copyright, they are included in cultural industries owing to their considerable
cultural value (Andres Bello Accord and Ministry of Culture of Colombia, 2003), as well as being the source
for generating investment, value added and employment, and for contributing to exports.
Although cultural and creative industries are considered to be one and the same in some of the reviewed
texts, in others cultural industries are shown as a sub-group of the creative industries. This is explained by
the fact that, while they share most of the characteristics (creation, system of production, tendency to
generate copyright, potential to create wealth), cultural industries have a social and cultural significance, a
symbolic content that is superior to their utilitarian value.
_________________________
31
32

http://ccpr.hku.hk/Baseline_Study_on_HK_Creative_Industries-eng.pdf
Cited in one of the mappings of Australia (http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/cics/)

4.3 Cultural field


The cultural field is conceived in an anthropological sense as a symbolic field where the different social
agents are strategically located, forming a network of objective relations among positions, a playing field on
which agents can act but at the same time are limited by the rules that make up the field (Bourdieu, 1990).
According to the Andres Bello Accord and the Inter-American Development Bank IDB (2005), the cultural
field is defined as a group of human activities and products whose razon dtre is to create, express,
interpret, conserve and transmit symbolic contents.
In more operational terms, the cultural field can be thought of as a broad and dynamic concept that
includes sectors producing goods and services for symbolic use and value, including artistic training, for its
determining role in the generation of symbolic content (Andres Bello Accord and IDB, 2005), and the
social sciences and other disciplines or research activities in the field of culture and the arts. Although it is
not easy to limit the cultural field owing to its dynamism, there have been advances in identifying the
sectors and sub-sectors that constitute it33.
_____________________
33 See Andres Bello Accord and IDB (2005). Among the divisions presented in the first section of part three of the guide, there is a
revised version of the proposal that is included in that document.

10

4.4 Culture sector


In a functional sense, the culture sector is understood to be that which groups together activities with
particular characteristics whose symbolic value surpasses their value of use and exchange (Andres Bello
Accord and Ministry of Culture of Colombia, 2003). The sector encompasses different types of cultural
activities or products such as books, records, cultural events, museums, works of art, cinema, television,
radio, etc. These activities utilise resources for their production that in most cases are valued and traded in
an economic system (Ibid.).
While in some definitions the sector comprises the production and distribution of cultural goods and
services, others include additional components of the cultural cycle. In the first case, there is Harveys
definition (cited in the study Impact of Culture on the Chilean Economy34), according to which the culture
sector is a socio-economic group composed of individuals and companies devoted to the production and
distribution of cultural goods and the provision of services. In the second case, for the Department of
Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), this sector is the sum of the necessary activities and resources (tools,
infrastructure and artefacts) involved in the whole cycle of creation, production, dissemination,
exhibition/reception, recording/preservation and education/comprehension of cultural products and
services (DCMS, 2004b). This definition is closer to what is understood as the cultural field.
__________________
34

http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/libro_impacto_cultura_economia_chilena.pdf

4.5 Cultural Activities


Cultural activities are those that pertain to the culture sector. They cover a broad universe that goes from
expressions of folklore, popular culture and media culture to those of an elite culture of fine arts and
historical heritage (Andres Bello Accord and Ministry of Culture of Colombia, 2003). Some of these
activities are developed in the market while others are fostered by the government. In many cases, the
stimulus for creation lies in spheres that are different from making profits and do not necessarily participate
in the economic dynamics of supply and demand in which economic value is reflected by price. Whether or
not they enter the market, these activities have an economic dimension, since their development involves
production, exchange and consumption (Ibid).
As can be inferred from the foregoing, there are no unique meanings for concepts that are as sensitive as
those mentioned above. Neither are they necessary, although it would be advantageous to employ
common terms in regional mappings of the creative and/or culture sector so as to facilitate comparisons
between regions. In order to contribute to local discussions on defining the scope of the mappings, the
following figure illustrates one of the possible interpretations of the interrelationships that exist between
these and other sectors 35. The purpose of the figure is to place creative and cultural industries within the
functional definitions described.

11

CULTURE
SECTOR
Tangible
heritage

CULTURAL
INDUSTRIES
Audiovisuals without
video games

Intangible
heritage

Performing arts

CREATIVE
INDUSTRIES
Audiovisuals:
video games
Design
Games
Advertising

Visual arts:
painting, sculpture,
photography and
graphic arts
Crafts
Publishing
Music
OTHER ACTIVITIES
THAT FORM PART OF
THE CULTURAL
FIELD
Research in culture
and the arts
Artistic training

Figure 1. The creative industries within the framework of the cultural field

The figure contains three sets of activities that form part of the cultural field: the culture sector, the creative
industries, and research and education activities applied to the arts and culture. The activities included in
each of the three sets correspond to those that were recently agreed in the Andres Bello Accord in a
discussion on the development of satellite culture accounts in Latin America36. Because its division by
sector approach has a greater level of inclusion, the proposal is referred to in various parts of the guide.
According to the figure, activities that simultaneously form part of the culture sector and creative industries
are called cultural industries.
The culture sector comprises cultural activities (museums, libraries and fiestas, which make up a part of
heritage) and cultural industries (publishing, music, painting, etc.). Following Brecknock Consulting (2002),
the sector encompasses both tangible cultural products (the services included in tangible heritage and the
products of cultural industries) and intangible cultural values (that correspond to intangible heritage).

12

In addition to forming part of the culture sector, cultural industries are a subset of the creative industries
and possess symbolic content that other creative industries do not.
While the guide emphasises the creative industries that appear in the figure, the document also includes a
series of methodological considerations related to measuring the economic contribution of the other
activities of the cultural field. Among these other activities, the guide places greater emphasis on fiestas,
fairs and festivals (included in intangible heritage), because of their importance in several cities and
municipalities of the country, and their well-known ability to encourage the growth of other economic
activities.
____________________
35

The figure is based on a similar one that was included in a presentation by ANDI and CENEC (2004), which listed the
entertainment, cultural and creative industries.
36
For further details, see Section 1.3 in the third part of the guide.

13

Part 2
STAGES IN THE PRODUCTION OF MAPPINGS
The mappings of creative industries produced by the regions of the country should serve as a decisionmaking tool for generating dynamics that lead economic and social development in the regions. Therefore,
the construction of these mappings requires not only a team with the technical skills for their production,
but also the technical, financial and political support of different regional agents (professional associations,
public administration, NGOs, chambers of commerce, academic institutions, etc.), for them to become
sustainable in the mid and long term.
The initiative for building regional mappings of creative industries can come from regional research teams
interested in their production as well as organisations that comprehend the importance of the sector and
wish to contract and finance the development of the mappings.
From the point of view of regional teams interested in producing the mappings, such activity involves a
process that can generally be carried out in the following stages: 1) evaluation of feasibility, 2) definition of
scope, 3) planning, 4) design of methodology and application of techniques of collection and analysis, 5)
report and dissemination.
The process differs when there is an organisation interested in contracting and funding the development of
the mappings. In this case, the procedure begins with establishing terms of reference for executing the
regional mapping and continues with hiring the team that will develop the mapping. Because establishing
terms of reference fits in, to some extent, with some of the activities included in the planning stage, mention
of the terms of reference will be made when that phase is described.
Although the duration and depth of the stages for producing the mappings depend on the particularities of
the regions, it would be feasible to imagine that the mapping could be produced in approximately six
months, from the moment the decision to make the mapping is taken, i.e. after evaluating its feasibility.
The following describes the stages that the regional research team interested in producing the mapping of
creative industries in its region should follow. Where applicable, mention will be made of the activities that
arise and those that can be eliminated when the initiative to do the mapping comes from an organisation
that plans to contract and finance the work.
1. Evaluating feasibility
The first stage in producing a mapping consists of having the regional team that is going to propose its
development (for example, a research team) identify and raise the awareness of the main creative and
cultural agents of the region about the mapping, and make an initial exploration of the available secondary
information sources37 to identify possible sources of funding. When the mapping has secured financing,
such exploration will not be necessary and raising the awareness of agents will be carried out once the
agreement or contract is executed. The exploration of secondary information sources will be made while
the proposal of the mapping is being prepared.

1.1 Identifying the main agents of the creative sector in the region
A first step in evaluating the feasibility of producing mappings is to identify the main agents that intervene in

14

the creative sector. This consists of making a preliminary list of the agents, their sphere of activity and their
location. This should be done under the guidance of representatives or leaders of the creative and culture
sectors. These representatives are the basis of the support group that should be set up for the production
and dissemination of the mappings.
In general, three classes of agents may be considered: creative agents, those who market the production
of the sector, and agents for support and promotion. The first group directly produces creative activities,
i.e., those found at the beginning of the productive chain and who originate important economic dynamics
(artists, designers, social groups, and micro enterprises dedicated to creative activities, among others). The
second group distributes the production of the sector and includes commercial establishments (for
example, bookstores, crafts stores, etc.). Finally the agents of support and promotion are institutions,
NGOs, professional associations, public administration, and venture capital, among others, that develop
activities to support and promote the development of the sector.
A preliminary identification and characterisation of the agents facilitates acquiring initial knowledge about
the sector and planning the other activities of this initial mapping stage.
_____________________________
37

Secondary sources are understood to be those which have previously collected information, whether they be official sources
(National Statistics Department, public institutions, etc.) or unofficial (e.g., a survey carried out by a research group or professional
association).

1.2 Raising the agents awareness


After identifying who the agents of the creative sector are, those most committed or familiarised with the
development and support of the sector should be determined. A process of raising their awareness should
be carried out, whose main objective is to communicate the importance and advantages of mapping the
sector and demonstrate how such a tool is useful for others to learn about the potential of creative
industries in the economic and social development of the regions. This can be done out through individual
meetings with the agents.
Such meetings are an appropriate space for receiving the agents perceptions about the sector and its
possibilities for expansion, as well as their interests and expectations with regard to the mappings. It would
be pertinent to get their opinion about the sectors or activities that should be included in the mappings. This
is a way to make them feel they are participants and get their commitment to help in the development of
the project. These agents will be the basis of the support group, which will provide the theoretical and
practical guidelines for the development of the mappings.
The awareness-raising meetings with these agents could be used to inquire about their knowledge of
inventories, studies and contacts of relevance to the sector in order to identify some potential secondary
sources for the mappings. In cases where mappings require funding, the agents should also be asked
about funding sources they consider suitable.
For the purpose of raising the awareness of a larger population in the region, disseminating the subject
through the media should also be encouraged during this phase. The initial strategy for this purpose could
be a press article that would doubtless attract the attention of other media. Interest stimulated by such
means is very useful for the sector and for subsequently disseminating the results of the mapping.
Where possible (e.g. where resources are available), the awareness-raising phase could also include
activities such as lectures and seminars that create spaces for discussion to increase the visibility of the
sector.

15

1.3 Preliminary identification of information sources and their availability


This activity consists of identifying available secondary information for producing mappings at the regional
level, or at the national level in the case of sources centralised in a city. This includes information that has
been previously collected by official sources (e.g. the governments statistics department) as well as
unofficial sources (for example surveys made for other studies or information available from professional
associations). The advantage of official sources is that they facilitate making a comparative analysis of the
sector with other sectors of the regional economy, with other regions, nationally or even with other
countries. In the case of unofficial sources it is important to assess their quality to determine how they can
be used.
Depending on the regional characteristics and the availability of resources, some regions will contemplate
obtaining primary information while other regions may carry out the mappings by relying solely on
information from secondary sources.
For the preliminary identification of secondary sources of information, this guide provides an inventory of
national sources and a few that exist in practically all the regions38.
At this stage, available sources and those that could effectively provide information for the mapping should
be examined39. This involves undertaking the necessary procedures with the different sources40. This may
include contacting the governments statistics department, DANE, to make a technical co-operation
agreement between it and the team planning to produce the mapping, which would facilitate access to the
required information from this source.
Besides the sources identified in the guide, other secondary sources that are specific to the regions should
be considered: for example, previous studies on one or more sectors; records or surveys by professional
associations or cultural organisations; information available in the municipal and departmental secretariats
(culture, education, economic development, etc.); and university records of students and alumnae in the
areas of creation and culture, etc. In this sense, the help of agents of the sector is vital. Regarding
additional resources, an analysis should be made of their availability, scope, and especially their quality.
_______________________
38

See appendix 5.
As mentioned later on in the guide, these sources are potential sources, and due to the limitations of some of them (particularly
the surveys of the department of statistics) as well as the specific characteristics of the sector in the region, they may or may not
have information on certain activities for the mapping.
40 The matrix also contains guidance in this respect.
39

1.4 Identification of potential funding sources for mappings


In the case of mappings that have not secured funding, possible sources of financing for their development
should be examined at this stage. In addition to sources suggested by agents with whom the awareness
raising was carried out and others known to the regional teams that are going to propose the mappings, the
following agents should be considered:
International agencies that have development programmes in the country
Associations of the different creative sub-sectors
Providers of subsidised family services
Chambers of commerce
Companies that belong to or have relations with the creative sector
Financial bodies with social development programmes
Venture capital (public and private)

16

Cultural foundations
Foundations for regional development
Institutes of culture
NGOs
Programmes undertaken by departmental governments that support the culture sector
Departmental or municipal secretariats of culture
It is important to hold meetings with organisations identified as potential sources of funding to determine
their willingness to support and also their requirements for presenting the mapping proposal (forms; cofinancing needs, and in the case of invitations to submit proposals, the opening and closing dates, etc.).
Such meetings should be similar to those of awareness raising.

2. Defining the scope


After having made a preliminary exploration of sources of available secondary information and having
listened to the opinions of key agents concerning activities that should be included in the mappings, the
scope of the study can be established. This is defined by the purpose of the mapping, which could be: i)
the creative or culture sector in general; ii) one or more creative or cultural industries or activities; iii)
specific cultural events (for example, fairs, fiestas or festivals); iv) projects, programmes or policies
designed to strengthen, promote or support the creative and/or cultural sectors41.
The first two cases involve objects of study of a structural kind that refer to activities that are permanent
over time; in the next two, the object of study are temporary activities that respond to specific needs or
circumstances and are normally carried out until completed, with no continuity over time42.
It is important to bear in mind that, given the limitations of secondary sources of information43, and in some
regions, budgetary restrictions for collecting primary information, the first mappings of creative industries
will not be able to cover the whole creative and/or cultural sector in many regions. Therefore, in such
regions it may be necessary to establish priorities, based mainly on the opinions of key agents, and initially
concentrate on the most critical industries or activities. Defining what is critical should be discussed and
resolved in the regions, since it depends on the local specifics of the sector and the interests of regional
actors. One of the aspects that could determine what is critical is economic potential, which includes
aspects such as:
The number of agents or companies devoted to the activity
The existence of local links with production and distribution activities
The possibility of generating employment
Characteristics of the market that determine which activities or sectors could have more potential: tastes
and preferences of consumers, income level, level of education, etc.
Other criteria that could be considered in choosing activities to include in the first mappings are:
Vulnerability, because the activity entails greater risk (due to informality, exposure to external competition,
high costs, etc.) or a greater need for technological and financial support.
Presence of micro enterprises.
Existence of professional associations.
Areas of higher education programmes provided locally.
Regional tradition.
Availability of information from secondary sources, according to the initial exploration.
When the scope of the mappings is defined by projects, programmes or policies designed to foster and
strengthen the sector, they can be established by constructing a baseline to characterise the target

17

population before treatment, and compare it with one or more subsequent follow-ups to identify the effects
of the treatment44.
________________
41

It should be noted that the guide contains methodological considerations for approaching the mapping process that include the
first three scopes (see the third part of the document). However, there are no recommendations for evaluating projects,
programmes or policies. For those interested in these kinds of studies, a review of the literature on Evaluation of Impact is
recommended.
42
In the case of festivities, they usually take place every one or two years but have a limited duration, and in this sense are not
continuous.
43
See Appendix 5.
44
As was indicated three notes before, the guide does not detail methods to cover mappings that have such a scope.

3. Planning
After having evaluated the feasibility of carrying out the mapping of creative industries for the region and
having defined its scope, the proposing work team has sufficient elements to develop the technical and
financial proposal of the mapping project and submit it to potential funders. Once the proposal is approved,
a work team and a support group can be established that will prepare a work plan for the mapping.
In the case that the initiative for producing the mapping comes directly from a contracting organisation, that
organisation should establish the terms of reference for the development of the exercise and open the
invitation to receive proposals. After evaluating the different options, it will select the proposal with the
highest score, according to the qualifying criteria it establishes.

3.1 Preparing and presenting the technical and financial proposal for the development of the mapping
3.1.1 Technical proposal
Whether the research team wishes to propose the production of the mapping on its own initiative or
responds to an invitation issued by the contracting organisation, it is necessary to prepare a technical
proposal with which to seek funding for the mapping project or describe the aspects required in the terms
of reference issued by the contracting organisation.
Although funders normally have special forms for submitting technical proposals, the majority of such forms
contain the following aspects:
Background: a brief description of the background of the research problem should be presented in this
section (for example, the creative sector or culture sector in general, or the specific activity or industry for
which the mapping will be produced), which briefly mentions the concept and the principal studies on the
subject. If basic information is available about the sector in the region, this can also be mentioned as part
of the background.
Scope: comprises a description of the components of the study and its coverage.
Objectives: the general purpose of the mapping and its specific objectives should be included in this
section.
Methodology: this section consists of an explanation of how the study will be made (with what techniques
and sources). Depending on the funder, the description of the methodology may be in general or detailed.
Products: this is a list of the products of the mapping that will be delivered (reports, databases, etc.).

18

Expected impact: This refers to the effect that the study is expected to have (for example, greater
recognition of the sector, formulation of development strategies, etc.).
Team experience: the technical capabilities of team members, as well as their general and specific
experience, should be mentioned.
Timetable: this is a timeline description of the activities envisaged for the mapping. The activities included
should be coherent with the objectives and methodology.
Appendices: Usually, funders require appendices to be filled out that contain, among other items: i)
detailed experience of the proposing organisation in subjects relevant to the proposal; ii) rsums of the
people who will participate in the project; iii) plan of activities for carrying out the project; iv) composition of
the team in charge of the project and the functions to be performed by each person. In addition to filling out
such forms, some funding organisations require copies of contracts related to the mentioned work
experience, financial information about the organisation and certificates of legal representation, etc.
Regarding forms, it is important to point out that funding organisations increasingly require more details on
the methodology to be used in developing the projects; so much so that apart from the basic forms, some
exclusively require the description of the methodology. Although there are no unique formats for the
presentation of proposals, Appendix 4 includes as an example a guide to the formulation of strategic
programmes and/or research, technological development and projects of innovation by the governments
scientific research body, Colciencias. This guide, with its respective forms, has been chosen because it is
one of the most demanding, due to the number of aspects of the project it requires to be described and
forms to be filled out.

3.1.2 Financial proposal


Cost estimates of the mapping process should begin with the evaluation of available and needed resources
for executing the technical proposal. To this end, it is convenient to make a list of all the activities included
in the proposal to determine the resources (physical and human) that are needed for each activity and
those the project has already acquired. In some cases, funders require a contribution (co-financing) from
the proposing organisation, in which case it is necessary to state if this is available. Available resources
should include computers, audio-visual equipment, etc.
Once the available and needed resources have been identified, their cost should be calculated. It is
important to consider all expenses that may be incurred, from writing the proposal to disseminating the
results. Expenses could include hiring staff, purchase of capital equipment, travel, training workshops, and
printing and office supplies, among others.
As in the case of technical proposals, there is no unique format for the presentation of projects to funding
organisations. The majority require a summary of costs (salaries, local taxes and others) and a
discrimination of costs by activity. Module VI of the Colciencias guide to presenting projects (Appendix 4)
includes a detailed model for submitting budgets.

3.2 Setting up the work team and support group.


Once the mapping proposal has been approved and financing secured, the work to be carried out can then
be planned, which should begin with the scope, methods and activities contained in the proposal.

19

The mapping work team should be the same as that specified in the proposal. Its size and characteristics
are conditioned by the scope of the mapping. Guidelines for the selection of this team are presented in
detail in the fourth part of this guide.
At this stage, it is necessary to decide how the support group (also known as the consultative committee or
technical secretariat) will be formed, which will accompany the work team in decision-making and provide
technical and academic support. As was previously mentioned, at the base of this team are the key agents
who interacted at the stage of evaluating feasibility and reviewing the proposal. In addition to such agents,
the support group may also include representatives of:
Those who contract the mapping: departmental governments, secretariats of culture, municipal
authorities, professional associations, institutes of culture, and artists associations.
Those who fund the mapping: secretariats of culture, professional associations, institutes of culture,
enterprises related to the sector, NGOs, financial institutions, chambers of commerce, providers of
subsidised family services, foundations for regional development, development programmes, international
agencies, and venture capital.
Those who produce it: universities, private research groups, work teams designated by the institutions
that contract the mapping.
The support group is fundamental in the planning, production and dissemination of mappings. The
subsequent legitimacy of the project depends largely on the adequate composition of the support group
(broadly represented by key agents). It is important that the group interact constantly, led by the coordinator of the mapping, and agree on its critical aspects. From its inception, ground rules for the groups
functioning should be established in order to avoid future conflicts. For instance, it should be clear that the
direction of the project is the responsibility of the co-ordinator of the research team and that the group plays
a supporting role, which means that it can speak out, suggest, recommend, give advice and in general,
accompany the process, but should not try to slant the results of the analysis.

3.3 Preparing the work plan


Based on the technical proposal, the support group and research team should jointly design an outline of
the work plan that will be followed during the mapping. In addition to describing in greater detail and with
specific dates the activities included in the proposal, the plan should include fortnightly or monthly meetings
of the two groups, at which the work team will report on its progress.
It is also necessary to anticipate some of the problems that can come up in the mapping and contemplate
alternatives for their solution.

4. Designing the methodology and applying techniques of collection and analysis


This stage consists of defining and applying techniques or methods of data collection and analysis of
information for the development of the mapping, which includes selecting the variables and indicators and
making the necessary calculations and analysis. The definition of techniques of data collection and
analysis will stem from the methodological aspects described in the proposal, which should be reviewed in
depth during the initial part of this stage.
During this phase, the collection of secondary information that had been identified in the preliminary
exploration should be undertaken (or concluded) and the necessary tools designed and applied to cases
for which the primary collection of information has been determined. As the information is collected it
should be systematised for subsequent processing and analysis.

20

Owing to the limitations of secondary sources of information and the classifications employed by several of
such sources45, the solutions needed to deal with these difficulties should be adopted at this stage. The
participation of some of the members of the support group, especially the more technically inclined, is
fundamental in this task.
After having compiled and systematised the information and having defined the solutions for handling the
limitations, the proposed variables and indicators should be estimated in order to analyse the information.
The choice of method for the analysis will depend as much on the scope of the mapping as on the
availability of information. In the third part of the guide some potential models for the different scopes
envisaged are described: the creative sector or culture sector in general, one or more creative or cultural
activities, or a cultural event.
It is important that all the activities that are developed during this phase be documented while being carried
out. In this way it will be possible to develop a methodological record that serves several purposes: i) for
producing the relevant sections of the mapping, ii) interpreting and validating the results, iii) producing a
subsequent mapping (a revision or update) with a different team, iv) learning experience.
______________________
45

See the section Sources of information for mappings and industrial classifications: limitations and treatment in the third part of
the guide.

5. Report and y dissemination


The preparation of the mapping report and the dissemination of its results are critical in the development of
these activities. The sustainability of the mappings depends on a good report and an optimum
dissemination strategy, as well as possibly achieving greater visibility for the sector and really influencing
decision making with respect to its promotion.
The strategy for disseminating the results of the mappings should be developed bearing in mind that it is, at
the same time, a communication channel between the different agents that participate in the functioning of
the sector. This strategy includes both the definition of the type (or types) of reports that are going to be
prepared and the programming of several meetings for socialising the results at different venues. The type
of report and the way the socialisation is carried out are determined by the users to whom they are
addressed46.
With regard to the types of report, they may involve research, decision-making or promotion and support.
Regarding the socialisation activities, it is worth considering group or personal meetings - practical or
academic in nature - and the dissemination of information through restricted or mass media, the press or
audiovisual media.
All this must be done after holding discussions and reaching agreements with the support group, which will
contribute guidelines on the best way to disseminate results, analysing the availability of the human,
technical and financial resources of the region and the institutions that produced and supported the
mapping.
The fourth part of the guide describes in more detail the planning and execution of the dissemination
strategy.
__________________
46

This topic is described in greater detail in the fourth part of the guide.

21

Part 3
TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE PRODUCTION OF MAPPINGS

This part of the guide contains guidelines or recommendations related to technical aspects for producing
mappings. Firstly, it presents different proposals for grouping together activities or sectors related to
creativity and culture that may be considered in determining the scope of the mappings. It then examines in
detail activities for designing the methodology and applying techniques of collection and analysis: i) a
description of models for evaluating the economic importance of creative industries, ii) the identification and
characterisation of the main secondary sources of information for the mappings; iii) objectives and
recommendations for collecting primary information.

1. Activities included in the creative and culture sectors


As was mentioned in the second part of this document, the definition of the scope of mapping the creative
industries by the regional teams in charge of producing them consists of identifying the sectors or activities
for which the analysis will be made. The decision regarding which activities to include should be based on
two main criteria: the strategic importance or critical character that the activity or sector has for the region,
on one hand47, and the availability of secondary information or the facility and viability of collecting primary
information on the other. If resources for the production of the first mappings are scarce, the criterion of
availability of secondary information in selecting the activities to be studied will doubtless prevail.
Reflecting the existence of different visions of the creative and culture sectors, the reviewed experiences
defined different groups of activities or sectors, yet common elements were found. The division of the
creative industries into sectors most used internationally is that of the Department of Culture,
Communications Media and Sport of the United Kingdom. For its part, UNESCO, the organisation
governing education, science and culture, identifies cultural industries based on international
experiences.
To facilitate identifying the creative and/or cultural activities to be included in the mappings, the most
common divisions into sectors are presented below. This guide includes the division that resulted from the
discussion that took place recently at the Satellite Culture Account Workshop organised by the Andres
Bello Accord. The discussion was based on the division defined for the countrys satellite culture account
that involved the participation of several experts in different Latin American countries, which makes it a
good point of reference. The division is broadened to include the entire cultural field.
It should be emphasised that these and other divisions that have been used to define creative and cultural
industries or the broader cultural field do not purport to be unique or universal. As one of the studies of the
project Economy and Culture noted (Andres Bello Accord and Ministry of Culture of Colombia, 2003),
defining the sub-sectors that make up the culture sector is a complex, risky and interminable task, and the
same applies to creative and cultural industries. Dividing into sectors simply seeks to facilitate the
identification of creative and cultural activities in order to promote their economic valuation and
development. As mentioned in the first part of the guide, they are strictly functional definitions.
___________________
47

In the Definition of Scope stage (second part of the guide), potential criteria for determining the critical character of the sector
were indicated, and it was also emphasised that this depends on the specifics of the sector in the region.

22

1.1 Creative industries in the United Kingdom


For nearly 10 years the United Kingdom worked with divisions of the creative industries into sectors
designed by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) that initially included a total of thirteen
activities48, which were later grouped into eleven49.
A generalised use of this classification was made by several of the mappings produced in the country, and
was adopted by other countries too. In its desire to improve the conceptual and methodological framework
for measuring the importance of creative industries, the DCMS recently revised, among other aspects, the
divisions into sectors used. Since 2004, it began to work on a broader definition of the culture sector to
include, in addition to the sub-sector of creative industries, the domains of heritage (museums, libraries,
archives and the historical environment), tourism and sports. Regarding the sub-sector of creative
industries, the DCMS regrouped them into 4 domains, made up of the following components50:
Dominions

Components

Galleries

Architecture
Visual arts
Design

Crafts

Cinema

Audiovisuals

Television

Radio

Music

Theatre
Performing arts
Dance

Books and printing

Table 1 Dominions and components of the creative industries

Given that the inclusion of sport in the culture sector is not very generalised, and even less so in the
creative sector, this guide does not consider it. However, it suggests including heritage and cultural tourism
in those regions interested in producing mappings of their broadened culture sector.
___________________________
48

Antiques, architecture, crafts, performing arts, cinema, design, fashion, music, publications, advertising, software, leisure
software, and radio and television.

23

49
Music was merged with performing arts, while leisure software and other types of software were merged with software and
computer services.
50
In addition to these components, there is a broader description of activities associated with each domain. A complete list of
activities can be consulted on the following web page: http://www.culture.gov.uk/global/research/det/glossary_abbreviations.htm

1.2 Cultural industries and activities according to UNESCO


Although the United Nations Organisation for Education, Science and Culture, UNESCO, does not have its
own definition of cultural industries, it does have a brief description of the sector and of the activities that
are included in it, based on international experiences. According to this organisation, cultural industries
(also known as creative industries, industries of the future, knowledge industries or content industries,
depending on the context) generally include printed and multimedia, audiovisuals, music recordings and
cinema, crafts and design. In some countries, the concept also includes architectural activities, visual and
performing arts, sports, the manufacture of musical instruments, advertising and tourism.
The cultural industries links on UNESCOs website comprise the following activities:
Books
Audiovisual media
Translation
Crafts and design
Finally, UNESCOs World Culture Reports present the following as cultural activities:
Newspapers, books and libraries
Radio, television and cinema
Recorded music
Performing arts
Archives and museums
With respect to heritage, UNESCO does not consider it a component of the cultural sector proper but rather
a world asset that it is committed to protect. However, heritage has been considered part of the culture
sector by institutions such as the Organisation of Iberian and Latin American States for Education, Science
and Culture, OEI.
________________
51

http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=2461&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION = 201.html

1.3 Andres Bello Accord Workshop on the Satellite Culture Account


The National Statistics Department, DANE, together with the Andres Bello Accord and Ministry of Culture,
are currently developing a satellite account for the culture sector of the country, as part of the second
phase of the Economy and Culture project. This account will form part of the National Accounts System,
managed by DANE, and one of its main objectives will be to generate information on the economic
production of the culture sector, systematise it and periodically update it.
Recently the team in charge of its construction held a workshop with representatives from five Latin
American countries interested in creating such an account. The discussions of the workshop centred on the
sectors that should be considered part of the cultural field, based on a proposal by the Colombian team52.
Below are the divisions into sectors that were agreed by the participants of the workshop, with the
corresponding activities or sub-sectors in each sector.

24

Sectors

Performing arts and spectacles

Visual arts
Crafts
Publishing

Audio-visual

Music

Design

Advertising
Games and toys

Tangible heritage

Sub-sectors
Theatre
Dance
Presentations that co-ordinate dance, theatre, and
music
Live music presentations
Photography
Painting
Sculpture
Graphic arts
Crafts
Books
Periodicals
Other publications
Film and video
Radio
Television
Video games
Music publishing
Music Recording
Architectural
Industrial
Graphic
Textile
Fashion, accessories and jewellery
Interface
Advertising
Games and toys
Property
Moveable goods
Libraries
Museums
Film archives
Document archives
Natural reserves

Botanical gardens and zoos


Zoological specimens and collections, mineralogy and
anatomy
Restoration, preservation and conservation
Fiestas, festivals and fairs
Techniques of crafts production related to cultural
memory
Intangible heritage
Local tongues
Cuisine and local culinary traditions
Other traditions and oral expressions
Social sciences and other research
Social sciences and other research disciplines/activities
disciplines/activities in the field of culture and the arts in the field of culture and the arts
Artistic training
Artistic training
Table 2. Divisions of the cultural field into sectors agreed at the Andres Bello Accord Workshop

It is worth noting that in the first phase of the Economy and Culture project, the Andres Bello Accord and
Ministry of Culture made some initial economic measurements of the sector, concentrated - apparently for
practical reasons - in the cultural industries of radio, television, magazines, music, books, the press, and
film and video. For the second phase of the project they had contemplated including other activities which,
although they did not fulfil the characteristics defined by UNESCO as a cultural industry, have a symbolic,
cultural and social significance that is greater than their value of exchange and use: performing arts, visual

25

arts, crafts, advertising, new technologies, art education, restoration of architectural heritage, cultural
tourism, moveable heritage and popular festivals.
________________________
52

A similar discussion should be held in the Definition of Scope phase of the regional mappings that are produced.

2. Models or types of analysis


From a review of experiences in the development of mapping creative industries, it is possible to identify
some common methods or techniques of analysis. Such methods vary according to the scope of the
mappings and the availability of information, and can be complementary.
For each of the scopes considered (creative sector or culture sector in general; one or more or
creative/cultural activities or industries; cultural events such as festivals and other activities) a series of
models of analysis were identified and are shown in figure 2.

MODEL OF ANALYSIS

SCOPE

Creative sector or culture sector in general

1.

Evaluation of impact

2.

Structure analysis

3.

Chain analysis

1.

Evaluation of impact

2.

Analysis of structure and composition

3.

Analysis of production chain

4.

Cluster analysis

1.

Evaluation of impact

One or more creative or cultural activities

Cultural Events
2.

Documentary analysis (qualitative)

Figure 2. Models of analysis for creative industries

For the most part these are techniques that employ quantitative information, which can be complemented
with qualitative analysis. The variables or indicators that predominate in these models refer to components
of supply, since the availability of the respective data is greater and the resulting analysis better illustrates
the dimension of the sector and its contribution to the economy. However, it is recommended that these
models be complemented with information related to demand, in those cases where data is available or
where its collection is viable.
The different models identified in the mappings reviewed are described below according to their scope.

26

2.1 Models for analysing the creative sector or culture sector in general
This group of techniques refers to structured studies of the creative or culture sectors in general that show
with precision their contribution to the economy, their composition or their interrelationship with the other
sectors. The main requirement for securing a good analysis is to have sufficient and homogenous
information, i.e., that the data obtained for the different activities that make up the creative or culture sector
come from comparable sources so that they can be added up.
Three complementary models of analysis can be identified for this scope:
1. Evaluation of impact
2. Structure analysis
3. Chain analysis

2.1.1 Evaluation of impact


This model consists of examining the direct economic importance of the creative or culture sector in
general, in terms of its contribution to regional production, income and employment. The term direct
importance is employed to differentiate it from indirect or induced impacts that can be studied using other
analysis techniques.
There are different indicators for quantifying the size or direct contribution of the creative sector to the
regional economy and employment. The choice of indicators depends on the resources available for
producing the study in terms of time, money, information and trained staff, and the particular interests of
those in charge of planning actions concerning the creative industries.
Table 3 shows some of the basic indicators that have been employed in evaluating the impact of creative
industries in the mappings reviewed.

Impact

Variable

Production

Value added

Indicator

Type

Definition

Gross production

Quantitative

Value of the sectors gross production

Contribution to regional
gross production

Quantitative

Percentage of participation in the total


economy of the sector s gross
production

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of the sectors gross


production within a certain period

Value added

Quantitative

Primary revenue generated by the


sector

Contribution to GDP
(regional value added)

Quantitative

Percentage of participation in GDP of


the sectors value added

27

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of the sectors value


added within a certain period

Worker productivity

Quantitative

Income generated by each worker of


the sector

Value of exports and


imports

Quantitative

Value of the sector s exports and


imports

Economic

Productivity

Foreign
trade

Employment Employment

Contribution to regional
foreign trade

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of the value


of the sectors exports and imports in
the total economy

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of the sectors exports


and imports within in a certain period

Number of people
employed

Quantitative

Number of people employed in the


sector

Contribution to regional
employment

Quantitative

Percentage of participation in total


employment of that generated in the
sector

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of employment


generated in the sector within a certain
period

Table 3. Variables and indicators of impact evaluation models for the creative or culture sectors in general

As can be seen in the table, the indicators used to measure the impact of the creative or culture sectors are
variables o macro economic aggregates that are shown both in absolute terms (quantities in the case of
employment, or monetary values in the other cases) and in relative terms (participation in the
corresponding aggregates or regional indicators).
Among the indicators related to economic impact, value added is the most appropriate because it
measures the real generation of revenue in the sector, given that it is the result of deducting from sales or
revenues of the activity (gross production), expenditures on inputs, materials and services used in the
production process (intermediate consumables).
Thus value added is an indicator of net revenue that does not experience the problem of double accounting
of gross production. However, as can be seen below, not all available secondary information sources
produce information about value added, which is why some mappings will have to estimate the contribution
of the sector to the economy from gross production or revenue data.
Among the experiences reviewed that have employed impact evaluation techniques of the creative or
culture sectors in general, are The Economic Contribution of Copyright Industries in Australia53; Study of
the Economic Importance of Industries and Activities Protected by Copyright and Related Rights in the

28

MERCOSUR Member Countries and Chile54 ; and Economic Estimates of Creative Industries in the United
Kingdom55 .
____________________
53

http://www.copyright.com.au/reports%20&%20papers/(c)_Value.pdf
http://www.wipo.org/sme/es/documents/studies/mercosur_copyright.pdf
55
http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/B6625AC4-7EEC-42D2-81C9CCD818FFD7D4/0/CreativeIndustrieseconomicestimatesJuly04revisednov.pdf
54

2.1.2 Structure Analysis


Generally, structure analysis refers to evaluating the composition of macroeconomic aggregates, such as
production, household consumption, exports, or total demand, among others, whether by sub-sectors or as
part of another aggregate (for example, as a proportion of GDP).
In the case of the creative or culture sector in general, this technique has been employed to investigate the
composition of its main aggregates by activities or industries.
The same studies cited as examples of impact evaluations of the sector have carried out structure analysis
by examining absolute values (quantities or monetary values) or the contributions of the creative industries
or cultural activities in the corresponding aggregates of the creative or culture sector.
Table 4 shows a basic model of the indicators that have been examined in this kind of analysis.

Variable

Indicator

Type

Definition

Gross production of the activities or Quantitative


industries of the sector

Value of gross production generated in each


activity or industry of the sector

Distribution of gross production by


sector

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of gross


production of each activity or industry in the
sector and in the total economy

Value added of the activities or


industries of the sector

Quantitative

Distribution of value added by


sector

Quantitative

Exports and imports of the


activities or industries of the sector

Quantitative

Distribution of exports and imports


by sector

Quantitative

Number of people employed in


activities or industries of the sector

Quantitative

Production

Value
added

Foreign
trade

Value added of each activity or industry of


the sector

Percentage of participation of value added


of each activity or industry in the sector and
in the total economy

Value of exports and imports generated by


each activity or industry of the sector

Percentage of participation of exports and


imports of each activity or industry in the
sector and in the total economy

Number of employees in each activity or


industry of the sector

29

Employment

Dimension
of the sector

Percentage of participation of employment


of each activity or industry in the sector and
in the total economy

Distribution of employment by
sector

Quantitative

Number of establishments in the


activities or industries of the sector

Quantitative

Distribution of establishments

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of
establishments of each activity or industry in
the sector and in the total economy

Legal organisation of
establishments

Quantitative

Legal distribution of companies of the sector

Number of establishments in each activity or


industry of the sector

Table 4. Variables and indicators of models of structure analysis for the creative sector or the culture sector in general

2.1.3 Chain Analysis


This is a more sophisticated and demanding model of analysis in terms of information, which t could be
applied at a later stage after using the two previous models. It is a systematic analysis of the economic
relationship between the creative or culture sector in general and the rest of the economy. This model can
be developed by analysing production, employment and income multipliers calculated on the basis of the
input-product matrix.
The input-product matrix is an economic model based on the analysis of general equilibrium. It illustrates
relations of interdependence between the different branches of economy activity and permits quantifying
the total contribution of each sector in terms of production, income and employment. With this tool, the
chains of the creative or culture sector in general can be established in a forward direction (by its provision
of goods and services for the intermediate consumption of other branches) and backwards (by the use of
inputs produced by other branches). For evaluating the importance of the creative or culture sector in the
economy, backward chains are more useful in that they show how much production, revenue or regional
employment grow when demand for products of the sector increases.
Despite being more demanding, this model of analysis is possibly the most interesting for measuring the
importance of a sector, as it is the only one that allows estimating the indirect contribution, which is that
generated from its interrelation with the rest of the economy. In this model, the analysis of the sector is not
limited to estimating its size, but rather includes the impulse for regional growth through its consumption of
goods and services produced in the region by other branches.
Table 5 shows the most common indicators of this model: the multipliers of production, employment, and
income.

30

Variable

Chains
(backwards)

Indicator

Type

Definition

Production multiplier

Quantitative

Number of times the value of production of the


economy increases as a result of an increase in
demand for products of the sector, in a monetary unit

Employment multiplier

Quantitative

Number of times that employment generated in the


economy increases as a result of an increase in
demand for products of the sector, in a monetary unit

Revenue multiplier

Number of times that the revenue of the economy


Quantitative increases as a result of an increase in the demand for
products of the sector, in a monetary unit

Table 5. Variables and indicators of models of chain analysis for the creative or culture sector in general

Because building input-product matrixes is a time-consuming task, and even more so when there is a need
to separate the creative and culture sectors from the rest of the economy, few mappings include these
models of analysis. One of the more documented is The Economic Impact of the Arts and Cultural
Industries in Wales, produced in 1998 (Bryan et al., 1998, cited in Reeves, 2002).

2.2 Models for analysing one or more creative/cultural activities or industries


A considerable group of the mappings reviewed include sector studies that relate to one or more
creative/cultural activities or industries. The choice of activities or industries depends on their strategic
importance and on the availability of sources of information.
The purpose of the techniques of analysis identified is to examine the importance of the activity or
activities, their structure, their interrelations with the rest of the economy and aspects related to their
competitive environment, among others. These techniques are the following:
1. Evaluation of impact
2. Analysis of structure and composition
3. Production chain analysis
4. Cluster analysis

2.2.1 Evaluation of impact


The purpose and characteristics of this technique are equivalent to the description of the impact evaluation
model for the creative or culture sector in general. The technique consists of estimating the size or direct
contribution of the selected activities or industries to the regional economy in terms of macroeconomic
aggregates such as gross production, value added (or GDP), exports, and employment, among others.
The indicators generated in this model (Table 6) are practically the same as those that were shown for the
evaluation of impact of the creative sector, with the difference that they no longer refer to the entire sector
but rather to the selected activities or industries.

