WASTEWATER SECTION
August 2012
Instructor:
J.B. Jones, P.E., PhD.
jbjones@odu.edu
What's the format of the Civil PE exam?
The civil PE exam is 8 hours long, divided into 2 equal sessions, morning and
afternoon. All questions are multiplechoice.
This exam is structured in a "breadth and depth" format. In the morning session, all
examinees work the same "breadth" exam, which consists of 40 questions drawn from
all five areas of civil engineering listed below. Examinees must answer all 40
questions. In the afternoon, examinees choose to work one of five "depth" exam
modules: Water Resources & Environmental, Geotechnical, Structural,
Transportation, or Construction. Each depth module consists of 40 questions that test
knowledge in the areas specified. Examinees must answer all 40 questions in the
module they select.
What type of the questions will there be?
The questions are all multiplechoice, with four answer choices each. Nearly all
questions are uniquethat is, one problem statement followed by one question. There
may be a few multipart questions, where one problem statement is followed by 2 or 3
questions, but in these cases the answers to the questions will be independent from
each other (i.e., the answers do not "cascade").
What does the Environmental & Water Resources Section cover?
The exam topics are described by NCEES as follows:
http://www.ncees.org/exams/professional/pe_civil_exams.php
I.
Hydraulics Closed Conduit (Session 2)
15%
II.
Hydraulics Open Channel (Session 3)
15%
III.
Hydraulics Hydrology
(Session 3)
15%
IV.
Groundwater & Well Fields (Session3)
7.5%
Wastewater Treatment
(Session 1)
15%
Water Quality
(Session 1)
15%
Water Treatment
(Session 2)
15%
V.
VI.
VII.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WWTP Problems
Typical Activated Sludge Plant
#1 Wastewater Basin Sizing
#2 Wastewater BOD Planning
#3 Treatment Efficiency
#4 Grit Chamber Design
#5 Aeration Tank Detention Time
#6 Trickling Filter Design
#7 Trickling Filter Design #2
#8 Rotating Biological Contactor
#9 Anaerobic Lagoon
#10 Anaerobic Digester
#11 Anaerobic Digester #2
#12 Sludge Stabilization
#13
Sludge Solids Reduction
#14 Wastewater Sludge Production Rate
#15 Sludge Volume Ratios
#16 Disinfection of Wastewater
#17  Disinfection of Wastewater #2
River Mixing and BOD Calculation
#1 BOD Determination
#2 Wastewater Effluent Mixing with Receiving Stream
#3 Wastewater Effluent Mixing with Receiving Stream #2
#4 Dissolved Oxygen Sag in River System
Non Quantitative Short Answer
1 Viruses and Bacteria
2 Coliforms
3  Odor Constituents
4 Wastewater Loading Factor
5 Nitrogenous BOD
6 BOD Removal Rates
7 Sequential Batch Reactors
8 Sludge Thickening
9 Sewer Pipe Flow
10 Wastewater Peak Flow
11 Wastewater Generation
12 Potable water Usage and Wastewater Generation
CHAPTER TOPICS
Chapter 27: Basic Microbiology
Chapter 28: Wastewater Quantity and Quality
Section 20: BOD
Section 23: River Mixing
Chapter 29: Wastewater Treatment: Equipment and Processes
Stabilization Ponds
Facultative Ponds
Lagoons
Sedimentation
Trickling Filters
RBCs
Chapter 30: Activated Sludge & Sludge Processing
Activated Sludge Process
Recycle Rates
Sludge Thickening
Sludge Dewatering
WWTP Problems
Loading, #/day
Flow,
MGD
8.34
Dose, mg/l
Chemical Feed Rate
lb MG
lbs
mg
Flow, MGD Dose,
8.34
day
l
mg l
lbs
Chemical Feed Rate,
day
mg
Dose Rate
l
Flow, MGD 8.34 lb MG
mg l
(1) Flow In (QIN) = Flow Out (QOUT)
(2) Detention time (T) = Volume (V) / Flow (Q)
(3) Flow (Q) = Volume (V) / Time (T)
(4) Area Required = Flow/Loading Rate
Write out your units in practice because Lecture 1
and 2 are primarily an exercise in consistent unit
formatting. The front insert on the PE manual is a
powerful short cut for conversions.