31

Impact

Variable

Production

Value added

Indicator

Type

Definition

Gross production

Quantitative

Value of gross production generated


by the activity/activities

Contribution to regional
gross production

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of gross


production generated by the
activity/activities in the total economy

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of gross production


generated by the activity/activities
within a certain period

Value added

Quantitative

Primary revenue generated by the


activity/activities

Contribution to GDP
(regional value added)

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of value


added of the activity/activities in GDP

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of value added of the


activity/activities within a certain period

Worker productivity

Quantitative

Revenue generated by each worker in


the activity/activities

Value of exports and


imports

Quantitative

Value of exports and imports


generated by the activity/activities

Economic

Productivity

Foreign
trade

Employment Employment

Contribution to regional
foreign trade

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of the


value of exports and imports of the
activity/activities in the total economy

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of exports and imports


of the activity/activities within a certain
period

Number of people
employed

Quantitative

Number of employees in the


activity/activities

Contribution to regional
employment

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of
employment generated by the
activity/activities in total employment

Growth

Quantitative

Rate of growth of employment


generated by the activity/activities
within a certain period

Table 6. Variables and indicators of impact evaluation models for one or more creative or cultural activities or industries

32

Among the studies reviewed that use the impact evaluation model are Mapping the Musical Industry in
Scotland56, Socio-Economic Characterisation of the Colombian Crafts Sector57, Impact of the Music
Recording Sector in the Colombian Economy58 and The Film Industry and its Consumption in the Iberian
and Latin American Countries 59, among others.
________________________
56
57
58
59

http://www.scottishmusicdirectory.com/pdf/finalreport2702.pdf
http://www.artesaniasdecolombia.gov.co/documentos/documentos_pub/Diagnostico_del_sector_artesanal.pdf
http://www.cab.int.co/media/libro_impacto_fonografico.pdf
http://www.oma.recam.org/estudios/caci_al.pdf

2.2.2 Analysis of structure and composition


This model consists of the study of the structure of the selected creative or cultural activities or industries.
Structure is represented by the distribution of the macroeconomic aggregates of the selected industries
among the activities that form part of them. For example, the study on the impact of the music recording
sector in the Colombian economy60 analyses four sub-sectors or groups of agents:: i) authors, composers
and performers, ii) publishers, iii) producers of music recordings, and iv) manufacturers of support media
and distributors.
The possibility of making this kind of analysis will depend on the availability of information broken down into
sub-sectors. Table 7 shows the most common indicators of this analysis technique.

Variable

Indicator

Type

Definition

Gross production of the


groupings of each activity

Quantitative

Value of gross production of each grouping

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of gross production


of each grouping in the respective activity and
in the total economy

Value added of the groupings


of each activity

Quantitative

Value added of each grouping

Distribution of value added by


groupings

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of the value added


of each grouping in the respective activity and
in the total economy

Exports and imports of the


groupings of each activity

Quantitative

Value of exports and imports of each grouping

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of exports and


imports of each grouping in the respective
activity and in the total economy

Production
Distribution of gross
production by grouping

Value added

Foreign trade
Distribution of exports and
imports by groupings

33

Number of people employed in


the groupings of each activity

Quantitative

Number of employees in each grouping

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of employment of


each grouping in the respective activity and in
the total economy

Number of establishments in
the groupings of each activity

Quantitative

Number of establishments in each grouping

Distribution of establishments

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of establishments of


each grouping in the respective activity and in
the total economy

Legal organisation of
establishments

Quantitative

Employment
Distribution of employment
generated by groupings

Dimension of
sector

Legal distribution of the companies of each


grouping

Table 7. Variables and indicators of structure analysis models for one or more creative/cultural activities or industries

________________________
60

http://www.cab.int.co/media/libro_impacto_fonografico.pdf

2.2.3 Productive chain analysis


This model consists of examining the interrelationship between the selected activities or industries and the
rest of the economy. It is similar to the chain model with the difference that in this case there is no need to
build input-product matrixes61.
The technique consists in evaluating, in qualitative and/or quantitative terms, the interaction of the selected
creative or cultural activity with the other economic activities. The most commonly analysed
interrelationships in the mappings reviewed are those that refer to suppliers and consumers. These two
groups are precisely the most important links in productive chains.
A quantitative analysis of the productive chain can include the construction of the production account of the
activity and the estimate of sales according to their destination (in the region, within the country but outside
the region, and abroad). The construction of the production account is equivalent to estimating the value of
the production minus the costs incurred by the activity in the productive process (intermediate
consumption), without including payments to productive factors (remuneration, taxes on the activity, mixed
income62 and surplus from the exploitation). For the purpose of examining the interaction of the creative
activity with the rest of the economy, intermediate consumption is classified according to the branch that
provides the type of input or service used (for example, paper and printing, services to the companies,
power utility, etc.). Next, the percentage distribution of each component of intermediate consumption in
total consumption would be calculated so as to identify the sectors with which the creative activity has the
greatest interrelationship.
Table 8 shows some of the most common indicators of the production chain analysis model.

34

Variable

Indicator

Type

Definition

Consumption of goods
and services

Quantitative

Value of goods and services consumed in the


production process classified by branch

Intermediate
consumption
Distribution of goods
and services
consumed

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of the inputs and


services consumed according to the supply
branch

Destination of sales

Quantitative

Value of production sold in the region, in the


rest of the country and abroad

Distribution of sales by
destination

Quantitative

Percentage of participation of each destination in


total sales of the activity

Availability

Qualitative

Local availability of inputs and services required


in the production process

Quality

Qualitative

Quality of inputs and services used in the


production process

Fulfilment

Qualitative

Fulfilment of the supply of goods and services


necessary in the production process

Obstacles

Qualitative

Obstacles to the supply of goods and services


necessary in the production process

Channels

Qualitative

Distribution channels employed by the activity

Difficulties

Qualitative

Difficulties in the distribution of the production of


the activity

Sales

Provision of inputs
and services

Distribution of
production

Table 8. Variables and indicators of production chain analysis models for one or more activities or creative or cultural industries

Notable among the studies reviewed that make a quantitative or qualitative analysis of at least one of the
links in the productive chain are: Strategies for a Creative Region, for the Region of Yorkshire and Humber,
which examines the satisfaction of creative industries with current suppliers of provisions and services not
related to personnel63; the study Cultural Industries: Key Information for the same region in England, which
analyses the problems of the productive chain as well as the distribution of companies according to the
geographical destination of products or services64; and Mapping the Creative Industries of Cheshire, which
evaluates local access to inputs and the distribution of sales by destination65.
_____________________
61

It is important to point out, however, that it would also be viable to do chain analysis from the inputproduct matrixes for a single
activity or industry. It has not been included in the models since building these tools is time-consuming and it might not be justified
to do it just to examine a specific activity.
62
Accounting balance of the income generation account for the household sector, equivalent to the exploitation surplus in
incorporated companies (United Nations, 1993).
63
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Cluster.pdf

35

64

http://www.creativeyorkshire.com
http://www2.cheshire.gov.uk/arts/CI_report2000.pdf
66
Besides the Porters Diamond, there are other techniques for mapping clusters, such as input-product analysis, analysis of
correspondence, graph analysis and analysis of geographic concentration and economic activity. For greater detail, see Johnston
(2003).
65

2.2.4 Cluster Analysis


This model consists of determining the competitiveness of an activity from the existing relationship between
it and other related industries and factors associated with demand. The tool most often used for this
purpose in the reviewed studies is Porters Diamond66. This tool consists of a characterisation of four key
factors in competitiveness: company strategy, structure and rivalry; conditions of productive factors;
related and support industries; conditions of demand.
According to the technique, the competitiveness of a company depends on the competitiveness of its
suppliers of inputs, whose competitiveness in turn depends on the competitiveness of their own suppliers.
But the competitiveness of the firm also depends on service suppliers, sources of basic and applied
research and development (R&D), providers of capital goods, distributors and training institutions.

Strategy of the firm,


structure and rivalry

Factors

Demand

Related and support


industries

Figure 3. Porters Diamond

Even competitors (of the company but also those of its suppliers) are important because of the pressure
they generate to continuously improve processes and techniques and search for new opportunities.
Competitors also provide opportunities for co-operation in the joint search for solutions to the problem.
Thus, the success of an activity can be attributed partially to the size, depth and nature of the cluster of
related and support activities of which it is a part.

36

Cluster analysis is a qualitative technique whose information is collected through surveys of key
representatives of creative activities that investigate the characteristics of the four central factors of
competitiveness.
Among the indicators examined in the model, are those shown in Table 9.

Factor

Indicator

Type

Definition

Competition

Qualitative

Principal national and international competitors

Innovation

Qualitative

Strategies to reduce costs, improve quality of


products, seek new markets, etc.

Human resources

Qualitative

Quality of available human resources in the region

Infrastructure

Qualitative

Quality of the regional infrastructure (educational


system, public services, transport, etc.)

Technology

Qualitative

Suppliers

Qualitative

Support
organisations

Qualitative

Services provided by support organisations

Demand
characteristics

Qualitative

Main consumers of products or services of the


activity and their characteristics

Consumer
preferences

Qualitative

Consumer tastes and demands

Company strategy,
structure and rivalry

Conditions of factors

Access and cost of technology

Availability of local inputs and services required in


the productive process

Related and support


industries

Conditions of demand

Table 9. Variables and indicators of cluster analysis models for one or more creative or cultural activities or industries

Two of the reviewed mapping studies contain analysis of creative industries based on this technique.
These are Study of the Creative Industries Cluster for Australia67 and Baseline Study of Creative Industries
in Hong Kong68.
In these studies it is common for the activities related to the creative sector or industries protected by
copyright to be segmented in four groups, according to the type of relation:
the first corresponds to core activities, which correspond to those that manufacture products or works
protected by copyright or have creation as their central activity

37

the second group, known as related industries, consists of the production and technical assistance of
fittings and fixtures used exclusively with material protected by copyright or activities that supply inputs for
creation
the third group of activities are related to distribution and include the transport of products and
telecommunications, as well as other forms of retail and wholesale distribution of creative products or those
protected by copyright
a fourth group comprises support and dissemination activities of creative products or those protected
by copyright
It is also common, especially in mappings related to copyright industries, to distinguish between core
industries (those that have copyright as their predominant product) and partial industries (those that have
these rights as part of their production).
____________________
67
68

http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/cics/
http://ccpr.hku.hk/Baseline_Study_on_HK_Creative_Industries-eng.pdf

2.3 Models for analysing cultural events


This refers to the study of cultural festivals that are frequently held in the regions of the country. It requires
a specific approach that depends on the characteristics of the event. Generally speaking, the analysis can
be carried out in two ways: evaluation of impact and documentary analysis.
2.3.1 Evaluation of impact
Among the possible techniques for evaluating the economic impact of a cultural fiesta69 or similar event, the
most viable in the case of the regions of Colombia is to do surveys of the participants and organisers of the
event, complemented by secondary information.
Since fiestas set other economic activities in motion, the impact of such an event should include the
induced effect in the other activities. The main purpose of doing surveys of participants is to investigate the
average expenditure in the different activities (related directly and indirectly to the fiesta). The product of
this expenditure divided by the total number of participants represents a reliable estimate of the direct
impact and the induced effect of the fiesta70. Moreover, surveys of the organisers serve to shed light on
aspects such as employment (formal and informal) generated by the different activities.
Some of the indicators that can be analysed in the evaluation of impact of fiestas are shown in Table 10.

Variable

Indicator

Type

Definition

Number of visitors

Quantitative

Number of visitors to the main activities of the event

Characteristics of the
visitors

Qualitative

Average expenditure

Quantitative

Characteristics of the visitors according to their origin,


size of groups, permanence at the venue, etc.

Demand
Average expenditure of the visitors in the event

38

Sales

Quantitative Value of sales generated by the complementary activities


(formal and informal) of the event

Formal
employment

Number of workers

Quantitative

Number of additional workers hired for both the principal


and complementary activities of the event

Informal
employment

Number of informal
occupations

Quantitative

Number of informal occupations in the different activities


of the event

Taxes

Tax collection

Quantitative

Value of taxes collected (hotels and public spectacles)

Table 10. Variables and indicators of impact evaluation models for cultural events

The best example of evaluating the impact of a fiesta in the Colombian case is represented by a series of
studies by Fundesarrollo of the Barranquilla Carnival71, which have the additional value of including the
measurement of informality. The Study on the Economic Impact of Theatre in the United Kingdom71 is
useful as an example of the application of consumer surveys (spectators in this case, and visitors in the
case of fiestas) to assess the average expenditure on activities related directly and indirectly to the event.
______________________
70

Although the study by the Andres Bello Accord on the assessment of the economic impact of fiestas suggests estimating the
indirect impact as well through the use of multipliers suggested by experts, this guide does not contemplate such a technique
because of the difficulty of estimating such multipliers without adequate knowledge of the structure and economic interrelationships
that take place in the municipalities. Only if an input-product matrix of the municipality were to be available (which is highly unlikely)
would it be recommendable to employ multipliers.

2.3.2 Documentary analysis


Lastly, documentary analysis consists of the review of historical archives and research done on the event
for the purpose of learning about aspects such as its roots and historical evolution. They are
ethnographical studies that employ qualitative techniques for the collection and analysis of information.
Although there are no such studies among the mapping studies reviewed, its inclusion as an analysis
model is explained by the importance of documenting the festivities that are held in the regions of the
country and are part of their intangible heritage.

3. Sources of information for mappings and industrial classifications: limitations and treatment
As mentioned in the second part of the guide, while some regions will have the possibility of compiling
primary information for complementing the analysis of their first mappings, others can choose to produce
them using only secondary sources (regional and national). Secondary sources are all those that contain
previously collected information; this includes official sources (such as DANE) but also unofficial sources
(for example a research group or an association that has conducted a survey of cultural agents). Because
the concept of creative industries is relatively new in the country, these first mappings should illustrate the
general characteristics of the sector and try to approximate its size in the regions. As interest gradually
grows, it will be more viable for the regions that initially could only work with secondary sources of
information to find resources to compile primary information that will allow them to improve the analysis in
subsequent mappings.
The following are possible sources of secondary information for producing the first mappings:

39

Annual Manufacturing Survey (DANE)


Annual Survey of Advertising and Digital Information Services (DANE)
Annual Survey of Commerce (DANE)
Survey of Micro Enterprises in Industry, Services and Commerce (DANE)
Survey of Income and Expenditures (DANE)
Income return for the payment of sales tax and income tax identification number (DIAN)
Registration of mercantile and non-profit organisations (Chambers of Commerce)
Financial statements of institutions under the supervision of the Superintendence of Public Corporations
Financial statements of institutions under the supervision of the Superintendence of Securities.
Financial statements of public sector bodies and institutions (General Accounting Office of the Nation)
Foreign trade records (DANE)
Cultural information available at the Secretariats or Institutes of Culture and consolidated information in
the National System of Cultural Information, SINIC, of the Ministry of Culture
Local systems of cultural information
Professional bodies and associations (national73 and regional)
.University records on students and alumnae of programmes related to creation and culture.
Some of these sources (annual survey of advertising and digital information services, survey of micro
enterprises, registrations of the Chamber of Commerce and Superintendence of Public Corporations) were
used in mapping the creative industries of Bogota and Soacha74.
The great majority of the sources mentioned provide useful information for characterising the supply of
cultural or creative products and services, because they facilitate the identification of some creative and
cultural agents (Chamber of Commerce, Superintendence of Securities and that of Public Corporations,
Secretariats or Institutes of Culture, and professional bodies or associations) or estimate the size of the
creative sector, and to a lesser degree, the culture sector, from the economic information provided by the
producers (surveys of manufacturing and services by DANE, records of the DIAN, and financial statements
of creative companies). Other sources provide information about the demand for creative and cultural
products that would indirectly help to measure size, although with the limitations described later: the DANE
survey of income and expenditures and some professional associations that have carried out surveys to
determine the demand for some cultural or creative products75. In addition, the information provided by
foreign trade records and surveys on commerce and micro enterprises may be considered as intermediate
between measurements of supply and demand, and are also useful for approximating the size of the
sector, although with similar limitations to that of income and expenditures. Finally, university records
provide information for examining part of the potential of the sector in the region.
In order to evaluate the usefulness of these sources for producing regional mappings of creative industries,
the main characteristics of most of them were identified and are presented in matrix form in Appendix 5.
Professional bodies and associations76 or university records77 were not included, but they are considered to
be sources of fundamental information for the mappings.
The first column of the matrix corresponds to the source of information. It should be pointed out that in
the matrix, as in the previous listing, not all possible sources available in the regions for producing the
mappings are included. Those provided are: i) national sources; ii) some regional sources available in
various parts of the country; iii) in the two previous cases, those sources for which it is possible to know the
kind of information they produce or provide.
The column geographical coverage describes the regional scope of the source of information according
to how representative it is. Its representative standing is determined by the number of establishments
(households or individuals) that report information to the corresponding source.
With respect to surveys, their results normally correspond to information that a sample or representative
group of establishments report, whose data are expanded so that the result corresponds to the total for

40

the sector or population. Such is the case of surveys of commerce, digital information services, micro
enterprises and income and expenditures. For the remaining surveys (manufacturing and advertising
services) the information is reported either by all establishments employing 10 or more people
(manufacturing) or by the entire number of establishments of the sector (advertising); i.e., such surveys are
not referred to as a sample but rather as a census.
According to how representative the source is and to the characteristics of the creative sector in the region,
the regional scope of secondary information sources may be potential or effective. It is potential when, in
principle, it seems possible to access the required information. And it is effective when the needed
information is finally accessed.
The following example may help comprehend the notion of potential scope. DANEs Annual Manufacturing
Survey is representative of industrial establishments that have over 10 employees in 21 departments of the
country78. That might immediately suggest that for those departments it would be possible to have broken
down information of all the industrial economic activities that are developed, among them those related to
the creative sector. However, that is not necessarily true. And it is not because, no matter whether the
information comes from samples or a census, DANE has the obligation not to violate the statistical reserve,
which consists of impeding public access to information that would permit the identification of productive
establishments. What DANE does when there is a risk of identification is to add the information of the
activity having three or less establishments to another activity. So if the production of the sole creative
industrial activity in one department is concentrated in a few establishments with over 10 employees,
because of the reserve the economic information regarding that activity cannot be gleaned from the Annual
Manufacturing Survey79. This means that with respect to mappings, the coverage of the Annual
Manufacturing Survey for that department is potential, but not real.
Regarding effective coverage, what happens, especially with sources other than DANE, is that besides
including the total number of establishments with certain characteristics (for example, being supervised), or
responsibilities (having to declare income for the payment of sales tax or having to be registered
commercially), they dont have the problem of statistical reserve. In those cases, the coverage is real.
Returning to the matrix, the third column, creative or cultural activities covered, comprises the cultural or
creative sectors and/or activities that are potentially covered by each of the sources. The term potential is
used in a similar sense to that employed to refer to geographical coverage. Regarding the activities, they
will be covered by the source as long as there is production in the region, and in the case of the DANE
surveys, when the sample is representative and production takes place in more than three establishments.
The column variables or indicators lists some of the variables and/or indicators available in the
corresponding information source. Although it will be examined in greater detail later, the reading of this
column reveals that the DANE surveys (manufacturing, services, micro enterprises and commerce) are the
most complete in economic information. Besides supplying data of value added, they are practically the
only ones that have information on employment.
Then there is the column on limitations, which records the weaknesses of each source with respect to
providing information related to the creative and cultural activities of the regions. In some cases, this
limitation is derived from the coverage of the source, while in others it is related to the industrial
classification. Further on, in the matrix of Problems of sources and industrial codes (Appendix 7), a
separation of these two kinds of difficulties for each industrial code will be made and options for their
treatment will be provided.
Finally, the column access shows the way that information can be obtained from each of these sources.

41

71

http://www.camarabaq.org.co/cms/documentstorage/com.tms.cms.document.Document_ba465 57d-c0a8fa20-ec6bb100de574460/ CARNAVAL 2004.zip


72
http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/phpuSGWg5.doc
73
In spite of this characteristic, they manage regional information
74
http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf
75
For example, The Survey on Reading Habits and Book Consumption in Colombia (Fundalectura, 2001), which is representative
for eleven cities (Bogota, Cali, Medelln, Barranquilla, Manizales, Pasto, Montera, Ccuta, Ibagu, Bucaramanga y Pereira).
76
Because the information they have is not homogenous.
77
Its content depends mainly on the training programmes that exist in each region.
78
Antioquia, Atlntico, Bolvar, Boyac, Caldas, Caquet, Cauca,
Cesar, Crdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nario, Norte de Santander, Quindo, Risaralda, Santander,
Sucre, Tolima.
79
An example of the above is the Department of Caquet, for which the results of the Annual Manufacturing Survey are
representative. According to the survey, in 2003 there were four industrial establishments in the department with more than 10
employees. Due to statistical reserve, in the surveys tables all the establishments were classified in division 36 which corresponds
to furniture and other manufacturing industries. An explanatory note indicates that establishments of divisions 15 (foodstuffs) and
26 (manufacture of other non-metallic minerals) were included in this division. Supposing that one of the four industrial
establishments of Caquet were devoted to furniture craft making, because of statistical reserve such production would be added
to food and non-metallic minerals. To better understand the concept of division, see the UIIC classification described later in the
text.

3.1 An initial balance of the main sources of information


Based on the matrix of secondary sources of information (Appendix 5) and on the variables and indicators
identified for the different models of analysis of creative industries
(section 2 of this part of the guide), it is possible to make an initial balance of the secondary sources
available for the production of the regional mappings of creative industries. To make this balance, the
sources were divided between those that provide information on production and distribution and those
related to consumption (survey of income and expenditures). Although the foreign trade records contain
information on both supply and demand, they are included in the first group.
3.1.1 Sources of information on production and distribution
The balance begins by returning to something that has already been indicated, which is that because of
their content, the best source of information for mappings are the
DANE surveys (industry; commerce, advertising and digital information services, and micro enterprises).
Besides having the largest quantity of economic information required for the models of impact evaluation
and structure analysis, these surveys are the only ones that measure added value and employment,
although in some cases they correspond only to medium and large establishments (manufacturing and
digital information services), and in others only to micro enterprises. The problems of statistical reserve and
geographical coverage should be added to this second limitation: with the exception of the Annual
Manufacturing Survey, the others have national coverage, for which reason it only seems viable to have
access to regional information of large metropolitan areas or major departments.
With regard to DANEs foreign trade records, they have information on imports and exports for all the
departments, which can be used for the analysis of impact evaluation and structure. Due to the limitations
of the imports records, the export data (in volume and value) are more reliable and useful for the mappings.
Although the records of the Chamber of Commerce (mercantile and non-profit organisations) do not offer
comprehensive economic information80 and may include paper companies they have the advantage of
being one of the sources of identifying individuals as well as businesses80. From these records, an initial
inventory of the individuals and organisations of the sector can be developed. Although this inventory
would not be complete because not all the individuals of the sector are required to keep a mercantile
record (independents devoted to art, for example) and because it does not include the public sector nor
educational institutions it is nevertheless a point of departure that could be improved (by verifying if
registered businesses are really operating). As an important group of reviewed experiences indicated,

42

directories (not only of producers but of related agents) are fundamental for getting to know the sector
better and identify individuals that could serve either as informants, which in the case of mapping includes
the collection of primary information, or as part of the support group.
Other sources that have the identification or business name of the establishments are the
Superintendence of Corporations and that of Securities. The first has larger regional coverage
(although it is limited to organisations that are supervised, controlled and inspected)81, while the second
has a coverage restricted to three businesses devoted to film and television production in Bogota, plus a
few other industrial establishments related to the sector. Despite these limitations, these two sources have
the advantage of presenting very detailed financial information from which calculations could be made of
some of the indicators for the models of impact evaluation.
The DIAN has the advantage of providing reliable, although partial, economic information (only gross
income, which serves for impact evaluation and structure analysis) of all the individuals and establishments
that are required to file income tax returns in the municipalities in the country. The only individuals excluded
from that database are those who belong to the simplified regime (retailers and craftsmen) and
independent workers with incomes below the established limits).81
This exclusion is a limitation for the mappings insofar as many of the workers and self-employed
professional workers (designers, artists, and photographers, among others) as well as most craftsmen
belong to this regime.
With regard to the RUT tax registration that is also the responsibility of the DIAN, it seems possible to
access information related to the economic activity of individuals who registered in the system as selfemployed workers. In particular, the number of self-employed individuals who registered their main activity
as one related to the creative or culture sector could be established. Initially, this information could serve to
calculate the approximate number of self-employed workers who undertake cultural or creative activities,
since employment is one of the subjects in which secondary information is most deficient for the mappings.
Unfortunately, as with VAT declarations, this source does not provide the name of the individuals
registered; only their number.
Finally, local organisations of culture (secretariats or institutes) have useful information for building
inventories (goods of cultural interest, events), analysing investments in cultural programmes, and
identifying and quantifying cultural agents (directories of artists, cultural managers, etc.). Moreover, sample
data of individuals or organisations could be selected from directories of cultural agents to compile primary
economic information (income, employment, etc.) that facilitate calculating impact indicators.
According to this balance, besides obtaining partial information on the number of creative
establishments and, in regions that have directories of cultural agents, their number and distribution by
area (cultural managers, painters, musicians, etc.), in the best of cases it would be possible to obtain
secondary information for estimating the production of the creative and cultural industries of some
establishments. This production would be taken directly from the variable gross production of the DANE
surveys, or it could be assimilated into the gross income figures in the case of information obtained from
the DIAN, or into operational income when the information is obtained from financial statements (as is the
case for organisations supervised by the Superintendence of Corporations or that of Securities).
It is important to clarify that the concept of production does not apply in the case of the cultural subsectors that are represented by tangible or intangible assets: moveable patrimony; fixed patrimony, natural
reserves; collections and specimens in zoology, mineralogy and anatomy; intangible patrimony (techniques
of crafts production related to cultural memory; tongues; cuisine and local culinary traditions; other
traditions and oral expressions). Although there are techniques for assessing the value some of these
components of patrimony82, a more viable alternative for the initial mappings could be contemplated, which
is to build inventories (goods of cultural interest, natural reserves, tongues, etc.).

43

With respect to value added, which is the best indicator for measuring the contribution to the regional
economy in models of impact evaluation, it can only be obtained from the DANE surveys. In cases where
financial statements are available, it could be calculated as the difference between operational income
(which, as was mentioned, can be assimilated into its production) and intermediate consumption. The
latter corresponds to the value of the goods and services consumed as inputs in the production process
both in the core activities of the establishment (for example, the production plant) as well as the auxiliary
activities (purchasing, sales, and accounting departments, etc.)83. It does not include the consumption of
fixed assets nor remuneration for personnel at the plant but it does include fees, public utilities, rentals,
transport, maintenance, repairs, advertising, training, research, and development, etc.84
It would also be viable to obtain - for all geographical departments - information on exports and imports of
creative products.
Furthermore, with the possible exception of the larger metropolitan areas or large departments, information
on employment is practically reduced to what can be collected from the National Manufacturing Survey,
which includes industrial establishments with more than 10 employees. The possibility of estimating
employment in creative services or industrial micro enterprises through alternative sources such as the
RUT tax registration is, for the time being, uncertain. It is not completely clear that it would be possible to
access the required information because the DIAN is in the initial process of creating its database.
Moreover, since creative or cultural activities tend to be secondary activities for many people, an
approximate estimate of employment figures becomes even more complex85. As a result, it is necessary to
build inventories of individuals and establishments devoted to creative and cultural activities in order to
attempt to measure the employment generated by them.
The fact that the country still does not have national employment figures (formal and informal) for the
creative or cultural sectors is an indication of the difficulties that exist in making estimates for the regions86.
In this respect, it should be remembered that the source of information on the labour market in the country
(the Continuous Household Survey by the DANE) is a sample and its representative standing at a regional
level (13 metropolitan areas and 23 departments) is insufficient for identifying detailed occupational codes.
In principle it only permits an estimate (in metropolitan areas) of the number of individuals employed by the
main branches of the activity (industry, construction, commerce, restaurants and hotels, transport,
warehousing, communications, financial services, real estate, business and rental services, and
community, social and personal activities). For further breakdowns it would be necessary to ask DANE to
examine the corresponding representative level on an individual basis (by occupation, primary and
secondary, and by department or metropolitan area).
In synthesis, the secondary sources of information identified provide information that permits calculating
some of the indicators of the models of impact evaluation and structure analysis for the creative sector in
general and for specific activities. The indicators that could be calculated for small and medium regions are
production (based on gross income information from the DIAN), the number of establishments and their
distribution by sub-sector (Chamber of Commerce registrations), the number of cultural agents (from
inventories in the secretariats or institutes of culture), and exports and imports of creative products (foreign
trade registrations from the DANE). For largest cities and regions, it would seem feasible to access more
complete economic information provided by the DANE surveys. At any level, (small, medium and large
regions) the secondary sources do not include the total number of individuals or establishments devoted to
creative or cultural activities; for which reason the scope of the mappings based solely on secondary
sources would be limited to formal establishments of a certain size (depending on the coverage of the
corresponding source).
______________________
80
Since it is not obligatory to register many do not fill in the forms, and some of those who do possibly do not record accurate
information.

44

81
The number of businesses included in their data base is about 10.000 for the whole country, of which more than half are located
in Bogota.
82
Contingent valuation, willingness to pay, etc
83
United Nations (1993)
84
Although some of these expenditures are not directly associated with the productive process in the accounting period, they are
considered intermediate consumption because they can have a bearing on future production and productivity. For a broader
description of the items that form part of intermediate consumption and those that do not, it is recommended to consult the National
Accounts System of the United Nations (1993).

3.1.2 Survey of Income and Expenditures


The countrys official source for measuring household consumption is the Income and Expenditures
Survey, applied in the urban areas of 23 capitals87. This survey provides detailed information about
household consumption of goods and services, of which some can be identified that are by nature creative
or cultural (books, games and toys, theatre, concerts, spectacles, cinema, museums, etc.). For others,
however, (crafts, for example) this discrimination is not so simple and alternatives would have to be
evaluated to make this identification.
An advantage of this source is the identification of household consumption according to income level (the
original base is classified by deciles88). This breakdown permits an analysis of cultural and/or creative
consumption by the urban population according to income level, which would provide valuable information
for designing support policies for the sector and formulating strategies for the formation of audiences. In the
case that the other secondary sources were too limited for measuring the production of the sector and
there were no resources available in the region for the collection of primary information, an initial approach
to the creative or cultural sectors of the cities or their respective departments could be based on the
analysis of household demand. In such cases, the mapping would be referenced to the cultural and
creative consumption of the population. With the information available, this mapping could be done for
1994-1995 (the last time the income and expenditures survey was carried out), with the possibility of
comparing the results with those of the next survey, planned for 2007.
If the purpose of the consumption analysis is to estimate the size of the creative and culture sectors of a
city or of a department, the survey has a limitation: it does not discriminate between purchases made within
the city and those made in other municipalities, departments and/or countries (imports). In spite of this
limitation, it is still a good alternative for initiating the analysis of the sector or for complementing the
information that is included in the first mappings.
Among the mappings reviewed, there are a few that examine the household consumption of creative and
cultural products. Among those that have made this evaluation are: the study on the film industry in the
Iberian and Latin American countries89, the evaluation of the impact of culture in Peru90, the work on
research in the culture sector for the South East of the United Kingdom91, and the mappings that evaluate
creative industries chains (among them, that of New Zealand92 and that of Missouri93).
___________________
85

The mapping of creative industries for the county of Cornwell in the United Kingdom presents an interesting method of
measurement of the invisible workers of the sector. http://www.cornwallpurebusiness.co.uk/uploads/reports/creative-value.pdf
86
Although the document Industria cultural, empleo y regin (Universidad de Manizales, 2001) has an estimate of the participation
of employment generated by the cultural industries in the total employment figure of Manizales and Pereira, the method of
calculation is not clear. DANE (which apparently was the source used) has limitations for such a calculation.
87
Armenia, Barranquilla, Bogot, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Ccuta, Florencia, Ibagu, Manizales, Medelln, Montera, Neiva,
Pasto, Pereira, Popayn, Quibd, Riohacha, Santa Marta, Sincelejo, Tunja, Valledupar, Villavicencio.

3.2 Creative and cultural activities and their correspondence with the UIIC
Because the great majority of secondary sources available for the identification of agents and the
measurement of the economic significance of cultural and creative industries in the regions have
information that is classified with international standards in accordance with the core economic activity of

45

the establishments, it is necessary to look for a correspondence between the creative activity and the
codes of that classification. The correspondence is necessary in order to know what information should be
requested from each of the sources. Several of the mappings reviewed contain this comparison94.
The codes currently handled by national and regional sources correspond to the third review of the Uniform
International Industrial Classification (UIIC), designed and updated by the Statistics Division of the United
Nations and adapted for the country by DANE. Thus it is known as UIIC Revision 3 AC, where AC means
adapted for Colombia. Although the word industrial appears in the name, the UIIC does not only classify
industries; it also includes primary activities, construction, commerce and services.
The UIIC characterisation is hierarchical and includes sections that group together divisions and these in
turn have groups under them that group together classes. Normally, secondary sources employ a
breakdown of the UIIC to four digits (for example, 1741) that corresponds to a class. However, it is
feasible that the information (for example, that which is obtained from the annual survey of commerce) only
has 2 or 3 digits, i.e. for a division or group respectively. Division 52, for example, would contain
information about establishments whose main activity corresponds to the groups between 521 and 527,
while group 523 groups establishments of the classes that go from 5231 to 5239. In order to better identify
the creative or cultural activities within this classification, it is preferable to work with the concept of class
(four digits), although that possibility depends on the source of information.
The identification of the correspondences between creative and cultural activities and the UIIC 4-digit
codes is shown in the matrix of Appendix 6. The identification began with the division into sectors
discussed recently in the Andres Bello Accord with respect to the satellite culture account, for being the
most comprehensive of available accounts. However, in the case of some cultural sub-sectors that include
assets (tangible and non-tangible) instead of products or services, it is not possible to establish those
correspondences: fixed and moveable heritage; natural reserves; collections and specimens in zoology,
mineralogy and anatomy; intangible patrimony (techniques of crafts production related to cultural memory;
tongues; cuisine and local culinary traditions; other traditions and oral expressions).
The first two columns of the matrix of correspondences contain the sector and the activities that comprise
it. Since this division works with the overarching concept of cultural field, the first column includes the
respective sectors of the field; if the mapping only covers the creative sector (or creative industries), that
first column can be read as the corresponding sub-sectors. In this case, the sectors of fixed and moveable
heritage, social sciences and other disciplines or research activities in the field of culture, the arts or artistic
training, would not be included.
The third, fourth and fifth columns show industrial classes that correspond to the UIIC revision 3 AC for the
production of specific goods and services, industrial activities based on design, and commerce. This
distinction was made with the intention of following the recommendation made by UNESCO and the
DCMS95 to separate the activities of the sector according to the cultural cycle or the functions that take
place in each link of the productive chain96. It must be noted that this distinction is not completely feasible
from the theoretical or practical point of view. At the theoretical level, given that some services are
produced and marketed at the same time, it is not viable to separate production from distribution. At the
practical level, in as much as the establishments are classified according to their core economic activity, a
class can have both production (the manufacture of a product) as well as commerce (its sale). This is
especially true in the case of industrial establishments.
The concept of production of specific goods and services was taken from the satellite culture account
for Colombia and is somewhat equivalent to the notion of core industries employed in impact studies of
culture, cultural industries or copyright in the countries of the Andres Bello Accord97, and in the United
States98, Canada99 and Australia100, among others.

46

The notion of design-based industrial activities corresponds to manufacturing in which design is one of
its main components (architectural, industrial, graphic, textile, fashion, accessories and jewellery, and
interface). Its inclusion in an independent column is explained by two reasons: i) the non-homogeneous
treatment given to these activities in the experiences reviewed101; ii) the fact that some of them include the
creative activity itself (i.e. the design).
As observed in the matrix, the identification of design-based industries only included activities originating in
textile design and fashion, accessories and jewellery. Activities based on architectural design
(construction), industrial design (machinery) or interface design, were not included. In the first two cases,
the reason for not including them was the risk of overestimating the enlarged creative sector, because of
the magnitude of construction and machinery production. As for interface design, the reason was that the
production of computer software is found in the same establishment (and UIIC code) as the design activity.
Finally, activities of commerce include the distribution of creative production. However, part of the
marketing of creative products and services is included in the production itself (as in the case of the
exhibition of films and videos, or manufacturing that is marketed in the same industrial establishments).
Returning to the concepts of cultural cycle (UNESCO) or functions (DCMS), it should be pointed out that
the last two sectors of the matrix (research in the cultural field and artistic training) correspond to activities
of education/comprehension. In the cluster approach, they are included in support activities.
As has been indicated in practically all the mappings of creative industries that use information based on
statistics from official sources, it is not possible to establish a perfect correspondence between creative
products and services and the industrial classification: the majority of the UIIC codes that involve creative
activities also include production activities or services not related to the sector. However, given that the
majority of the available sources of information for mapping classify establishments with that coding, it is
necessary to try to establish this correspondence, imperfect though it may be, for the purpose of
determining for which codes it will be necessary to collect information in each region.
To understand the content of the matrix in appendix 6, information related to textile design can be taken as
an example. The specific production of this activity consists of the creation or design of fibres, threads and
fabrics for the textile industry. This activity takes place in service companies devoted to textile design and
also in some industrial firms that have design departments. In the UIIC classification of other business
activities not classified elsewhere (code 7499), the design of fabrics is found among various services. As a
result, this code has been included in the column Production of specific goods and services. Despite the
fact that some industrial establishments can design their fabrics, no class related to the production of
fabrics was included in the column, since fabrics are not a specific product of the activity, but rather a
related one. The only specific product of the creative activity is design.
In the next column (Design-based industrial activities) the classes that group together the manufacture of
fibres, textiles and fabrics are shown. These codes (1710, 1720 and 1730) include establishments whose
core economic activity is the industrial production of fibres, textiles and fabrics, but whose creative
component of that production (design) is very small102.
Finally, the column Commerce contains the UIIC class related to the distribution of fibres and textile
products (5131, 5154, 5232). Part of these marketed goods will be used as an input for the production of
apparel while another portion will be destined for household consumption.
_____________________
88

Each decile corresponds to the tenth part of the households of the respective municipality, classified according to their income.
For example, in a municipality of 10.000 households, the first decile would be 1.000 households that receive lower incomes; the
second decile, the following 1.000 households, and so on.
89
http://www.oma.recam.org/estudios/caci_al.pdf
90
http://www.cab.int.co
91
http://www.culturesouthwest.org.uk/downloads/file.asp?Filename=cul007-joining-the-dots5.pdf
92
http://www.nzte.govt.nz/common/files/nzier-mapping-ci.pdf

47

93

http://www.missourieconomy.org/pdfs/creative_industries.pdf
Possibly the most complete are those presented in the impact evaluation study of creative Industries in Leeds, in the United
Kingdom (http://www.leedsinitiative.org/initiativeDocuments/20051014_ 24094790.pdf) and in the statistics bulletin of the creative
industries, also of the United Kingdom (http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/ B6625AC4-7EEC-42D2-81C9CCD818FFD7D4/0/CreativeIndustrieseconomicestimatesJuly04revisednov.pdf)
95
Department of Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom.
96
http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/4B026ACA-025C-4C2FA86E-4A96E406180E/0/DETTechnicalReportv1August2004.pdf
97
http://www.cab.int.co
98
http;//www.iipa.com/pdf/2004_SIWEK_FULL.pdf
99
http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/ac-ca/progs/pda-pb/pubs/economic_contribution/economic_contr_e.pdf
100
http://www.copyright.com.au/reports%20&%20papers/(c)_Value.pdf
101
For example, in the first mapping of the creative industries, the DCMS included the production of textiles and apparel in related
industries to the fashion design sector.
(http://www.culture.gov.uk/global/publications/archive_1998/Creative_Industries_Mapping_Document_1998.htm?properties=archiv
e%5F1998%2C%2Fcreative%5Findustries%2FQuickLinks%2Fpublications%2Fdefault%2C&month=). Yet part of this production
(the manufacture of apparel for exhibition) was considered to be one of the core activities of that design. In the mapping of Bogota
(http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf), despite the fact that it considers textile production to be an activity related to
textile design, the production of textile design is incorporated into the production of textiles. In the case of the mapping of Mexico
(www.creativexport.co.uk/images/ news/ 123MexicoCIGuide-03.04.pdf), fashion and textile design are considered to be a creative
sector whose core activities are textile design and apparel, and the production of apparel for exhibition. However, the description of
the sector begins with the presentation of production figures for textiles and apparel.
102
In the United Kingdom it has been estimated at 0.5%.
94

3.3 Problems of sources and industrial codes


In the correspondence matrix between creative activities and the UIIC (Appendix 6), there is an initial
identification of the industrial classes that should be researched in the different secondary sources for the
development of the mapping. Depending on the scope of the mapping, information for few or many classes
will be sought.
This identification was made for each class in order to examine in detail the limitations associated with both
the sources of information and the industrial classification. Regarding problems with the sources, emphasis
was placed on the DANE surveys, since, as was previously mentioned, these are the most complete
sources and are those with which the exploration of available secondary sources should be initiated.
Bearing in mind that this kind of difficulty varies according to the size of the region103, the analysis was
made for an average region104. For both types of problems, some possible ways of approaching them
have been identified. These options are not the only ones. Regional actors participating in the production of
the mappings should evaluate other ways of treating these difficulties, based on knowledge about their
economies and the availability of specific sources of information in the region.
The matrix Problems of Sources and Industrial Codes (Appendix 7) identifies the difficulties mentioned and
provides possible solutions. This matrix is divided into three sub-matrixes so as to be consistent with the
breakdown of the previous matrix (Appendix 6): i) production of specific goods and services, ii) designbased industrial activities and iii) commerce.
Due to the fact that the UIIC classes are ordered from smaller to larger, the first sub-matrix (that of specific
products and services) begins with industrial production (from 1741 to 3699) and continues with services
(from 7220 to 9249). The second sub-matrix (design-based industrial activities) only has manufacturing
production (from 1710 to 3699), while the third (commerce) only has codes associated with marketing
industrial production (from 5131 to 5262).
To illustrate the content of the matrix, see, for example the first line of the first sub-matrix, which
corresponds to the class Manufacture of articles with textiles not produced in the same unit, except
apparel (code 1741). When the production of this class is examined105, it can be seen that among other
articles is the production of blankets. Given that craft making includes blankets, class 1741 potentially
includes (a part of) crafts, as appears in the second column.

48

The next column shows problems related to the main sources of available information for obtaining
information about the corresponding class. Given that the Annual Manufacturing Survey is
representative at the department level, if there are more than 3 establishments in a department that
have as their core activity the Manufacture of articles with textiles not produced in the same unit,
except apparel, it should be possible to identify the production and other economic information of class
1741. Hence the column shows that, except for problems related to statistical reserve, there should be
no difficulty in obtaining information for that class from the Annual Manufacturing Survey. However,
since crafts production is generally carried out in small establishments, and the survey only covers
those establishments with more than 10 employees, an alternative source (a survey of micro
enterprises) would have to be consulted, which has the problem of low coverage mentioned in the
same column.
Among the possible alternatives for treating these difficulties (see next column) is the use of other
sources of information: the mercantile registrations of the Chamber of Commerce, which permit identifying
industrial establishments of that class that are required to register, and the DIAN, which has information on
reported gross income for the payment of sales tax.
The next column shows the main difficulty associated with the industrial classification and its
correspondence with the creative sector. In the case of class 1741, a major problem has to do with the fact
that, besides hand-woven blankets, it includes another series of articles that are not specific productions of
the creative sector. In this respect, the production of hand-woven blankets may represent only a portion of
the production of class 1741106.
An alternative for solving this difficulty (see last column) is to estimate a proportion of the value of the
income or production of class 1741 corresponding to crafts production. To make this estimate, producers or
people knowledgeable about the sector could, for example, be consulted. Such exercises (monetary
calculation or calculation of proportions in order to separate the creative activity from an industrial code)
have been done in the development of several mapping studies. One of the most documented experiences
on the subject is that of the DCMS of the United Kingdom107.
In general, the matrix shows that the main difficulties of the sources of information are associated with the
low coverage of some of the DANE surveys (both at a geographical level and for some activities).
Problems associated with the classification derive from the lack of correspondence between creative
activities and the UIIC classes.
The matrix also reveals that the publishing sub-sector is that which faces the least problems with respect to
sources of information and industrial classification. In contrast, crafts present the greatest difficulties in both
aspects.
Regarding strategies for dealing with difficulties originating in the classification of economic activities, the
main one is to try to identify the establishments included in the class in order to estimate that part of
production or income which corresponds to creative activities. Help from people involved in the sector
(producers, support organisations, researchers) is essential.
In general, the steps that should be followed, given the limitations of secondary information for the
development of mappings, can be summarised as follows:
Request that DANE process their surveys (manufacturing, services, commerce, micro enterprises) for the
activities (classes) identified as important for the regional mapping, while accepting the possibility that
DANE provide aggregate information (the sum total of classes) in cases where this is necessary to avoid
violating statistical reserve. Processing should at least include the main variables (number of
establishments, gross production, intermediate consumption, value added, and employment).

49

Purchase the registrations of the Chamber of Commerce (both commercial establishments and non-profit
organisations) for the UIIC codes of interest and verify the operation or activity of the registered companies.
Request from the DIAN information on gross declared income for the payment of sales tax of the activities
of interest in the mapping.
Research other sources of information (associations of artists and professionals, yellow pages, organisers
of fiestas, festivals and fairs, lists of secretariats or institutes of culture) that enable inventories to be drawn
up of businesses or individuals devoted to the corresponding creative or cultural activities.
Finally, compile primary information, if the necessary resources are available.
The collection of this type of information should be considered when the activities of interest for the
mapping have little or no coverage in the available secondary sources. Such would be the case of
festivities and other cultural events, of great importance in some municipalities, and of activities (such as
crafts) that are usually limited to individuals or small establishments.
__________________
103

Due to the problems of statistical reserve, the larger the region the more viable it is to obtain information from the DANE
surveys.
104
This could be thought of as the equivalent of a mid-size city, but at a department level (a mid-size department).
105
This examination can be done by consulting the Statistics Division of the United Nations on the Web:
(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=17&Lg=3), where complete descriptions of the production included in that
class are shown. Although there are slight differences between the codes of the UIIC Rev. 3 available on this page and those that
employ the adaptation for Colombia, it is easy to determine the correspondences from the names of the classes. Apparently DANE
has a similar reference system and manuals with explanatory notes, inclusions, glossary of terms and a primer that explains and
guides the use of the UIIC Rev. 3 AC. (http://www.dane.gov.co/snie/ciiu.htm#informacion)
106
Nevertheless, the case could arise whereby the production of blankets represents the total of class 1741.
107
http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/4B026ACA-025C-4C2F-A86E-4A96E406180E/0/DETTechnicalReportv1August2004.pdf

4. Collecting primary information for mappings: aims and recommendations


As has been mentioned in several parts of this guide, it is possible that some regions will decide to make
their first mappings using only secondary sources of information. This decision will depend on the
sufficiency of these sources and the availability of resources to consider other alternatives. Those regions
whose creative or cultural activities of major importance are poorly covered by secondary sources should
contemplate the collection of primary information.
Several of the mappings of creative industries produced in different countries use primary information in
their analysis. Some do so when secondary sources are insufficient, or when their coverage excludes an
important number of activities, establishments or individuals of the creative and cultural sectors. One
example is the study of future needs of professionals of interactive leisure software in the United
Kingdom108. In several cases (for example, the mapping of Bogota and Soacha109), the purpose is to collect
information similar to that available for those sectors that have secondary information, in order to generate
a more complete picture of the sector and the possibility of comparing activities. In others, the idea is to
estimate the impact of activities (such as fiestas) not covered by the available sources, as in the study of
the Barranquilla Carnival110.
Other mappings include the collection of primary information with the specific objective of making a
qualitative analysis of the creative sector or of some of its activities. Such is the case of the study of cultural
production in Manchester111 and the creative industries cluster in Australia112. Finally, some mappings
compile primary information to simultaneously cover the objectives of quantifying and qualifying. They
include the impact of the film sector on the Colombian economy113 and the majority of the regional
mappings made in the United Kingdom (for example, those of Bristol114, Cheshire115 and Yorkshire116).

50

The main techniques employed in the different mappings that have collected primary information include:
Surveys of representatives of creative activities (individuals or companies). The majority of these
surveys are sent by airmail with a explanatory letter about the purpose of the information, highlighting its
confidentiality. Some partially reproduce the forms of national surveys carried out by official statistical
institutions, whose purpose is to measure information concerning income, production, employment,
intermediate consumption and value added. Such was the case of the survey designed for mapping the
creative industries of Bogota and Soacha117; whose objective was to complement the information missing in
secondary sources for some activities.
More common than the above are surveys of representatives of the creative industries to learn about
qualitative aspects related to the development of the sector. These include the strengths, weakness,
opportunities and threats of the sector; the main challenges it faces; areas where the greatest difficulties
are found; the way in which the sector is related to other economic activities and the main problems of that
interrelation; difficulties in accessing financial and technological resources; and obstacles to the growth of
the sector. The mappings made by Creative Yorkshire, of Leeds University118, have very good examples of
surveys designed to learn about aspects such as the above. Although the reports do not include the tools,
it is possible to identify the questions asked from reading the results in the graphics, especially in the series
of reports Cultural Industries: Key Data.
It is important to highlight that, according to some of the mappings reviewed, the reply rate to these surveys
may be very small (between 5% and 15% and, in the best of cases, barely above 30%). This has a bearing
on the calculation of the sizes of the sample, as will be shown later.
In this respect, the mapping study of the creative industries for Canterbury, New Zealand119, which tried to
carry out a census of these industries by means of a form sent by post, indicates that telephone surveys,
although they demand more time and are more costly, have the advantage of obtaining higher reply rates
and greater reliability in the information collected, since the interviewer can clarify the questions when
necessary and insist on getting answers.
Consulting or interviews with key representatives of establishments that produce creative goods or
services or of support organisations. The purpose of these interviews is to discuss aspects related to the
development of the sector, its needs and the obstacles it faces, etc. Among the studies that include this
primary information collection technique is Mapping the Creative Industries in Cheshire120, Assigning
Resources for Culture in the South West (2001 2004)121, and Creative Industries in the Modern City:
Strengthening Business and Creativity in Saint Petersburg122.
Interviews with participants at cultural events to find out about their characteristics and spending
patterns. The main purpose of this type of tool is to determine how much participants at cultural events
spend on direct activities (for example, the price of the ticket to the event) and indirect activities (transport,
lodging, food, etc.) in order to estimate the direct and indirect impact of cultural activities. Among the
examples of mappings that have applied this technique is the Study of the Economic Impact of Theatre in
the United Kingdom123. In the framework of this project, a large number of spectators were interviewed who
were asked, among other aspects, about expenses incurred in addition to the price of the tickets in
attending the event: transport, child care, and food and beverages, etc.
Focus groups or discussion groups with people related to the sector, for the purpose of learning about
critical aspects concerning the development of the sector. Among the reviewed mappings that applied
these techniques are Future Abilities Requirements of Interactive Leisure Software Professionals in the
South West124 and Study of Creative Industries Cluster in Australia125.
In-depth Interviews that usually have the purpose of building case studies. These interviews are
generally conducted with the legal representatives of companies to inquire about specific details of their

51

activities. The case studies included in some of the mappings reviewed characterise the critical aspects of
establishments that are representative of selected creative activities or of successful businesses in the
area. Among the reports reviewed that include case studies are the evaluation of impact of the film sector
on the Colombian economy126; the mapping of Bogota and Soacha127; the Saint Petersburg study128; the
Taiwan study129; and the study of music in Scotland130.
For regional mappings of creative industries that intend to compile primary information, one or more of the
former techniques could be employed depending on the objective sought. The least costly are interviews,
which do not require travel outside the city, while surveys can be more expensive, not only because they
are applied to a greater number of agents but also because they sometimes imply fieldwork, for example in
cases where the evaluation of impact of a cultural fiesta, fair or festival is proposed, or simply when the
collection of information is planned in the municipalities for mapping a department. To minimise costs,
university students could perform the task of collecting information (as assistants or apprentices),
supervised by a researcher of the team in charge of the mapping.
Another low-cost technique for collecting primary information with which to develop mappings is the selfregistration of cultural and creative agents. This technique is being implemented to complete the Cultural
Mapping of Chile131 To apply it, it would be important to design a strategy that combines the possibility of
self-registration via the Internet, airmail, or urns placed at sites frequented by the subjects (for example,
cultural centres or secretariats of culture, etc.).
If a survey is planned to collect quantitative information for estimating economic indicators of a particular
activity, to compare them with other activities for example, tools can be designed from the forms of the
DANE surveys. In Appendix 8 an example of a survey based on the tools of that organisation is shown.
It is important to bear in mind, however, that compiling from surveys is not simple, especially when a large
quantity of information is required. As highlighted in the document Impact of the Music Recording Sector on
the Colombian Economy, (Andres Bello Accord, Ministry of Culture of Colombia and the Colombian
Association of Record Producers and Industrialists, ASINCOL, 2003), if a large volume of information is
required, the company should have a person devoted to obtaining it, tabulating it and making it available so
that it serves the purposes of the study. Normally companies do not have those resources. Hence, as the
same document adds, a few critical, and hopefully, easily obtainable variables should be selected for the
exercise to be successful. Moreover, a timetable for obtaining a reply should born in mind, because
experience indicates that a collection exercise with companies unaccustomed to providing information may
take over two months. (Ibid.)
In cases where the collection of primary data is used to estimate reliable economic information that is
comparable with official sources, a sample size should be estimated that is representative of the
corresponding universe; and a sampling designed to obtain unbiased information132. It is necessary that this
task, particularly the design of the sampling, be undertaken by a statistician.
One of the biggest problems in this regard is not knowing the size and characteristics of the universe that is
to be evaluated (for example, the number of individuals and/or establishments in a region dedicated to the
production of crafts). That was one of the difficulties experienced in the production of the mapping of
Bogot y Soacha133. If the total size of the universe is unknown, the sampling may be underestimated and
the results would not be reliable. And if some of the basic characteristics of the universe are unknown
(such as the location and size of the establishments) there is a risk of a biased sample. This suggests that
a rigorous estimate of the size of the universe and its characterisation should be made. All possible
sources should be used for this estimate (directories, lists of associations, contacts who identify other
agents, etc.) and interviews with producers, suppliers, distributors, etc. of the sector. Once there is a
reliable estimate of the magnitude of the universe and its main characteristics, the size of the sample
needed to apply the tool can be estimated.

52

To calculate this size, the following formula may be used:


n=
N*Z2*p*q
2
2
d *(N-1)+ Z *p*q
where N is the universe of the target population, Z is the critical value used in a normal distribution of
probabilities (1.96, which equals 95% of statistical reliability), p is the proportion of individuals who fulfil a
characteristic (0.5 can be used, which ensures a maximum variance), q is (1-p) and d is the absolute error
accepted in the sampling, which can be 5% or 10%.
For medium and small universes (of 100 establishments or less), the samples are proportionately high:
between 50% and 90% of the establishments would have to be surveyed (for universes of 100 and 10,
respectively). As the universe increases in size, a smaller proportion of establishments is required for the
sample (around 32%, if the universe has 200 establishments, 20% if it has 400, and so on).
Given the low reply of the surveys applied in some of the mappings reviewed, the size of the sample
should be inflated in order to cover the possibility of non reply. The size of the sample necessary to
cover this possibility is equal to the size of the original sample divided by the expected reply rate. For
example, if the size of the sample that resulted from the application of the formula is 50 establishments,
and it is expected that half of them would respond to the survey, the sample required would be 100
establishments (50/50%). And that is precisely the size of the universe! For this reason, in the case of small
universes and samples, a greater effort should be made to obtain high reply rates.
The design of the sampling is a rather more complex task that, as was previously indicated, should be
done by a statistician.
These tasks calculating the size of the sample based on a rigorous estimate of the universe and design
of the sampling may be considered exclusive to estimating the economic activity in order to show the
magnitude of a creative activity (for comparisons with other activities, for example) or the impact of a
cultural event when secondary data is lacking for its calculation. If the mapping involves surveys with a
narrower scope (to learn about perceptions regarding aspects for which statistical precision is not required)
or interviews and case studies whose purpose is to promote the sector or identify some of its problems and
challenges, it is not necessary to undertake these tasks.
____________________
108

http://www.hese.ac.uk/hese/economy/SurreyInstLeisure.pdf
http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf
110
http://www.camarabaq.org.co/cms/documentstorage/com.tms.cms.document.Document_ba465 57d-c0a8fa20-ec6bb100de574460/CARNAVAL 2004.zip
111
http://www.mipc.mmu.ac.uk/iciss/reports/cultprod.pdf
112
http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/cics/
113
http://www.cab.int.co
114
http://bristoleastsidetraders.co.uk/reports/creativeindustries.pdf
115
http://www2.cheshire.gov.uk/arts/CI_report2000.pdf
116
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com
117
http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf
118
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com
119
http://www.designindaba.com/advocacy/downloads/NZcreative.pdf
120
http://www2.cheshire.gov.uk/arts/CI_report2000.pdf
121
http://www.awardsforall.org.uk/england/southwest/News/
Resourcing-Culture-Full-Report-July2004.pdf
122
http://www.creative.leontief.net/data/Creative_en.pdf
123
http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/phpuSGWg5.doc
109

53

124

http://www.hese.ac.uk/hese/economy/SurreyInstLeisure.pdf
http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/cics/
126
http://www.cab.int.co/media/libro_impacto_cinematografi co.pdf
127
http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf
128
http://www.creative.leontief.net/data/Creative_en.pdf
129
http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/eng/2004whitepaper/06.pdf
130
http://www.scottishmusicdirectory.com/pdf/fi nalreport2702.pdf
131
http://www.culturabiobio.cl/index.php?option=news&task=viewarticle&sid=279&Itemid=2
132
Bias is associated with a deficient selection of the individuals or establishments taking the survey, which produces unreliable
results. One possible bias is surveying only small establishments in industries that have establishments of different sizes and
presenting the results as if they were representative of the entire activity
133
http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf
125

54

Part 4
OTHER KEY ASPECTS FOR PRODUCING AND DISSEMINATING MAPPINGS

This part of the guide describes in greater detail three aspects that are central in the production or
dissemination of mappings. Firstly, the characteristics and functions of the individuals who will make up the
work team and who will be in charge of producing the mapping. Secondly, the description of the type of
reports that can be written for presenting the results of the analysis. And thirdly, the formulation of
strategies to disseminate the first regional mappings of creative industries to be developed in the country.

1. Setting up the work team


To produce the mapping it is necessary to bring together a group of people that fulfils specific requirements
with respect to capabilities, skills, level of training and experience. As far as possible, the group should be
devoted to this task full time.
The size and qualification of the work group varies according to the scope of the mapping, methods of
analysis, the techniques selected for collecting information, regional research capabilities, and available
financial resources, etc. One condition that should be met is that the work group be inter-disciplinary, since
the very nature of mapping creative industries combines several subjects.
The basic work team for the mapping could comprise the following:
An economist or professional in related areas who co-ordinates the tasks and defines guidelines for them
(subject areas, structure analysis, indicators, and content of the report, among others). Besides directing
the mapping, he should co-ordinate the meetings that are held with the support group and agree on the
critical aspects of the task. It is important that this person be objective, clear and generate credibility.
Someone related to the creative or culture sectors, for example a professional in the social field, the arts,
music, advertising, or design, etc. His main skills should include some experience in research, knowledge
of the sector (how it works and the policies and regulations that guide it) and a notable capacity for
management and public relations. His functions involve contributing to the interpretation and qualification of
the data included in the mapping and serving as an interlocutor between the research team and cultural
and creative agents.
An assistant or assistants with a university degree and some experience in research, who would provide
support for the technical activities envisaged in the development of the mapping.
Management staff to support the logistics of producing and disseminating the mapping.
In the case that the mapping includes collecting primary information, the participation of a computer
technician is needed to design the software for capturing the collected data, and a statistician to design the
sampling. These two professionals can be hired specifically for these activities (from outsourcing, for
example). A team of fieldworkers should also be set up when the magnitude of the primary information
requires it. As indicated in the section Collection of Primary Information for the Mapping in the third part of
the guide, part of collecting the primary information (for example, surveys of creative or cultural agents)
could be done by university students as project assistants or apprentices. However, if the mapping includes
doing interviews, it is preferable that they be conducted by the researchers or the team co-ordinator.

55

2. Types of reports and the techniques for preparing them


It is important to bear in mind that the content, depth, tone and style of reports vary according to the
purpose of the mapping and their target group. There are at least three different types of reports: research,
for decision making, and for promotion and support. A description of each follows.

2.1 Research reports


Compared to the other alternatives, these reports are more technical and have an academic profile. They
are more complete and both the methodology and results of the research show a high degree of detail.
These reports may have the following parts:
An introduction in which there is a brief description of the mapping, its purpose and its means of
execution. Acknowledgement of the funders and individuals who promoted and supported the project may
also be mentioned here.
An abstract, which is a short exposition of the methodology employed and the main results of the
mapping.
A conceptual framework that describes theoretical aspects of the mapping, previous research on
the creative sector in the region, and the legal framework.
The methodology employed, which includes a description of the logical structure that was
employed to obtain the results.
The results obtained; which will include a detailed analysis of the findings of the research, together
with tables and graphs.
Conclusions and recommendations, in which limitations with respect to the available information
and identification of the research needs in the sector should be mentioned.
Appendices, which include important aspects of the research that do not form part of the main
contents of the document (for example, industrial classifications employed, tools for collecting information,
lists of individuals interviewed, and detailed methodology, among others).
As an example of this type of report, studies developed in the collection titled Economy and Culture,
published by the Andres Bello Accord in its member countries can be cited134.
Another experience that wrote this type of report is the evaluation of cultural production in Manchester135, in
which there is a very detailed description of the methodology used and the results obtained.

2.2 Reports for Decision Making Executive Reports


This type of report is aimed at government entities or institutions that have among their functions the
formulation of policies related to the creative sector or to the promotion of cultural activities. Due to the role
these entities perform in promoting the sector, the reports should be short and clear and should highlight
the identified needs on the basis of the information analysed. The presentation of results should be done
through charts, tables or graphs that show, in a straightforward way, the variables of interest.
The basic contents of these reports are the following:

56

Introduction
Justification
Results
Since the purpose of this type of report is to provide tools to facilitate decision making, a comprehensive
overview of the sector should be presented, with its strengths and weaknesses and recommendations for
strengthening it. For this type of report it is ideal to collect primary information, preferably of a qualitative
nature.
Among examples of this type of report, those of the series Cultural Industries: Key Data can be cited,
developed for the sub-regions of Yorkshire and Humber in the United Kindom136. In less than 30 pages
these reports present through graphics the most relevant information of the creative industries of each subregion.
134

http://www.cab.int.co
http://www.mipc.mmu.ac.uk/iciss/reports/cultprod.pdf
136
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Wakefield.pdf
135

2.3 Reports for promotion and support brochures


This type of report is aimed at potential funders of the sector, related agents and the general public. The
intention of these reports is to increase understanding of creative and cultural industries, their economic
importance and their potential as generators of employment and social development in the regions. The
most relevant results of the mappings can be disseminated through these brochures, emphasising the
current and potential importance of the different activities analysed, and the need to continue producing
such studies. Promotion reports should be short and to the point, employing a clear language without
technical terms so that they can be understood by everyone to whom they are addressed.
Two different kinds of promotion and support reports might be considered, depending on the greater or
lesser emphasis placed on the results of the mappings. The first are reports that, apart from briefly
disseminating the results of the mapping, are geared to making people aware of the importance of the
creative sector for the economic and social development of the regions.
The other kind of promotion and support reports limit themselves to presenting the results of the analysis of
the creative sector, but they do it in a condensed and attractive manner so as to motivate or strengthen
interest in the sector.
The reports contain general information about aspects such as:
Importance of the sector
Results of the analysis
Case studies, where it is possible to include them
These aspects should be presented in brief and clearly expressed paragraphs. The characterisation of the
sector and its importance, the advantages of making other mappings on the specific sector or sub-sectors,
and some basic definitions should also be included.
It is very important that the final presentation of the report be supported by a graphic designer and that
layout techniques and photographs of the products, activities or services representative of the creative
industries in the region be incorporated. This aids acceptance of the report by those to whom it is
addressed.

57

An example of promotion reports that, besides presenting results, incorporate strategies to foment
awareness, is the Creative Industries brochure produced by the British Council137, which contains a
comprehensive introduction, an overview, the importance of the creative industries and some case studies.
There is also the brochure Creative Industries: Investment Opportunities in the United Kingdom138, in
which an overview of the sector and significant characteristics of the most representative sub-sectors are
presented.
137
138

http://www.britishcouncil.org
http://www.invest.uk.com

3. Dissemination strategy
To socialise the results of the mappings, it is important to design a strategy for disseminating them. The
objective is to ensure that the different agents related directly or indirectly with the sector have timely
access to the necessary information in order to participate efficiently in the decisions and activities that are
developed in the cultural environment of the region or of the country. The development of the dissemination
strategy should be related to the objectives of the mapping.
A dissemination strategy comprises concepts, objectives, protocols, channels and media, which relate to
each other so that the strategy is adequately developed. A fundamental part of this strategy is to propose
creating channels that allow recipients of the analysis to provide feedback with information they consider
pertinent for strengthening the sector.
The dissemination strategy of the results of the mappings contemplates the following steps:
Identify the actors that should receive the results of the study: Chambers of Commerce, other
professional bodies, government institutions, representatives of the creative sector, the media, and NGOs,
among others.
Determine the role that these actors play in the creative sector (control, formulation of policies,
execution of policies and programmes, promotion, financing, production, marketing, and dissemination,
among others).
Establish the type of information that should be given to the respective actors: complete reports of
a more technical character, executive reports, brochures or others.
Define which dissemination activities will be undertaken, depending on the actors and the roles
they play. Group presentations (practical or academic), social events, and diffusion by the media, among
others, may be considered.
The planning of the dissemination strategy should be undertaken together with the support group, with
whom the activities and resources required for its implementation will be defined. These resources should
have been considered and evaluated in the financial proposal.
An invitation
The Guide to the Regional Mapping of Creative Industries does not finish here. The appendices presented
below are a central component of the tool. Although they are all mentioned in previous chapters, it is
possible that they have not yet been reviewed and are only consulted as needed. In any case, it is
recommended they be read and used, since they contain very useful elements for producing mappings.

58

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posiciones para la firma de un tratado de libre comercio con Estados Unidos en este sub-sector [The
Economic Situation of Cultural Industries in Colombia and Possible Positions for Signing a Free Trade
Agreement in this Sub-sector with the United States]. Presentation by the Director of CENEC. Obtained
June, 2005 at http://www.portafolio.com.co/proy_porta_online/tlc/doc_tlc/index.html
Artesanas de Colombia (1998). Caracterizacin socioeconmica del sector artesanal colombiano [SocioEconomic Characterisation of the Colombian Crafts Sector].
Obtained June de 2005 at
http://www.artesaniasdecolombia.gov.co/documentos/documentos_pub/Diagnostico_del_sector_artesanal.
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Appendices
APPENDIX 1
SUMMARIES OF STUDIES REVIEWED

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Economic Estimates of the Creative Industries
Country/region: United Kingdom.
Year: three reports have been published from 2002 to 2004. For the majority of the indicators the 2004
report covers the period from 1996 to 2000, for employment from 1995 to 2003.
Institutions involved: Department for Culture, Media and Sport, DCMS.
Download link: http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/B6625AC4-7EEC-42D2-81C9CCD818FFD7D4/0/CreativeIndustrieseconomicestimatesJuly04revisednov.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The objective of this study is to supply more consistent and timely data on the activity of creative industries
in the United Kingdom. This series of reports is the result of work done on creative industries employing
official information sources, as recommended in the 2001 mapping document.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national. The report provides data and analysis for 11 creative
sectors: i) advertising, ii) architecture, iii) video, film and photography, iv) music and performing and visual
arts v) publishing, vi) software, computer games and electronic publishing, vii) radio and TV, viii) art and
antiques, ix) fashion design, x) crafts, xi) design.
For the purpose of establishing a correspondence with the official information sources (i.e. the Standard
Industrial Classification SIC), the activities included in the first nine sectors are the following:
Film
Reproduction of video recordings
Film and video production
Film and video distribution
Film projection
Music, visual and performing arts
Publishing of sound recordings
Reproduction of sound recordings
Photographic activities

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Literary and artistic creation and performance


Operation of arts facilities
Other leisure activities not classified elsewhere
Other recreation activities not classified elsewhere

Architecture
Architecture and engineering activities and related technical consulting
Publishing
Book publishing
Newspaper publishing
Publishing of magazines and periodicals
Other publications
Activities of news agencies
Computer games, software, electronic publishing
Reproduction of digital information media
Consulting and supplying software
Radio and TV
Radio y television production
Advertising
Advertising
Fashion design
Manufacture of apparel and footwear
Other commercial activities not classified elsewhere
Marketing of art and antiques
Retail sales in specialised stores not classified elsewhere
Retail sales of used goods in stores

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The report has six sections; each section contains the analysis of the following indicators:
a. Contribution to the economy
Weight in national gross value added, growth of gross value added by sub-sector.
b. Exports
Value in , weight in total exports, growth.
c. Employment
Number employed in companies in or outside the creative industries; growth.

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d. Number of companies
Number of companies in the creative industries sector; weight in the total number, growth.
e. Coefficient of concentration
Combined percentage of the gross value added per class obtained by the top five firms in each class. This
shows the relative weight of the largest companies in the market that can be classified as highly
competitive (under 10), oligopoly (above 33), and monopoly (90 100).
f. Herfindahl Indices
It is a measure of the competitive level of a firm within a market. It is calculated by adding together the
square of each firms market share. Higher indices signify greater concentration (fewer or larger firms in the
market). If the indices are greater than 1.000, the market is said to be concentrated, whilst it is highly
concentrated if indices are over 1.800.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The main sources of information of the report are the Annual Business Survey, the Survey of National
Labour Force Statistics (both produced by the National Statistics Office) and the Inter-County Business
Register. Other sources were the 1998 mapping of creative industries document and surveys or studies for
particular sub-sectors.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The data analysed in the report were quantitative.
5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
The weaknesses of the report are the following1:

The data presented in the study are estimates; they are not classified as national statistics. For some
activities it is necessary to use an estimated weighting because it is not possible to identify cultural
activities in the Standard Industrial Classification.
While policies and administration focus on activities, as defined in terms of their markets, statistical
data are based on a classifying principle of industrial production.
The SIC codes dont manage to keep up with the speed of industrial change. The culture sector and
services are not well covered in the standard classifications.
Data on self-employment and on small and medium companies are lacking.

Regarding the strengths of the publication, the report provides current information, particularly on
employment indicators, and a series of data (from 6 to 9 years) for several aggregates. These permit the
dynamics of the sector to be evaluated.
________________________
1

Some were extracted from the DCMS (2004b).

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Cultural Industries: Key Data.
Country/region: United Kingdom Yorkshire and Humber region
Year: published in 2001 with data from 1998 and 2000.
Institutions involved: produced by Creative Yorkshire of the University of Leeds.
Download links:
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Barnsley.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Bradford.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Doncaster.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Hull.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Kirklees.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/NELincs.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Sheffield.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/SYorks.pdf
http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Wakefield.pdf

2. SUMMARY
This is the second series of reports that apply the principles established in the publication that preceded
them, in which the contribution of the creative industries sector of the Yorkshire region was summarised.
As in the previous publication, these more detailed reports analyse a combination of data from primary
sources collected recently, and existing secondary data derived from national sources. The objectives of
this second series of reports are:

Supply robust data on the culture sector in order to provide advice for those that work for the
development of the sector in the sub-region.
Increase understanding of the sector at a local and sub-regional level.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of these studies is local and sub-regional (nine sub-regions/counties of the
region of Yorkshire y Humber).
The division by sector employed in the reports seems to correspond to the classification adopted by the
Bretton Hall research team in building the database of the baseline study of culture industries. That
classification does not fit within the standard classification since it covers 30 creative activities: architecture,
arts management, combined arts, crafts, dance, exhibitions and conferences, galleries and art centres,
graphic design, software design, textile design, other kinds of design, journalism, leisure and
entertainment, libraries and archives, marketing and promotion, multimedia products, museums and
historical sites, musical presentations and productions, theatrical lighting and sound, photography, printing,
publishing, radio and TV, sound and video recording, theatres and concert halls, theatrical production and
support, training and education, video and film, visual arts and sculpture, and writing.

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Most of the data and analysis corresponds to the aggregate creative sector. The only data related to
particular creative activities are the number of records in the Bretton Hall database (or the percentage of
those who replied).

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
Each sub-regional report has four sections:
i) organisational characteristics of the sector, ii) characteristics of the sectors labour force, iii) income,
markets and investment, iv) development of the sector. Some of the indicators or aspects included in each
sector are the following:

a. Organisational characteristics of the sector


Number and type of companies
Location
Types of facilities where the companies operate

b. Characteristics of the labour force of the sector


Total labour force of the sector (including self-employment)
Distribution of the labour force of the sector by type of employment (employees, independent workers),
type of contract (full time/part time), gender, ethnic group
Proportion of companies with handicapped employees
Proportion of companies committed to training employees

c. Income, markets and investment


Income generated
Distribution of companies by income level
Distribution of companies by the geographical destination of their products or services
Aspects of the companies in which investment is made
Sources of finance

d. Development of the sector


Qualities required of new workers
Main areas of concern
Contribution of grouping to business development
Problems in the supply chain
Existence of support for businesses and level of satisfaction with this support
Difficulties in accessing equipment and capital

4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION


The reports are based on secondary and mainly primary sources of information. The secondary sources
are the Annual Employment Survey and the Labour Force Survey. The primary sources correspond to a
postal survey.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The survey collected quantitative and qualitative data. The latter was quantified by means of calculating the
proportion of those who responded to specific options.

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4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION


The data was collected by means of a postal survey distributed to a random, stratified sample of
companies and individuals selected from the database of the baseline study of cultural industries. In each
case, the goal was to ensure a return rate of 15% of the surveys distributed to a broad representative
sample of companies of the culture industries. When necessary, both the return rate and the representative
level of the sample were followed up by phone.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main weakness of the study derives from the fact that the results obtained do not seem to be
comparable to those of other regions. With regard to its strengths, they are associated with the design and
layout of the reports, which facilitate and encourage their reading. Also their size, since the reports are
short yet contain a great deal of valuable information about the sector.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Creative Industries in Leeds: An Initial Evaluation of Economic Impact
Country/region: United Kingdom City of Leeds
Year: published in 2004 with information from 1998 and 2002
Institutions involved: produced by the University of Leeds.
Download link: http://www.leedsinitiative.org/initiativeDocuments/2005211_7880801.pdf
2. SUMMARY
The project measures and analyses the direct economic impact and the indirect potential benefits
contributed by the presence of the creative sector in the city of Leeds. It presents selected national and
regional comparisons.
The aims of the project are:

Make an initial evaluation of the contribution of creative industries to the economy of Leeds.
Establish an updated economic baseline of the activities of the creative industries for the district of
Leeds, together with an analysis of recent trends and some selected comparisons.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of this project is local (the city of Leeds).
In contrast with other studies, this project is intentionally designed to be a study by sectors. The project
employs the definition of creative industries developed by the DCMS (2004b), known as the DET definition,
which includes four sectors: audiovisual, books and printing, performing arts, and visual arts (including
design). The following are the activities included in each sector:

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Audiovisual
Advertising
Manufacture of musical instruments
Manufacture of photographic chemicals
Manufacture of blank recording media
Manufacture of radio and television receivers, etc.
Manufacture of radio and television transmitters, etc.
Distribution of films and video
Production of films and video
Projection of films
Activities in radio and television
Reproduction of sound recordings
Reproduction of video recordings
Retail sales of electrical household goods
Wholesale of electrical household goods
Wholesale of other household goods
Books and printing
Literary and artistic performance and creation
Bookbinding and finishing
Typesetting and plate making
News agency services
Other publications
Newspaper printing
Publishing of books
Publishing of magazines and periodicals
Publishing of newspapers
Publishing of sound recordings
Retailing of books/newspapers, etc
Performing arts
Literary and artistic performance and creation
Operation of art installations
Other entertainment activities
Visual arts
Architecture and engineering activities
Literary and artistic performance and creation

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The report presents data and/or analysis of three main aspects: i) labour market and employment, ii)
commerce and iii) geographical distribution of companies.
a. Data of the labour market and employment
Number of workers (employees and self-employed) generated directly by creative industries; structure of
employment by type of contract and gender; comparisons.

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b. Commercial data
Number of businesses, contribution to the creation of wealth (income and gross value added).
c. Geographical distribution of businesses
Geographical distribution of businesses by postal code
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
In this project, the national economic databases of the Annual Business Survey and the Labour Force
Survey were used, both produced by the National Office of Statistics.
The information available at the local level was also reviewed.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
Despite the fact that a major part of the analysis refers to quantitative data, the report also presents 10
small profiles (case studies) designed to give an indication of the variety and breadth of the activities that
are developed in creative industries. These profiles constitute qualitative information.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The project built a database by collecting records from different sources (telephone and commercial
directories, Internet sites and shared business databases).

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The report has the constraints attributed to the use of standard classifications. These constraints have to
do with the fact that secondary sources of information do not provide independent data for the creative
sector.
Among the strengths of the mapping, the clarity of the document, its structure and the inclusion of an
executive summary, in addition to the objectives, methodology and conceptual framework (definitions) and
some key concepts of the project, can be mentioned.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Future Skills Requirements of Interactive Leisure Software Professionals in the Southeast
Country/region: United Kingdom Southeast region
Year: 2001
Institutions involved: the study was produced by the Surrey Institute of Art and Design of University College
Download link: http://www.hese.ac.uk/hese/economy/SurreyInstLeisure.pdf

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2. SUMMARY
The main objective of this study is to research the skills and training needs of the interactive leisure
software sector (ILS) in the Southeast of the United Kingdom.
The Southeast Development Agency, SEEDA, launched a programme to finance PhD students in
institutions of higher learning in the Southeast in research into the lack of skills for the knowledge economy.
The research was geared to developing a detailed understanding of the needs of future skills in specific
sectors, employing the research base of higher education in the region. It also sought to strengthen
relations between industry and higher education and a better supply of programmes in educational
institutions that would reflect the needs of the future knowledge-based regional economy. The first three
scholarships focused on the following sectors: communications and creative media; marine technology;
and tourism. This report presents the results of the research developed for the first sector.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (the south eastern region of the United Kingdom).
Following the DCMS, the ILS was defined in the report as mainly video and computer games but it also
included educational and reference tools for the office and the home.
In view of the recognition that the creative industries do not adequately fit within standard industrial
classifications, and lacking a complete list from a single professional organisation for the sector, the
creation of the database was based on a broader classification in order to establish the framework within
which the companies that met the definition of interactive leisure software were identified.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The data compiled from the surveys were analysed in six sections: i) demography,
ii) current training, iii) future training needs, iv) training benefits and obstacles, v) perception on training and
possibilities for expansion, vi) aspects faced by the sector. The following are the indicators of each section:
a. Demographics

Distribution of the sample by sub-sector and geographical area


Positions, functions, gender, ethnic group and educational level of the informants
Size of the company and length of service
b. Current training (last 12 months)

Number of training days


Annual investment in training
Training providers
Commercial and business training given
Training in development of software skills
c. Anticipated training needs

Commercial and business training for the next twelve months


Development of software skills for the next twelve months

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Inter-disciplinary skills
Preferred training providers
Preferred training mode
d. Training benefits and obstacles

Positive and negative aspects of the training


e. Perception about the training and possibilities for expansion

Opinions about the training received (if they fit the needs or not)
Confidence in the company growing the next year
f. Aspects faced by the sector

Main aspects that the company will have to face for the next three years
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION.

The report employed data from primary and secondary sources. The data from primary sources were
collected by consulting representatives of key industries, from a postal survey, a focal group and in-depth
interviews (used to document a case study). The data from secondary sources were collected from a
review of existing studies that were used to form the background of the ILS sector. This information
covered aspects such as size, characteristics of the sector, aspects that it faces and possible
developments.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The data collected includes quantitative and qualitative information. The qualitative information was
quantified by calculating the proportion of informants for each reply alternative.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
Primary source data were collected by four means:
By consulting representatives of key industries
A postal survey to nearly 2.500 companies employing the broadest standard classification of the
information and software industry. The survey was sent out by post to the entire list, and based on
the replies concerning the activity of the companies, the irrelevant ones were discarded before
making the analysis
A focal group with key representatives for reviewing the initial findings of the surveys
A case study of an independent games manufacturer. In-depth interviews with the designers,
animators and producers of the software were conducted in order to discuss specific aspects and
the studys findings.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main weakness of the study has to do with the fact that, as the report itself stated, all the results
should be treated with caution since they frequently contradict some of the literature and conclusions
reached by other studies.