Basics of Wastewater Strength Calculations
Discussion (Refer to Section 2820, page 288)
The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an empirical test in which laboratory
procedures are used to determine the relative oxygen requirements of
wastewaters and polluted waters. The BOD test is an empirical method, which
involves the use of microorganisms. It is widely used for:

Measuring waste strength
Evaluating organic removal efficiencies
Assessing stream assimilative capacity
The amount of oxygen consumed in the biological decomposition of waste is
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). The BOD test measures:
(1) Molecular oxygen consumed during a specific incubation period for the
biochemical degradation of organic matter (carbonaceous BOD)
(2) Oxygen used to oxidize inorganic matter such as sulfide and ferrous iron
(3) Reduced forms of nitrogen (nitrogenous BOD) with an inhibitor
BODU
BOD exerted
t, days
Look at Table 28.3 Page 286 Strong & Weak Domestic Sewages
Figure 30.1 Typical Activated Sludge Plant (PE Manual)
INFLUENT
SLUDGE
THICKENER
WAS
GRIT
CHAMBER
SLUDGE
DIGESTOR
PRIMARY
SLUDGE
PRIMARY
SEDIMENTATION
RAS
AERATION
TANK
SLUDGE DRYING
BEDS
AIR
DRAINAGE
RAS
CHLORINATION
(DECHLORINATION)
EFFLUENT
TO
RECEIVING
STREAM
Cl2
DRY SLUDGE FOR DISPOSAL
OR LAND APPLICATION
FINAL
CLARIFIER
TYPICAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT
DRAINAGE
PRIMARY
SLUDGE &
WAS
BAR SCREEN
GRIT TO
LANDFILL
MIXED
LIQUOR
1 Wastewater Basin Sizing
What is the hydraulic residence hydraulic detention time for a rectangular tank
with dimensions 3.5 m (W) by 15 m (L) by 3.0 m (D) receiving a flow of 1000
m3/day? The hydraulic efficiency of the tank is 85%
Stagnant
Zone
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1.3 h
3.2 h
3.8 h
4.6 h
SOLUTION:
E
Q
t
tA
V
fractional efficiency
flow rate
theoretical hydraulic detention time
actual hydraulic detention time
volume
3.5 m 15 m 3.0 m 24 hr d
V
3.8 h
3
Q
1000 m
d
t A t E 3.8 h 0.85 3.2 h
The answer is (b).
m3/d
d
d
m3
Eqn 29.5
2  Wastewater BOD Planning
Wastewater treatment guidelines for a planned community require that
wastewater treatment capacity be provided based on four population equivalents
(PE) per home. The community will eventually include 2000 homes. What is the
approximate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loading expected at the
wastewater plant from the community?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1000 lbm BOD/day
1600 lbm BOD/day
2200 lbm BOD/day
35,000 lbm BOD/day
SOLUTION:
Assume that the typical person generates 0.2 lbm BOD/dayperson (Refer to
Page 283, PE Manual)
PE
BOD loading rate
per capita BOD generation rate
The BOD loading rate is
lbm BOD
PE
0.2
4
2000 hom es 1600 lbm BOD day
day person hom e
The answer is (b).
3 Treatment Efficiency
The BOD of a wastewater entering the primary clarifier is 210 mg/l. If the BOD
removal efficiency of the primary clarifier is 35% and the BOD removal efficiency
of a single stage trickling filter is 80%, what is the effluent BOD?
What is the overall efficiency?
SOLUTION:
Compute the BOD of the wastewater leaving the primary clarifier (and entering
the trickling filters).
mg
mg
Pr imary effluent BOD 210
1 0.35 136.5
l
l
Compute the BOD leaving the trickling filter.
mg
mg
Secondary effluent BOD 136.5
1 0.80 27
l
l
Compute overall efficiency.
Overall efficiency
210 27
87 %
210
4  Grit Chamber Design
What is the required width of the rectangular horizontal flow grit chamber
where the following conditions apply?
Flow rate
Depth
Mean particle diameter
Grit specific gravity
Camp constant
Darcy friction factor
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3.0 x 106 gal/day
4 ft
0.25 mm
2.65
0.05
0.03
0.6 feet
1.6 feet
8.8 feet
14 feet
SOLUTION:
Refer to page 296, PE Manual
dP
f
g
K
SGP
V
mean particle diameter
Darcy friction factor
gravitational constant
Camp constant
grit specific gravity
horizontal velocity m/s
8 k g d P SG P 1
f
mm
9.81 m/s2
Eqn 293
1m
m
2.65 1
8 0.05 9.81 2 0.25 mm
1000
mm
sec
0.23 m s
0.03
A
D
Q
W
channel crosssection
depth
flow rate
width
ft2
ft
gal/day
ft
Q = Cross Sectional Area x Velocity = width * depth * vel
gal
ft 3
3.0 x 10 6
0.134
day
gal
Q
w
1.54 ft
d vel
m
ft
sec
4 ft 0.23 3.28 86,400
s
m
day
The answer is (b).