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With regard to its strengths, the large quantity of empirical information that the study managed to compile is
noteworthy, being significantly greater than that of other studies in the area.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Audit of Creative Industries: Support to Creative Industries in the Urban Centre of Bristol.
Country/region: United Kingdom City of Bristol
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: Bristol East Side Traders, BEST, in association with the Arts Development Unit of the
Bristol City Council, the Economic Regeneration Team and the Regional Cultural Consortium.
Download Link: http://bristoleastsidetraders.co.uk/reports/creativeindustries.pdf

2. SUMMARY
On the basis of existing studies, BEST had identified the need for greater support, training and marketing
of the creative industries in Bristols urban centre. Although some agencies provided support creative
industries, evidence suggested that this provision did not always adjust to the needs of the industries. As a
result of this gap, BEST carried out an audit of the creative industries that provides a profile of these
industries in the urban centre of Bristol and provides more substantial evidence about the specific needs of
the creative industries for the development of their work.
The main objectives of the audit are:
Find out the size of the creative industries in the urban centre
Find out the needs of businesses for support and training
Use the collected information to actively support the creative industries, together with other agencies.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (Bristol urban centre, which includes the neighbourhoods
of Ashley, Easton y Lawrence Hill).
The audit adopts the original definitions of creative industries developed by the DCMS
(1998) and adds four sectors, following the recommendation of South West Arts. It thus comprises
seventeen creative activities:
Sectors of the original definitions of the DCMS
Architecture
Art and antiques markets
Performing arts
Crafts
Film and video
Design
Fashion design

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Publishing
Music
Advertising
Interactive leisure software
Computer software and games
Television and radio

Sectors added by South West Arts


Visual Arts
Photography
Museums and galleries
Tourism and cultural heritage

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The audit provides figures for businesses and/or creative practitioners and for businesses and/or art
agencies. The majority of the indicators refer to the former.
Businesses and/or creative practitioners
Number of informants by sector, qualifications and experience, barriers to the expansion of businesses;
support and networks; training and development needs; work place and/or facilities; income generation;
gender, age and ethnic origin of the informants.
Businesses and/or art agencies
Services supplied to creative practitioners, barriers to development and development needs.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The methodology of the research for this study was based on the collection of data employing material
from primary and secondary sources. The latter consisted in the revision of the existing literature and
research.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The majority the data used in the audit was qualitative, but was quantified by calculating frequencies.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The data from primary sources were collected by means of:

Design and steering of questionnaires


Two postal questionnaires, one for creative practitioners and another for agencies that provide support
for creative industries
Discussion groups
Support groups

78

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main weakness of the study is derived from the fact that those who replied to the questionnaire were
not completely representative of the population of the area, in particular with respect to ethnic origin.
Noteworthy among its strengths are the inclusion of an executive summary, the detail with which the study
presents the methodology, and the clarity of the report,.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Mapping the Creative Industries of Cheshire.
Country/region: United Kingdom Cheshire County
Year: 2000
Institutions involved: the consulting firm Positive Solutions was commissioned by Cheshire County Council,
the councils of the six districts of the county and the North West Arts Board to produce the study.
Download link: http://www2.cheshire.gov.uk/arts/CI_report2000.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of the study was to make a mapping of the creative industries in Cheshire that would serve as
basis for the formulation of a strategy for their development.
The mapping consists of eight sections that contain: i) the definitions used; ii) a summary of national and
regional policy regarding creative industries; iii) the presentation of key data from the study and a
comparison between information compiled for the mapping through surveys and data from other studies. iv)
a summary of the data for creative industries for each of the six districts of the county; v) an analysis of key
aspects derived from the study; vi) an action plan for the future.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (Cheshire County and its six districts).
The division by sectors of the creative industries employed in the study was based on the original
definitions of the DCMS (1998), which include thirteen activities. However, for the purposes of the study, art
and antiques marketing were excluded, while cultural heritage and museums, visual arts and photography
were added.
As the report points out, in determining the most useful means for recording the collected data, there was
an additional refinement to the DCMS classification which sought to identify employees and other workers
in the sector who undertake creative or production tasks or activities of management/direction.
Consequently, the analysis was made for the following eleven categories:

Architecture
Performing arts
Visual arts and photography

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Crafts
Films, digital media and dissemination
Design
Fashion design
Publishing
Music recording and distribution
Museums and cultural heritage
Advertising

However, for two of the previous categories (fashion design and publishing), the study does not show data
or analysis.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The report initially presents key data for the county to provide information on the context of Cheshire. It
then presents qualitative data and analysis for each district.
The information for the county includes:
a. Area of activity
Number of informants (businesses and individuals) by area of activity
b. Employment and income of creative businesses:
Distribution of employment by type of contract (part time or full time) and activity (creative, production,
administrative), size of creative businesses (number of businesses by levels of employment), and gross
income of the most recent financial statements.
The quantitative and qualitative data for each district include:
a. Number of businesses
Total number of creative businesses (companies and individuals) and their distribution by sub-sector
b. Employment
Number of people employed in creative activities, and distribution of businesses by levels of employment.
c. Income
Gross income of the most recent financial statements of the companies
d. Distribution of sales by destination.
Percentage of sales in the county, in a radius of 50 miles, in the United Kingdom, Europe and in the rest of
the world
e. Obstacles to growth

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This section includes the comments of business representatives regarding obstacles to growth in relation to
aspects such as: working to full capacity; difficulties in recruiting sufficiently expert staff; resources for
marketing activities; market intelligence; long-term sales; local access to inputs; access to loans; access to
new technologies; increasing capital; access to specialised advisory services; finding time to sell the
production, discover markets, and improve skills; and creating networks among those working in the same
activities; among others.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The main source of information used for the study was a questionnaire addressed to creative individuals
and companies. Data from primary sources were also collected by means of interviews with key
representatives.
With regard to data from secondary sources, these were taken from official information sources (e.g.
Annual Employment Survey), similar mapping studies for other regions of the United Kingdom and a review
of material supplied by relevant local and regional associates. Finally, other secondary sources were used
to create a database of creative individuals and companies. These sources included the yellow pages and
e-mail listings.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information included qualitative and quantitative data.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The collection of information from primary sources for the mapping included:

Interviews with representatives of each of the district councils and officials of the Northwest Arts Board.
Development of as complete a database as possible of the companies and individuals that work in
creative industries, for which a great variety of sources, including the yellow pages and e-mail listings
supplied by the organisations that commissioned the study, etc., was used.
Questionnaires sent by e-mail (to all the contacts on the database) to collect information on different
aspects: employment and income, training, aspects the companies consider as obstacles to their
growth, etc.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The weakness of the report has to do with the fact that it does not make comparisons between the districts
(with the exception of company income). Noteworthy among its strengths is the significant qualitative
information collected that permits making a qualified analysis of the sector.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Joining the Dots: Investigation of the Culture Sector in the Southwest of England.
Country/region: United Kingdom Southwest
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: the Regional Cultural Consortium produced the project. The support group was made
up of representatives from the Council of Museums, Libraries and Archives of the Southwest, the Arts
Council of England, the South West Screen Agency, the Sports Office of England, English Heritage and the
South West Tourism Bureau.
Download link; http://www.culturesouthwest.org.uk/downloads/file.asp?Filename=cul007-joiningthedots5.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of the project is to remedy the situation of not having a general image of the culture sector in
the Southwest of England and of not being aware of the gaps in existing research. To this end, the project
proposes to identify future areas of research in the culture sector that will lead to sustainable growth.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (south west region of the United Kingdom). The
research reviewed for the development of the project covers seven dominions or sub-sectors identified by
the Department of Culture, Media and Sport: 1) visual arts; 2) performing arts; 3) audiovisual; 4) books and
printing; 5) heritage; 6) tourism, and 7) sports.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The method for undertaking this task focused on the review and analysis of quantitative and qualitative
studies for the culture sector of the south west region. After collecting the material, it was classified
according to its sector coverage and other relevant categories and was analysed according to criteria such
as the availability of data and indicators in each link of the productive chain. Through such analysis the
report identifies strengths, weaknesses and aspects that require further research.
Subsequently, a provisional quantitative baseline was created for the culture sector of the region, based on
the information of the UIIC codes of the creative industries for two years (1998 and 2002), for the purpose
of evaluating the growth trends of the sector and its sub-sectors. This analysis was complemented by other
national information sources that have specific regional data in order to obtain a general view of patterns in
attitudes, participation and expenditures in the culture sector.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
For each of the seven dominions, the report presents data and analysis in the following aspects:
Quantity of businesses (number of companies and growth)
Employment (number and growth)
Income (at current prices and growth)

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Data and indicators related to the participation and attitudes of consumers, measured by such
indicators as:
Family expenditures
Attendance
Rates of participation (index of target group)
Lending and sale of books
Library users
Reading by literary genre
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

All the data analysed in the report was obtained from secondary sources. As indicated in the report, the
information collected and the requests for information were implemented by personal contact, telephone
and e-mail, and by searching identified and relevant databases.
The main source of data reviewed for the report was the Inter-County Business Register from which
accounting data on business, employment and income were taken. Other sources used were existing
surveys and research, among them, the Survey of Household Expenditures; the Target Group Index
and the study Arts in England: Attendance, Participation and Attitudes in 2001, by the Arts Council of
England; the Survey on Tourism in the United Kingdom; Mapping the Trends of Museums in the South
West; the studies Value of the Economy of Sports in the Regions: the Case of the South West, The Real
World, a Prospect for Crafts in the South West, Users and Non Users of Museums, Libraries and
Archives; and finally the Penwyth Report on Tourism.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
Although the majority of the data analysed in this report was quantitative, some qualitative indicators were
also analysed.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strength of the report probably has to do with the identification of the gaps in cultural research in
the region, which should be closed in order to have a better understanding of the region, and for reasons of
policy. In relation to this, the report presents a set of recommendations that seeks to build and consolidate
baselines for quantitative and qualitative research in the culture sector.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Economic Significance of Creative Industries in Cornwall
Country/region: United Kingdom Cornwall
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: the mapping was produced by the consulting firm Cornwall Arts Marketing. In addition
to this company, the support group included the Government Office for the South West; the South West
Arts Council; the South West Screen Agency; the Agency for Regional Development of England; the Unit of

83

Cultural Industries for Objective One (now called Creative Kernow); the Cornwall County Council; the
Regional Cultural Consortium; and the Department of Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom.
Download link:
http://www.cornwallpurebusiness.co.uk/uploads/reports/creative-value.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of this study is to show the economic importance of creative industries in Cornwall. More
specifically, the study aims to show the true size of the sector by including information on invisible
workers.
The report first presents a general mapping of creative industries in Cornwall to illustrate the magnitude of
their economic activity. Then it presents a detailed analysis of three sub-sectors: visual arts, performing
arts and film and video.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (County of Cornwall). The report employs the division by
sector of the Department of Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom. For practical reasons
detailed analysis is presented only for three sub-sectors: visual arts, performing arts and film and video.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The report consulted primary and secondary information sources that were evaluated by making
comparisons with similar, related studies at a national, regional and local level in the United Kingdom and
in other places.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The aspects presented for the analysis of the creative industries, in general, include:

A summary of quantitative indicators related mainly to employment, profits and GDP.


A summary of qualitative aspects such as benefits received, contributions and barriers to sustainable
growth.
Detailed data and analysis of statistically visible employment (from national statistics) and statistically
invisible employment (estimates).
Profits
General characteristics: length of service, size and nature of the business, business facilities, networks,
finances, skills base, nature of the market, growth and decline of the market, importance of TICs,
reasons why companies locate, remain or relocate in the county.
Complete data and/or analysis of direct and indirect economic impact.

With regard to the sub-sectors (visual arts, performing arts, films and video), the data and analysis
comprise:

Distribution of informants by sub-sector


Employment
Profits

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Length of service of the company


Local, national and international markets
The resource and basis of support (TIC, business facilities, business support, finances, training and
skills)
Reasons why businesses locate, remain or relocate in the county
Difficulties and positive factors
Ongoing initiatives
Complete data and/or analysis of direct and indirect economic impact

Finally, a qualitative in-depth analysis on invisible workers is presented that includes the following
aspects:

Operation
Geographic variables
Needs for sustainability
Aspects related to policies
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The report used secondary data supplied by government agencies, but also collected data from primary
sources.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information collected and analysed in the report was quantitative and qualitative.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The data of primary sources were collected by the following means:

Searching data bases, follow-up of informal networks and contacts and other sources of information
that have facilitated the identification of a large number of statistically invisible workers
(independents) in the creative industries who do not appear in national statistics.
A telephone survey of 355 companies of the creative and cultural industry in the commercial area of the
three sub-sectors (film and video, performing arts and visual arts).
A postal survey of 38 associates of Cornwall Arts Marketing that represent organisations of the
independent, commercial and subsidised sectors of different types of art, but with emphasis on film and
video, performing arts and visual arts.
A series of 19 in-depth interviews with independents and associates of Cornwall Arts Marketing in the
three sub-sectors.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The report is almost unique in the presentation of data on invisible workers, which is quite useful for
designing policies. It has a good description of methods of data collection from primary sources for the
purpose of characterising these workers. These are probably the main contributions of the report.
However, the report does not detail the methodology used in the mapping exercise and specifically in
searching databases, which was the source for estimating the employment of invisible workers.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Strategies for a Creative Region
Country/region: United Kingdom Yorkshire and Humber region.
Year: 2000
Institutions involved: produced by Creative Yorkshire of the University of Leeds
Download link: http://www.creativeyorkshire.com/pdf/Cluster.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of this report is to provide useful information for the regional strategy that the Yorkshire
Forward agency and the Yorkshire Arts Bureau are developing. It is also addressed to planners who work
at a sub-regional and local level in the areas of business and skills development for the creative sector.
The report analyses key aspects of the creative sector of the region such as the origin of the companies,
their growth, and the development of skills and innovation. It also identifies key priorities for the
development of the sector proposed by the representatives surveyed.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (Yorkshire and Humber region).
The report employs the division into sectors of the creative sector developed by the DCMS, and
complements it with appropriate industrial classifications for the sub-sectors of museums and heritage.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The exercise combines data from primary and secondary sources. The data from secondary sources were
used to build a baseline of the regional creative sector in order to compare it with baselines of other regions
and with that of Great Britain as a whole. With regard to data from primary sources, they were used to
identify the critical aspects of the sectors development in a sample of creative businesses.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The mapping initially presents a general characterisation of the regional creative sector. Then it provides
an analysis of the key aspects of the sectors development, grouped under the following titles: initiation,
growth, skills, innovation and finally, development. Some aspects examined in the mapping are the
following:
General characterisation of the sector
Distribution of companies by size
Type of company
Length of service of the company
Ownership of the facilities

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Start up
Start up of the business
Sources of initial financing
Initial sources of consulting for the business
Key aspects of development for new companies
Growth
Weight of the creative sector in regional employment
Rates of regional localisation
Weight of the creative sector in employment at district level
Companies by level of employees
Companies by levels of profits
Financially significant consumers from the public and private sectors
Geographical markets by value
Record of export activity
Satisfaction with current providers of supplies and services not related to personnel
Levels of subcontracting independents
Skills
Areas lacking skills among employees
Provision of training by type of employee
Type of training
Responsible officers for the development of future skills and for providing training
Reasons for having, or not having, vacancies that are difficult to fill
Strategies for managing vacancies difficult to fill
Activities that are sub-contracted
Innovation
Technologies currently applied
Technologies employed for the manufacture of main goods and services
Technologies that will be required in the future
Sources of financing for the development and use of resources
Preferred sources of financing in the future
Development
Priority aspects for the development of the business
Priority skills and services for the future development of the business.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
As mentioned earlier, the report employs data from primary and secondary sources, the latter originating
from national databases.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The report includes mainly qualitative data presented in quantitative terms (proportion of replies). It also
analyses quantitative information.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
To compile data from primary sources, the study applied four techniques:

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A postal survey, which was the primary source of business data. This technique was complemented
with a follow-up by phone of the unreturned surveys.
Qualitative telephone interviews on the seven topics which included technology needs, export activities,
communications, collaboration between companies, promotion activities of the sector, and the skills and
role played by independent workers in the sector.
A survey by e- mail on the same aspects.
A review of the websites of the companies and other related sources of information.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The strengths of the report have to do with its design, the concrete way in which the data of the creative
industries of the region are presented, its size and the inclusion of an executive summary.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Advances in the Creative Economy of Vermont
Country/region: United States of America State of Vermont
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: the Vermont Council on Culture and Innovation, VCCI, created by the Council for the
Rural Development of Vermont. The VCCI was formed by leaders representing cultural organisations
throughout the state, designers of policy and individuals whose businesses are directly related to the
creative economy.
Download link: http://www.kse50.com/vcci_report.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The objective of the study consisted of evaluating the role and challenges of the creative economy in the
state and creating a practical and strategic plan for its advancement. The report briefly describes the
statistics of the creative sector and some case studies, and makes specific recommendations for promoting
the growth of the creative economy in the state as a vital and complementary part of the regional economy

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (State of Vermont).
The report does not analyse by sub-sectors nor does it use specific divisions by sector. In contrast with
most studies, it classifies the creative sector by type of organisation instead of types of activities: i) creative
businesses (recording studios, publishers, architects and bookshops, for example); ii) non-profit cultural
organisations (such as historical societies, libraries, performing arts centres and museums); iii) selfemployed artists (including dancers and musicians, writers and craftsmen).

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4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The methodology used by the VCCI for analysing the creative sector is not clear. The report only mentions
that the VCCI carried out extensive research related to the creative economy in Vermont and throughout
the world. In contrast with the diagnosis, the report provides details on the method employed to develop
an action plan geared to promoting the creative economy of the state, which is the core of the study. This
method comprises:

Six public forums held in the state.


Discussion panel and workshops in the state organised by numerous companies and non-profit
organisations that invited the VCCI.
Surveys carried out at conferences and annual meetings.
Monthly meetings at which the VCCI listened to different individuals who were specifically invited to
share their knowledge.
Participation of the VCCI in other related efforts, including the CREAtivity initiative, Forum on the
Creative Economy of Valle Alto, a recent study of the creative economy of Burlington, the Creative
Commercial Group, the Gund Institute and the Creative Economy Council.
Regular contact with interested individuals by e-mail updates on the activities of the VCCI, including
minutes of the meetings and extracts from relevant local and international reports and new articles.
Creation of a Web page where most of the information can be accessed.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES AND INDICATORS

The section Creative Economy in Numbers presents figures on:


Employment in private non-profit businesses.
Number, income, employment, direct expenditures and total economic impact of non-profit cultural
organisations.
Sales, payroll figures and employment generated by the creative industries of Burlington.
Tax revenue of three towns that can serve as models of creative economic development in the state.
Average time invested in the state by cultural tourists (with respect to heritage) and average size of
groups.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The data employed by the report was taken from secondary sources, basically from other studies.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The mapping presents quantitative and qualitative data
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
To execute the action plan, surveys were made and interviews conducted with experts at monthly VCCI
meetings

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The strength of the report has to do with the participatory design of the plan of action to promote the
creative economy of the state. As for the weaknesses, these are related to the section on the analysis of
the creative economy of Vermont, which does not have an organised structure (isolated figures are
presented that do not always relate to the state).

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1. GENERAL DATA OF THE PROJECT


Title: Study of the Economic Impact of Theatre in the United Kingdom
Country/region: United Kingdom
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: produced by the Arts Council of England and the University of Sheffield.
Download link: http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/phpuSGWg5.doc

2. SUMMARY
The main goal of the study is to show the positive effects that theatre can have on the local economy.
The study analyses the economic impact of theatre in the United Kingdom, considering only the activity that
takes place in buildings designed for this purpose2. This impact is determined by a series of variables that
measure the expenditures of the spectators, the expenditures of the theatres, and the taxes generated by
the theatres, among others. In addition to presenting the economic impact of theatre, the report analyses
the number of volunteers that participate in the sector.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (the entire United Kingdom). The sector analysed is
theatre.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study presents two alternatives for measuring the economic impact of theatre. The difference between
them is that one includes revenue generated by theatres both at home and abroad, while the other one
does not.
According to the second alternative, the economic impact of theatre is given by the following formula, which
does not include the revenue indicated above:
EIT = (Visitors additional expenditures + salaries + living expenses + expenditures on goods and services)
x multiplier of 1.5
The visitors additional expenditures are represented by the expenses they incurred to attend the event, for
items other than the cost of entry tickets. This includes transport, childcare, food and beverages, etc. Living
expenses are payments made by the theatres to some of the artists and support staff that coming from
another city to cover their expenses in transport, food and lodging. Finally, the multiplier is the indicator that
takes into account the secondary effect of expenditures in theatre3.
The second formula used to estimate the economic impact is similar to the previous one, but includes
revenue generated by theatres at home (ticket sales, sponsorships, subsidies, donations, etc.) and abroad
(sponsorships, subsidies, export of works, etc.):

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(Revenue generated within the country + revenue generated abroad + visitors additional expenditures +
salaries + living expenses + expenditures on goods and services) x multiplier of 1.5
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables included in the study were:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Visitors additional expenses (an estimate of what a spectator spends on food, transport and child care)
Salaries paid by the theatres
Living expenses covered
Goods and services purchased
Number of volunteers in the sector
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The sources of information used in the study were:

Arts Council of England


Arts Council of Scotland
Arts Council of Wales
Arts Council of Northern Ireland
Society of London Theatre, SOLT
Theatre Management Association TMA
Independent Theatre Council ITC
National Forum on Rural Tourism
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

Although most of the information used was quantitative, qualitative information was also used.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
For the collection of primary information, the following techniques were used:

Design of questionnaires for collecting information from individual organisations for the fiscal year
2002/03.
Economic information and the number of volunteers from 259 theatrical organisations were collected.
Over 3.000 spectators from two theatres were surveyed with regard to their expenses incurred in
attending the plays.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The weakness of the study is that it does not consider important aspects such as employment in the
measurement of the economic impact of theatre.
Its strength is the comprehensive manner in which it analyses the expenses of visitors to theatrical events.
_________________________
2
3

Does not include tours or theatrical activities that take place outside these facilities.
It is the same production multiplier that is calculated based on input-product matrixes.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Copyright Industries in the Economy of the United States
Country/region: United States
Year: There are 10 reports that date from 1990 to 2004.
Institutions involved: this series of studies was produced by the consulting firm Economists Incorporated
and the International Copyright Alliance
Download link: http://www.iipa.com/pdf/2002_SIWEK_FULL.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The objective of these studies is to describe in detail the importance of copyright industries in the economy
of the United States.
The report shows that the copyright industries in the United States have surpassed the rest of the economy
in terms of the growth of its contribution to GDP and employment.
The studies have five sections:
Scope and definition of copyright industries
Added value of copyright industries in the economy of the United States
Employment generated by the copyright industries in the economy of the United States
American materials protected by copyright in the global market.
Conclusion

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national. The division by sector employed by the report includes
the following activities in the main group of copyright industries:

Visual and graphic arts


Film and video
Printing and literature
Music, theatre productions, opera
Radio and television
Advertising services
Copyright administration companies
Software and databases

The report also presents the sub-sectors that form part of the interdependent groups of industries, partial
copyright industries and support industries.

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4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
While the first nine (9) reports employed the classic standard industrial classification system (SIC) to define
the copyright industries, this report used the new North American Industrial Classification System, NAICS.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
a. Value added to the Gross National Product of the United States
Total value, weight, comparison with other sectors of the economy, growth rates
b. Weight in national employment.
Quantity, weight, comparison with other sectors of the economy, growth rates
c. Income generated by external exports and sales.
Total value, weight.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The report used secondary sources of information, which include the following:
International Data Corporation. Industrial Sales Software 2001-2002
International Federation of Phonographic Industries. Global sales of the recording industry
American Film Association. Revenue generated globally by all American companies
Economic Council of Advisors to the President. The Presidents Economic Report.
United States Department of Commerce. Gross Domestic Product per industry; Link between NAICS and
SIC, Economic Census; Manufacturing Census (newspapers, periodicals, books and varied publications);
Annual Services Survey; Annual Manufacturing Survey; Industrial Statistics; Information on Foreign Trade
United States Department of Labour. Employment data
World Intellectual Property Organisation. Guide to the Study of the Economic Contribution of Copyright
Industries (WIPO)
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The greater part of the information used in this report was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


A weakness of the study is the scarce detail regarding the methodology employed. Its main strength was
the clarity with which the results are presented.

1. GENERAL DATA OF THE PROJECT


Title: Allocation of Resources for Culture in the South West (2001 2004).
Country/region: England
Year: 2003 - 2004

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Institutions involved: the study was produced by the Regional Cultural Consortium, the cultural agencies of
the region, National Lottery Distributors and the consulting firm Kingshurst.
Download link:
http://www.awardsforall.org.uk/england/southwest/News/Resourcing-Culture-Full-Report-July2004.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The study analyses the resources allocated to the cultural agencies of the region by the Department of
Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom (DCMS) and by the relevant Lottery Distributors. Among
other aspects, it examines the criteria employed by the Distributors for allocating funds to the regions; one
of these criteria is the use of the Index of Multiple Deprivation4 (IMD).
The study was developed in four phases. The objectives of each phase were:
Phase one: identify and compile data to establish: i) the size and types of direct expenditures of the central
government and the Lotteries in support of the cultural sector in the South West; ii) the different criteria
used to allocate the funds and a comparison of the position of the South West with regard to other regions.
Phase two: an objective analysis of the data to identify how much the South West wins or loses according
to the current criteria for the allocation of funds; and an explanation of the IMD of 2000, analysis of its
strengths and weaknesses, and use in allotting cultural funds.
Phase three: meeting to discuss the findings and report to the Regional Cultural Consortium and its
associates.
Phase four: evaluation of the characteristics of the new IMD 2004 and to what degree the future allocation
of cultural resources for the region could positively or negatively affect it.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (the South West region of England).
The study analysed DCMS expenditures on the following cultural activities:

Art
Cinema and moving images
Museums, libraries and archives
Cultural heritage
Recreation and sports

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
For the purpose of providing a current picture of cultural investment, it was agreed that the study should
focus on a three-year period that includes the fiscal years of 2001/02, 2002/03 and 2003/04. Although more
extended periods are required to establish trends, the periods examined give a useful perspective for
making comparisons of expenditures between regions.

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4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


a.

Investment in cultural activities (expenditures)


Total investment and investment per capita; investment by sector; investment originating from
lottery distributors, the central government and other government institutions; comparison with other
regions of England

b.

Criteria used to allot cultural expenditure to the regions.


Criteria used by the National Lottery and central governments

c.

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2002 y 2004. Regional implications, proportion of towns with the
greatest deprivations by region
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The report was based exclusively on secondary sources of information, although discussions were held
with different organisations during its development. The sources of information were represented mainly by
the expenditures of the culture financing institutions of the regions: the DCMS, other central government
institutions and the lottery distributors.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used in the report was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strength of the report is the rigorous analysis with respect to regional expenditures made by
central government and lottery distributors in the culture sector and the proposal of other models for the
distribution of resources for the region. Other strengths have to do with the inclusion of an executive
summary and the description of the methodology employed.
________________________

It is a kind of indicator of basic unsatisfied needs.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Creative Industries in the Modern City: Strengthening Enterprise and Creativity in Saint Petersburg
Country/region: Russia Saint Petersburg
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: the study was produced by the Prince of Wales International Business Leaders
Forum, the Leontief Centre for Social and Economic Research, and the Metropolitan University of
Manchester.
Download link: http://www.creative.leontief.net/data/Creative_en.pdf

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2. SUMMARY
The main objective of the study is to learn about the importance of the culture sector in the city of Saint
Petersburg, its normative framework, its strengths and its potential for growth.
The study has four sections. The first presents the conceptual framework of creative industries and their
importance for the city of Saint Petersburg. It also describes some international case studies (Helsinki,
Manchester, Milan, Berlin, Barcelona, and London).
The second section analyses the regulatory environment of the culture sector. The regulations are
described, some comparative organisational models are presented, and lastly, the development of small
enterprises is studied.
The third section analyses the problems and potential of the sector in the city by means of a series of
variables that give an overarching vision of the dynamics between the sector and the institutions of the
State.
Finally, a series of recommendations for the development of the sector in the city is made and some pilot
projects analysed.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (the city of Saint Petersburg).
The report covers the following sub-sectors of the culture sector:
Media and live performance
Film
Interactive leisure software and computer services
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Television and radio
Design and visual
Advertising
Architecture
Crafts, design
Fashion design
Visual arts
Heritage
Art and antiques market
Heritage
Museums and galleries

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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A form was designed to provide an initial comprehension about existing and potential companies of the
culture sector in Saint Petersburg. This involved office work and more than 60 interviews with cultural
businesses, practitioners, intermediaries, institutions, service providers and policy-making institutions.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics and variables that the study analysed were:
a. Regulations in the culture sector
Commercial organisations, state institutions and organisations, non-commercial organisations
b. Comparative organisational models
Income tax, land and property tax
c. Development of small businesses
Taxes, sales, working capital, leased facilities
d. State sector and small independents
Relations, importance, difficulties and potential of small independents
e. The non-state cultural sector
Non-profit organisations and commercial organisations, markets
f. Allotment of funds and markets
Transparency, requirements, market analysis
g. Capacity building
Skills and training
Additionally, the following indicators were analysed:
Employment
Sales
Number of establishments
Number of events
Number of visitors
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study used primary and secondary sources of information. Among the secondary sources, the
following were consulted:
Mayors Office
Ministry of Culture
Ministry of the Press
Ministry of Radio, Television and Media
State Archives Service
Other institutions related to the culture sector
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
Most of the information used in the study was qualitative.

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4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION


The data from primary sources was collected through interviews.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main weakness of the report lies in its dense content, which makes it difficult to read and understand.
With regard to its strengths, these lie in the analysis of the dynamics between the culture sector and state
organisations, the identification of problems and the potential of the sector, the presentation of perspectives
for development, and the description of ongoing pilot projects.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Cultural Production Sector in Manchester: Research and Strategy
Country/region: England
Year: 1997
Institutions involved: the study was produced by the Manchester City Council (MCC), the Northwest Arts
Board, Manchester TEC, the Manchester Institute for Popular Culture, and Burns Owens and Dave Clarke
Associates.
Download link: http://www.mipc.mmu.ac.uk/iciss/reports/cultprod.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of the study is to provide a complete mapping of the culture sector that will enable a detailed
comprehension of its dynamics, needs and potential, and describe strategies of intervention and support
for the sector. Firstly, the study presents both standard and broader definitions of cultural industries. It goes
on to analyse the characteristics of employment in the sector, some topics related to training, and
describes the cultural production of the city. Finally, the study presents a strategy for fostering cultural
production in Manchester.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (city of Manchester).
The sub-sectors of culture that were analysed in the report are:

Advertising
Architecture
Authorship
Cinema and/or media
Crafts and/or design
Education
Heritage

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Multimedia
Music
Performing arts
Photography
Visual arts

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
To produce the mapping, the team prepared a database of the culture sector in Manchester. To build the
database, a search of all available information was made ranging from lists of contacts to high-level
research on the cultural industries at national, regional and local levels, by sector and sub-sector. The
priority of this activity was to find employment data; other economic indicators; market evaluations and key
trends at a national level; and market evaluations and key trends at a local level to determine the
competitive position of the sector and sub-sectors in the area of City Pride. This search was complemented
with interviews, surveys and discussion groups.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The following aspects were analysed in the study:
a. Employment
Number of jobs generated, number of entrepreneurs, number of independents and micro enterprises,
demographics, nature of relations of employment; nature of the employer, stability of employment,
unemployment, remuneration.
b. Training in the culture sector
Needs, capabilities of the companies and support, credibility and quality control
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
For this report secondary information sources were consulted, and primary information was collected The
secondary sources employed were mainly existing studies or research.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
Although most of the information employed in the study was qualitative, quantitative data was also used.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The collection of information was made using the following techniques:
Postal surveys and/or interviews, telephone and personal interviews to i) collect available information in
the sector and relevant contacts; ii) collect informed opinions on the position, strengths and needs of the
sector and sub-sectors; iii) receive general comments about research on cultural production in the city and
the potential for future strategic interventions.
Questionnaire for key actors, which requested their opinion on the strengths, weaknesses, needs and
potential of the sector and sub-sectors.

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Employment survey: the database of the culture sector was used to obtain (by mail, telephone or
personally) information on employment in the companies, for a series of firms classified by sub-sectors and
size.
Discussion groups (10 in total) that covered the different sub-sectors.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Among the strengths of the study is the use of a considerable amount of qualitative information that
contributes to a better understanding of the sector. The report is complete, describes the methodology with
clarity and makes a good selection of the variables to determine the state of the creative sector of the city.
Another strength of the report is that it contains two types of information: a long one and an executive
summary. The weakness of the report is that the long version has a structure that is not easy to follow.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Name: Economic Contribution of the Copyright Industries to the Canadian Economy
Country/region: Canada
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: this study was financed by the Department of Canadian Heritage and produced by
Wall Communications Inc.
Download link:http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/aca/progs/pdacpb/pubs/economic_contribution/economic_contr_e.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of the study is to examine the Canadian copyright industries and to determine their
contribution to the economy of the country. This contribution is established by measuring the contribution of
the copyright industries to GNP, employment and international trade. Additionally, comparisons are made
with other industrial sectors of the country and with other countries. Besides evaluating the impact of the
sector, the study analyses the individual roles and contributions of various sub-sectors of the creative
industries. The sub-sector analysis is complemented with opinions collected in surveys of national and
regional associations. Personal interviews were also conducted with representatives of key industries that
provide a context for qualifying the quantitative results.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Canada). According to the World Intellectual Property
Organisation (WIPO), Copyright Based industries (CB) are those devoted to the creation, production,
manufacture, transmission, communication, exhibition or distribution and sales of works and other
protected consultation materials. WIPO also acknowledges that the economic impact may be related to
both core CBs (i.e. those that produce goods protected by copyright) and non-core (i.e. those that
support or are related to core CBs).

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Core industries
Film, video and sound (includes writers, directors, actors, production, distribution and exhibition, sales
and rentals)
Photography, graphic and visual arts, related technical and professional services (includes studios and
professional photography, artists, art galleries, graphic and specialised design)
Printing and literature (includes authors, writers, translators, newspapers, magazines, book publishing,
record companies, software publishing and libraries).
Music, theatre productions, opera (includes choreographers, directors, actors and musicians and allied
agencies).
Radio and television (includes conventional radio and television transmission, cable and DTH distribution)
Advertising services (includes agencies and purchasing services)
Collective copyright administration companies
Software, databases and new media (includes programming, development and design, software and
video games, database processing, Web portals, online services and ISPs.)
Non-Core industries
Interdependent copyright industries (includes production, wholesale and retail sales of television sets,
radios, DVDs, electronic game consoles, computers, musical instruments, photographic equipment, blank
recording material, paper)
Partial copyright industries (includes architecture, engineering and studies, interior design, museums and
furnishings)
Non-dedicated support industries (includes general wholesale and retail, general transportation, telephony
and Internet)

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The quantitative analysis is based primarily on industrial records from sources of the Canadian Statistics
Bureau. The study applied the categorisation recommended by the WIPO and related methodologies to
estimate the value and characteristics of the core industries.
For the purposes of the project, the 1997 North American Industrial Classification System, NAICS, was
employed.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables analysed were:
Value added
Employment
Exports
Imports
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study employed both primary and secondary sources of information. Among the latter are:
North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS)
Data on employment taken form the Labour Force Survey conducted by the Canadian Statistics Bureau
Data on trade taken from the Canadian Statistics Bureau

101

4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION


The information used to make this study was quantitative and qualitative
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The study used two kinds of techniques for collecting primary information:
The first involves an electronic questionnaire that was sent to approximately 60 national and regional
associations that represent several sub-sectors of the core CBs. The reason for the written questionnaire
is to assure consistency and obtain a degree of standardisation with regard to the topics, formats and
answers.
The second exercise involves personal interviews with key representatives of the industry from all over
the country.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Three main strengths can be found in this study: i) the quantity and quality of the secondary data analysed,
ii) the combination of quantitative information with qualitative data, iii) the methodology used to analyse the
copyright industry permits comparisons with studies of the same industries in the United States and
Australia.

1. GENERAL DATA OF THE PROJECT


Title: Creative Industries in Hong Kong.
Country/region: Hong Kong
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: the study was produced by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council
Download link: http://www.tdctrade.com/econforum/tdc/tdc020902.htm

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of this study is to analyse the cluster of creative industries in Hong Kong, evaluate their
contribution to the economy and document their current state of development.
Initially the report provides an overview of the development and importance of creative industries in several
countries. It then describes some concepts and determines the significance of the creative industries in
Hong Kong. To measure the economic importance of the cluster, it analyses the most common indicators,
i.e. employment, exports and value added.
The study also analyses the state of representative sub-sectors and presents some recommendations to
foster the growth of the creative industries, among which are education and training, promotion of exports,
access to sources of financing, digital convergence and strengthening cultural creativity.

102

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Hong Kong). After considering the definition of creative
industries given by the DCMS of the United Kingdom, the study indicates that the creative industries are a
sub-group of knowledge-intensive industries that are based on talent and creativity.
With this definition the main creative industries in Hong Kong include:
Advertising
Architecture
Art and antiques
Comics
Design
Fashion design
Film
Games software
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Software and digital information services
Television

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables analysed in this study were:
Employment
Marketing of creative industries services
Value added
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study employed secondary sources of information, among which are the Hong Kong Monetary
Authority, the Bank of China and the Chinese Manufacturing Association.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used in the report was basically quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Among the weaknesses of this study is the general manner in which the results of the economic variables
are presented, which does not permit getting details about each of the sectors.
Notable among its strengths is the direct and clear manner in which the results are presented, which
provides a broad and concrete panorama of the status and importance of the creative industries to the

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economy of the country. The inclusion of the section of recommendations on what should be done to
promote the growth of creative industries gives the work greater utility and value.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Initiative of the Creative Economy: The Role of Art and Culture in the Economic Competitiveness
of New England
Country/region: United States New England Region, which includes the states of Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont
Year: 2000
Institutions involved: the study had the participation of the New England Foundation for the Arts, the
Connecticut Commission for the Arts, the Maine Commission for the Arts, the Massachusetts Cultural
Council, the New Hampshire State Council for the Arts, the Rhode Island Foundation, the Vermont Arts
Council, the Rhode Island State Council for the Arts and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The report was
produced by Mt. Auburn Associates of Massachusetts.
Download link: http://www.nefa.org/pdf/creativeeconomy2000.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The project is an effort to understand the growing importance of arts and culture in the economic life of
New England. It analyses the contributions of art and culture to the regional economy and the opportunities
they represent for the future. It also shows how creative workers benefit the cultural cluster and other
industries by providing a talented and well-trained labour force, whose skills are in line with the emerging
economic environment and contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the community.
The report presents the results of the initial research phase of a process geared towards developing coordinated policies and promoting greater investment in a sector that has a key role in the future
competitiveness of New Englands economy.
This new research redefines the creative economy of the region by providing a more exhaustive measure
of its current economic significance, and by presenting strategies for its potential growth. For the first time,
an integral economic analysis of the creative sector is produced for the region, including commercial and
non-profit enterprises as well as numerous individual entrepreneur-artists.
The study considers three key components of the creative economy: the creative cluster, the creative
labour force and the creative community. Creative clusters are defined as those companies and individuals
that directly or indirectly manufacture cultural products. A creative labour force consists of thinkers and
doers trained in specific artistic and cultural skills that steer leading industries which include but are not
limited to art and culture towards success. Finally, a creative community is understood as a geographical
area in which creative employees, creative businesses and a cultural organisation are concentrated.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional, covering the six states of New England.

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In the division by sector, the research team employed several of the principles postulated by the DCMS of
the United Kingdom and by the statistical framework of culture and recreation in Australia.
Based on these frameworks, the report classifies creative industries in three main groups:
Arts and culture, which includes performing arts, visual arts, literary arts, photography, crafts, libraries,
museums, galleries, archives, auctions, entrepreneurs, cultural heritage, performing arts locations,
festivals, and companies sponsoring the arts.
Design, which includes advertising, architecture, the Web and software, graphic design, industrial
design, fashion design, communications, interior design and environmental design.
Media, which includes production (radio, television and cable), digital media (software and computer
services), film and video, recorded music and publishing

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study analyses the cluster of commercial and non-profit sectors. It examines the role of individual
artists in both sectors and compares this industrial cluster with other industrial clusters.
In accordance with the definition of the creative economy employed, these clusters are considered
additional components to the artistic and cultural economy of the sector that make contributions to the total
creative economy of the region. These include: commercial companies, self-employed individuals in the
creative economy, related activities (among them, higher education and government institutions), links
between the arts and other industries, and creative employees that are outside the creative cluster.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables analysed were:
Employment (occupational structure and total)
Impact of cultural tourism (expenditures, employment, visitors)
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The report used secondary sources of information, among which are the following:
U.S. Population Census
U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics: statistics on occupation and employment, projections 1998-2008
Economic Census of 1997
Survey of non-profit artistic and cultural Institutions in New England, 1996
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
All the information analysed in the report reviewed (that which has the results of the first phase of the
project) is quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Although this study is the first phase of a larger research, two main strengths can be highlighted: i) the
definition of a creative economy, which provides for a well-structured perspective of cluster analysis. ii) a
comparison with other industrial clusters of the country, and iii) the impact the study has fostered on
forming work networks.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Study of the Creative Industries Cluster
Country/region: Australia
Year: 2001 - 2002
Institutions involved: the study of the creative industries cluster was produced jointly by the Department of
Communications, Information Technologies and Art of the Australian Government, and the National Office
for Information on the Economy (NOIE), subsequently replaced by the Australian Government Information
Management Office (AGIMO).
Download link: http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/cics/

2. SUMMARY
The ultimate objective of the project is to design policy strategies that help the applications and digital
content industries obtain commercial results in domestic and international markets. The study provides
complete information on companies, sector and industry related to the magnitude and dynamics of the
creative digital industries in Australia. It also describes the development of the consolidated response that
the Australian Government has made in promoting the growth of large, globally competitive Australian
industries that produce applications and digital contents.
The study was carried out in three stages. The first consisted of making a preliminary mapping of industries
that produce applications and digital contents in the country, identifying the key companies, their locations
and aspects that promote and hinder their productivity. The second stage made a detailed analysis, at
company level and in the context of the industrial cluster, of current production and commercial
agreements related to the development of applications and digital contents in two or more sub-sectors of
this industry. The third stage made an in-depth analysis of the key facts derived from previous reports and
stages.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Australia).
For the purposes of the study, the definition used by Richard Caves (2000) was adopted, according to
which creative industries are those that produce products or services that contain a substantial element of
artistic or creative effort
This definition emphasises the product, although it requires a judgement regarding the nature and the
amount of artistic or creative effort incorporated into the resulting products and services. The fundamental
trait of the creative industries is the nature of the intellectual property they produce. For related and
creative industries, this study adopted the distinction between core copyright industries (which have
copyright as their predominant product) and partial copyright industries (which have those rights as part of
their production).

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Core industries
Cinema
Visual and industrial design
Publishing
Games
Interactive media
Music
Production (radio and television networks)
Partial industries
Architecture and related professional services
Software design and development
Advertising
In the second stage of the project, the analysis focused on the following industries:

Educational content (public sector)


Interactive and electronic games
Interactive multimedia
Advertising

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study is based on cluster analysis (Porters Diamond). The cluster perspective is relevant because it
provides a recognised analytic framework for evaluating the requirements of capability and competitiveness
of the industry, which are the main subject of the study.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The study approaches systemic capabilities both at a company and industry level, and the effectiveness of
the linkages between the different capabilities.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The report used primary and secondary sources of information. The main secondary sources were the
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the yellow pages.
The data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics are reliable and comparable between industries.
They use a single industrial classification based on their main activity but they have a limited coverage of
very small and new companies. So it is necessary to complement this information with other databases.
The yellow pages have a different classification, but its information is more up-to-date and the listings are
probably more complete. It includes most of the businesses that own a telephone line, which is why it is
very likely that it includes very small, recently created businesses whose information is difficult to obtain
through official sources (i.e. ABS). Since the yellow pages permit businesses to be included in various
classifications, the use of their listings facilitates analysing combined activities.
With regard to primary sources, the second stage compiled information through interviews with key industry
staff. The observations of these interviews were tested and complemented with a focal group of key
actors in the industry. The primary information enabled a detailed analysis to be made of the productive

107

chain and the net value of the four selected sectors, identifying the types of linkages and relations that exist
between the activities of the chain.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information that was analysed in the study was qualitative and quantitative.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
Qualitative survey sent by post to participants of the key industries
Formation of a focal group

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Because the companies that produce applications and digital content are not well documented, the study
faced a lack of input for making the analysis. It is not easy to obtain complete information about the sector
because published statistics are not sufficiently broken down or are not comparable between different
industries.
The main strength of the study is the methodological framework employed (cluster analysis) for the
analysis of industries with creative digital content.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Economic Contribution of Australias Copyright Industries
Country/region: Australia
Year: 2001
Institutions involved: produced by the Allen Consulting Group for the Australian Copyright Council and the
Centre for Copyright Studies
Download Link: http://www.copyright.com.au/reports%20&%20papers/(c)_Value.pdf

2. SUMMARY
This independent analysis is geared to measuring the importance of the copyright industries in the
Australian economy, focusing primarily on:
Contribution of copyright industries to Australias Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Portion of national employment related to copyright industries
Magnitude of foreign trade in goods and royalties from copyright
The report initially presents a characterisation of the Australian copyright industries and then probes more
deeply into the particularities and significant results of the economic variables analysed.

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3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Australia). The copyright industries were divided into
three groups for this study: core, partial and distribution.

Core industries included those that create copyright works as their primary product. They include
the film industry, the music recording industry, the music publishing industry, books, newspaper
publishing and reports, and the software computer industry.
In contrast to the core industries, only a portion of the product of the partial industries is associated
with copyright works. These industries comprise paper production for stationery (which includes the
production of calendars, cards, etc.), architecture, advertising services and surveys.
The third group, distribution, comprises industries involved in the distribution of copyright materials
to businesses and consumers. These industries include portions of the wholesale sector, and on a
smaller scale, services of information storage and retrieval, film and video distribution, libraries,
museums and video rentals.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The central topic analysed in the study is the contribution of the copyright industries to the economy. The
value of the Australian copyright industries was measured in terms of gross industrial production, and its
contribution to the economy was calculated through its participation in the Gross National Product (GNP).
Other indicators analysed in the report were:
Gross industrial product by sub-sectors (value and growth rate)
Imports and exports (value, weight in the total and growth)
Employment (number of staff employed and growth)
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
For the development of the study, published and unpublished data from various sources were used,
including the following:
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)
IBIS World, which is a private sector information provider that conducts continuous surveys on
companies.
To provide a precise estimate of the contribution of the copyright industries to the Australian economy, the
company that developed the study consulted a number of industrial associations, which include the
following: Australian Federation of Advertising; Queensland Association of Consulting Survey Researchers;
Australian Association of Performance Rights; Council of Australia; Australian Film Commission; Film
Finance Corporation of Australia; Information Industry Association; Institute of Professional Photography;
Interactive Multimedia Industry Association; Music Recording Industry Association; Subscription TV &
Radio Association; Gaming Association; Vice-Chancellery Committee of Australia; and Federation of Radio
Producers, among others.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information analysed in the report was quantitative.

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5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


A big difficulty in producing the report was the lack of robust and complete information on copyright
industries (and others related to copyright) in Australia. These difficulties arise because industries in this
field cannot be clearly classified within the Australia and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification
(ANZSIC) employed by the ABS, or the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) employed by international
institutions such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Noteworthy with regard to the strengths of the study is the methodological strategy employed, which is
presented in a detailed manner.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Baseline Study of the Creative Industries in Hong Kong
Country/region: Hong Kong
Year: 2002 - 2003
Institutions involved: the research project was undertaken by the Centre for Research in Cultural Policies of
Hong Kong University, with the support of the Central Policy Unit of the Hong Kong Government.
Download link:
http://ccpr.hku.hk/Baseline_Study_on_HK_Creative_Industries-eng.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main objective of the study is to establish the current panorama of creative industries in Hong Kong
and evaluate their potential for growth, while bearing in mind the strengths and weaknesses of the
industries and the obstacles they may face both at home and abroad.
The study centres its analysis on the economic aspects of creative industries by measuring their
contribution to GDP and overall employment. Due to the fact that the measuring tool industrial
classification imposes constraints on the scope and precision of the statistical data collected, the study
adopts the concept called the production system of creative industries to tabulate and analyse the
information. This model divides activities related to the creative industries into the following four segments:
creation, production, distribution and consumption. Because there was no breakdown of data, distribution
and consumption data were grouped together.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Hong Kong).
Although the study finds merit for adopting the definition of creative industries developed by the DCMS of
the United Kingdom, it was considered necessary to adopt a new and significant conceptual framework to
define the scope of the creative industries, bearing in mind the economic, technological, social and cultural
characteristics of Hong Kong.

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According to the research, creative industries are a group of economic activities that exploit and display
creativity, skills and copyright to produce and distribute products and services of cultural and social
significance a production system through which the potential for generating wealth and creating jobs is
realised.
To undertake the research, the following sectors were considered:
:
Architecture: architectural design, landscaping, structural engineering
Art, antiques and crafts: goldsmithing, antiques, art works and crafts, galleries, museums and visual
arts.
Performing arts: performing arts, live presentations and theatrical entertainment
Film and video: film and video companies, film studios, film editing and cinemas, etc.
Design: design services, including fashion, graphic, product, and interior design, and design services for
furniture, footwear, toys and related articles
Digital entertainment: interactive leisure software (games), animation, education and entertainment
software
Music: recording and production of music, musical performance
Publishing and printing: printing, publishing and related industries (including comics and multimedia
publishing)
Advertising: advertising companies and agencies, public relations services, market research
companies, and advertising services not classified elsewhere.
Software y computing: software consulting, software services, data processing, website design and
Internet applications, etc.
Television y radio: Television and radio production and related services

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Although creativity is a central aspect of the creative industries, the methodology of the research is not
interested in quantifying creativity per se but rather the process that transforms creative ideas into
products that can be traded in the market. Consequently, the point of departure of the research is not to
define or measure creativity, but rather to examine how it is exploited and transformed into tradable
products or services in the market, and how production, marketing, distribution and consumption can be
legitimately evaluated within the same sector of economic activities.

Although the Standard Industrial Classification is the international scheme most commonly adopted by
official statistics, there is growing concern regarding its accuracy in reflecting the dynamic structure of
industrial and economic activities, and its management of occupational codes6 .The study of creative
industries in Hong Kong is an attempt to introduce the Creative Industries Production System (CIPS)
as an auxiliary concept for a statistical tabulation and industrial classification, and as a coherent
framework for analysing the sector.

Cluster analysis (Porters Diamond) was used to analyse specific industries and to examine the
multidimensional relations and interactions of creative industries with industries of the same sector or
with economic, social and cultural sectors.

In addition to the content creation industries, the mapping incorporated the value chains of production
input and reproduction and distribution that are closely related to the production of contents. This
permits including in the creative sector support segments from the architectural industry, photographic
studios, printing and finishing, and electronic gaming centres.
____________________

The latter has to do with the fact that not all creative occupations correspond to this classification

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4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


The variables analysed in the mapping were:

Income
Value added: contribution of the sector to Gross National Product (GNP); growth in comparison to
the annual growth of the overall economy.
Employment: the number of people employed in the sector; percentage of employment against the
total employed population.
Size of the market: measured as the number of companies. In the radio and television sectors, it
was calculated as the number of households with subscription or connection.
Employment and occupational indicators by sub-sector of the creative sector: age, gender, level of
education, work status, monthly income.
Trade balance: imports and exports.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The study employed secondary sources of information, the main ones being:
Hong Kong Standard Industrial Classification (HSIC),
Department of Census and Statistics: quarterly survey of employment and vacancies.
Department of Census and Statistics: foreign trade report
Additional secondary information from the Department of Census and Statistics was also used to develop
specific industrial analysis.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The report used mainly quantitative data.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The greatest strength of the study is its methodological approach, which is rich in resources for analysis.
These resources range from simple data to methodologies of industrial analysis.
As for weaknesses, the main one has to do with the industrial classifications contained in the HSIC, which
pose some problems:
Exclusion of groups of industries without a corresponding HSIC category
Exclusion of relevant sectors of industries with HSIC codes whose values cannot be separated from
other unrelated industries.
Inclusion of relevant groups of industries whose values cannot be separated, leading to some
constraints in their categorisation under the CIPS
In addition to these methodological problems, the mapping of Hong Kongs creative industries is to some
degree incomplete, as the report itself indicated. Three large areas were not covered and merit further
research: the manufacturing industry, cultural tourism and the government.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Status of Creative Industries in Japan and Policy Recommendations for their Promotion
Country/region: Japan
Year: 2003
Institutions Involved: produced by the Nippon Life Insurance Company
Download link:
http://www.designindaba.com/advocacy/downloads/japan.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The objective of this study is to examine the current status and policies for creative industries in Japan, and
to consider alternatives for promoting their future development.
Initially the study describes the current situation of creative industries in the country, considering their size,
scope and growth after the recession. Based on this, a preliminary mapping of the creative industries is
developed that is compared with results from other countries. Subsequently, an analysis is made of the
imports of creative industries, whose volume is greater than that of exports, making these industries a
network of importers.
Next, the current status of policies for promoting the creative industries is analysed. The efforts made by
the Agency for Cultural Affairs are assessed through two important policies: the protection of cultural
property and the promotion of art and culture. The study also evaluates the work of the Ministry of the
Economy, Industry and Trade, which considers the creative industry to be promising.
Finally the study proposes building an infrastructure for non-profit creative activities, with the aim of
encouraging organisations undertaking these activities to become incubators of creative industries.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Japan). Based on the division by sector of the creative
industries of the United Kingdom, the study grouped the creative industries into twelve categories:
Architecture and engineering services
Film and video
Design
Publishing
Antiques market
Lacquer ware7
Music, performing arts
Artistic, academic and cultural organisations
Production, sales and rental of audio and video recordings
Advertising
Radio and television
Computer software
____________
7

A traditional Japanese handicraft.

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4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
Three basic topics were analysed for the creative industries in the Japanese study:
The status of the creative industries, measured by the number of establishments and the number of
people linked to these activities.
Income
Trade, which comprises imports and exports
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study used secondary information from the following sources:
Ministry of Public Administration, Local Affairs, Post and Telecommunications; Census of Companies
and Establishments, 2001; and Survey of Service Industries, 1999.
For publishing, music, dissemination, film and games software, the METI (2003) study Status and
Current Topics of the Content Industries was used.
For entertainment, dance and theatre, the results of the Survey on the Status of International Cultural
Exchange by the NLI Research Institute were used.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strength of the study lies in having employed the standard methodology of the United Kingdom to
quantify the contribution of the creative industries, which permits international comparisons.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Economic Contribution of Creative Industries in New Zealand
Country/region: New Zealand
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: the New Zealand Industry Organisation commissioned the New Zealand Institute for
Economic Research, NZIER, for the preparation of the report
Download link:
http://www.nzte.govt.nz/common/files/nzier-mapping-ci.pdf

114

2. SUMMARY
The central purpose of the study is to generate estimates of the contribution of individual creative industries
and the creative sector in general to GDP, as defined by the United Kingdom.
The study initially provides an analysis of the British experience in producing mappings of creative
industries. It goes on to describe the research done, an overview of the countrys creative sector, the
definition and classification of existing creative industries and the methodology used for collecting the
information.
Subsequently, the report analyses the results obtained for each of the selected creative sectors. Aspects of
these sectors are studied, such as their current and potential status, economic contribution and
complementary data. Then the report makes a complete analysis of foreign trade and public and private
expenditure in the creative industries.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national.
Although the report employs the definition of creative industries of the DCMS of the United Kingdom, it
adapts the division by sector used by that institution in an attempt to fit the statistical classifications. The
reason for this decision is to make the division comparable with national accounts and consistent in time
and transparency.
Due to the difficulty in defining some industries and obtaining significant data, the study condensed the
number of industries analysed to 10, compared with 13 in the mapping study of the United Kingdom. These
10 industries are:
Architecture
Visual arts (arts, crafts, antiques)
Film and video
Design
Fashion design
Publishing
Music and performing arts
Advertising
Radio and television
Software and computing services (includes interactive leisure software)

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
To measure the economic impact of the creative industries, the main indicator used was the value added of
individual industries, which is calculated by deducting the intermediate consumption (inputs of goods and
services purchased in other industries, including imports) from the annual revenue of each industry.
The study analysed two main topics to determine the impact of the creative industries on the economy:
Contribution to the economy: measured by income, intermediate consumption, value added,
employment and industrial exports.

115

Industrial linkages: measured by analysing productive chains (purchases and sales between industries).
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study used both primary and secondary sources of information. The secondary source for data on
industrial income is the website of the Communication Agencies Association of New Zealand, CAANZ,
which contains annual data by type of media, net income from advertising and commissions when the
products are sold through agencies.
Other secondary sources were:

Inter-industrial study, 1996


Statistics on the cultural consumption of households in New Zealand, 1996
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

Basically quantitative data was used.


4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The study considered the use of a brief pro forma questionnaire as the means to obtain consistent data for
each of the industries on the following topics:

Income and/or size of the market


Employment
Expenditures and value added
Exports and imports
Industrial structure
Regional dimensions
Secondary economic impact

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The information on which the estimates for New Zealand are based is very deficient in the case of some
industries, for which there is no exhaustive database. The possibility of double accounting and over- or
underestimating data exists in several industries. So the results should be considered only as an indication
of ranking if they were based on data collected in a more exhaustive manner.
The methodological strategy employed is convenient, both for the collection of information and for its
analysis. Moreover, the presentation of the report facilitates comprehending the results, which conclude
with an analysis of the status and potential of each sector.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Mapping the Creative Industries
Country/region: New Zealand - Canterbury region
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: produced by the Canterbury Development Corporation
Download link: http://www.designindaba.com/advocacy/downloads/NZcreative.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The creative industries have been formally acknowledged by the government of New Zealand for their
potential for autonomous growth and for their impact on a large number of traditional economic sectors. It
was due to their importance that this pilot project of regional mapping was formulated, to provide a baseline
for future studies and to identify the following:
The main actors in each of the sectors of the creative industries.
Regional differences (which may be indicative of national characteristics)
Potential clusters
Problems they face
The first part of the report contains an executive summary that contains an introduction, a synthesis of the
results obtained, recommendations, background to the study, related definitions and some warnings.
Next, the results obtained and the analysis of the creative industries in general and those made for each
sector are presented. Aspects such as trends, employment, income, information about exporters, types of
businesses, year of creation, strengths, opportunities, areas where businesses require development, and
principal challenges are considered.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (Canterbury region). The mapping uses the definition of
creative industries of the DCMS of the United Kingdom and the study on the Economic Contribution of the
Creative Industries in New Zealand, produced by the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, NZIER.
The sectors included in the analysis were the following:
Advertising
Architecture
Design
Fashion design
Film and video
Music and performing arts
Publishing
Radio and television
Software and computing services (includes interactive leisure software)
Visual arts (arts, crafts, antiques)

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4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The methodological strategy for producing the mapping consisted of collecting primary information through
a survey of the creative companies identified in the Canterbury region. To build the sampling framework,
the yellow pages, business registrations and personal knowledge were utilised. A total of 566 possible
creative industries were identified in the Canterbury region, and a census of these industries was
attempted by sending a form by post. However, only 179 completed forms were received (a response rate
of 32%). Of these, 28 were excluded because they did not fit the definition of creative industries or were in
businesses related to computers. This reduced the number of eligible informants to 151.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS

General trends: to establish these trends, the survey requested opinions concerning the behaviour
(increase, decrease or stability) of the following indicators: number of employees, annual sales, net
profits and competition.
Employment: the number of employees, both full and part time (according to rank) was requested
Income: average income (by rank) was requested
Exports: annual income and destination of exports (composition) were requested
Others: the survey also asked about Internet access, type of business, strengths, opportunities, areas
needing work and development, and principal challenges.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The mapping used mainly primary information collected in the survey. Besides the yellow pages and other
commercial registers, another secondary source was employed: the Annual Business Survey of the New
Zealand Bureau of Statistics, which was used to provide complementary information on employment.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used was qualitative and quantitative.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
Primary information was collected with a survey sent by post.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The available data for creative industries in New Zealand are still very limited. There is only partial
knowledge of the structure of most industries, and this has implications for the sample and selection of
informants. The problem of who to include and how to make the population sample remains unresolved.
But despite this constraint, a notable strength of the study is its attempt to undertake a census of the
creative industries in the region by approaching its universe with different sources. Among the reports
appendices is a specially designed form that could be useful for similar exercises that envisage collecting
primary information.

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1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Development Strategy of the Creative Industries
Country/region: Singapore
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: Ministry of Information, Communications and Arts (MICA) and the Ministry of Business
and Trade (Economic Review Committee).
Download link: http://www.mita.gov.sg/MTI%20Creative%20Industries.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The Economic Review Committee (ERC) identified the creative industries as one of three new and
promising services that should be promoted in Singapore, the others being education and health. To
contribute to ERCs vision of a diversified, entrepreneurial and globalised economy for Singapore, the
MICA leads the Development Strategy for the Creative Industries.
Within the framework of this strategy, an article was published in an economics magazine of Singapore that
examines the economic importance of the creative industries in the country. The article has four sections.
The first analyses the scope of the creative cluster, which comprises basic arts (upstream) and
applications (downstream). The second section of the article evaluates the economic impact of the
creative cluster, discriminating between tangible and intangible contributions to the economy. The third part
compares the creative industries in Singapore with those of leading countries, to give an idea of the current
status and potential of the sector in Singapore. The last part discusses policy implications derived from this
analysis.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the project is national (Singapore).
The article presents three approaches for defining the scope of the creative cluster: cultural industries;
creative industries ; and copyright industries. The different definitions are illustrated in Figure 1. Cultural
industries may be considered a sub-group of the creative industries, while the broader sector of
copyright industries includes both the creative industries and the associated distribution industries.
Although the study analyses the creative cluster starting with the copyright industries, it places greater
emphasis on the creative industries, which are the core component of the cluster.

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Basic arts
(upstream)

Cultural
industries
Creative
industries
Copyright
industries

Distribution industries

Applied arts
(downstream)

Figure 1. Composition of the creative cluster

As indicated in the article, the creative industries comprise both the basic arts industries and the applied
arts industries. The basic arts industries (upstream) refer to traditional arts such as acting and visual and
literary arts, while applied arts (downstream) comprise advertising, design, publishing and activities related
to the media. While the activities of basic arts may have a commercial value in themselves, the activities of
applied arts derive their commercial value mainly from their applications in other economic activities.
To examine the creative industries in Singapore, the following activities were included:

Advertising
Architectural services
Commerce in arts/antiques, crafts
Mass media
Film services
Graphic design, interior design, fashion design
Industrial design
Information technologies and software services
Performing arts
Photography
Publishing industries

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study partially adopted the model of economic impact of the fine arts by Harry Hillman Chartrand, a
former research director of the Canadian Arts Council. This model identifies four kinds of contribution of the
fine arts to the economy8:
The primary economic impact of the fine arts refers to their direct and quantifiable contribution to the
national economy. This is equivalent to the contribution of the fine arts to Gross National Product (GNP)
and to employment.

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The secondary economic impact of the fine arts comprises their indirect but quantifiable contribution to the
national economy. This contribution involves the multiplier effect of expenditures in the fine arts.
The tertiary economic impact of the fine arts has to do with their direct but less tangible contribution to the
national economy. This includes the contribution of fine arts to invention, innovation and industrial
differentiation, and ultimately to the competitiveness of the economy.
The quaternary impact of the fine arts is represented by its indirect and non-quantifiable contribution to the
national economy. This impact comprises the contribution of the fine arts to the quality of life, identity and
cultural pluralism.
_______________
8

The adoption was partial because the Singapore study only considered three types of impact (primary, secondary and tertiary).

4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


The study measures and analyses information for two key topics: the contribution of the creative cluster to
Singapores economy and national capabilities essential to developing creative industries.
Three types of impact were considered to evaluate the economic contribution of the creative cluster:

Primary economic impact: the primary economic impact of the creative industries is reflected in their
contribution to GNP and employment. Other indicators considered were labour productivity and exports.

Secondary economic impact: this refers to the induced effects that result from expenditures in creative
industries. This is because creative industries induce the production of other industries by buying goods
or services for their own production. These multiplying effects can be identified through input-product
tables, which enable multipliers of production and value added to be calculated.

Tertiary economic impact: creative industries generate original knowledge, products and services. The
economic impact consists of the increase in value of these creations when they are adopted and
marketed by manufacturing industries and services. One way of evaluating this impact is to look at the
use of creative goods and services in other sectors of production. This information can be found in the
1995 input-product table and can be called use of creativity (input of the local creative industries as a
proportion of total input).

Regarding national capabilities essential for the development of creative industries, the following were
included:

Creative labour: the indicators selected to evaluate such capability would have to measure the quality
and quantity of creative labour. These indicators were social diversity, the size of the creative force and
its ability to innovate.
Market: it was approached through the exports of copyright industries, GNP per capita and the value
added of knowledge-intensive industries.
Infrastructure: it was covered by the i) institutional framework, ii) size of the copyright industries, and; iii)
public expenditure in mass media, art and culture.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The study employed only secondary sources of information. To measure the economic impact, two main
sources were used:

Department of Statistics, Ministry of Commerce and Industry of Singapore


Input-product table (1995), Ministry of Commerce and Industry of Singapore,

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To develop the analysis of creative capabilities, data from the following sources was taken:

World Competitiveness Yearbook 2002


International Labour Organisation
Report on Global Competitiveness 2002
Hong Kong Council for the Development of Commerce: Creative Industries in Hong Kong
Department of Statistics of Singapore
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

To develop the section on economic impact, the information used was quantitative. In the section on
creative capabilities, it was partially qualitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The greatest strength of the study is the inclusion of new approaches and techniques for analysing the
economic importance of creative industries. The novel elements include: i) the identification and illustration
of three approaches for defining the scope of creative industries; ii) the adaptation of the impact evaluation
model by Chartrand, which includes various kinds of economic contribution; iii) the measurement and
analysis of capabilities essential for the development of creative industries (which includes the use of
indicators of competitiveness).

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Development of Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan and its Significance for Small and
Medium Businesses
Country/region: Taiwan
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: Administration for Small and Medium Businesses and the Ministry of Economic
Affairs.
Download link: http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/eng/2004whitepaper/06.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the current development status of the industry.
The development of the cultural and creative industries, which comprise culture, the arts, technology and
local traditions, has been prioritised by the 20042008 National Development Plan promoted by the
government. The study presents case studies of successful creative and cultural businesses. It describes
production and marketing strategies that may be useful for other industries of the sector and contribute to
the creation of new business opportunities and jobs. Finally, the study proposes some recommendations
on policy for promoting cultural and creative industries.

122

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Taiwan).
According to this study, the creative and cultural industries are those whose origins lie in innovation or
cultural accumulation, in addition to having the potential to create wealth or employment through production
or use of copyright, and can improve living conditions for society in general.
The study analysed the following sectors of creative and cultural industries.

Visual arts
Crafts
Cinema
Design
Architectural design
Fashion design and brands
Publishing
Innovative lifestyle
Galleries (cultural exhibition complexes)
Mass media
Music and performing arts
Advertising
Recreation and digital entertainment

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
To estimate the size of the creative industry in Taiwan, data on the value of production, operational income,
number of companies, number of employees and intermediate consumption was collected.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study used secondary sources of information, particularly data from the Tax Data Centre of the
Ministry of Finance.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The type of information used was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Two strengths can be singled out in this study: i) the use of the standard methodology of the United
Kingdom to quantify the contribution of the creative industry, which enables international comparisons to be
made, and ii) the use of the methodology for case studies.

123

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Economic Impact of Non Profit Arts and Cultural Organisations in California
Country/region: United States State of California
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: primary funding for the development of this study was provided by
the California Arts Council, with additional contributions from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the
Arts and Business Council of Sacramento, and Cultural Initiatives of Silicon Valley.
Download link:
http://www.cac.ca.gov/files/eis-fulleconomicimpactreport.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of this study is to measure the current economic impact of the non-profit culture and arts
sector in California and compare it to the results of the 1994 study.
To estimate the impact of the expenditures of non-profit artistic organisations in California on the economy
and on tax revenues, a survey of artistic organisations was conducted.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (state of California). It includes eight geographical subregions: Los Angeles, Oakland, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, other metropolitan
regions and the non-metropolitan or rural regions.
The study considered the following sectors:

Performing arts
Arts council
Fairs and festivals
Galleries
Educational institutions
Museums
Others

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study collected primary information from surveys of artistic and cultural organisations. Additionally, it
used IMPLAN software and Californias database to estimate the economic multipliers for California and for
the selected counties.

124

4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


The economic impact is derived from multiplying the value of the organisations direct expenditures by an
indicator (the production multiplier) to obtain the additional expenditure that is generated in the economy. In
addition to the impact of the expenditures of artistic and cultural organisations on the economy, the study
calculated the impact on revenue and employment.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study used primary and secondary sources of information. The latter (originating from the income tax
returns of non-profit artistic and cultural organisations and lists of organisations) were used to form the
sample of organisations to which the tool would be applied.
With regard to primary sources, the study compiled economic information from random surveys of nonprofit artistic organisations and also designed surveys for users or participants (audience surveys).
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used was quantitative and qualitative.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTIONG PRIMARY INFORMATION
Primary information was collected through surveys conducted with the following groups:

3.200 surveys posted to artistic and cultural organisations. The form was also available on-line on a
web page specially designed to receive field information. The survey requested information on income,
expenses, paid and volunteer staff, attendance at events and other programmes provided. 18% of the
organisations replied.

36.200 audience surveys distributed to organisations for the purpose of collecting information on the
expenditures of their audiences and to evaluate the degree to which audiences value artistic fare.

700 schools were surveyed to evaluate how they use the arts to help Californian students with learning.

15 foundations with a track record of donating in California were surveyed to help understand the
impact of the current economic environment and that of 9/11 on their ability to donate now and in the
future.

The main evaluation tool was the survey addressed to non-profit artistic and cultural organisations. Two
samples were used to identify and select the organisations to be surveyed. The first list included the 200
non-profit artistic and cultural organisations in California with the largest budgets. The second covered the
remaining organisations of the state, mainly medium and small ones.
The list of the first 200 organisations was obtained by identifying non-profit artistic and cultural
organisations with incomes above one million dollars in 2001. Income figures were taken from the tax
returns of these organisations. The list was complemented with the inclusion of large organisations linked
to universities that were not reported in the fiscal information.
The sample of 3.000 medium and small organisations was formed from an alternative source of names of
organisations, which included the mailing lists of art councils, associations of artistic groups and other
relevant organisations.

125

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main weakness of the study was the low response rate of the different surveys (between 17% and
32%). However, the number of replies was sufficient make a variety of estimates on artistic activities in
Californias public schools.
The study has two main strengths: i) the wide range of institutions and activities considered in the analysis;
ii) the regional and sub-regional coverage, which provides a more detailed understanding of the non-profit
culture sector.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Creative Economy in Iowa
Country/region: United States State of Iowa
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: the study was sponsored and financed by the Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs and
produced by the School of Economics of Iowa State University
Download link: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/research/webpapers/paper_10596.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The study presents an evaluation of Iowas creative economy. It contains a comprehensive inventory of the
creative composition of the economy of the state, geared towards defining its size and scope, comparing it
with that of the United States, and separating the value of the creative economy from the rest of states
economy.
The creative composition includes an analysis of the creative occupational composition and the industrial
creative structure. In this sense, the study describes the creative content and the creative structure of
Iowas economy. The creative content refers to the variety of occupations that require high levels of artistic,
design, scientific or engineering skills. The creative structure refers to the industries that produce goods
and services artistically or technically, or those industries that employ a large proportion of creative
occupations.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (state of Iowa).
After acknowledging that all industries require creativity, the study clarifies that its emphasis is on industrial
activities that require proportionately high quantities of creative inputs in comparison with the traditional
inputs of commodities and labour. The creative industries are consequently those that employ a large
proportion of creative workers, invest substantial resources in research and development, or create and
distribute artistic or technologically sophisticated goods or services.

126

With these criteria, the study considers the following creative industries:

Applied arts
Commercial sports
Creative manufacturing
Dissemination and media
Heritage institutions
Higher education
Literary arts
Other types of education
Organisations / associations
Performing arts
Professional services
Technical and scientific services
Visual arts

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS

Occupational-industrial matrix: it was designed to analyse the creative composition of work/industry


through a descriptive analysis that employs the absolute value and percentage of the distribution of
employees.

Analysis of creative occupation. This was done by analysing the occupational structure and comparing
the measurements of the state of Iowa with national averages. The analysis has four measurements:
the current distribution of occupations, changes in creative occupations (1990 a 2000), gender
differences in creative occupations, and incomes in creative occupations

The study divided creative occupations into four classes: the super-creative nucleus (computers and
mathematics, architecture and engineering, social, physical, and life sciences, and education, instruction
and library); creative professionals (management and administration, business and financial operations,
lawyers, medical practitioners, technicians and specialists, closing sales and sales management); working
class (construction and extraction, installation, maintenance and repairs, production and assembly,
transport and movement of materials); and service class (healthcare support, food preparation and
services, maintenance of buildings and grounds, and service personnel, etc.)

Analysis of the creative industry: changes in employment in the creative industry (1990 - 2000);
earnings per worker in the creative industries.
Economic impact: the study analyses the economic impact through four kinds of economic value. The
first is industrial production, which usually corresponds to gross sales. For public institutions, they are
simply their annual expenditures. The second value is work. Since people can have more than one job
in more than one kind of company, the number of jobs is higher than the number of people in an
economy. Labour income is represented by wages, salaries and the normal earnings of the owners.
Finally, value added is measured. The value added comprises the above-mentioned labour income plus
the return to the investor in the form of interest, rents and dividends. Indirect payments made to the
government for sales, use and taxes are added to this. Within the framework of input-product analysis,
the economic impact was measured in four dimensions: direct values, indirect values, induced values
and total values.

127

4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION


The study was based on secondary sources of information. The sources employed were the following:

The Labour Statistics Bureaus Occupational Employment Statistics, OES, and Covered Employment
Wages, CEW.
U.S. Ten Year Census.
Office of Economic Analysis.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The information used by the study was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strengths of the study are: i) the criteria employed to define creative industries; ii) the
occupational categorisation used; iii) industrial and occupational analysis through an occupational-industrial
matrix; iv) the structured analysis that was adopted; v) the strong support for quantitative information.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: An Evaluation of the Economic Impact of the Creative Industries of Missouri
Country/region: United States State of Missouri
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: produced by the Missouri Center for Economic Research and Information
Download link: http://www.missourieconomy.org/pdfs/creative_industries.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of the study is to examine employment and the economic activity generated by creative
industries.
The report consists of six sections. The first provides a brief introduction; the second specifies the methods
of collection and analysis of data; the third includes a conceptual framework of the creative industries and
their importance in strengthening the economy of the state; the fourth presents the results obtained with
respect to the economic impact of those industries; the fifth provides a summary and proposes some
recommendations; and lastly, there are two appendices with information (absolute and relative) on the
creative occupations and a description of models of impact analysis.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (state of Missouri).

128

The study employs an operational definition of creative industries. It defines them as industries that employ
a significant number of workers related to the arts, media, and sports. Creative industries in Missouri can
be divided into four sub-sectors:

Commercial arts and sports: promoters of performing arts and similar events; spectator sports.
Fine arts: independent artists, writers, and actors; performing arts companies; schools and instruction.
Professional design services: specialised design services; advertising and related services; design of
floral arrangements; other scientific and technical services; industrial and commercial machinery, and
equipment rental.
Information and media: film and video industries; music recording industries; radio and television
broadcasting; publishing of newspapers, periodicals, books, and directories; dissemination and
publishing on the Internet; other information services, and the manufacture and reproduction of
magnetic and optical media.

The industries of museums and architecture were omitted because the industrial classification does not
include them.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
As previously mentioned, the study defines creative industries as those that employ a significant number of
workers related to the arts, media and sports. To identify these industries, the coefficient of industrial
dependency on the arts was employed, calculated as the percentage of occupations in the arts, design,
sports and media with respect to the total number of occupations for each industry. Any industry whose
percentage of occupations related to the arts is superior to the average plus a standard deviation is
classified as a creative industry. In the case of this study, the percentage was 10%.
The economic impact of creative industries in Missouri was calculated using the IMPLAN input-product
model to analyse the direct, indirect and induced effects of the creative industries on Missouris economy.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The central topic of the study was the evaluation of the economic impact of the creative industries in
Missouri, which comprises three kinds of effects. The direct effects, which are attributable to the presence
of these industries and include the generation of work and salaries. The indirect effects are the economic
impact generated by interaction between the creative industries and the rest of the economy. The induced
effects are the impact that is generated by consumer transactions and household expenditures.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The data for this study were taken from secondary sources, specifically Statistics on Occupation and
Employment of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Salaries, and Labour Forecasts.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used by the study was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strengths of the study are: i) the criterion employed to identify creative industries, and ii) the
methodological approach for measuring economic impact (input product model). It is also a concrete
report that manages to incorporate analysis and a description of methods in less than 15 pages.

129

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title:
Humanitarian, Cultural and Artistic Organisations in the Economy of New England, 1996 (the first of this
series of studies)
Creative Economy in New England: the Non Profit Sector, 2000
Creative Economy in New England: the Non Profit Sector, 2002
Country/region: United States - New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont)
Year: the studies were published in 1997, 2003 and 2005, respectively
Institutions involved: New England Foundation for the Arts, with the financial and/or staff support of the
Connecticut Commission for the Arts, the Maine Arts Commission, the Massachusetts Cultural Council, the
New Hampshire State Council for the Arts, the Rhode Island Foundation, the Vermont Arts Council and the
Rhode Island State Council for the Arts.
Download links:
http://www.nefa.org/pdf/96_Econ_Impact_Study.pdf
http://www.nefa.org/pdf/The_Nonprofit_Sector_2000.pdf
http://www.nefa.org/pubs/documents/NEFA_NonprofitStudy2002.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of this study is to provide accurate and timely information on the short- and long-term
trends of the financial situation of a group of non-profit artistic and cultural organisations in the New
England region. Their impact on the regional economy is examined on the basis of the financial information
of these organisations.
The reports present a detailed analysis for each of the states that comprise the New England region
(Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont), and also a
consolidated regional analysis. The analysis focuses on aspects such as the number of cultural
organisations, their incomes, expenditures, net earnings, admissions (public attendance), employment and
economic impact.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional (the New England region that includes the states of
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont).
The study concentrates on the non-profit artistic and cultural organisations of New England, which it groups
into twelve categories:

Library: libraries and friends of library associations


School: education in the arts, arts instruction programmes
Spectacles: performing arts organisations, performing arts groups

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Ethnic: ethnic cultural organisations, international cultural exchanges


Fairs: fairs, festivals, and cultural series
Historical: historical societies, historical sites, historical commemorations, historical re-enactments, and
historical conservation
Humanities: organisations of the Humanities, literary programmes, and literary publishers
Mass media: media arts organisations, public broadcasting organisations
Multi: multidisciplinary cultural organisations
Museum: museums, zoos, science centres, planetariums
Services: arts/culture councils, service organisations, funding organisations
Visual: visual arts organisations

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The economic impact of non-profit artistic and cultural organisations in each state of the region was
calculated according to the following process: (1) estimate of cultural expenditure financed by out-of-state
sources; (2) application of the cultural expenditure multiplier of each state to the initial expenditure in order
to calculate indirect and induced expenditures; (3) sum of indirect and induced expenditures and the total
initial expenditure from all sources.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables analysed by the study were:

Admissions (attendance) to cultural events


Employment in cultural organisations
Expenditures per cultural organisation
Net assets
Incomes of cultural organisations
Taxes withheld /collected by cultural organisations
Economic impact of cultural organisations
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The study employed data from primary and secondary sources. The secondary sources were the following:

Databases of six artistic agencies of the state


Internal Revenue Service (IRS): master file of businesses (registrations of exempt organisations) and
form 990
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The study used quantitative information


4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
Primary data was collected by means of:

A direct survey, available on the Web for collecting additional financial and related data not available in
the master file of businesses or the 990 form.
A questionnaire sent by post to the organisations requesting detailed information about expenditures,
income, staff, taxes and audiences during the most recent fiscal year.

131

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strength of the study is the variety of quantitative sources used.
The weakness identified is that a large number of organisations did not fill out form 990 or reply to the
survey. It was especially difficult to obtain information about various kinds of organisations: small
organisations that are not required to file financial information with the IRS, incorporated organisations (i.e.
those that form part of a larger non-cultural organisation) and organisations run by the government, such
as public libraries that are not required to file with the IRS and may not have a separate budget.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Mapping the Music Industry in Scotland
Country/region: Scotland
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: three organisations (Scottish Project, Highlands and Islands Project and Scottish
International Development) commissioned a team to produce the study. The team comprised researchers
of the University of Glasgow, University of Stirling and Sano Management.
Download link: http://www.scottishmusicdirectory.com/pdf/fi nalreport2702.pdf - 31
Year: 2005

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of the research is to make an up-to-date analysis of the trends of the Scottish music industry.
As was agreed with the funding institutions, the study should cover four main areas: i) a revision of the
literature; ii) a database of the Scottish music industry that includes figures on value and employment; iii)
the opinion of key stakeholders; and iv) a series of case studies.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national (Scotland).
For the analysis of the Scottish music industry, the study includes the following activities and industries:
artists and composers, live music, the recording industry, mass media, other creative industries related to
the music industry, auxiliary services, education, and retail sales. Some of the above activities are related
to music production and others serve as support.

132

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
To estimate the income and employment generated in the categories analysed, the research team
employed data from sales records, company accounting, the results of questionnaires, and comparative
analysis. They used information on companies and organisations that make an important economic
contribution to the Scottish economy.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The study analysed the following topics, variables and/or indicators:
Revenue generated by the Scottish music industries (companies, promoters, agents, festivals and
others).
Employees: number of full or part-time jobs generated
Perceived advantages and disadvantages of operating in Scotland
Importance of the location of companies
Support from public institutions
Previous successful and unsuccessful initiatives
Implications of new technology
Future skills required
New markets
Key aspects the industry currently faces
Other aspects that arise from case studies, lessons learned and a vision of the future, among others.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The study employed primary and secondary sources of information. Among the secondary sources, the
following contain information on companies and other organisations:

Publications, web pages


Financial statements and sales records
Scottish Music Information Centre, White Book
Scottish Arts Council
Lists of members of the Society for the Protection of Rights to Mechanical Reproduction and the
Society of Acting Rights
Directory of the National Musicians Union
Music Weekly Directory
Directory of Independents
Directory of Music Education

The primary sources were represented by a survey and interviews.


4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
This study employed quantitative and qualitative information. Quantitative information corresponds to
revenue figures and jobs generated, which were included in the database.
Qualitative information is related to other questions of the survey, interviews with stakeholders and case
studies.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
The study employed three techniques for collecting primary information:

133

Survey: a questionnaire was designed to collect vital contextual information for the research. It was
particularly helpful in producing: (i) a database of the musical industry in Scotland and (ii) information
on the magnitude of the economic activity. The survey was sent by e-mail to all the companies in 2002.

Interviews with stakeholders for the purpose of providing a general view of the problems that the
musical industry in Scotland faces. The design of the interviews included partially-structured questions
to anonymous individuals who spoke for their organisations. Nine personal interviews with key
stakeholders of the musical industry in Scotland were made.

Case studies: seven case studies were reviewed for the purpose of analysing the problems faced by
some particular areas of Scottish music and to give examples of musical careers. The case studies
were created from partially-structured interviews with representatives of organisations who gave details
regarding their business, opinions about the problems that their companies as well as the industry in
general face, lessons learned, and their vision of the future.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The following are some of the strengths of the study:

The fact that the information of the study improves earlier statistics on the Scottish musical industry
because it contains more precise data.
The combination of different collection techniques and kinds of information: quantitative and qualitative
information from primary and secondary sources. This enables various sources to be compared and
more integral conclusions reached.
One weakness, pointed out by the authors themselves, is not having included media, education and
some micro enterprises.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: La fiesta, la otra cara del patrimonio. Valoracin de su impacto econmico, cultural y social. [The
Fiesta, the Other Face of Heritage. Assessment of its Economic, Cultural and Social Impact]
Country/region: Colombia.
Year: 2004.
Institutions involved: produced by the Andres Bello Accord as part of the Economy and Culture Collection.
Download link: http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/fiesta.pdf

2. SUMMARY
This study constitutes a second stage of the Andres Bello Accord that measures the economic and social
effect of the management, use and activity of cultural heritage9. The report presents both the conceptual
framework that served as a basis for formulating the methodology for measuring fiestas, and the
methodology itself. The conceptual framework includes an approach to the theory of the fiesta and the

134

construction of the notions of fiesta, festival and fair. Regarding the methodology, the study initially
provides some useful principles of economic assessment for estimating the effect of fiestas (market prices,
willingness to pay and contingency assessment) and then describes the techniques for measuring the
economic impact of intangible heritage (surveys of visitors, a satellite approach to tourism, ad hoc methods
and multipliers). After reviewing two studies that estimate the impact of fiestas at a local level, the study
formulates a strategy for applying the proposed methodological elements to each specific fiesta, depending
on its particularities. Finally, the study provides a description of the meanings and social dimensions of
fiestas and a series of recommendations for developing a cultural policy to support manifestations of the
cultural heritage of peoples.
_______________
9

The first was represented by the publication El Impacto econmico del patrimonio del centro histrico de Bogot D.C. [The
Economic Impact of the Patrimony of the Historical Centre of Bogota], in 2003.

3. COVERAGE
Although different parts of the study mention the member countries of the Andres Bello Accord, its
geographical coverage is not limited to them since both the theoretical framework and the methodologies it
provides are of a universal nature.
With regard to the scope or coverage in terms of sectors, the study concentrates on one of the activities
that comprise intangible heritage: fiestas.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Practically the entire second section of the study describes the methodological principles and techniques
for evaluating the economic impact of fiestas. In general, the study associates the economic impact of
fiestas with total expenditures generated in the locality as a result of the activity.
As in other studies (especially those that work with multipliers), this study makes a distinction between the
direct, indirect and induced effects of fiestas. The direct effects have to do with changes in production in
the locality where the fiesta is celebrated associated with the expenditures of participants (at the events of
the fiesta, and also in hotels, restaurants, commerce, transport firms, etc.) The indirect effects are changes
in production that result when establishments spend the income received from the participants in the goods
and services provided by their suppliers. And the induced effects are the changes in economic activity that
result from the increase in expenditure of the families that work in the industries that directly or indirectly
cater to the participants.
The study provides four methods to estimate the economic impact of fiestas:

Principle methods: surveys of participants and a satellite focus on tourism.


Method of support: ad hoc method
Complementary method: the input product model

The surveys of participants serve to estimate their volume (number counts at the main visitor sites,
transport or lodging) and spending patterns. The satellite approach to tourism consists of using, where
available, satellite accounts that have been created for this sector. The ad hoc method consists of relying
on the good judgement of experts in the tourism sector and in the use of tourism indicators of some
geographical areas for applying in others. Finally, the input-product models (specifically the multipliers that
are calculated from the matrixes) are the main tool for analysing the indirect and induced effects of fiestas
on production, employment, revenue and taxes.

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4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


According to the study, the central variable in the economic impact of fiestas is total expenditure made in
the locality where the fiesta takes place (by tourists or residents) or, as seen from the supply side, the sales
of the different sectors involved in the fiestas. This expenditure is the product of the average expenditure
that each visitor makes and the number of visitors.
Total expenditure = number of participants x average expenditure per participant
The expenditure thus calculated only facilitates estimating the direct impact of the fiestas. In order to
estimate the total impact, it is necessary to calculate the above product through the multiplier. This
multiplier is based on input-product matrixes.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
In order to estimate the number of visitors and residents that participate in a fiesta and their average
expenditure in the locality, there are two alternatives: the first consists of collecting secondary information
with which to approximate these values; the second consists of obtaining primary information from surveys.
The following are among the secondary sources of information that the study suggests reviewing:

Information from hotel taxes


Information from the inventory of rooms and beds, and hotel occupancy rates
Figures on the number of visitors to public spectacles that take place during fiestas
Amount collected from tickets to the spectacles, taken directly from ticket sales or from municipal tax
offices
Information from airlines and airports, bus companies and terminals, train companies and train stations,
shipping companies and port administration companies, etc Alternatively, from local or national
institutions responsible for supervising transport companies and ports of entry and exit
Figures on the number of two-axle vehicles that use the roads before, during and after the fiesta
Information centres in local offices responsible for guiding visitors
Studies of other localities
Studies and information at regional and national levels
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The evaluation of the economic impact of fiestas employs mostly quantitative information. However, it is
feasible to collect qualitative information for analysing the social dimensions of fiestas.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
If there is insufficient secondary information with which to estimate the number of participants in fiestas or
their average expenditure in the corresponding locality, primary information from surveys can be collected.
Among the tools that the study provides are surveys of visitors (at the entrances or exits of each event or
locality), surveys of businessmen in the basic sectors related to the tourism sector, and a survey of the
operators or organisers of the fiesta. The study includes a model of this third tool.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strength of the study is the fact that it compiles conceptual and methodological aspects for
estimating the economic impact of fiestas. Among its weaknesses are the lack of linkage between the

136

different chapters and the inclusion of various impact-measuring techniques of fiestas that are not
applicable in practice in certain localities (for example, the satellite accounts of tourism and the inputproduct matrixes).