5  Aeration Tank Detention Time
(a) A flow of 6 MGD enters (6) aeration tanks 150 ft x 15 ft x 15 ft. Determine
the detention time in hours.
(b) A sewage treatment plant ran blowers for 24 hours at 5000 cfm. A BOD
removal of 90% was obtained with a 5 MGD flow containing 12,000 lb
BOD per day. How many cubic feet of air was required for each pound of
BOD? (This is not a practical problem, but it reinforces units)
SOLUTION:
Part (a)
Tank Volume = 6 (150 ft) (15 ft) (15 ft) = 202,500 ft3
gal
day
802,139 ft 3 day
gal
7.48 3
ft
6 x 10 6
QIN
Detention Time
202,500 ft 3
hr
x 24
6.06 hr
3
d
ft
802,139
d
Part (b)
lbs of BOD removed = 0.90 (12,000) = 10,800 lb/d
ft 3 min hr
6
3
60
Air Used 5000
24 7.2 x 10 ft d
min
hr
d
Therefore,
7.2 x 10 6 ft 3
ft 3
ft 3
667
lb BOD
lb BOD
10,800 lb
6  Trickling Filter Design
Domestic sewage of 1.0 MGD has been passed through a primary clarifier. When
it is applied to a trickling filter, the wastewater has a BOD concentration of 195
mg/L. Determine the acreft of filter required to effect 82% removal of BOD.
Assume that the wastewater is not be recirculated.
SOLUTION:
Using the NRC formula (Page 2910 in PE Manual)
E
100
Eqn 2914
W
1 0.0085
V F
where
E
W
V
F
= percentage of BOD removal at 20 0C
= BOD load applied, lbs/day
= volume of filter, acreft
Acreft is one of those old
= recirculation factor
sanitary engineering terms
1 R
1 0.1 R 2
= flow recirculate/raw wastewater flow
For this problem:
E = 82
mg
W 195
1.0 MGD
L
lb
lb
MG
8.34 mg 1626 day
V=?
F = 1.0
Then,
82
100
1 0.0085
1626
V 1.0
Volume = 2.438 acreft
7 Trickling Filter Design #2
A community of 15,000 has an average wastewater flow of 120 gpcd. The 5day
BOD is 195 mg/l at 200C. The suspended solids content is 220 mg/l. The
effluent BOD concentration is designed for 30 mg/l. BOD removal is 30%
through the primary treatment stage. If dual trickling filters with recirculation
are employed for secondary treatment, what is the required filter volume (acreft)
SOLUTION:
Using the NRC formula (Page 2910 in PE Manual)
E
100
Eqn 2914
W
1 0.0085
V F
where
E
W
V
F
= percentage of BOD removal at 20 0C
= BOD load applied, lbs/day
= volume of filter, acreft
= recirculation factor
1 R
1 0.1 R 2
= flow recirculate/raw wastewater flow
Q 15,000 people 120 gpcd 1.8 x 10 6 gpd
mg
mg
BOD applied to filter 1 0.3 195
137
l
l
137 30
E1
78% , convert the filter load rate from mg/l to lbs/day
137
lb MG
mg
lb
1.8 MGD 2057
W1 137
8.34
l
mg l
day
F
E
1 R
1 0.1 R 2
1.653 when R 1
100
1 0.0085
W
V F
V 1.132 ac ft
where
78
100
1 0.0085
2057
V 1.653
8  Rotating Biological Contactor (Section 2924))
What is most nearly the required media total surface area for a rotating biological
contactor (RBC) process selected to treat the following wastewater?
flow rate
influent BOD
effluent BOD
Hydraulic loading rate
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
130,000 ft2
150,000 ft2
125,000 ft2
360,000 ft2
250,000 gal/day
210 mg/L
30 mg/L
2 gal/ft2 day
See Page 2911, Section 2924.