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Estudio sobre la importancia econmica de las industrias y actividades protegidas por el derecho de
autor y los derechos conexos en los pases de Mercosur y Chile [Study of the Economic Importance of
Industries and Activities Protected by Copyright and Related Rights in the Member Countries of Mercosur
and Chile]
Country/region: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile.
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: the WIPO Office of Co-operation for the Development of Latin America and the
Caribbean and the Study Group of the Organisation for Research and Innovation, GEOPI, of the Institute of
Economy of the University of the State of Campinas (UNICAMP)
Download link: http://www.wipo.org/sme/es/documents/studies/mercosur_copyright.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of the study is the mapping and economic measurement of the principle economic
sectors and activities related to copyright in the member countries of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
and Uruguay) and Chile.
The study estimates the economic importance of the copyright industries and related rights, giving special
attention to the participation of these industries in the gross domestic product (GDP). The study also
provides information about normative and institutional aspects with respect to copyright and related rights,
including the collective administration of those rights.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional in the sense that it comprises a group of countries
(those belonging to Mercosur, plus Chile).
The study groups industries and activities protected by copyright into four classes: main activities, related
activities, distribution activities and partially related activities. The following are the activities included in
each class. It should be mentioned that not all countries covered the same activities:
Main group according to class of activity

Advertising
Consulting on information systems
Data bank activities
Data processing
Development of digital information programmes
Libraries, museums, etc.

137

News agencies
Operation of dance halls, discotheques and similar venues
Other publishing activities
Other performance activities
Photographic activities
Production, exhibition and distribution of films and videos
Publishing and printing of books and other graphic products
Publishing and printing of newspapers and magazines
Publishing and reproduction of records, videos, films and programmes
Radio and television activities
Theatre, music and other artistic activities

Group of related industries according to class of activity:

Activities of agencies for placing and contracting artists


Activities of print-related services
Activities of professional organisations (associations of artists, painters, writers, journalists, etc.)
Bottling and packaging activities
Maintenance and repair of office and computer equipment
Manufacture of carbon paper and cardboard
Manufacture of ceramics
Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment
Manufacture of inks for writing and drawing
Manufacture of jewellery and related items
Manufacture of musical instruments
Manufacture of optical, photographic and film equipment, etc.
Manufacture of radio and TV sets, etc.
Manufacture of wood paste and paper
Other technical services provided to businesses
Printing activities
Printing of newspapers, magazines and books
Printing services of school material and material for industrial and commercial use
Recording of CDs and audiotapes
Reproduction of videotapes
Reproduction of digital information programmes on diskettes and CDs

Group of distribution according to class of activity

Distribution of videos and videotapes


Rental of office machines and equipment and others
Rental of personal effects and household goods not previously classified
Rental of videos
Retail sales by street vending machines
Retail sales of articles by catalogue or mail order
Retail sales of books, magazines, newspapers, bookstore articles, paper and cardboard
Retail sales of home appliances, articles, furniture and equipment
Retail sales of machines and equipment for home and personal use (records and musical instruments)
Retail sales of office machines and equipment
Retail sales of used articles
Retail sales, others

138

Retail stands of books, magazines, newspapers, bookstore articles, paper and cardboard
Retailer of office supplies, digital information, communication, books, newspapers, and magazines, etc.
Telecommunications
Wholesale of home appliances (radio, TV, others)
Wholesale of other consumer articles
Wholesaler of electrical appliances, office supplies, books and others
Wholesaler of records, musical instruments and other equipment for personal and home use

Partially related group according to class of activity:

Architectural and engineering services

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
To estimate the economic importance of copyright industries in the Mercosur countries and Chile, the
project co-ordination wrote a Technical Note that guided the national studies envisaged in the project. In
this note, the option of evaluating the economic activities related to copyright was chosen by adopting the
typology proposed by Siwek y Mosteller (1999).
The importance of the Technical Note lies in the fact that it identifies the sectors at their highest level of
breakdown (four digits), enabling measurements to be made from the data available for each country and
from the type of collection of such data. Thus, sources such as economic census, research on annual
sector performance (industry, commerce and services) and foreign trade databases of the countries in the
region could be used. On the one hand, a minimum of homogeneity in the information was assured, and on
the other, flexibility regarding the sources of available data increased.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables analysed in the study were:
a. Participation in GDP

Total value added by industries protected by copyright and related rights, and their participation in GDP
Gross value added of the sub-sectors and their participation in the total value added of the industries
Value added of the segments that make up each sub-sector and their participation in the sub-sectors
gross value added

b. Employment

Number of jobs generated by the industries protected by copyright and related rights and their
participation in the total number of jobs in the country
Number of jobs generated by each sub-sector and their participation in the total number of jobs
generated by the industries protected by copyright and related rights
Partial quantification of the number of jobs generated by the segments that make up each sub-sector
and their participation in the number of jobs generated by the sub-sector

c. Foreign trade

Exports, imports and trade balance (principal countries and percentages) of the main and related
industries
Exports and imports of the main and related industries by type of product

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4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION


The study was based on secondary sources of information. The following are among the national sources
used:

Economic census
Foreign trade records
Surveys of commerce, industry and services
Company records
National chamber of books
National chamber of construction
National chamber of commerce
Record producers association
Central banks
National statistics office
Customs authorities
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The study used mainly quantitative information.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


One of the main strengths of the study is the use of the same methodological strategy and indicators for all
participating countries, which enabled comparisons to be made from the results obtained.
However, and this is the weakness of the study, some countries covered very few sectors and made less
effort to identify and employ more reliable and homogenous sources of information.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: The Economic and Social Dimension of People Engaged in Activities Related to the Creative
Industries in Brazil
Country/region: Brazil
Year: 2005
Institutions involved: the study was promoted by the International Labour Organisation
(ILO) and the Ministry of Culture of Brazil (MINC)

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic and social dimensions of the people involved in
activities related to creative industries, especially in the audiovisual sector. Moreover, it seeks to identify
the profile of the micro enterprises and small businesses of this sector.

140

The study defines the socio-economic profile of the creative industries by breaking down their occupations
and providing knowledge about existing similarities and differences through an internal comparison of this
industry and with the other sectors of the economy.
The audiovisual industry is analysed separately, with a classification of occupational categories by stage of
production that comprise a chain of value. The micro enterprises and small businesses of the audio-visual
sector are then analysed.

3. COVERAGE
For the analysis of all the activities related to creative industries, the geographical coverage of the study is
national. For the audiovisual industries, the coverage is both national and local (states of Bahia, Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo).
The study proposes the following division by sector of the creative industries, with the corresponding
occupational categories:

Activities of the creative


industry

Categories of selected occupations

Recording industry

Musician, author and director; audio technician, entrepreneur or arts


producer

Music and theatre production

Film industry

Dissemination of music

Musician, author and director; performer or programme presenter; writer,


editor, poet, art critic; film technician, set designer and decorator,
entrepreneur or arts producer

Performer or programme presenter; set designer or decorator; film


technician; film operator; video operator; entrepreneur or arts producer;
writer, editor, poet, art critic

Radio worker; reporter or narrator; entrepreneur or arts producer

Publishing of books, magazines Writer, editor, poet, art critic; librarian, curator, archivist, restorer of books
and periodicals
and documents, entrepreneur or arts producer

Photography and commercial


art

Photographer or photography technician, artist, curator, archivist, restorer


of books and documents

Radio and television industry

Performer or programme presenter, writer, publisher, poet, art critic; film


technician, reporter or narrator, radio worker, video operator, audio
technician, technician in communications; entrepreneur or arts producer

Jewellery industry

Popular art

Goldsmiths, jewellers, cutters of precious stones

Artisan, weaver, upholsterer, weaver of fishing nets, circus artist

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For the audiovisual industry, the following are the activities and occupational categories included at each
stage of the production:

Production
stages
Planning

Production

Circulation

Distribution
mechanisms

Audience
reception

Typical activities

Categories of occupation

Producers, scriptwriters, transmitters

Writer, scriptwriter, editor, poet, art critic,


entrepreneur and art producer

Actors agencies, funders, production


companies; fitters and tuners of
instruments, makeup artists, set
designers

Performer and programme presenter, musician,


author and music director; photographer and
photography technician; film technician; audio
technician; video operator; set designer and
decorator; entrepreneur and art producer

Exhibitors, transmitters, mobile units;


distributors

Video operator; cinema operator

Exhibitors, transmitters, cinemas, video


locations, television, live presentations

Video operator; cinema operator

Film and television journalists, festival


commentators, awards, academy

Writer, scriptwriter, editor, poet, art critic;


reporter and narrator

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables analysed in the study were the following:
a. Contribution to the economy

Average annual income of occupied people (by sector, activity, region, gender, race, age, years of
study, position in the family)
Contribution by these people to the state through taxes

b. Employment

Number of people occupied (by sector, activity, region, gender, race, age, years of study, position in the
family)
Condition of occupation (employee or self-employed worker)
Characteristics of the labour market

c. Micro enterprises and small businesses of the audiovisual sector

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Number of micro enterprises and small businesses


Personnel occupied
Salaries
Contribution of the micro enterprises and small businesses to the state through taxes and other fiscal
contributions
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The study used the following secondary sources of information:

National research of homes by sampling (PNAD), of the Brazilian Statistics Agency (IBGE)
Study of micro enterprises and small businesses in commerce and services (IBGE)
Annual research of central land registry of companies (IBGE)
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The data employed in the study were quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


One of the strengths of this study is the excellent characterisation of the people who work in the countrys
creative industries (by gender, race, mean age, years of study, employment stability, etc.).
One of the weaknesses is not breaking down data into sub-sectors. These are not identified in the
measurements, which make it impossible to gauge the impact of each sector on the national economy.
Regarding the analysis of the audiovisual sub-sector, a weakness is that the variables employed are not
the same as those of the general study, which does not permit the results of the analysis to be compared.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Carnaval de Barranquilla 2004 Impacto econmico local [Barranquilla Carnival 2004 Local
Economic Impact]
Country/region: Colombia - Barranquilla
Year: 2004
Institutions Involved: Foundation for the Development of the Caribbean Region, Fundesarrollo, with the
support of the Barranquilla Chamber of Commerce
Download link:
http://www.camarabaq.org.co/cms/documentstorage/com.tms.cms.document.Document_ba46557dc0a8fa20-ec6bb100-de574460/CARNAVAL2004.zip

143

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of this study is to analyse the impact that the Barranquilla Carnival generates on the
economy of the city of Barranquilla and its hinterland, analysing the most significant variables of demand
and supply in the market for goods and services and productive factors.
The study initially presents a characterisation of the carnival, which provides a background and a list of
official events. Next, an analysis is made of the supply of goods and services, the influence of the carnival
on the local business sector and the demand generated by the event. Finally, some suggestions from the
public and a summary of the project are presented.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (Barranquilla). It covers theatrical and music activities and
other artistic activities.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The following are the topics and variables analysed in the study to evaluate the economic impact of the
Carnival of Barranquilla:
a. Informal economy
Investment informal sector
Sales informal sector
Profits informal sector
Informal employment
Informal businesses
Informal sales people
Origin of the products
b. Formal economy
Number of visitors
Resources mobilised
Jobs generated
c. Influence of the carnival on the local business sector
Normal production or activity
Value of the production
Normal volume of its product
Value of sales during the carnival
Normal activity of the companies
Flow of orders and shipping of raw materials and supplies
d. Consumer behaviour as an active agent of the economy
Place of permanent residence
Place of temporary accommodation
Level of income
Products demanded

144

Means of payment for purchases


Attendance at other municipal events
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The data were obtained from primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources were
represented by surveys and interviews. The secondary sources were:

Barranquilla Carnival Foundation


Companies in the city
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The information collected was quantitative and qualitative.


4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION

Surveys of informal agents: 705 surveys were designed and applied to informal agents who participated
during the four days of the Carnival in the following events: Battle of the Flowers; the traditional Gran
Parada; 44th Street Parade, Fantasy Parade, 84th Street Parade, and 17th Street Parade.
Interviews with businessmen: the perception of the event by a group of local businessmen was
consulted regarding the positive or negative effect of the carnival in the development of the normal
activity of their businesses.
Interviews with participants at the events: to analyse demand, 405 participants at the different events
were interviewed.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The greatest strength of the study is the coverage of the informal sector, which defined indicators in
accordance with its characteristics. Furthermore, methodological strategies were proposed that can be
used to determine the economic impact of festivals and their contribution to job creation, both formal and
informal.

1. GENERAL DATA OF THE PROJECT


Title: Caracterizacin socioeconmica del sector artesanal colombiano [Socio-Economic Characterisation
of the Colombian Crafts Sector]
Country/region: Colombia
Year: although the document is not dated, it appears to have been produced in 1999
Institutions Involved: Artesanas de Colombia
Download link:
http://www.artesaniasdecolombia.gov.co/documentos/documentos_pub/Diagnostico_del_sector_artesanal.
pdf

145

2. SUMMARY
This is a short document (only 6 pages) whose purpose is to make a socio-economic analysis of the
Colombian crafts sector from the results of updating the crafts census (in 1998) and from foreign trade
records

3. COVERAGE
The coverage of the analysis is national and the sector analysed is the crafts sector.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics and variables analysed were:
a. Social Factors

Geographical location (distribution of the crafts population)


Level of schooling
Organisation of the sector

b. Economic factors

Crafts production
Labour (occupation)
Raw materials
Technology
Design
Organisation of the production
Marketing (exports)
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The analysis was based on two secondary information sources and a primary source. The secondary
sources are:

Occupational study of the crafts sector


Foreign trade records of DANE

Regarding the primary source, it is represented by the National Economic Census of the Crafts Sector
(undertaken for the first time in 1994 and updated in 1998).
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The diagnosis employs both quantitative and qualitative data. The latter (which referred to aspects such as
collective organisation and technology, among others) were quantified on the basis of calculations of
frequency (number of replies to each alternative and proportion of the total).

146

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Being a short analysis, the document manages to identify key aspects of the social and economic
characteristics of Colombian crafts. A weakness is the absence of graphics that would help to better
illustrate the results.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Impacto del sector fonogrfico en la economa colombiana [Impact of the Music Recording Sector on the
Colombian Economy]
Country / Region: Colombia
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: Produced by the Ministry of Culture of Colombia, the Andres Bello Accord and the
Association of Record Producers of Colombia, ASINCOL
Download link:
http://www.cab.int.co/me- dia/libro_impacto_fonografico.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of this study is to estimate the participation of the different agents that make up the
music recording sector in the Colombian economy, and to quantify the importance of piracy in the market
of this sector.
Initially, the study identifies the main trends in the global music market and the evolution of technology in
the sector, among other aspects. Next, some characteristics of the market structure of the main subsectors that make up the music recording sector are analysed, and its impact on the national economy.
Finally, conclusions are drawn on the subjects studied and strategies to strengthen the sector proposed.

3. COVERAGE
The coverage of the study is national.
The four groups of agents of the music recording sector covered by the study are:

Authors, composers and singers


Publishers
Record producers
Manufacturers of supports and distributors

147

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics and variables analysed in the study were the following:
a. Contribution to the economy
Total value added of the sector and the agents that participate (including related industries).
Participation of the agents in the value added of the sector.
b. Employment
Number of jobs generated by the sector.
Participation of the institutions involved in the number of jobs generated in the country.
c. Payment of taxes
Income taxes
VAT
Taxes on remittances
d. Foreign trade
Imports
Exports
e. Copyright flows
Photomechanical rights
Those received by the record producer
Those collected by corporations of collective rights administration
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The data employed in the study came from primary and secondary sources of information. The following
are some of the secondary sources:

Acodem
Asincol
National accounts DANE
Annual Manufacturing Survey DANE
National Tax and Customs Bureau DIAN
Superintendence of Corporations company accounting reports
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The study employed quantitative and qualitative information.


4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION

Surveys of companies (short questionnaire on employment).


Surveys of music consumption, buying habits and piracy (conducted by Fedesarrollo for the study). The
first was applied to 2,406 buyers in large cities: (Bogota, Medelln, Cali and Barranquilla), medium size
cities (Ibagu, Bucaramanga, Cartagena and Buenaventura), and towns (Girardot, Buga, Rionegro and
Santa Marta), representative of the country by groups of cities and strata. The second was applied to

148

3.000 households in the four largest cities of the country, together with Fedesarrollos Social Survey,
representative by cities.
Interviews with companies of the sector. The companies met at the beginning of the process to
familiarise the researchers with the topics and problems of the sector and determine specific subject
areas for the task.
Interviews with several producers and distributors to discuss the situation of their companies and the
sector in general.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strength of the study is related to the use of different sources of information (primary and
secondary), estimate the impact of the music recording sector in the country, and analyse in detail one of
the most important problems it faces: piracy. Also noteworthy is the description of the methodology
employed and that it contains some valuable lessons for developing mappings of creative industries.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Impacto de la cultura en la economa chilena [Impact of Culture on the Chilean Economy].
Country/Region: Chile
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: the project was produced by the Ministry of Education of Chile, the National Council
on Culture and the Arts, the Andres Bello Accord, and ARCIS University.
Download link:
http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/libro_impacto_cultura_economia_chilena.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of this study was to make an economic quantification of the contribution of the cultural
sector to the national economy.
The project describes the contribution of economic activities characteristic of the culture (EACC) to GDP
during the nineties. It also identifies activities, sources and indicators for measuring the cultural sector that
lead to the creation of a Satellite Account of Culture. The study also makes a methodological evaluation of
available sources in the country for making a macro-economic measurement by sector of the EACC.

3. COVERAGE
The coverage of the study is national.
With respect to sectors, the study measured the following activities:

Cinema, television and radio


Other cultural and sports activities
Printing and publishing
Recreation and spectacles

149

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The measurement of the contribution of the cultural sector to the national economy was made within the
framework of the National Accounts System. To this end, different cultural activities considered in the
construction of the input-product matrix were analysed, based on the year 1996 and classified according to
the Uniform Industrial International Code (UIIC).
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The central topic of the study was the measurement of the contribution of cultural activities to the national
economy. The variables employed to create the measurement were:

Participation of the EACC in GNP


Gross value added of the activities studied
Growth rate of the EACCs contribution to GDP
Comparison of these figures with those of the other sectors of the economy
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The study was based on the following secondary sources of information:

National Institute of Statistics, INE


Yearbook of domestic commerce and services
Annual National Industrial Survey, ENIA (applied to industrial establishments with ten or more
employees)
Yearbook of culture and mass media
Central Bank of Chile
Input-product matrix
Yearbook of national accounts
Monthly bulletins
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The information used in the study was quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


One of the strengths of the study is that shared with the Andres Bello Accord studies in that it makes a
detailed and complete analysis of the selected sectors.
The weakness is related to the coverage of very few sectors.

150

1. GENERAL DATA OF THE PROJECT


Title: Impacto econmico de las industrias culturales en Colombia [Economic Impact of Cultural Industries
in Colombia]
Country/region: Colombia
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: the study was produced by the Ministry of Culture of Colombia and the Andres Bello
Accord.
Download link:
http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/libro_impacto_economia_industria.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main objective of this study is to make an initial measurement of the economic importance of cultural
industries in the country, examining their contribution to GDP, their general trends and some particular
aspects of the selected industries.
The report begins with a conceptual framework that comprises an analysis of the relationship between
economy and culture, definitions regarding the cultural sector, and a series of important considerations in
comprehending the subject.
Next, a detailed analysis is made of each of the sectors included in the study, focusing on aspects such as
context, legal framework, employment, exports, imports and others pertinent to the sector. And lastly, some
policy recommendations are proposed.

COVERAGE
The coverage of the study is national.
The cultural industries considered are the following:

Cinema
Periodicals
Radio
Publishing sector
Music recording sector
Television

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The variables and indicators analysed in the study were the following:
a. Manufacture
Units produced and gross value of production

151

b. Sales
Quantification of sales of products or services, behaviour during the period covered by the study
c. Value added
Total for the sectors, contribution to national VAT and growth
d. Employment
Number of people employed, contribution to national employment and growth
e. Copyright payment
Total value of these payments by sector
f. Exports
Units exported, value of the exports and contribution to the generation of foreign exchange
g. Imports
Units imported, payment of foreign exchange
h. Trade balance
Exports - imports
i. Piracy
Quantification and volume of illegal production in the sector
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The data analysed in the study came mainly from secondary sources. These sources were the following:

National Tax and Customs Bureau (DIAN)


Ministry of Foreign Trade
Ministry of Culture
Superintendence of Corporations
Superintendence of Securities
National Statistics Bureau (DANE)
National Television Commission
Central Bank
Websites of private institutions, international development agencies and multilateral organisations
Colombian Chamber of Books
Asomedios
Asincol
Proimgenes
Andiarios
Ibope
Acim
Fedesarrollo

The study also collected primary information, basically through interviews.


4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The study employed quantitative and qualitative information.

152

4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION


The technique employed to obtain primary information was by conducting personal interviews with officials
from different professional associations, businessmen and producers of the sectors analysed.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


This study has the following strengths: i) a thorough analysis of each of the selected sectors and the large
number of sub-sectors it covers; ii) the quality of the sources of data and the variables chosen in the
analysis.
Some of the weaknesses are: i) the size of the text; ii) the absence of general results of the creative sector
(the information and analysis are presented by sub-sectors); iii) other weaknesses attributable to the
sources of information (exclusion of informality and old data).

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Gua del escenario industrial creativo en Mxico [Guide to the Creative Industries Sector in Mexico]
Country/Region: Mexico
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: the study was produced by the National Copyright Institute, the Unit Specialised in
Investigating Crimes against Copyright and Intellectual Property, and the Mexican Association for the
Protection of Intellectual Property.
Download link:
http://www.creativexport.co.uk/images/news/123MexicoCIGuide-03.04.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of this study is to provide basic information on creative industries in Mexico, with special
emphasis on the protection of copyright.
The study briefly describes the creative industries, their situation in the country, the vision of the
government on the subject, the legal structure of the sector and the strategies implemented to fight piracy.
Next, an analysis is made by sector that includes examining five elements: market growth potential,
legislation, evaluation of the strengths of the sector and the need for accurate information. The study then
provides a compilation of the agents operating in the sector and a calendar of events, fairs, and festivals.
Lastly, it reaches some conclusions and makes recommendations for strengthening the sector.

3. COVERAGE
The coverage of the study is national.

153

The sub-sectors included in the analysis were the following:

Architecture
Cinema
Crafts
Design of fabrics and fashion
Design of footwear and accessories
Heritage and tourism
Interactive leisure software
Interior decoration and design
Literature and publishing
Music
Performing arts
Television and radio

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics evaluated in the study were the following:
a. Market growth potential
b. Legislation
c. Evaluation of the strengths and needs to determine the assistance required
d. Availability of accurate information
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The data were obtained from these sources:

BANCOMEX Exports Promotion Bank


FONART National Crafts Fund
Metropolitan Autonomous University
National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)
Monterrey Technological Institute
Universidad Iberoamericana
Inter-American Entertainment Company (CIE)
TELEVISA
BBVA-Bancomer Cultural Foundation
JUMEX Cultural Foundation
National Fashion Institute
National Chamber of the Mexican Publishing Industry (CANIEM)
Mexican Institute of Cinema (IMCINE)
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

Quantitative and qualitative information were used in this study.

154

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


One of the strengths of this study is the identification of a large number of sources of information, including
academic institutions, industrial associations and government institutions. In addition, the selection of the
sub-sectors is sufficient to represent the creative sector in Mexico.

1. GENERAL DATA OF THE PROJECT


Title: La dinmica de la cultura en Venezuela y su contribucin al PIB [The Dynamics of Culture in
Venezuela and its Contribution to GDP]
Country/Region: Venezuela:
Year: 2004
Institutions involved:

Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Venezuela


Vice Ministry of Culture
National Council of Culture
Economy and Culture Project in Venezuela
Andres Bello Accord

Download link: http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/venezuela.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The basic purpose of the study is to contribute to an understanding of the cultural and communications
complex in Venezuela, analysing its productive impact, and considering the characteristics it acquires as a
specific economic sector by observing aspects of the cultural cycle: production, distribution and
consumption. Also to interpret the dynamics of each sub-sector and the interrelations and challenges
posed by the information and knowledge society.
The study first provides a conceptual framework of the relationship between the economy and culture,
which includes a descriptive and prospective analysis of the creative industries and their economic impact.
Next, methodological aspects that permit identifying characteristic economic activities of the cultural sector
are developed and the relevant macroeconomic calculations made. The behaviour of cultural GDP in the
Venezuelan economy is analysed, several economic scenarios are described, and an objective overview of
the current situation of the main cultural industries is made. And finally, some public policy
recommendations for the cultural sector are proposed.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national.
Regarding coverage by sector, the study begins by grouping activities together: i) economic activities
characteristic of culture, ii) economic activities related to culture, and iii) the economic activities of teaching
services. The activities that were proposed and analysed in each group are presented below:

155

Economic activities characteristic of culture (EACC)

Advertising services
Digital information services and related consulting services in computer equipment
Editing of recordings and other editing services
Exhibition of films and videotapes
Filming and editing services
Publishing of books, brochures, music scores and other publications
Publishing of newspapers, magazines and periodicals
Radio and television services
Research and experimental development in the field of science

Economic activities related to culture (EARC)

Cable, radio and television services


Manufacture of jewellery, musical instruments and related articles
Manufacture of wood paste, paper and cardboard
Printing and related services
Reproduction of music recordings, films and videotapes
Services related to telecommunications
Transmission services of data, messages and programmes
Wholesale and retail of related goods
Business activities n.c.e (photographic services, photocopies and other company activities)

Economic activities of teaching services (EATS)

Primary and secondary education teaching services


Higher learning teaching services
Other kinds of teaching services

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
This study evaluated six scenarios, considering the range of economic activities characteristic of the
cultural sector:

First scenario: economic activities characteristic of culture (EACC)


Second scenario: economic activities related to culture (EARC)
Third scenario: characteristic activities and teaching services (EACC + EATS)
Fourth scenario: EACC excluding some services
Fifth scenario: characteristic activities plus related activities (EACC + EARC)
Sixth scenario: EACC, EARC and teaching services
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS

The variables analysed in the study were:


a) Production and Gross Domestic Product

156

b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Intermediate consumption
Total supply
Imports and exports
Distribution of profit margins
Net indirect taxes
Final consumption
Gross capital formation
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Only secondary sources of information were employed in the study. Among the sources consulted were the
following:

National Statistics Institute of Venezuela (INE): economic census, general population and housing
census
Venezuelan Chamber of Electronic Commerce
Venezuelan Institute of Advertising (IVP): annual general investment summary
Venezuela Central Bank (BCV): annual general investment summary
Product Magazine, Communications Magazine
National Autonomous Centre for Filmmaking (CNAC). Division of Film Statistics: statistical yearbooks
Cinema Interests Association (ASOINCI)
Conatel - Statistical Observatory, survey of the sectors core indicators attached
Polar Foundation: Cultural Statistical Yearbook
Venezuelan Chamber of Radio: national study concerning the habits of exposure to radio
Professional Advertising Publications (PPP)
Budget Laws
National Book Centre
National Library, Statistical Series, Research on Users of Public Libraries
Society of Authors and Composers of Venezuela (SACVEN)
Venezuelan Association of Record Producers and Performers (AVINPRO)
Central Office of Statistics and Information (OCEI): statistical yearbooks
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

Most of the information used in the study is quantitative.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


One of the strengths of this study is the definition of six scenarios of analysis, which facilitate determining
the broken-down contribution of the sector. In addition, with the variables considered, the contribution to
the economy is characterised in a very specific manner.

157

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: La industria cinematogrfica y su consumo en los pases de Iberoamrica [The Film Industry and its
Consumption in the Iberian and Latin American Countries]
Country/Region: Iberian Peninsula and Latin America.
Year: 2004
Institutions involved: this research was undertaken with the collaboration of the National Autonomous
Centre for Film Making of Venezuela (CNAC), the Communications Research Institute, and the Central
University of Venezuela for the Conference of Film Authorities of the Iberian and Latin American Countries
(CACI)
Download link: http://www.oma.recam.org/estudios/caci_al.pdf

2. SUMMARY
This research is an effort to evaluate the practices, habits, preferences and behaviours of filmgoers in the
Iberian and Latin American countries during the period 1990 - 2003. The study presents data, statistics and
indicators in a descriptive and diachronic manner that define particular aspects of the film industry as a
specific cultural and industrial activity, and the way they have evolved and become consolidated during the
period analysed. Such particularities are associated with the market, consumption, habits and preferences
of cinema in the Iberian and Latin American countries. Furthermore, based on statistical and other
secondary information obtained from the studies reviewed, the principal critical knots that appear as
constants in the cultural consumption patterns of cinema in the Iberian and Latin American countries are
identified in each study.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is regional, in the sense that it includes several countries,
specifically Spain and Portugal and those of Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The sector of cultural industries addressed by the study is the audiovisual industry. According to the study,
this sector has a cultural dimension and constitutes a creative expression, especially of identities; it is a
basic means of promoting democracy but is also an increasingly significant economic activity. Within this
sector, the study analysis the film industry.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
It is descriptive research of an analytical-documentary kind, which with a diachronic approach (revealing
changes over time) it studies the cultural consumption of audiovisuals and films in the Iberian and Latin
American countries during the period 1990 - 2003.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics analysed and contemplated in the study, together with their respective variables, are the
following:

158

Overview of the film market of the Iberian and Latin American countries
a. Productions and co-productions: films produced in each country, either by national producers or with the
participation of international producers, and market share according to the origin of the films.
b. Supply: cinemas and projection spaces (screens)
c. Collection: box office receipts
d. Filmgoers: spectators or film users in cinemas
The film industry by countries: market and consumption
In addition to the above-mentioned variables, tabulated data on behaviour in other aspects related to the
market together with consumption characteristics are provided for some countries. Among them the
following can be mentioned:
a. Attendance: this is generally measured as the frequency of attendance at a cinema per inhabitant
b. Reasons for attending or not: they express the motivations that encourage or discourage the
consumption of cinema
c. Preferred formats for films: habits of purchasing and renting VHS and DVD, reasons for preferring these
means
d. Cinema ticket prices
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION
The sources of information employed by the study are secondary and correspond to academic research,
specialised market studies on cultural consumption in the countries of the region, and serial publications
and records of government agencies.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used in the study was quantitative and qualitative. Qualitative information corresponds
mainly to the second group of variables mentioned in numeral 4.1, while the quantitative information refers
to the variables of the first group.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Not all CACI member countries provided information to develop the research, since it is a relatively new
area of knowledge about which there are not as many studies as was initially thought.
In addition, and given that the sources of information used correspond to studies and research made with
different objectives and data collection methods, in most cases the information provided by a country does
not refer to the same variables, which makes it difficult to make comparisons. Nevertheless, information is
presented for each case, which makes it possible to infer some general characteristics of cultural
consumption of films in the Iberian and Latin American countries. However, the same degree of detailed
and complex cultural consumption information is not available for all countries.

47

159

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Impacto del sector cinematogrfico sobre la economa colombiana: situacin actual y perspectivas
[Impact of the Cinema Sector on the Colombian Economy: Current Situation and Perspectives]
Country/Region: Colombia
Year: 2000
Institutions involved: the study was produced by Fedesarrollo on the request and initiative of the Film
Division of the Ministry of Culture and Film Promotion Fund Proimgenes en Movimiento (2003) and was
published by the Andres Bello Accord.
Download link: http://www.cab.int.co/media/libro_impacto_cinematografico.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The study evaluates the current situation of the film sector in the country, for which it analyses the size and
structure of the market, quantifies the Gross Domestic Product and measures the intermediate
consumption, value added and employment generated by the sector. The study also compares the
evolution of the film sector with the experience of the United States and other countries in similar conditions
to the Colombian case in order to identify the critical factors of success, the main development tools of the
sector and the role of the government in this process. The study projects scenarios of exhibition and
distribution based on alternative assumptions and on simulations of the future production of Colombian
films, and reviews the sectors principal regulatory elements in the country. Finally, the study proposes a
series of recommendations to guide film policy and contribute to establishing a system of regulations that
ensures stable conditions, participation and economic recovery for all the actors of the sectors industrial
chain.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is national.
The film industry is conceived from its structure, comprising the different links that form the chain
producers, distributors and exhibitors and the relations that develop between them.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study consists of an analysis of the film industry in Colombia, which based on primary and secondary
information, describes and analyses the situation of the sector in Colombia, comparing it with cases in
other countries with similar situations and with countries with contrasting situations. It also identifies the
constituent elements of the economic structure of the national film industry and builds figures on the
behaviour of some of them, for the purpose of identifying the critical aspects and determinants of success
for the development of the sector.

160

4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


The topics analysed in the study and their respective variables are the following:
Analysis of the film industry in the United States
a.

International market structure: number of films shown, average attendance and average box office
receipts.
Evolution of the film industry.
Structure of the film industry: relation between producers and distributors.

b.
c.

Analysis of the experience of Europe and Latin America


a.
b.
c.
148

Market structure: size, cultural barriers, technical capacity and quality of inputs, business
approaches regarding distribution, and supply of films and screens.
Problems of Latin American cinema.
Institutional and policy instruments used in favour of films in Europe and Latin America.
Analysis of the situation of the film industry in Colombia

a.
b.
c.

Market size: number of screens, number of spectators, box office receipts, socio-economic
characteristics of the spectators, cinema attendance (number of times per year).
Structure of the sector: participation of national producers in the market, participation of distributors
in the market, and screens per exhibitor.
Contribution of the industry to the economy: estimate of the value added and employment
generated by the different economic agents; projections and simulations on value added and
employment; contribution to GDP of the leisure and cultural services and personal services sectors;
and contribution to the countrys total GDP.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Primary and secondary sources of information were employed in the study. Among the secondary sources,
the following can be mentioned:

Company balance sheets published by the Superintendence of Corporations


National studies
International studies on films in Latin America, the United States and Europe.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION

The information concerning the analysis of the situation of the film industry in Colombia is quantitative,
while the information used to analyse the cases of the United States, Europe and Latin America comprises
both quantitative and qualitative data.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
Two primary data collection techniques were used in the study:

Surveys of national film producers during the nineties.


Interviews with officials of the sector and with several international experts

161

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The study states as a limitation the fact that available figures regarding employment are not very accurate
for the exhibition and distribution industries, being more reliable for film production. Such figures were
constructed from information obtained from the interviews with officials of the sector.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Entre la champeta y la pared: el futuro econmico y cultural de la industria discogrfica de Cartagena
[Between the Champeta and the Wall: The Economic and Cultural Future of the Music Recording Industry
of Cartagena]
Country/Region: Colombia
Year: 2003
Institutions involved: this study was produced by the Colombian Caribbean Observatory, with the
collaboration of the Economy and Culture team of the Andres Bello Accord and under the sponsorship and
financing of the Ministry of Culture.
Download link: http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/Champeta.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The objective of this study is to diagnose the current state of the record industry of Cartagena, analysing its
past and current trends, future projections and its influence on the economic and cultural future of the
region.
This research is a contribution to the study of the cultural sector of the country, and it addresses a specific
industry: the recording of champeta music. The study makes an analysis of the industry of this genre,
providing a detailed description of its history, an economic analysis of the industry, an analysis based on
economic theory of the determinants of innovation in this sector, and the construction of a methodology
that empirically evaluates this process, consisting of an analysis of the creative trends of the record
industry based on the music listings of the city of Cartagena for those years where information is available.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (Cartagena).
The champeta forms part of the recording industry sector and incorporates a new element, that of the
picotera industry. The analysis made on the development of this industry starts from the comprehension of
its economic structure, incorporating the identification of all the agents and processes that comprise the
productive chain, the role they play in the chain and the relations that develop between them. These
processes correspond to creation, production, distribution and marketing, and among the agents, the
following are identified: artists, producers and independent labels, large recording firms or majors, national
labels and retailers.

162

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The research on the champeta recording industry is a diagnosis that describes and analyses the sector
from a historical and economic perspective.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics dealt with by the study and the respective variables considered are the following:

a.
b.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

a.
b.
c.

a.

History of champeta music


Origin and evolution
Incursion of artists, producers and recording labels in the music environment.
Economic analysis of the champeta industry, from the perspective of market structure
Products
Agents who take part in the entire productive chain and its interactions. Such agents are: artists,
music labels (independent, national and the majors), and retailers.
Creation, production, distribution and marketing of champeta music.
Demand characteristics of the sector and the factors that determine it.
Supply broken down to three levels in which the relations between various agents of the productive
chain are identified. Such levels are: new talent, established singers and superstars.
Distribution of the value added of champeta production.
Analysis of the determining factors of innovation and the way the industry is organised, from
the standpoint of economic theory
Nature and determining factors of creative processes.
Effect of the participation of the majors on innovation and artistic creativity of this sector.
Advantages that are derived from the small size of independent firms and their standing vis vis the
major labels.
Development of a methodology to quantify the degree of innovation and diversity of the
industry
Presence of champeta in Cartagenas music scene from 1992 to 2002. Based on local radio records
of the most listened-to songs.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The study begins with a revision of the secondary sources of information consisting mainly of historical
archives, other research work about champeta music, national newspaper files, and other studies. It also
employs primary information sources consisting of interviews with local artists and producers.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
Most of the primary and secondary information is qualitative, but there are also some quantitative data.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION
Interviews with local champeta artists and producers.

163

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


The main strengths of the study may be summarised in this way:
i) it provides a thorough analysis of the structure and development of the champeta industry and the
processes of innovation that occur within it; ii) the methodology it employs facilitates determining in a clear
and detailed way how an industry is structured, the elements and processes that comprise it, and the
interactions that occur between them.
Regarding the methodology proposed to analyse the degree of innovation of the record industry, the study
considers two limitations: one, that only musical themes which became highly popular are taken as a basis,
leaving out other productions; and two, the use of listings generated by only one source of information (a
local radio station) may produce an imperfect measurement of the creative production of the sector. In this
respect, the study also considers as a limitation the fact that records of the most popular songs are not
available for every week, although the study did manage to collect at least one observation per week.

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: Mapeo de industrias creativas en Bogot y Soacha [Mapping of Creative Industries in Bogota and
Soacha]
Country/Region: Colombia Bogota and Soacha
Year: 2002
Institutions involved: this study was produced for the British Council by the School of Architecture and
Design and the Centre for Studies in Economic Development, CEDE, of the University of the Andes, with
the support of the Bogota Chamber of Commerce and the Bogota Institute of Culture and Tourism.
Download link: http://www.britishcouncil.org/es/consolidado.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The main purpose of the study is to diagnose the creative industries sector in the city of Bogota, based on
the model applied in the United Kingdom.
The study starts by identifying and defining the sub-sectors that make up the countrys creative industries
and provides an overview in which it establishes the relations with other economic activities corresponding
to the same creative sector and with other sectors associated with the productive chain (industrial sector,
services sector and commerce sector). The study also provides a description and analysis of each subsector, based on primary and secondary information, regarding organisational aspects, some economic
aspects, and representative cases of the creative industries.
On the basis of this information, the study reaches some conclusions and makes recommendations for
each of the sub-sectors considered.

3. COVERAGE
The geographical coverage of the study is local (Bogota and Soacha).

164

The study defines sixteen sub-sectors of creative industries for Colombia, with their respective core and
related activities, and the codes that identify them in the UIIC classification revision 3. The identification
of these sub-sectors starts with the definition of sub-sectors made by the United Kingdom, but with a
modification in the number of sub-sectors and the activities that represent them, given the particularities of
the structure and composition of the creative industries in Colombia.
The sub-sectors defined for the study, and the core activities identified as creative in each sector, were the
following:

Architecture: building design, landscaping design, urban design, environmental design, and interior
design.
Art: creation of works of art, including popular art, graphic arts, history and theory of art.
Performing arts: creation of content (theatre, opera, operetta, etc); direction; drama; choreographic
creation, costume design, make-up, set design and special effects; design of lighting and sound; design
and choreography for carnival parades; puppets and marionettes; dance; circus; and magicians.
Crafts: creation of tangible culture in any of the crafts, design of crafts in any trade, handicraft design
for traditional festivities and rites, creation and adaptation of work tools.
Film and video: creation of scripts; direction (general, arts, photography, and casting); design
(wardrobe, make-up, and sets); sound and set design; special effects design, production of all types of
films and videos; post production (editing); acting (creation of the character); and stunts.
Interface design: design of software for leisure, education, modelling, administration, and production,
and design of operating systems and user software.
Fashion design: haut couture and prt-a-porter.
Graphic design: corporate image, manuals of corporate identity and instruction, advertising graphics,
digital interfaces, publishers print material, package and container graphics, continuous forms and
securities certificates, labels, toys and party goods, merchandising and comics.
Industrial design: detailed design of new products (specialised technical design), design of fashion
collections, and product lines and systems of the plastic industry.
Textile design: weaving design, printed fabrics, technical textiles, composite fabrics (coated), yarns,
fabric collections.
Photography: photography (traditional or digital) for: architecture, art, film and video, fashion design,
graphic design, textile design, advertising, television, sports press, technical and specialised design.
Creation and publishing of books, brochures, periodicals and other publications.
Music: composition, arrangements, direction, singing, sound editing, and sound engineering.
Heritage: design of collections or tangible cultural heritage, intangible heritage and natural heritage.
Advertising: design of creative strategies (concepts).
Television and radio: all television genres, radio services, programme creation (writing and scripts),
direction, acting, and narration.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
This study employs the British experience and builds a conceptual framework in order to make a
descriptive diagnosis of economic and organisational aspects and cases that are representative of the
creative industries in Bogota and Soacha. For this purpose the study employed primary and secondary
sources of information, from which quantitative and qualitative data were obtained concerning each of the
variables defined by the study.
Based on the analysis of secondary information, the sub-sectors that it was possible to cover according to
the requirements defined in the research were identified. These sectors were: crafts, interface design,
fashion design, industrial design, textile design, heritage and advertising. The remaining sectors were
covered by a survey.

165

4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS


The topics of analysis addressed by the study and the variables taken into account are the following:

Sub-sectors and their core and related activities: definition of each sector, and the identification of
creative, industrial, service and commercial activities.
Organisation of the sector: number of establishments in each sub-sector and distribution by subsectors, types of legal organisation (commercial corporations, co-operatives, unincorporated
companies, and individuals), duration of operation, types of establishments (main, single, branch), type
of location (commercial premises, permanent stands), and accounting (profit and loss and general
balance, other kinds of accounts, no records kept).
Economic aspects: employment (average by sub-sector, distribution by gender), average sales,
average costs, average value of assets, average number of computers by sub-sector, Internet
connections and networked computers.
Relevant cases regarding creative industries: a description of creative initiatives that in some way have
contributed to the social, economic and cultural development of each sub-sector has been included.
The variables analysed are: a description of each case, qualitative impact, and management processes
implemented or to be implemented.

4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION


Primary and secondary sources of information were employed by the study. Among the secondary sources
are the following:

Survey of micro enterprises by DANE for the following sub-sectors: architecture, crafts, fashion design,
industrial design, and the design of books, brochures, newspapers and magazines.
For the heritage sub-sector, information from the Ministry of Culture, Institute of Culture and Tourism,
the museum network, and library sections,.
DANE survey of services (information and advertising) that contains information about the interface
design and advertising sectors.
Bancoldex, for the textile design sub-sector.
Databases of the Bogota Chamber of Commerce, with mercantile registrations.
Other documents.

The primary sources of information were represented by interviews and surveys.


4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information employed by the study was qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative information
corresponds to variables related to the organisation of the sector, employment and economic aspects. The
qualitative information corresponds to the identification of the sub-sectors, their core and related activities,
and to the relevant cases of creative industries.
4.4 TECHNIQUES FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY INFORMATION

To study those sectors not covered by secondary sources of information (art, performing arts, film and
video, graphic design, photography, music, television and radio) a survey was designed with which
information was compiled equivalent to that obtained from the databases of DANE and the Chamber of
Commerce.

166

In addition, representative cases were identified and interviews were conducted for the purpose of
disseminating information about creative initiatives in each sub-sector.
Roundtables took place with the support group of each sub-sector to produce feedback about
preliminary results and to compile observations and recommendations.

5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES


Despite the fact that the study provides a breakdown of results and conclusions by sub-sector, there is no
exhaustive conclusion about the general situation of the creative industries sector. The conclusions
concerning the sector as a whole refer more to the difficulties that the organisation of the sector
experiences in building statistics and indicators, and mention in a general manner other weaknesses of the
sector.
For its part, the study identifies the following limitations:

The information is collected from different sources and this permits only a limited comparison of the
results and is impossible to break down. So there are no general indicators of the creative sector as a
whole, such as total sales, employees, and intermediate consumption, among others.

Regarding representative cases of the creative industries, there are others that could have been
included but about which time constraints in developing the study did not permit collecting information
or acknowledging many of them.

Although the UIIC classification system facilitates obtaining reliable and valid statistics for sectors
defined and organised from secondary information, in this case, because the sub-sectors are not
defined by this classification (secondary or auxiliary activities of defined manufacturing or auxiliary
service sectors), information from secondary sources is scarce or absent. This made it necessary to
complement the information with a survey developed by the project, but which does not provide
adequate reliability since the interviewees do not provide all the information, but rather hold a part of it
in reserve, especially their economic information. This is typical of such exercises.

The study also mentions methodological limitations with respect to the information provided by DANE: a
limited period within which to determine the sampling universe of some sub-sectors, which affected the
representative nature and randomness of the sample. For other sub-sectors, companies with more than
10 employees were not included, which means that an important proportion is not represented in the
study; company codes that may or may not have creative industries are included; not all companies
correspond to the projects definitions of creative industries; and the time limitations of the project did
not permit it to cover the gaps left in the textile design and heritage sub-sectors.

Finally, the main strengths of the study may be summarised as follows:

It attempts to first exhaust the secondary information sources in order to make a diagnosis of the
creative industries sector, and then identify the need for primary sources of information.
The definition of sector, sub-sector and related activities that is employed permits identifying the sector
adequately.

167

1. GENERAL DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT


Title: El impacto econmico de la cultura en Per [The Economic Impact of Culture in Peru]
Country/region: Peru
Year: 2005
Institutions involved: the study was produced by a research team of the Professional School of Tourism
and Hotel Management of the School of Communication, Tourism and Psychology of the University of San
Martin de Porres. It received technical support from the Economy and Culture team of the Andres Bello
Accord and the National Institute of Culture of Peru.
Download link: http://www.cab.int.co/cab42/downloads/peru.pdf

2. SUMMARY
The purpose of this study is to measure the economic impact of the following cultural activities: publishing,
performing arts, radio, music recording, filmmaking, periodicals, television, crafts, museum science, and
advertising.
The study analyses in an independent manner each of the industries or sectors identified as cultural in
Peru, with attention focused on their economic impact. It includes an analysis of the production of each
sector (GDP) and its contribution to the economy, and the legal framework that regulates each sector. For
some sectors the study also analyses consumption, employment generated, imports and exports,
characteristics of supply and demand, impact of piracy, and intellectual property and copyright, among
other aspects.

3. COVERAGE
The geographic coverage of the study is national.
The industries that are defined as part of the culture sector are: publishing, performing arts, radio, music
recording, filmmaking, periodicals, television, crafts, museums and museum science, and advertising.

4. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The study collected information provided by different public and private institutions, universities and some
independent researchers on such aspects as: production, employment, supply, demand, and legal aspects,
among others.
4.1 TOPICS, VARIABLES, INDICATORS
The topics addressed in all sectors were:

Production of the sector: measured by the GDP of the sector and its contribution to national GDP.
Legal framework: all legal, regulatory and institutional aspects that guide each sector are described.

168

In some of the sectors aspects such as the following were analysed:

Employment: number of direct jobs


Consumption and demand: consumption in monetary and physical units, reading habits, attendance at
spectacles and cinemas, box office receipts, newspaper sales, level of reading of newspapers,
characteristics of the television audience, preferences and characteristics of visitors to museums.
Imports and exports: volume of imports; value exported, in dollars.
Supply: number of suppliers, films exhibited, number of screens, television channels, television
programmes broadcast, hours of transmission, newspapers and magazines, radio stations, and types
of museums, among others.
Piracy: measured by the number of suppliers; value of pirate production compared to legal production,
impact of the closing of legal establishments, and economic losses for the sectors, among others.
Intellectual property and copyright.
4.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Data and information from secondary sources were used in the study, such as: the National Institute of
Culture (INC), Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism, Peruvian Chamber of Books (CPL), universities, and
institutions and agencies of the different sectors.
4.3 TYPE OF INFORMATION
The information used in the study is mainly quantitative. Qualitative information has to do with the definition
of culture and its role in the economy, and with the identification of the different sectors studied.
5. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
In reviewing the study, the following weaknesses were found:

Lack of a detailed description of the methodology and constraints on treating the information and on
obtaining the results and indicators that are provided in each sector.
The document does not have a section that explicitly explains how the central topic of the study was
addressed, since when the economic impact is described no mention is made of the variables taken
into account for this purpose. There is also no explicit explanation of the common or particular topics
that are analysed in each sub-sector, nor how these permit complementing the analysis of economic
impact.
The results and conclusions are provided in an isolated manner for each sector, and general
conclusions or results that would provide a general view of the cultural sector are not included.

169

APPENDIX 2
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES
Fostering creative and/or cultural industries in Colombia and encouraging the use of information to
evaluate the performance of the culture sector are explicit strategies included in two national planning
instruments: one, specific to the sector, the 2001-2010 National Culture Plan Towards a Cultural
Democratic Citizenship, and another of a general character, the 2002-2006 National Development Plan
Towards a Community-Based State.
The purpose of the 2001-2010 National Culture Plan is to propitiate the creation of a cultural democratic
citizenship that, due to the cultural specificity of the subjects, have an effective presence in the public
realm, and from this create the foundations for a pluralist coexistence (National Council of Culture and
Ministry of Culture, 2001, p. 13). The Plan defines three fields of policy with their corresponding policies
and strategies: participation, creation and memory, and cultural dialogue. One of the policies in the field of
participation is to place cultural issues on a predominant plane for defining processes of development by
sector and of any other nature agreed on in national and international instances (Ibid., p. 40). One of the
strategies of this policy is to manage an inter-sectorial agenda, strengthening the relationship between
culture and other sectors and its contribution to collective economic and social objectives. Among the
relationships that the initiative proposes to reinforce is that between culture and the economy, and in this
respect the Plan indicates the following lines of action:
1. Fostering micro, small and medium size cultural industries. Design of special credit lines that respect
the cultural specificity of the communities that are benefited. Business training programmes. Incubators of
cultural businesses. Incentives for successful experiences in this field.
2. Fostering cultural industries and linking their objectives with the economic and social policies of the
State. Research on economy and culture to formulate policies that serve to create a democratic,
pluralistic and supply of high quality goods and services. Special legislation regarding cultural industries
based on the positive external phenomena they generate (knowledge, pleasure, memory, and
improvement in the quality of life).
3. Fostering cultural tourism, within the framework of respect for identities and memories.
.
4. Acknowledgement of the special character of cultural goods and services for export
and import. Design of a cultural policy with reference to the marketing of cultural assets and goods that
can preserve cultural diversity. Protection of ancestral wisdom concerning nature and its healing use from
international initiatives of indiscriminate exploration (Ibid., p. 44).
In the National Culture Plan the importance of the creative or cultural industries is identified in the
recognition, qualification and circulation of artistic expressions in general (Ministry of Culture of Colombia,
2005):
The diversity of expression through music, fine arts and performing arts, literature, poetry and
media, comprise spaces of cultural creation and communication that should be recognised, qualified
and put into circulation with a view to creating awareness, critical appreciation of diverse cultural
productions and the creative enjoyment of all manifestations. In this task the central role played by
cultural industries should not be forgotten, since through their productions (...) they create and
control areas of expression and communication and generate symbolic elements that feed a
complex network of meanings (National Council of Culture and Ministry of Culture, 2001, p. 47).

170

To ensure the continuity of the Plan, the National Council of Economic and Social Policy, CONPES, issued
Guidelines for the Sustainability of the National Culture Plan 2001-2010 1 . This document indicates the
deficient information regarding cultural initiatives and their needs, potential and achievements in the
country, the scarcity of statistics and indicators that would make it possible to measure the impact of
cultural policies, and the lack of an efficient information system.
These aspects impede an adequate monitoring of the sectors performance and better policy decision
making. To overcome such difficulties and contribute to generating greater impetus in the sector, Conpes
defines within its guidelines the need to have truthful, timely and updated information to improve the
performance of the sector. For this purpose it proposes: i) to redesign SINIC; ii) make a plan that invites
proposals for building indicators, methodologies for collecting and updating information, and mechanisms
for disseminating and using data; and iii) design quantitative and qualitative indicators that make it possible
to measure the performance of the sector and the impact of policies.
In addition, the Conpes document recommends fostering cultural industries for their suitability in
generating intercultural dialogue and their capacity to produce a positive impact, both socially and
economically (Ministry of Culture of Colombia, 2005):
Cultural industries are characterised as vehicles through which intercultural dialogue, knowledge,
creativity, information, education and recreation are generated, and more democratic and
participatory societies created. They develop the production and marketing of cultural goods and
services and are private and public agents that safeguard the national memory, creativity and
identities. The industrial and craft sectors are engines of investment and transformation of inputs,
and are sources of employment, generate value added and stimulate the growth of exports
(Conpes, 2002).
For its part, the 2002-2006 National Development Plan Towards a Community-Based State includes the
cultural dimension in the strategy Culture for Building the Nation and Citizenship, in which one of the main
problems of the sector is highlighted: the lack of timely, truthful and qualified information needed to support
decision making. The number of actors in terms of supply and demand is unknown, there are no records of
the intangible heritage of the country, nor are there adequate indicators to accurately measure the
economic and social impact of culture... (National Planning Department, 2003). Consistent with the
National Culture Plan and the Conpes document, the National Development Plan recommends two lines of
action regarding cultural data: the consolidation of SINIC and the creation of the Statistics and Indicators
Plan for the Culture Sector. It also proposes lines to foster micro enterprises, particularly those of a cultural
or creative character, within the framework of Law 590 of 2000. Among its proposals is that of fostering the
micro, small, and medium businesses, considering their ability to generate employment, regional
development, integration between economic sectors, and productive use of limited capital, and bearing in
mind the entrepreneurial capacity of the Colombian people (Law 590 of 2000, article 1).
With the aim of assigning priorities to the policies and strategies of the National Culture Plan for the 20022006 presidential period, five lines of action that would frame cultural policy during that period were
identified at a Council of Designated Ministers in August, 2002: fostering and stimulating creation; culture
for nation building; decentralisation and citizen participation; our culture before the world; and culture as the
axis of development. This last line, consisting of consolidating sustainable alternatives of self-management
and business support to make artistic and cultural creation more entrepreneurial, an industry in the broad
sense of the word (Ministry of Culture of Colombia, 2002b), includes among its strategies the promotion of
cultural industries, which it justifies by considering the following:

171

Cultural industries are the industries of the future, and technologies and interchange between countries
can favour progress
The industrial and craft sectors are engines of investment, transformation of inputs, a source of
employment and stimulate the growth of exports
Fostering small and medium size cultural businesses based on co-operative models contributes to
attaining social equity (Ibid.).
This normative framework is complemented by a series of laws, regulatory decrees, house bills, resolutions
and statutes that dictate guidelines for fostering and developing diverse cultural activities and
manifestations in the country. Some of these laws are:

Law 51 of 1975: Practice of Journalism


Law 23 of 1982: General Copyright Regime
Law 51 of 1984: Dispositions Regarding Radio Broadcasting
Law 25 of 1985: Basis for the Creation of the Social Security Fund for the Colombian Artist
Law 98 of 1993: Law of the Book
Law 140 of 1994: Regulations on Exterior Visual Advertising in National Territory
Law 182 of 1995: Regulations for the Television Service. Policies for its Development
Law 594 of 2000: General Law of Archives
Law 814 of 2003: Law of Cinema
Law 881 of 2004: Law of the Month of the Artist and Colombian National Art
___________________
1

Conpes document 3162 dated 2002.

172

APPENDIX 3
3
GLOSSARY OF ECONOMIC MEASUREMENT TERMS
Economic aggregates: Compound values that measure the results of the activity of the entire economy
considered from a particular standpoint. They are integrated indicators and magnitudes essential for
macroeconomic analysis and comparisons in space and time (United Nations, 1993).
Trade balance: Corresponds to the difference between the value of exports (sales of goods and services
to other countries and/or regions) and imports (purchases of goods and services from other
countries/regions). The trade balance of a given region may refer to the value of exports to other countries
minus that of imports from other countries, or the difference between sales to other countries or regions
and purchases from other countries or regions.
Productive chain or value chain: It is the full range of activities required to take a product from its
inception through the different phases of production, delivery to the end user, and disposal after use.
Each of these activities represents a link in the chain.
Intermediate consumption: Value of goods and services consumed as inputs in a production process,
for both the primary and auxiliary activities of the establishment.
Uniform International Industrial Classification (UIIC): Classification of economic activities designed by
the United Nations so that establishments (agricultural, industrial, services, etc.) can be classified according
to their activity. The classification is organised at four aggregate levels: i) the most general is that of
sections; for example, manufacturing industries, construction, restaurants and hotels, among others; ii) then
follow divisions (2 digits) that correspond to groupings within each section (for example, code 15 is for
manufacture of food and beverages in manufacturing industries); iii) these are followed by groups (3
digits, e.g. 155 manufacture of beverages); and finally iv) come classes (4 digits, e.g. 1552 manufacture
of wines). Usually, the information that official information sources employ is available at the level of
classes.
Production account: It is the record of income generated by production minus the costs incurred in the
production process, excluding payments to productive factors. These costs can be broken down according
to the supply of the corresponding goods and services. The balance of the production account is the value
added that can in turn be broken down according to the different payments made to the factors.
National accounts: Also known as the National Accounts System, it is a comprehensive, coherent and
flexible set of macroeconomic accounts designed to satisfy the needs of analysts from the public and
private sectors and those responsible for economic policy and decision-making (United Nations, 1993). The
United Nations is the body charged with designing the basic principles of the system.
Satellite accounts: A special creation of a national (or regional) accounting framework that includes
elements of central accounts plus complementary elements (in monetary values or quantities) and
alternative concepts and presentations. In addition to the satellite culture account, there are satellite
tourism accounts and satellite environment accounts, among other possibilities.
Linkage: It is the interrelationship that exists between economic activities. This inter-relationship is given
by the need of an activity to acquire goods and services produced by other activities. Within the framework
of input-product analysis, downstream linkages of an activity can be calculated (for its supply of goods for

173

intermediate consumption by other industries) and upstream links (for its consumption of inputs produced
by other industries).
Structure: Although there are different meanings (economic and non-economic), the relevant definition for
this guide refers to the distribution or composition of economic aggregates by sub-sector or activity.
Evaluation of impact: This term has different economic connotations. In the context of evaluating public
policy, it is used to describe a technique though which the effects of a programme or treatment on the
benefiting population is identified. This technique basically compares the characteristics of the population
before and after the treatment. The pre-treatment situation is evaluated by building a baseline (for the
treated group and a control group), whereas the post-treatment situation is evaluated by building a followup (of both groups). Within the framework of sector analysis, the evaluation of impact is more related to
measuring the contribution or importance of a particular activity or sector to a specific objective (for
example, financial). Although they have two different connotations (public policy evaluation and sector
analysis), in practice it is possible to find evaluations of impact by sector that include building baselines. In
these cases, the baseline corresponds to the measurement made for a year, which is taken as a starting
point and is compared with subsequent measurements so as to evaluate changes over time.
Input-product matrix: Also called supply-consumption table, it is an economic model based on the
analysis of general equilibrium that provides a detailed illustration of the production process and the use of
goods and services, and the distribution of income generated by the production between the different
productive factors. Because it shows the interdependence between the different branches of an economy,
the relative importance of each sector can be established, not only in terms of the direct generation of
employment and income, but also indirect generation.
Multiplier: In the context of input-product analysis, it is a factor that shows how much growth an increase in
demand for a sectors products generates in the production, employment and income of the economy as a
whole.
Gross production: It is the sum of the value of all goods and services produced by an establishment. In
the case of market production (that which is sold at economically significant prices), it includes the value
of sales, inventories and other operational income. In the case of non-market production (that which is
supplied for free or at non-economically significant prices), it is calculated by adding up the costs
(intermediate consumption, remuneration, taxes, etc.).
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): It is the sum of final goods and services produced in the economy in a
given time period. It includes production by citizens and foreigners resident in the country and excludes the
production of citizens living abroad. In this sense, it is a concept of production with geographical limits.
Gross National Product (GNP): It is the sum of final goods and services produced by the citizens of a
country who live either in the country or abroad. It therefore excludes the production of foreigners resident
in the country. It is a concept of production associated with the ownership of productive factors, or
nationality.
Value added: It is the additional value generated in the production process as a result of a combination of
factors, whose destination is to pay for the factors of production. It is calculated as the difference between
the value of gross production and the value of intermediate consumption. It is a measure of the contribution
to GDP made by a unit of production, industry or sector (United Nations, 1993).

174

Appendix 4
GUIDELINES FOR PRESENTING PROJECTS - COLCIENCIAS

COLCIENCIAS
C o l o m b i a
GUIDELINES FOR FORMULATING STRATEGIC PROGRAMMES AND/OR
PROJECTS OF RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION

MODE:
CO-FINANCING AND/OR CREDIT

For additional information contact:


Transversal 9 A bis No. 132- 28
Telephone: 6258480/ 2169800
Fax: 6251788
Bogot D.C.
E-mail: cof2005@colciencias.gov.co
Internet: www.colciencias.gov.co

Bogota, April 2005

175

Module I. General Information about the Project

Programme and/or project


title:
Benefiting institution
Executing institution
Other participating institutions
Duration of the project (months)
Total cost of the project
Amount requested
Total amount of matching funds
Matching funds of the recipient institutions

Type of
financing

CO-FINANCING BY COLCIENCIAS_____

In Cash

In Kind

BANCOLDEX-COLCIENCIAS CREDIT LINE____


FINAGRO-COLCIENCIAS CREDIT LINE____

Place of execution of project

City

Person responsible for the


project

Department

Company / Institution

Position

National Science and Technology programmes that apply to the project (indicate a maximum of three):
Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Tech
Technical, Industrial and Quality Development
Environmental and Habitat Sciences
Research in Energy and Mining
Health Science & Technology
Biotechnology

Agricultural Science & Technology


Scientific Research in Education
Social and Human Sciences
Marine Science & Technology
Basic Sciences

176

Module II. Information of the Recipient Institution


Name of institution
Tax code
Total assets, most
recent year
Currently export?
Export
destinations
Type of taxpayer:

Date
Incorporated

Chamber of Commerce

Registration
Number of employees
Yes

Total sales, most


recent year

No

Address:
Telephone

Fax

E-Mail

Web-Site

P O Box

City

State

Legal representative
ID number

From (City)
Passport

Citizen ID
Alien ID
Economic sector to which the recipient
institution belongs
Main goods or services produced by recipient
institution

Product or service

UIIC Number

Person responsible for project in the institution


Position
Telephone

Fax

Address

City

E-Mail

177

Module III. Information of the Executing Institution


Name of institution
Tax code

Chamber of Commerce

Date
incorporated

Registration
Type of
taxpayer
Address
Telephone

Fax

E-Mail

Web-Site

P O Box

City

State

Legal representative
ID Number
Citizen ID
Executing unit of project within the
executing institution
Main lines of research of the executing
institution
Person responsible for project in the
executing institution
Position

Alien ID

Telephone

Fax

Address

City

From (City)
Passport

E-Mail

178

Module IV. Information of other Participants in the Project *

Name of institution
Type of organisation

Type of participation
Tax ID

University

Centre for Technology Development

Research Centre

Other (Specify)

Recipient

Executing

Chamber of Commerce
Registration

Date
incorporated

Type of
taxpayer
Address
Telephone

Fax

E-Mail

Web-Site

P O Box

City

State

Legal representative
ID Number

From (City)
Citizen ID

Alien ID

Passport

Address
Telephone

Fax

E-Mail

Web-Site

P O Box

City

State

Person responsible for project in the institution


Position
Telephone

Fax

Address

City

E-Mail
*NOTE: A copy of this form must be filled out for each additional national or international institution that provides cofinancing or has a significant participation in the project.

179

Module V. Description of the Project


1. PROJECT SUMMARY
Explain the problem, how you believe it may be solved and why financing is justified, in a maximum of two pages.
This summary should be written after making the technical and budgetary formulation of the project.

2. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM


Clearly formulate the problem that the development of the project will help solve or understand. A precise and
complete description should be made of the nature and magnitude of the problem, contributing quantifiable indicators
of the current and future situation at the local, national or international level.

3. STATE OF THE ART IN RESEARCH, TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT OR INNOVATION


Summarise the general context (national and global) of the proposal, the current state of knowledge about the
problem, and gaps in knowledge that exist which the project intends to solve. Mention the state of development of
the technology proposed in the project and the sources of information consulted at the national and international
level. It is advisable to research the state of the art in the databases of available patents both nationally and
internationally and to list the bibliography reviewed for the project.

4. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAMME AND/OR PROJECT


State the general objective of the project in terms of its contribution to or its coherence with the problem posed, or its
contribution to the competitiveness of the company, sector or productive chain. Formulate a single general
objective and establish the specific objectives that are necessary to achieve the general objective in accordance
with the technological alternative(s) identified to solve the problem posed. Remember not to confuse objectives with
activities or methodological procedures.

5. METHODOLOGY
You should show in a systematic and precise manner how each of the specific objectives is to be developed.
Describe the different techniques that will be used, statistical designs, simulations, tests, trials and others that would
help achieve the objectives. You should indicate the process to be used in collecting information, and in the
organisation, processing and analysis of the data. Append a diagram if necessary.

6. BACKGROUND AND CAPABILITIES IN RESEARCH, TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT AND


INNOVATION OF THE PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS (RECIPIENT AND EXECUTING INSTITUTIONS)
Describe the main capabilities of the company to successfully develop the project and include a brief profile of the
group that is to execute the project, its background, academic training, experience in projects of technical
development and in the production and marketing of goods or services. Optionally, you may include an
organisational chart of the group with the responsibilities of each person.

7. ALLOCATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPING THE PROGRAMME AND/OR PROJECT


Describe the scientific and technical activities that each participating institution will have for developing the project.
(Only for Co-financed projects: Company University or Company Centre for Technical Development)

8. EXPECTED RESULTS / PRODUCTS


Formulate the direct verifiable results to be achieved by developing the specific objectives of the project, indicating
the features of the new product, process or service. Specify the means for verifying the achievement of these
objectives. If applicable, list the indirect results generated by the project.
The results can be:
1. Generation of new knowledge or technical development. 2. Strengthening the scientific/technological capacity
3. Social appropriation of knowledge 4. Others.

180

9. IDENTIFYING AND CHARACTERISING THE INNOVATION PROPOSED


Describe the innovative features of the project or technology to be developed, regarding processes, products,
services and/or management.
Explain the added value in knowledge or know-how generated by the project or the technical effort made by the
company.

10. EVALUATE THE MARKET FOR THE PROPOSED INNOVATION


(This information should be consistent with the information on the projects cash flow and financial projections. If you
wish, you may expand on this in appendices)
Analyse market trends in terms of clients, competitors and suppliers (evaluate the needs of current or potential clients
and specify the segmentation of the market, distribution channels, price trends and commercial management to be
undertaken).
Identify the strategies to gain access to the identified markets and differentiation from competitors. Project the
participation in national sales and exports in the current situation and with the project.

11. TIMETABLE

Create a timetable with the projects scientific and technical phases or activities and the time required for each
of them, similar to the one shown below. For more flexibility, you may present this on a separate sheet of
paper.
Identify the mechanisms envisaged for following up on and controlling the project.

Activity

Month 1

Month2

Month 3

Month(n)

1.
2.
3.
4.

12. EXPECTED EFFECTS


The impact is not necessarily fully achieved on finalising the project or just by obtaining the results/products. They
are generally achieved in the medium or long term as a result of the application of the knowledge or technologies
generated.
For each impact, identify verifiable qualitative or quantifiable indicators: (Fill out only those impacts that apply to the
project).
Scientific and technical impact of the project on the participating institutions
Training of human resources in research, new technologies and management of technology
Registration and conformation of patents (number)
Registration and documentation of technical know-how
Development of design capabilities within the institution or group (specify)
Consolidation of capabilities to carry out R&D in the institution
R&D groups
Equipping laboratories with R&D or quality and pilot plants
Information networks and scientific/technical collaboration
Improvement in the supply of technical services
Others

Impact on productivity and competitiveness of the recipient institution or the related sector
Access to new national or international markets
Job creation
Establishment of strategic alliances (joint ventures, franchises, others)
Improvement of productivity and quality
Improvement of organisational climate
Regions and communities that benefit from the project
Technical development of suppliers
Others

181

Impact on the environment and society


Reduction in the consumption of energy and water
Reduction in the consumption of natural resources
Reduction in the generation of emissions, effluence and solid waste
Improvement in the quality of the environment
Elimination or reduction of risks to human health
Sustainable use of new natural resources
Effects on preserving bio-diversity
Improvement in the quality of living
Benefits to interest groups related to the project (suppliers, clients, shareholders, community,
government, employees, etc.)
Others

13. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ISSUES


Specify the management of intellectual property, including industrial property (patents), copyright, industrial
secrecy or others, related to the impact and results generated by the project.

182

Module VI. Budget and Sources of Finance


All budget tables for the project must be filled out and totalled

ITEM

COLCIENCIAS
Co-financing
Credit

BENEFICIARY
Cash
In kind

Cash

In kind

PERSONNEL
EQUIPMENT1

PURCHASE
LEASE
USE
MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES
SOFTWARE
TECHNOLOGICAL SERVICES2
SPECIALISED CONSULTING
TRAINING
SEMINARS AND COURSES
TRAVEL
MAINTENANCE
ADAPTATION OF
INFRASTRUCTURE3
PATENTING COSTS AT A
NATIONAL LEVEL
DOCUMENTATION SUBSCRIPTIONS
MONTH
BOOKS
NETWORK
INFORMATION

MATERIAL TO DISSEMINATE
AND PROMOTE RESULTS
ADMINISTRATION 3.1 y 3.2

MTA

MTA

UNFORESEEN COSTS4
OTHERS (DETAIL)
TOTAL
The items that may be financed are described in the Operations Regulations of each type of financing. In this case, the
line of co-financing and credit line.
1. Equipment for research and development (Laboratory equipment, pilot plant, development of prototypes, etc.)
2. In Co-financing, the technological services that support the technological activities of the enterprise are to be contributed by the
enterprise. Technical services that support research and development of the executing institution will be financed by
COLCIENCIAS. Technological services provided by the executing institution will not be financed.
3. This type of expenses is financed as long as it is fully justified for the execution of the project. This item may not exceed 30% of
the contribution requested from COLCIENCIAS.
3.1 Management of technological activities (MTA): - Only for Technological Development Centres - up to 10% of the resources
requested from COLCIENCIAS will be recognised.
3.2 Up to 15% of the resources contributed by the recipient institution will be recognised.
4. The items in the shaded boxes may not be financed by COLCIENCIAS, but are accepted as a matching contribution to the
project.
Note: With matching funds all expenses related to tax payments such as VAT, import taxes, pay-as-you earn, city
sales tax, or others should be included.

183

DESCRIPTION OF EXPENDITURE ON PERSONNEL1


First Name and
Surname

Degree
Basic
Training

Postgraduate

Role in
Project

Work load:
Hours per
Week

No. of
Months

Sources
COLCIENCIAS
Co-financing
Credit

Beneficiary
Cash

In kind

TOTAL
1. List only the professional staff involved in the project. (See Appendix No. 3)

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT TO BE PURCHASED OR LEASED (1) (2)


Description

Quantity

Justification for its use


in the project

Sources
COLCIENCIAS
Co-financing
Credit

Recipient
Cash

In kind

TOTAL

1. Leased equipment is financed when it is used exclusively in the project and for the duration of the project.
2. A similar form should be filled out in the case of: A. Software (Purchase, programming and development) B. Materials and
Supplies C. Technological Services D. Specialised Consulting(3) E. Adaptation of Infrastructure F. Costs of Patenting
E. Documentation F. Material to Disseminate and Promote results.
3. For the co-financing of Specialised Consulting, activities that strengthen the group of the executing institution are
recognised. Consulting done for the technological activities of the enterprise should be assumed by the enterprise.

184

DESCRIPTION OF TRAINING (1) (2)


SOURCES
Supplier

City

Training
topic

No. of
days

No. of
people

Training
cost per
person

Recipient

COLCIENCIAS
Credit

Co-financing

In kind

Cash

TOTAL
1. A similar table should be filled out in the case of Seminars or short courses (only costs of attendance and inscription
are financed)
2. In co-financing, only the expenditure on training for the executing institution is allowed.

DESCRIPTION OF TRAVEL EXPENSES (1)


Supplier

Training
topic

City

No. of
days

No. of
people

Transport
costs per
person

Lodging
costs per
person

SOURCES
COLCIENCIAS
Co-financing
Credit

Recipient
Cash

In kind

TOTAL
1.

In co-financing, only costs to transport the group of the executing institution/organization are allowed. Other costs are to be
covered by the recipient.

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER ITEMS (1)


Description

Quantity

Justification of its
use in the project

COLCIENCIAS
Credit
Co-financing

SOURCE
Recipient
Cash
In kind

Executing
Institution

TOTAL
1. Only those that are directly related to the development of the project and that are not covered by the regulations will be
accepted.

185

APPENDIX 1
INFORMATION OF THE COMPANY FOR EVALUATING ITS
FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC SITUATION AND GUARANTEES
(For projects of credit)
GENERAL INFORMATION
2002

YEAR
2003

2004

Current assets
Total assets
Current liabilities
Total liabilities
Net sales
Export sales
Net profit
Operating profit
Average annual inventory
Accounts receivable clients
Sales of innovated products
Proportion of innovated products in total sales
Expenses of production personnel
Number of employees

Financial Indicators
Profit Margin (Net profit / Net Sales)
Liquidity Ratio (Current Assets / Current Labilities)
Indebtedness (Total Liabilities / Total Assets)
Inventory Turnover (Net Sales / Average Inventory)
Accounts Receivable Turnover (Net Sales / Accounts Receivable)
Working Capital (Current Assets Current Liabilities)
Operating Profit Margin (Operating Profit / Net Sales)

COMPARISON WITH THE FINANCIAL INDICATORS OF THE COMPANY (Compare the proposed indicators and
parameters with those of your company)
INDICATOR

PARAMETERS
Limit of credit to
be awarded

Credit/Equity
Credit/Sales
(Up to the equivalent
value of three
months of sales of
the previous fiscal
year
Credit / Assets
Total indebtedness
including credit

Up to 45%

Credit with
no incentive
for
innovation

Credit with
incentive for
innovation 50%,
40% or 30%

Credit with
incentive for
innovation 25%

Up to 35%
Up to 60%

If your indicators are above those proposed in this table, analyse the capacity of your enterprise to take
on new debt.

186

APPENDIX 2
DOCUMENTATION THAT SHOULD BE ATTACHED TO PROPOSAL
In addition to complying with the requirements established in the terms of reference of the invitation to
submit proposals, the following documents should be attached:
1. Institutional letter with a presentation of the proposal, signed by the legal representatives of the recipient and
executing institutions.
2. Copy of the certificate of existence and legal representation issued by the appropriate chamber of commerce,
issued within the last 90 days.
3. Communication from the board of directors or copy of the minutes of the shareholders meeting that
authorises the project to be contracted, when the amount exceeds the managers legal powers specified in
the companys articles of association.
4. Certificate of matching funds: issued by the internal auditor, accountant or legal representative. It should certify
the matching resources that will be contributed to execute the project.
5. Communication about the environmental impact.
6. Three printed copies in a two-hole binder (Please do not ring bind or use Velobind type fasteners)
7. Copy in magnetic media (3 diskette or CD, file in Word format).
8. Fill out the curriculum vitae of the group that is to execute the project in the electronic application CvLAC
available at www.colciencias.gov.co/cof2005. This electronic application should at least include the
information requested in Appendix 4 of this guide.
9. Register the project in the Integrated System of Project Management (SIGP) of Colciencias.
This requires filling out and delivering to COLCIENCIAS the electronic form for project p r e s e n t a t i o n ,
w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e a t www.colciencias.gov.co/cof2005.
10. Balance and profit and loss statements of the recipient institutions, together with the respective notes, and the
tax returns for the last year of the participant of the productive sector for co-financed projects, or for the last three
years in the case of credit-financed projects.
Additionally, credit-financed projects require:
11. Authorisation to report and request information from CIFIN.
12. Cash flow of the project, at least for the duration of the credit, and the calculation of the internal rate of return
and net present value.
13. Projected financial statements (balances and profit and loss statements) for the duration of the credit. Include
the Ebidta calculation.
14. Basis of the projection.
For co-financed projects, present the cash flow of the project, for at least the duration of the project.
NOTE: Bear in mind that the information contained in this form will be analysed by experts on the subject,
so it is important to include explicit information on the different aspects of the project. Additionally, you are
free to append any additional information you may consider relevant for a better understanding of the
project being presented.

187

APPENDIX 3
PAYMENTS TO STAFF WITH RESOURCES OF COLCIENCIAS
Category of researchers
PhD + international publications + recognised
experience in research
PhD, little experience
Masters + international publications + recognised
experience in research
Masters, little experience
Specialisation
Undergraduate degree only
Technician or pre-university student

Maximum limit expressed in minimum wages


Up to 18
Up to 15
Up to 12
Up to 10
Up to 8.5
Up to 8.0
Up to 2.0

Note 1. The calculation for staff is based on the institutions salary scale and the real time devoted by the individual
to executing the proposal. It should be born in mind, however, that independently of the salary scales of the
institutions, there are upper limits to staff payments financed by COLCIENCIAS. In the case of salaries exceeding
these limits, the matching funds should assume the difference.

188

APPENDIX 4
Curriculum Vitae (Summary)
(A) IDENTIFICATION OF THE MAIN RESEARCHER OR CO-RESEARCHER: please fill out identification data
(full name and ID) as it appears on ID card
Surname:

Date of birth

First Name:

Nationality:

E-mail:

ID document

Institution where you work


Current post or position

Tel/fax
Tel/fax

(B) ACADEMIC TITLES OBTAINED (area/discipline, university, year)

(C) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FIELDS IN WHICH YOU ARE AN EXPERT

(D) POSITIONS HELD (type of position, institution, date) IN THE LAST 5 YEARS

(E) RECENT PUBLICATIONS (At least the five most important publications you have made in the last 5 years, including the
ISBN or ISNN as appropriate).

189

APPENDIX 5
CHECK LIST
REQUIREMENTS
COMPLIES
GENERAL
YES
NO
1 Inscription of the Project in SIGP
2 Institutional letter of the beneficiary
3 Letter of the executing institution
4 Certificate of Existence and Legal Representation
5 Authorisation from the Board of Directors when the value of the project exceeds managers legal powers
6 Communication about Environmental impact
7 Two copies of the proposal
8 Two copies of the Curriculum Vitae
9 Registration of the Curriculum Vitae in CvLAC
10 Certificate from the Ethics Committee (when required)
PROPOSAL
11 General information (form)
12 Information of recipient
13 Information of Executing Institution
14 Executive Summary
15 Statement of the Problem
16 State of the Technology
17 Objectives
18 Methodology
19 Track Record of Executing Institution
20 Assignment of responsibilities
21 Expected Results
22 Identification and Characterisation of the innovation
23 Market Evaluation
24 Time Schedule
25 Expected Impact
26 Bibliography
BUDGET
27 Overall budget
28 Detailed budgets
29 AMOUNT REQUESTED ADJUSTED TO THE INVITATION TO SUBMIT PROPOSALS
FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION OF THE ENTERPRISE (Recipient)
30 General Balance of Profit and Loss (One year for co-financing, 3 years for credit)
31 Tax Return (One year for co-financing, 3 years for credit)
32 Certificate of matching funds
33 Financial indicators
34 Authorisation to report and request information from CIFIN (credit)
35 Cash Flow of the project (credit)
36 Financial results of projects (credit)
37 Basis of projection (credit)
38 Others

190

APPENDIX 5
SECONDARY SOURCES
Source

DANE Annual
Manufacturing
Survey

DANE Annual
Survey of
Advertising
and Digital
Information

Geographic

Creative or cultural activities

Variables or

coverage

covered

indicators

21 departments1
and 8 metropolitan
areas (Bogota,
Medelln, Cali,
Barranquilla,
Bucaramanga,
Cartagena, Pereira
and Manizales)

Although coverage
and results are
national, it would
seem feasible to
access information
from main
metropolitan areas3

Limitations

Statistical reserve:
if the branch of activity
for which information is
needed has three or less
establishments, the
information is added to
Publishing; some audiovisualNumber of
other activities2
music industries (reproduction of
establishments, gross Lack of equivalence
recorded materials); crafts; games production,
between the creative
and toys; activities based on
intermediate
activity and the UIIC
design (fabrics, apparel, jewellry, consumption, value
classification (the case
accessories)
added, people
of crafts)
employed, among
Exclusion of small
others
businesses: survey
does not cover those
with less than 10
employees

Advertising: interface design

Number of
establishments, gross
production,
intermediate
consumption, value
added, people
employed, among
others

Low geographical
coverage in addition
to statistical reserve
Lack of
equivalence
between the creative
activity and the UIIC
classification (in the
case of interface
design)
Exclusion of small
businesses from digital
information services:
survey does not cover
those with less than 20
employees

Access

If there is an
arrangement with
DANE, information is
requested from the
Direction of Methodology
and Statistical
Production. If not, it
should be requested
from the Direction of
Dissemination,
Marketing and Statistical
Culture

If there is an
arrangement with
DANE, information is
requested from the
Direction of
Methodology and
Statistical Production.
If not, it should be
requested from the
Direction of
Dissemination,
Marketing and
Statistical Culture

191

Source

DANE Annual
Commerce
Survey

DANE Annual
Survey of Micro
Enterprises in
Industry,
Services and
Commerce

Geographic

Creative or cultural activities

Variables or

coverage

covered

indicators

Although coverage
and results are
national, it would
seem feasible to
access information
from main
metropolitan areas

Although coverage
and results are
national, it would
seem feasible to
access information
from principal
metropolitan areas 5

Retail purchases of crafts,


published products, video games
and computer software, music
recording, fabrics, apparel,
accessories, jewellery, and toys

Micro industry in publishing;


audiovisual-music (reproduction
of recorded material); crafts
(fabrics, apparel, footwear,
accessories, wood products,
furniture, glass and nonovenproof ceramic products;
games and toys; design based
activities (fabrics, apparel,
jewellery, accessories)
Retail sales of crafts, publishing
products, video games and
computer software, music
recording, toys, design-based
activities (fabrics, clothes,
jewellery, accessories)
Services in photography; social
science research in the cultural
field; architectural, graphic, textile,
fashion, and interface design;
advertising; performing arts

Number of
establishments,
gross production,
intermediate
consumption,
value added,
people employed,
among others

Limitations
Low geographical
coverage in addition
to statistical reserve
Lack of equivalence
between the creative
activity and the UIIC
classification (in the
case of crafts, video
games and computer
software, music
recording. accessories,
jewellery and toys
Concentration of the
national sample in
businesses with less than
20 people4

Low geographical
Production, sales and coverage in addition
income, intermediate
to statistical reserve
consumption, value
Lack of equivalence
added, staff employed between some of the
and type of hiring,
creative activities and
number of businesses, the UIIC classification
duration of operation, It does not include
type of location, legal
governmental bodies
organisation
(where cultural services
associated with tangible
heritage are
concentrated)

Access

If there is an
arrangement with
DANE, information is
requested from the
Direction of
Methodology and
Statistical Production.
If not, it should be
requested from the
Direction of
Dissemination,
Marketing and
Statistical Culture

If there is an
arrangement with
DANE, information is
requested from the
Direction of
Methodology and
Statistical Production.
If not, it should be
requested from the
Direction of
Dissemination,
Marketing and
Statistical Culture

192

Source

Geographic
coverage

DANE Survey of
Incomes and
Expenditures

Sales tax return


(DIAN)

Creative or cultural activities


covered
(theatre, dance) and artistic
spectacles; visual arts (painting,
sculpture, graphic arts);
audiovisuals (film and video; radio
and television; video games); music;
private tangible heritage (libraries,
museums, botanical gardens and
zoos)

Variables or

Consumption of publishing products;


crafts (blankets, hammocks,
tapestries, apparel, furniture);
Urban area of 23 games and toys; design-based
activities (fabrics, apparel, jewellery,
capital cities6
accessories); performing arts
Household expenditure
(theatre, concerts, spectacles);
audiovisuals (cinema, video games);
heritage (museums)

Every
municipality of
the country

Publishing7; crafts (fabrics,


apparel, footwear, accessories,
wood products, furniture, glass and
non-ovenproof ceramic products);
games and toys; design-based
activities (fabrics, apparel, jewellery,
accessories); advertising;
photography; audiovisuals (cinema,
video, radio and television);
performing arts (theatre, music,
spectacles); interface, industrial,
textile, fashion design); private
tangible heritage (libraries,
museums, botanical gardens and
zoos)

Limitations

Access

indicators

Gross income (from


exports, tax exempt
operations in
national territory},
excluded and
untaxed operations),
and number of
businesses

The survey is
undertaken
approximately every
10 years; the last one
was programmed for
2006
Lack of equivalence
between expenditures
in some creative
activities (crafts) and
codes of the survey
Lack of equivalence
between some of the
creative activities and
the UIIC classification
(the cases of crafts and
all kinds of design)
It only has information
about gross income
It does not include
government
institutions (where
cultural services
associated with
tangible heritage are
concentrated)

Purchase of
databases from
DANE (available at
the regional offices)

It should be requested
from the local manager
of the national tax
administration (with a
letter explaining the
utilisation of the
information and
specifying the UIIC
codes of the economic
activities of interest)

193

Source

DIAN Unified Tax


Registration for
individuals
belonging to the
simplified tax
regime
(independent
workers and
artisans8 would
be those of
interest)

Mercantile
registration
(Chambers of
Commerce)

Geographic

Creative or cultural activities

Variables or

coverage

covered

indicators

Every
municipality of
the country

Every
municipality of
the country

Crafts, photographic services;


social science research in the
cultural field; architectural, graphic,
textile, fashion and interface design;
advertising; performing arts
(theatre, dance); visual arts
(painting, sculpture, graphic arts);
audiovisuals (cinema and video;
radio and television; video games);
music

Performing arts and artistic


spectacles; visual arts; crafts;
publishing; audiovisual; music;
design; advertising; games and
toys; private tangible heritage
(libraries, museums, botanical
gardens and zoos)

Number of
independent workers
(artists and providers
of cultural and
creative services),
number of artisans by
economic activity
(UIIC)

Names of companies
by economic activity;
economic information
(assets, sales,
employment); it is not
compulsory to register

Limitations

Access

Only now is the base


being formed; there are
people who have not yet
registered
It would only serve to
count, but not identify
the artisans, artists and
providers of cultural or
creative services
Lack of equivalence
between some creative
activities and the UIIC
classification (the most
critical cases are
design and its variants,
performing and visual
arts, music, and social
science research in the
cultural field)

Due to the fact that it is


a database under
construction and
consequently local
managers may not be
familiar with the
intended consultations,
it would first be
necessary to inquire in
the regional offices
about the best way to
make the request, and
the possibility of there
being separate
information about
artisans

Since it is not
obligatory to fill in the
spaces provided for
economic information,
such information is not
reliable9
Lack of equivalence
between some of the
creative activities and
the UIIC classification10
It is possible that the
registrations include
paper companies,
inactive corporations or
those that do not
comply with legal
requirements

It should be requested
at the corresponding
Chamber of Commerce
(according to the
jurisdiction11). The
information has a cost
and varies between
regions, so the UIIC
codes for the economic
activities of interest
should be specified

194

Source

Registration of
Non-profit
Institutions
(Chambers of
Commerce)

Geographic

Creative or cultural activities

Variables or

coverage

covered

indicators

Every
municipality of
the Country

Social sciences and other


disciplines or research activities
in the field of culture and the
arts; in addition, support
institutions of the creative and
cultural sector

Municipalities that
have supervised
commercial
Financial
corporations; due
statements of
to the nature of
commercial
Cinema, television, publishing,
these
corporations
interface design, design-based
13
supervised by the corporations ,
activities (fabrics, apparel)
Superintendence they are usually
of Corporations
located in medium
size and large
cities

Names of scientific,
technological, cultural
and research
institutions;
associations,
corporations,
foundations and
support institutions of
cultural and creative
activities

Assets, liabilities,
investments,
operational income and
other items included in
the financial
statements (general
balance, profit and
loss, cash flow, state of
foreign exchange,
patrimony and financial
situation)

Limitations
Institutions of higher
education, formal and
informal, and
establishments of
official public education
are not obliged to
register; for this reason
it is not possible to
make an inventory of
artistic formation
The UIIC
classification does not
permit separating
research in the cultural
field from social
science research in
general
It is not a very useful
source for mappings
outside Bogota
It only includes a
few establishments of
the sector: a
publishing house, an
interface design
house, some fabrics
and apparel houses,
two private television
channels, and a film
exhibitor14

Access

It should be requested
in the corresponding
Chamber of Commerce
(according to its
jurisdiction12).

The financial
statements of the
corporations
supervised, classified
by activity, are
available on the
website of the
Superintendence15.
For more detailed
information, a written
request should be
made, indicating the
purpose of the
required information

195

Source

Financial
statements of
issuers of
securities
supervised by the
Superintendence
de Securities

Financial
statements of
public sector
institutions
(General
Accounting Office
of the Nation)

DANE
records of
Foreign
Trade

Geographic

Creative or cultural activities

Variables or

coverage

covered

indicators

For mappings,
Bogota only

For mappings,
the cities and/or
departments
where the
regional
television
channels are
located
All departments
of the country

Cinema and television

Television

Publishing; some audiovisualmusic industries (reproduction of


recorded materials); crafts; games
and toys; design-based activities
(fabrics, apparel, jewellery,
accessories)

Limitations

It is not a source that


may be used in the
Assets, liabilities,
production of mappings
investments,
outside Bogota
operational income
It includes only three
and other items
businesses that
included in financial
produce specific
statements (general services of the creative
balance and profit and industries: two private
loss)
television channels and
one film exhibitor
Assets, liabilities,
investments, income
and other items
included in the financial
statements (financial
information on
balances and mutual
operations)

Volume and value


of exports and
imports

It is not a source
that can be used in
most of the
mappings

Problems of subregistration since most


of the imports have
Bogota as their
destination, and from
there the products are
distributed to the
different regions
In the case of imports,
it would be possible to
identify the creative
and/or cultural products
imported, but not the
activity that makes the
importation

Access

The financial
statements are
available on the website
of the
Superintendence16

Financial statements for


each institution are
available on the
website17

Purchase of DANE
databases
(available at the
regional offices)

196

Source

Geographic
coverage

Secretariats and
Institutions of
Culture (or local
institutions that
assume their
functions)

National System
of Cultural
Information,
SINIC, of the
Ministry of
Culture

All the
departments in
the country

Departments

Creative or cultural activities

Variables or

covered

indicators

Performing arts (theatre, dance);


visual arts (painting, sculpture) and
heritage

Performing arts (theatre, dance);


visual arts (painting and sculpture)
and heritage

Directories of cultural
agents; investment in
cultural programmes;
inventories of cultural
spaces (cultural
centres, theatres,
salons and
auditoriums, libraries,
museums and
fiestas); inventories
of movable goods
and property that
form part of cultural
heritage
Qualitative and
quantitative information
for a description of
heritage (festivities,
myths and legends,
crafts, cuisine, dance,
music, dramatic
characters, places of
interest); resources to
support cultural
initiatives; ethnic
information (including
indigenous tongues);
cultural goods of
interest

Limitations

In general ,
information about the
sector is partial,
unreliable and it is not
quantified18

Access

Make request in the


respective institutions

Due to the fact that


Web site of the Ministry
SINIC is under
www.mincultura.gov.co
reconstruction, its
limitations are unknown

197

Source

Geographic
coverage

Local systems
of cultural
Some
information
departments
(attached to public
universities and
institutions)

Creative or cultural activities


covered

Performing arts (theatre, dance);


visual arts (picture, sculpture) y
heritage

Variables or

Limitations

Access

indicators

Directories of cultural
agents, cultural
events, inventories of
cultural assets

Few departments
have these systems
(among them,
Antioquia, Caldas,
Crdoba and Meta)

Even though the


information may be
requested from the
institutions to which they
are attached, some of
them may be consulted
on the Internet19

NOTES
1

Although the survey is applied to a large number of departments, the results to two digits of the UIIC classification represent 21 departments: Antioquia,
Atlntico, Bolvar, Boyac, Caldas, Caquet, Cauca, Cesar, Crdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nario, Norte de Santander,
Quindo, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima.
2
Due to the reserve, it is impossible to access information about any sector in the departments of Choc and the former intendencias and comisaras. Neither is it
possible to access information about those creative activities where the region has a limited number of establishments. This means that for most regions it will be
difficult to get information from those sources, with the exception of the books and printing sectors and those that include crafts.
3
This would be particularly true in the case of advertising agencies, taking into account that the survey is conducted to the universe of establishments (census).
The reason why DANE only provides national results would have to do with the statistical reserve. In the case of digital information services, the survey
is applied to a sample of businesses with more than 20 employees.
4
71% of the businesses of the sample.
5
According to the number of (micro) industrial, commercial and service establishments for 14 metropolitan areas (Table 20 of the 2004 press bulletin of the third
quarter at www.dane.gov.co/ultima_hora/microestablecimientos/anexos_micro_IIItrim04.pdf), with the exception of Bogota, Medelln and Cali, it is unlikely that
information with a breakdown of 2 or 3 digits of activity (UIIC) can be accessed.
6
Armenia, Barranquilla, Bogot, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Ccuta, Florencia, Ibagu, Manizales, Medelln, Montera, Neiva, Pasto, Pereira, Popayn,
Quibd, Riohacha, Santa Marta, Sincelejo, Tunja, Valledupar, Villavicencio.
7
Except for scientific and cultural books and journals, which are tax exempt.
8
It is useful to look at the possibility that DIAN provide exclusively the number of artisans registered in the Unified Tax Registration regime [RUT] without including
them in the category of retailers. Given that in the definitions of the simplified regime retailers are separate from artisans, this approach may be feasible.
9
In the case of sales, around 95% of companies or corporations report them, while about 50% of individuals do. Neither commercial agencies nor local stores
report them (webmaster@colombiaempresarial.com).
10
However, since it is possible to access the names and location of individuals and corporations, equivalence in terms of the division by sector of the creative and
cultural industries can subsequently be made.
11
See Decree 622 of April 5th, 2000, in which the jurisdiction of chambers of commerce throughout the country was determined.
12
Ibid.
13
Annual assets and income above 20.000 minimum wages, i.e. almost eight thousand million Colombian pesos.
14 As with businesses registered in the Chambers of Commerce, since it is possible to establish the trade name of the business (and from there, find out the activity),
the equivalence could be made in terms of the division by sector of the creative industries.
15
http://www.supersociedades.gov.co/ss/drvisapi.dll?MIval=sec&dir=261
16
www.supervalores.gov.co. To access the financial statements of creative establishments, enter through the link Emisores y otros agentes [Issuers and other
agents], select emisores de valores [securities issuers] in the type of institution and otras actividades de servicios comunitarios [other activities of community

198

services] in the economic sector.


http://www.contaduria.gov.co/sicoweb/
18
Introduction to Conpes 3162.
19
Antioquia: http://www.seduca.gov.co/territorio/index.html;
Caldas: http://www.cedic.gov.co/Cedic/;
Crdoba: http://culturadecordoba.tripod.com/cultura_directorio.html
17

199

APPENDIX 6
CREATIVE ACTIVITIES AND UIIC CLASSIFICATION
Sector

Performin
g arts and
artistic
spectacles

Visua
l arts

Crafts

U I I C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Rev. 3 A C
Production of specific goods
Design-based industrial
and services
activities
9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
other artistic activities; 9249
Theatre
Other leisure activities (hiring actors and
actresses, theatrical spectacles)
Dance
9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
other artistic activities
Presentations 9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
that include
other artistic activities; 9219 Other n.c.e.1
dance, theatre entertainment activities (circus, puppets)
and music
Live musical
9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
presentations
other artistic activities
Photography
7494 Photographic activities
9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
Painting
other artistic activities
9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
Sculpture
other artistic activities
9214 Theatrical and musical activities, and
Graphic arts
other artistic activities
1741 Manufacture of articles with textile
materials not produced in the same unit,
except apparel (blankets); 1742 Manufacture
of tapestries and carpets for floors; 1750
Crafts
Manufacture of crochet knitted articles
(clothes with knitted pieces of the same unit);
1810 Manufacture of apparel, except leather
garments (blouses, articles in lace, hats,
caps); 1921 Manufacture of footwear in
leather and skin with any type of sole, except
sports footwear; 1931, Manufacture of travel
goods, handbags, and similar articles made of
Activity

leather; manufacture of saddlery and tack; 2040


Manufacture of wooden receptacles;

Commerce

5232 Retail of textile products in


specialised establishments;
5233 Retail of apparel and
accessories;
5234 Retail of all kinds of
footwear, leather goods and
leather substitutes, in specialised
establishments;
5236 Retail of home furniture in
specialised establishments;
5237 Retail of household equipment
and articles, other than electrical
appliances and home furniture; 5262
Retail in mobile stands

200

Sector

Publishing

Activity

Books

Periodicals

Other
publishing
products

U I I C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Rev. 3 A C
Production of specific goods
Design-based industrial
and services
activities
2090 Manufacture of other wood products;
manufacture of articles in cork, wicker and
esparto; 2610; Manufacture of glass and
glass products; 2691 Manufacture of nonovenproof ceramic products for nonstructural use (statuettes, tableware,
products made of stone, clay and pottery);
3611 Manufacture of household furniture;
3699 Other manufacturing industries n.c.e.
(fantasy jewellery)
2211 Publishing of books, brochures,
music scores and other publications;
2220 Printing activities; 2231 Art, design
and composition; 2232 Photo-mechanics
and analogous; 2233 Bookbinding; 2234
Finishing and covering; 2239 other
related services n.c.e; 7499 Other
entrepreneurial activities n.c.e.
(translation and interpreting)
2212 Publishing of newspapers,
magazines and periodical s; 2220
printing activities; 2239 Other related
services n.c.e.; 9220 press agencies
activities
2213 Publishing of recorded materials;
2219 Other publishing works; 2220
Printing activities; 2239 Other related
services n.c.e.

Commerce

5244 Retail of books, newspapers,


stationery and office materials and
articles, in specialised
establishments

5244 Retail of books, newspapers,


stationery and office materials and
articles, in specialised establishments

5244 Retail of books, newspapers,


stationery and office materials and
articles, in specialised establishments

201

Sector

Activity

Periodicals

Other publishing
products

Film and video

Audiovisual

2213 Publishing of recorded materials;


2219 Other publishing works; 2220
Printing activities; 2239 Other related
services n.c.e.

9213 Radio and television activities

Television

9213 Radio and television activities;


9211 Production and distribution of
films and videotapes

Music publishing

Music recording

5244 Retail of books, newspapers,


stationery and office materials and
articles, in specialised establishments

2240 Reproduction of recorded


material; 9211 Production and
distribution of films and videotapes;
9212 Exhibition of films and
videotapes; 7499 other
entrepreneurial activities n.c.e.
(translation and interpretation)

Radio

Video games

Music

U I I C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Rev. 3 A C
Production of specific goods
Design-based industrial
Commerce
and services
activities
2212 Publishing of newspapers,
5244 Retail of books, newspapers,
magazines and periodicals; 2220
stationery and office materials and
printing activities; 2239 Other related
articles, in specialised establishments
services n.c.e.; 9220 press agencies
activities

7220 Consultants in computer software


and computer programme supplies

9214 Theatrical and musical activities,


and other artistic activities
2240 Reproduction of recorded
materials; 9249 Other recreation
activities (sound recording in records
and tapes)

5243 Retail of office furniture, office


machinery and equipment,
computers and software, in
specialised establishments

5249 Retail of other new consumer


products n.c.e., in specialised
establishments

202

Sector

Activity

Architectural
Industrial
Graphic

Textile

Design

Fashion,
accessories and
jewellery

Interface

U I I C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Rev. 3 A C
Production of specific goods
Design-based industrial
and services
activities
7421 Architecture and engineering
activities and related technical
consulting activities
7421 Architecture and engineering
activities and related technical
consulting activities
7499 Other entrepreneurial activities
n.c.e. (graphic design services)
1710 Preparation and spinning of
textile fibres; 1720 Weaving of
textile products; 1730
Finishing of textile products not
7499 Other entrepreneurial activities
produced in the same production
n.c.e. (fabrics design)
unit
1810 Manufacture of apparel,
except leather apparel; 1921
Manufacture of footwear in
leather and skin; with any type
of sole, except sports shoes;
1931 Manufacture of travel
7499 Other entrepreneurial activities
goods, handbags, and similar
n.c.e. (design of apparel, footwear,
leather goods; manufacture of
jewellery and other fashion articles)
saddlery and tack; 3691
Manufacture of jewellery and
related articles; 3699 Other
manufacturing industries n.c.e.
(fantasy jewellery)
7220 Consulting in computer software
and supply of computer software

Commerce

5131 Wholesale of textile products


and products manufactured for
domestic use; 5154 Wholesale of
textile fibres; 5232 Retail of textile
products in specialised
establishments
5132 Wholesale of leather apparel,
its accessories and articles made of
leather; 5233 Retail of apparel and
its accessories; 5234 Retail of all
types of footwear, leather goods and
leather substitutes, in specialised
establishments;
5249 Retail of other new consumer
products n.c.e., in specialised
establishments

5243 Retail of office furniture, office


machinery and equipment,
computers and computer software,
in specialised establishments

203

Sector

Activity

Advertising Advertising

Games
and
toys

Games and
toys
Property
Movable goods
Libraries

3694 Manufacture of games and toys

Film archives
Document
archives

9231 Library activities and


archives

Nature reserves

9233 Botanical gardens, zoos and


national parks services

Botanical gardens
and zoos

Commerce

5249 Retail of other new consumer


products n.c.e., in specialised
establishments

9231 Library activities and archives


9232 Museum activities and
conservation of historical places
and buildings
9231 Library activities and archives

Museums

Material
heritage

U I I C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Rev. 3 A C
Production of specific goods
Design-based industrial
and services
activities
7430 Advertising; 2220 Printing
activities (printing of advertising
material); 7494 Photographic
activities (advertising photography)

9233 Botanical gardens, zoos and


national parks services

Specimen
collections of
zoology,
mineralogy and
anatomy
Restoration,
preservation and
conservation

9214 Theatrical and musical activities,


and other artistic activities (restoration of
works of art); 9232 Museum activities
and conservation of historical places
and buildings

204

Sector

Activity
Fiestas,
festivals
and fairs
Techniques of
craft production
related to
cultural memory

Intangible
heritage

U I I C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Rev. 3 A C
Production of specific goods
Design-based industrial
and services
activities

Commerce

9249 Other leisure


activities

Tongues
Local
cuisine and
culinary
traditions
Other oral
traditions and
expressions

Social
sciences and
other
research
disciplines or
activities in
the field of
culture and
the arts

Social sciences
and other
research
disciplines or
activities in the
field of culture
and the arts

Artistic
training

Artistic
training2

7320 Research and experimental


development in the fields of social
sciences and the Humanities

8050 Higher education; 8060


Informal education; 9219 Other training
activities n.c.e. (dance schools)

____________________________
1

n.c.e. = not classified elsewhere

In the document of the Andres Bello Accord, Consolidation of a Methodological Manual for the Implementation of Satellite Culture Accounts in Latin America, the
following appears: 8022 Secondary education for technical and professional training; 8030 Higher education; 8090 Adult education and other types of training (art
schools). However, these codes do not correspond to the UIIC revision adapted for Colombia, but rather to the original text.

205

APPENDIX 7
PROBLEMS WITH SOURCES AND INDUSTRIAL CODES

7.1 PRODUCTION OF SPECIFIC GOODS AND SERVICES

UIIC class

1741 Manufacture of
articles with textiles
not produced in the
same unit, except
apparel

1742 Manufacture of
tapestries and
carpets for the floor

1750 Manufacture of
two needles and
crochet knitted
articles

Creative activity

Crafts

Crafts

Crafts

Problem of source for an


average region

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises
There is no problem with
the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible Only a portion
to access, use alternate corresponds to
sources (Chamber of
crafts
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate Only a portion
sources (Chamber of
corresponds to
Commerce for
crafts
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate Only a portion
sources (Chamber of
corresponds to
Commerce for
crafts
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Possible solution
or treatment

Estimate a proportion
with people in the
region knowledgeable
about the sector

Estimate a proportion
with people in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

Estimate a proportion
with people in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

206

UIIC class

Creative activity

1810 Manufacture of
apparel, except leather Crafts
apparel

1921 Manufacture of
footwear in leather and
skin with any type of
sole, except sports
shoes

Crafts

1931 Manufacture of
travel goods, handbags,
and similar articles made Crafts
of leather; manufacture
of saddlery and tack

2040 Manufacture of
wooden receptacles

Crafts

Problem of source for an


average region

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises
There is no problem with
the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
Only a portion
to access, use alternate
corresponds to
sources (Chamber of
crafts
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate Only a portion
sources (Chamber of
corresponds to
Commerce for
crafts
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible Only a portion
to access, use alternate corresponds to
sources (Chamber of
crafts
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate Only a portion
sources (Chamber of
corresponds to
Commerce for
crafts
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Possible solution
or treatment

Estimate a proportion
with people in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

Estimate a proportion
with people in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

Estimate a proportion
with people in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

Estimate a proportion
with people in the
region knowledgeable
about the sector

207

UIIC class

2090 Manufacture of
other wood products;
manufacture of articles
made of cork, wicker
and esparto

Creative activity

Crafts

2211 Publishing of
books, brochures,
Books
music scores and other
publications

2212 Publishing of
newspapers,
magazines and
periodicals

2213 Publishing of
recorded materials

Periodicals

Other publishing
products

Problem of source for an


average region

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low coverage
of survey in micro
enterprises

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate Only a portion
sources (Chamber of
corresponds to
Commerce for
crafts
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Possible solution
or treatment

Estimate a proportion
with people in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
sources (Chamber of
None
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
sources (Chamber of
None
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
sources (Chamber of
None
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

208

UIIC class

2219 Other publishing


work

2220 Printing
activities

2231 Art, design


and composition

2232 Photomechanics and


analogous

Creative activity

Other publishing
products

Problem of source for an


average region

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
Books, other publishing
(except for statistical
products, periodicals,
reserve and nonadvertising
production)

Books

Books

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
sources (Chamber of
None
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
Comprises the entire
sources (Chamber of
publishing sector
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Possible solution
or treatment

Not present
discrimination of
the publishing
sector

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
sources (Chamber of
None
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use alternate
sources (Chamber of
None
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

209

UIIC class

2233 Bookbinding

2234 Finishing
and covering

2239 Other related


services n.c.e.

2240 Reproduction of
recorded material

Creative activity

Books

Books

Problem of source for an


average region

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
(except for statistical
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
Books, other publishing
(except for statistical
products, periodicals
reserve and nonproduction)

There is no problem
Films and video; sound (except for statistical
recording
reserve and nonproduction)

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution
or treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
None
(Chamber of Commerce
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
None
(Chamber of Commerce
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Comprises the entire
alternative sources
publishing sector
(Chamber of Commerce
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Comprises two
alternative sources
different creative
(Chamber of Commerce activities
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

Do not present
discrimination of
the publishing
sector

Estimate a proportion
with experts of the
sector in the region

210

UIIC class

2610 Manufacture of
glass and glass
products

2691 Manufacture of
non--ovenproof
ceramics, for nonstructural use

3611 Manufacture of
home furniture

3694 Manufacture of
games and toys

Creative activity

Crafts

Crafts

Crafts

Games and toys

Problem of source for an


average region

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low survey
coverage of micro
establishments
There is no problem with
the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low survey
coverage of micro
establishments
There is no problem with
the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction); low survey
coverage of micro
establishments

There is no problem with


the manufacturing survey
(except for statistical
reserve or nonproduction)

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution
or treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Only a portion
alternative sources
corresponds to
(Chamber of Commerce crafts
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

Estimate a proportion
with experts of the
sector in the region

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Only a portion
alternative sources
corresponds to
(Chamber of Commerce crafts
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

Estimate a proportion
with experts of the
sector in the region

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Only a portion
alternative sources
corresponds to
(Chamber of Commerce crafts
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

Estimate a proportion
with experts of the
sector in the region

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
None
(Chamber of Commerce
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

211

UIIC class

3699 Other
manufacturing
industries n.c.e.

7220 Consultants in
computer software and
supply of computer
programmes

7320 Research and


experimental
development in social
sciences and the
Humanities

Creative activity

Crafts

Problem of source for an


average region

7421 Architecture and


engineering activities,
Architectural design;
and related activities
industrial design
in technical consulting

Problem of breakdown

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
There is no problem with
to access, use
Only a portion
the manufacturing survey
alternative sources
corresponds to
(except for statistical
(Chamber of Commerce crafts
reserve or non-production)
for identification and
DIAN for measurement)

Low geographical
Interface design; video
coverage of surveys of
games
services and micro
enterprises

Social sciences and


other research
disciplines or activities
in the field of culture
and the arts

Possible solution
or treatment

Use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Not included in the survey


of services. If the survey of Use alternative
micro enterprises includes sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
it, it is very likely that it
cannot be accessed due to identification and
DIAN for
statistical reserve
measurement)

Not included in the survey Use alternative


of services. If the survey of sources (Chamber of
micro enterprises includes Commerce for
identification and
it, it is very likely that it
cannot be accessed due to DIAN for
measurement)
statistical reserve

Combines two
different creative
activities

Only a portion
corresponds to
research in the fields
of culture and the
arts

A very small portion


corresponds to
architectural or
industrial design

Possible solution
or treatment

Estimate a proportion
with experts of the
sector in the region

Not discriminate, except


when businesses have
specialised production in
one of the two creative
activities

Request information
registered in CVLAC at
Colciencias; ask in the
universities about work
done in the field of
culture and the arts

Identify establishments
(Chamber of
Commerce
registrations) and
evaluate if it justifies a
proportion for these
activities

212

UIIC class

7430 Advertising

7494 Photography
activities

7499 Other
entrepreneurial
activities n.c.e.

Creative activity

Advertising

Problem of source for an


average region

May not be possible to


access due to statistical
reserve (around 100
agencies surveyed
nationally)

Possible solution
or treatment

Use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Not included in the survey


Use alternative
of services. If the survey of
sources (Chamber of
Photography; advertising micro enterprises includes
Commerce for
it, it is very likely that it
identification and
cannot be accessed due to
DIAN for
statistical reserve
measurement)

Fashion design,
accessories and
jewellery; graphic
design; film and video
(translation); books
(translation)

Not included in the survey


of services. If the survey of Use alternative
micro enterprises includes sources (Chamber of
it, it is very likely that it
Commerce for
cannot be accessed due to identification and
statistical reserve
DIAN for
measurement)

Problem of breakdown

None

A portion corresponds
to advertising
(advertising
photography)

Possible solution
or treatment

Make equivalence to
photography and
mention that it can
include advertising
photography

By identifying
In addition to including
several design areas, it establishments
comprises a transversal (registrations of the
activity (translation) and a Chamber of
broad and diverse group
Commerce), determine
of non-creative activities
which provide creative
(money collection,
commercial intermediary services and estimate
activity, auctioning,
a proportion with
microfilming, commercial people in the region
promotion, and telephone knowledgeable about
answering)
the sector

213

UIIC class

8050 Higher education

8060 Informal
education

Creative activity

Problem of source for an


average region

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

Identify programmes of
artistic education in the
ICFES higher
A very small portion
educational yearbooks.
corresponds to
Request number of
artistic education
admissions to those
programmes directly
with the educational
establishments

Artistic education

Not included in DANE


surveys

Artistic education

Not included in the survey


of services. If the survey of Make inventories using A very small portion
corresponds to
micro enterprises includes available information
(public
sector,
yellow
artistic education
it, it is very likely that it
pages)
cannot be accessed due to
statistical reserve

9211 Production and


Films and videos;
distribution of films and television
videotapes

Not included in the survey


of services. If the survey of
micro enterprises includes
it, it is very likely that it
cannot be accessed due to
statistical reserve

Use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Groups together two


different creative
activities

Possible solution
or treatment

Use other sources (see


solution to the problem
of sources)

Use other sources (see


solution to the problem
of sources)

By identifying
establishments
(registrations of the
Chamber of
Commerce), determine
which provide creative
services and estimate a
proportion with people in
the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

214

UIIC class

9212 Exhibits of
films and videotapes

9213 Radio and


television activities

9214 Theatrical and


musical activities, and
other artistic activities

Creative activity

Films and videos

Radio; television

Graphic arts; dance;


music; sculpture;
painting; live music
presentations;
presentations that
include dance, theatre
and music; theatre;
restoration,
preservation and
conservation

Problem of source for an


average region

Possible solution
or treatment

Not included in the survey Use alternative


of services. If the survey of sources (Chamber of
micro enterprises includes Commerce for
identification and
it, it is very likely that it
cannot be accessed due to DIAN for
measurement)
statistical reserve

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution
or treatment

None

For television, use


Not included in the survey regional channel
Groups together two
of services. If the survey of information of the
different creative
micro enterprises includes General Accounting
activities
it, it is very likely that it
Office of the Nation; for
cannot be accessed due to cable TV, local
statistical reserve
operators

Comprises a large
number of creative and
cultural activities:
almost all of them
Not included in the survey of Use alternative sources related to performing
services. If the survey of
(Chamber of
arts; an important part
micro enterprises includes it, Commerce for
are visual arts; a
it is very likely that it cannot identification and DIAN
portion corresponds to
be accessed due to
for measurement))
music; and a portion to
statistical reserve
tangible heritage
(restoration of art
works)

Work with consolidated


information (not
separate radio from
television)

By identifying
establishments
(registrations of the
Chamber of
Commerce), determine
which provide creative
services and estimate a
proportion with people
in the region
knowledgeable about
the sector

215

UIIC class

9219 Other leisure


activities n.c.e.

9220 Activities of
news agencies

9231 Activities of
libraries and archives

Creative activity

Presentations that
include dance, theatre
and music; artistic
education

Periodicals

Problem of source for an


average region

Possible solution
or treatment

Not included in the survey of Use alternative


services. If the survey of
sources (Chamber of
micro enterprises includes it,
Commerce for
it is very likely that it cannot
identification and
be accessed due to
DIAN for
statistical reserve
measurement)

Not included in DANE


surveys

Use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Problem of breakdown

Includes activities
related to the cultural
field (circuses, dance
schools) together with
unrelated activities
(discotheques, theme
parks, rodeos, among
others)

Possible solution
or treatment

Identify establishments
(Chamber of
Commerce
registrations) and
evaluate if it justifies a
proportion for these
activities

Not include their


Includes creative
production in the
activities (printed
creative sector (most
material for mass media) likely the proportion of
and non-creative
non-creative activity
(journalistic activities)
exceeds the creative)

Not included in the services Use alternative sources,


Document archives; film
survey and is most unlikely especially those of the
archives; libraries
None
municipal or
to be in the survey of micro
departmental sector
enterprises
(inventory and
resources)

216

UIIC class

Creative activity

9232 Activities of
museums and
preservation of
historical places and
buildings

Museums; restoration,
preservation and
conservation

9233 Services of
botanical gardens and
zoos

Botanical gardens
and zoos; natural
reserves

9249 Other leisure


activities
Fiestas, festivals and
fairs; phonographic
production

Problem of source for an


average region

Possible solution
or treatment

Problem of breakdown

Not included in the services Use alternative sources,


survey and is most unlikely especially those of the
None
to be in the survey of micro municipal or
departmental sector
enterprises
(inventory and
resources)

Not included in the services Use alternative sources,


survey and is most unlikely especially those of the
to be in the survey of micro municipal or
None
departmental sector
enterprises
(inventory and
resources)

Comprises several
creative activities
(hiring actors,
Not included in the survey
theatrical spectacles,
of services; if the survey Use alternative
of micro enterprises
sources (Chamber of music recording for
pressing discs, fairs
includes them, it is very Commerce for
and leisure-type
feasible that they cannot
identification and DIAN spectacles), together
be accessed due to
for measurement)
with non-creative
statistical reserve
activities
(recreational parks,
beaches, fishing for
recreational purposes,
lotteries and gambling,
etc.)

Possible solution
or treatment

Identify establishments
(Chamber of
Commerce
registrations) and
evaluate if it justifies a
proportion for these
activities

217

7.2 INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES BASED ON DESIGN

UIIC class

1710 Preparation
and spinning of
textile fibres

1720 Weaving of
textile products

Creative activity

Textile design

Textile design

1730 Textile finished


products not produced in
Textile design
the same production unit

Problem of source for an


average region

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

None (except for statistical


reserve or no production)

Possible solution or
treatment

Problem of breakdown

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Only a portion involves
alternative sources
textile design
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Only a portion involves
alternative sources
textile design
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
Only a portion involves
alternative sources
textile design
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Possible solution or
treatment

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

218

UIIC class

1810 Manufacture of
apparel, except skin
apparel

Creative activity

Fashion design,
accessories and
jewellery

1921 Manufacture of
Fashion design,
footwear made of leather
accessories and
and skin; with any kind of
jewellery
sole, except sports
footwear

1931 Manufacture of
travel goods, handbags, Fashion design,
and similar leather-made accessories and
articles; manufacture of jewellery
saddlery and tack

Problem of source for an


average region

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

Possible solution or
treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution or
treatment

Only a portion
involves fashion
design, accessories
and jewellery

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

Only a portion
involves fashion
design, accessories
and jewellery

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

Only a portion
involves fashion
design, accessories
and jewellery

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

219

UIIC class

3691 Manufacture of
jewellery and related
articles

Creative activity

Fashion design,
accessories and
jewellery

Fashion design,
3699 Other
manufacturing industries accessories and
n.c.e. (fantasy jewellery) jewellery

Problem of source for an


average region

Possible solution or
treatment

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

None (except for statistical


reserve or non-production)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not possible
to access, use
alternative sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and DIAN
for measurement)

Problem of breakdown

Only a portion
involves fashion
design, accessories
and jewellery

Only a portion
involves fashion
design, accessories
and jewellery

Possible solution or
treatment

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

Being a non-specific
production of the sector,
it may not be worth the
effort to make a
breakdown,

220

7.3 COMERCIO

UIIC class

Creative activity

5131 Wholesale of textile


Textile design
products and products
manufactured for
domestic use

5132 Wholesale of
apparel, accessories
and articles made with
skin

5154 Wholesale of
textile fibres

Fashion design,
accessories and
jewellery

Textile design

Problem of source for an


average region

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Possible solution or
treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution or
treatment

Only a portion involves


textile design

In view of the difficulty to


calculate how much
design is involved, it is
not worth making a
breakdown

Only a portion
involves fashion
design, accessories
and jewellery

In view of the difficulty to


calculate how much
design is involved, it is
not worth making a
breakdown

Only one portion


comprises textile
design

In view of the difficulty to


calculate how much
design is involved, it is
not worth making a
breakdown

221

UIIC class

5232 Retail of textile


products in
specialised
establishments

5233 Retail of apparel


and accessories

5234 Retail of all kinds


of footwear, articles
made of leather and
substitutes, in
specialised
establishments

Creative activity

Crafts; textile design

Crafts; fashion design,


accessories and
jewellery

Crafts; fashion design,


accessories and
jewellery

Problem of source for an


average region

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Possible solution or
treatment

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution or
treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

In view of the difficulty to


calculate how much
Only a portion involves design is involved, it is
textile design and only a not worth making a
part is distribution of
breakdown; for crafts, it
crafts production
is better to estimate
production and calculate
margin

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

In view of the difficulty to


calculate how much
Only a portion involves
design is involved, it is
textile design and only a
not worth making a
part is distribution of
breakdown; for crafts, it
crafts production
is better to estimate
production and calculate
margin

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

In view of the difficulty to


calculate how much
Only a portion involves
design is involved, it is
textile design and only a
not worth making a
part is distribution of
breakdown; for crafts, it
crafts production
is better to estimate
production and calculate
margin

222

UIIC class

5236 Retail of home


furniture in specialised
establishments

Creative activity

Crafts

5237 Retailing of
household equipment
and articles, other than
Crafts
electrical appliances and
home furniture

5243 Retailing of office


furniture, machinery and
equipment, computers
Interface design; video
and software, in
games
specialised
establishments

Problem of source for an


average region

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Possible solution or
treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)
If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternative
sources (Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)measu
If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternate sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Problem of breakdown

Only a part
corresponds to
crafts

Only a part
corresponds to
crafts

Possible solution or
treatment

It is easier to estimate
furniture production and
calculate the margin of
distribution

It is easier to estimate
furniture production and
calculate the margin of
distribution

There does not seem to


be any; it is very difficult
A very small part
to break down, especially
corresponds to software because stores
and video games
simultaneously distribute
creative and non-creative
products

223

UIIC class

Creative activity

5244 Retail of books,


newspapers, stationery Books; other publishing
and office materials and products; periodicals
articles, in specialised
establishments

Fashion design,
5249 Retail of other new
accessories and
consumer products n.c.e.
jewellery; games and
in specialised
toys; phonographic
establishments
production

Problem of source for an


average region

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Low geographical
coverage of survey of
commerce

Possible solution or
treatment

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternate sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

If due to statistical
reserve it is not
possible to access,
use alternate sources
(Chamber of
Commerce for
identification and
DIAN for
measurement)

Problem of breakdown

Includes products
unrelated to creative
activity (stationery
materials and articles)

Involves distribution of
creative activities
(games, records), based
on design (records) and
non-creative

Possible solution or
treatment

Equivalence with
distribution of publishing
(the weight of noncreative products must
be minimal in relation
to the total)

There does not seem to


be any; it is very difficult
to break down, especially
because stores
simultaneously distribute
creative and non-creative
products

224

UIIC class

5262 Retail at mobile


stands

Creative activity

Crafts

Problem of source for an


average region

Not included in DANE


surveys

Possible solution or
treatment

Since it is not in
alternate sources
either, there does not
seem to be a solution
other than to collect
primary information

Problem of breakdown

Possible solution or
treatment

To the extent that


sources do not have
information for the code,
there is no problem of
breakdown (there is no
information to break
Collect primary
down; in the case that
information
sources had information,
the problem would be
that only a portion
corresponds to crafts

225

APPENDIX 8
MODEL FORM

Form number

Tool for Collecting Primary Information


Creative Industries
CONFIDENTIAL
The information requested herein is strictly confidential and is in no way
intended for tax purposes, nor can it be used as legal evidence

CHAPTER I. IDENTIFICATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION


1. IDENTIFICATION
Social Security No.
ID of nationals
ID of foreign residents
Date of filling out form

Day

Month

Year

2. LOCATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION


1. Company name
2. Commercial name
3. Address of main location or head office
3. TYPE OF ORGANISATION
Co-operative society
1
Uni-personal company 2
Individual
3
Joint stock company
4
4. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
(Describe in order of importance the main economic activities)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

UIIC Rev 3 A.C.


(4 digits)

Percentage

CHAPTER II. NET OPERATIONAL INCOME DURING THE YEAR


1. INCOME BY ACTIVITY
Income from manufacturing activities 1
Income from construction activities 2
Income from commercial activities 3
Income from transport and warehousing activities 4
Income from communal service activities 5
Income from other economic activities 6
(Specify in comments)

226

2. ANNUAL NET OPERATIONAL INCOME EARNED DURING THE YEAR


Groups of merchandise
Value of sales

Cost of
merchandise sold

1. Food (general provisions), drinks, cigarettes and cigars


2. Textile products, apparel and accessories
3. Footwear, articles made of leather and leather substitutes
4. Pharmaceutical products, perfumery, cosmetics and personal
hygiene products
5. Furniture, machinery, office equipment and articles and equipment
for domestic use
6. Computers, software and supplies
7. Paper, cardboard, books, stationery, newspapers and magazines
8. Spare parts and accessories for cars and motorcycles
9. Machinery and equipment for agriculture, mining, construction,
industry, etc.,
10. Income from services (consulting, technical support, training, etc.)
provided by the company
11. Other net operational income (list in comments)
12. Sales of products manufactured by the company (at factory price)
13. NET OPERATIONAL INCOME (boxes 1 to 12)

227

CHAPTER III. OPERATIONAL AND NON- OPERATIONAL COSTS AND EXPENDITURES OF THE
COMPANY DURING THE YEAR
1. OPERATIONAL EXPENDITURES
Concepts

Production costs
and expenditures

Administration and
sales expenditures

Total costs of production,


administration and sales

1. Raw materials and materials used


2. Packing and packaging
3. Sales cost of products not
manufactured by the establishment
4. Sales cost of raw materials and
packaging sold without transformation
5. Costs and expenditures of products
manufactured by third parties ( includes
home workers)
6. Costs and expenditures for
outsourcing, except those of
manufacturing
7. Fees and technical services
8. Sanitation and security
9. Rental of property
10. Rental without option to purchase of
machinery and equipment (movable
goods)
11. Insurance (except social security
insurance)
12. Utilities (water, sewage and
sanitation)
13. Communications services
(telephone, mail, fax, beeper, radio
telephone, cell phone and Internet)
14. Advertising
15. Maintenance, repairs, adaptation,
installations, accessories and spare
parts used
16. Costs and expenditures of transport,
freight and haulage of products and raw
materials
17. Royalties earned (copyright,
franchises, brand names, patents, etc.)
18. Taxes on industry and commerce
19. Property tax, vehicle tax, etc.
20. Expenditures for provision of
outstanding accounts, inventories and
others
21. Interest on loans
22. Profit or loss in sales or withdrawal
of fixed assets
23. Other costs and expenditures not
included above (specify in comments).
Do not include depreciation
24. TOTAL OPERATIONAL
EXPENDITURES (boxes 1 to 23)
2. NON-OPERATIONAL EXPENDITURES
Concepts
25. Accrued interest
26. Other non-operational expenditures (property tax $______________)
27. TOTAL NON-OPERATIONAL EXPENDITURES
28. TOTAL OPERATIONAL AND NON-OPERATIONAL
EXPENDITURES

Value

228

CHAPTER IV. PERSONNEL EMPLOYED BY THE ESTABLISHMENT (ANNUAL AVERAGE)


Type of hiring

Directors and staff of


general management
office

Employees in
administration and sales
of the company

Operations and
production personnel
of the company

Total average
personnel employed
by the company

1. Owners, partners
and relatives without
remuneration (no
fixed salary)
2. Permanent
personnel (permanent
contract)
3. Temporary
personnel hired
directly by the
establishment
4. Temporary
personnel hired
through specialised
companies
5. Trainees and
interns (Law 789 of
December, 2002)
6. TOTAL (boxes 1
to 5)

CHAPTER V. COSTS AND EXPENDITURES CAUSED BY PERSONNEL EMPLOYED DURING THE YEAR
(thousands of pesos)
Concepts
Personnel hired directly in production
Professionals, technicians and technologists
Workers and operators
Directors and employees of administration and sales
Total
1. Comprehensive salary for permanent personnel
2. Wages and salaries of permanent personnel (in cash and in kind, overtime, weekend work, sales
commissions, permanent per diem) (exclude transport allowance)
3. Social benefits of permanent personnel (vacation, mandatory and voluntary bonuses, severance pay and
interest thereon)
4. Wages and salaries of temporary personnel hired directly by the company
5. Mandatory employer contributions (health, professional risks insurance and retirement) of permanent,
temporary and trainee staff
6. Contributions based on the payroll of permanent and temporary personnel hired directly (for government
training institutions, family friendly societies, childrens welfare institutions)
7. Voluntary contributions to life insurance companies or systems of prepaid healthcare that covers employees
8. Payment to agencies supplying temporary personnel to the company
9. Cost of maintaining trainees and interns (Law 789 of December, 2002)
10. Other personnel expenditures not included above (include transport allowance) (list in comments)
11. TOTAL (boxes 1 to 10)

229