This will be a common design
concept that
Flow = Area x Loading Rate
SOLUTION:
Ah
media surface area based
on hydraulic loading
HLR hydraulic loading rate
Q
influent flow rate
ft2
gal/dayft2
gal/day
gal
Q
day
Ah
125,000 ft 2 , The answer is (c).
gal
HLR
2.0 2
ft day
250,000
9  Anaerobic Lagoon (not in text)
An anaerobic lagoon will pretreat a slaughterhouse wastewater that will be
discharged to an existing facultative lagoon. Influent flow is 2.6 x 105 gal/day
with a total BOD of 14,000 mg/L. The average waste temperature is 210C, and
the loading rate is 15 lbm BOD/103 ft3day. Site conditions limit the lagoon
depth to 10 ft. What is the total required surface area of the anaerobic lagoon?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3.9 ac
4.6 ac
5.4 ac
5.8 ac
These two equations will be
used repeatedly.
SOLUTION:
Step 1: Determine the mass flow rate
C
Q
m
BOD concentration
volumetric flow rate
mass loading rate
Chemical Feed Rate
mg/L
gal/day
lbm/day
lb MG
lbs
mg
Flow, MGD Dose ,
8.34
day
l
mg
l
mg BOD
lb MG
gal 1 MG
14,000
6
m Q * C 2.6 x 10 5
x 8.34
day
L
mg
L
10
gal
m 30,365 lbm BOD day
Step 2: Determine the required surface area.
A
surface area
D
liquid depth
OLR organic loading rate
ac
ft
lbm/103 ft3 day
Volume Loading Rate Mass Loading
Area Depth Loading Rate Mass Loading
lbm BOD 1 ac
30,365
day 43,560 ft 2
m
OLR D
lbm BOD
15 3 3
10 ft
10 ft day
The answer is (b).
4.6 ac
10 Anaerobic Digester (Section 3019)
A completely mixed anaerobic digester treats sludge containing primary and
waste activated sludge. The sludge flow rate is 2000 cubic feet/day and the
sludge contains 5400 lb of volatile solids. Using a design loading rate of 0.16 lbVSS/day/ft3, determine the digestion period.
SOLUTION
Calculate the minimum volume based on volatile solids loading:
Min Volume Storage
Daily Plant Loading
Allowed Unit Load Rate
Calculate the digestion period
tD
V
Q
Digestion Period
lb VSS
day
33,750 ft 3
lb VSS
0.16 3
ft * day
When a loading rate is supplied,
it can usually be used to
determine volume.
Eqn 29.5
33,750 ft 3
ft 3
2000
day
5400
17 days
11 Anaerobic Digester #2 (Not covered in Class)
Estimate the sludge production rate for an anaerobic digester with the following
characteristics:
Total solids in digester influent
Influent BODU
Effluent BODU
Y
kD
mean cell residence time
=
=
=
=
=
=
7200 mg/l
6600 lb/day
2300 lb/day
0.5 lb cells/lb BOD
0.03 day 1
20 days
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 308 (PE Manual)
PX
YMAX
Q S 0 S E
1 k D SRT
PX
YMAX
KD
SRT
Q
S0
SE
PX
Eqn 30.24
= sludge production (dry mass/time)
= max yield = 0.5 lb VSS/lb BOD5
= endogenous decay coefficient = 0.03 d1
= sludge age = 20 d
= wastewater flow rate
= BOD5 influent to activated sludge
= BOD5 in the plant effluent
YMAX
Q S 0 S E
1 k D SRT
Remember that Loading (#/day) = Q * S
lb VSS
lb BOD5
lb
lb
2300 1350 lb day
PX
6600
1
d
d
1 0.03 d 20 d
0.5
12  Sludge Stabilization
A waste biological sludge is dewatered to 25% solids and then stabilized with a
lime dose rate of 320 g Ca (OH)2/kg dry solids. The plant wastes 18,000 gallons
of sludge daily at 10% solids. The locally available lime contains 24% inerts.
What is most nearly the monthly mass of lime required to stabilize the sludge?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
45,000 kg/month
58,000 kg/month
86,000 kg/month
190,000 kg/month
SOLUTION:
f
m
V
solids
dry solids mass flow rate
wet sludge flow rate
sludge density
%
kg/day
m3/d
kg/m3
Assume that for sludge at 10% solids, the sludge density is equal to that of water
(1000 kg/m3). See Page 3013, Eqn 30.46:
gal
kg
m3
6813 kg d
1000 3 0.10 x 0.003785
m V f 18,000
day
gal
m
(This is the amount of sludge produced if all water were removed, i.e. only the dry portion
remained)
The lime requirement is
days Lime Dosage Rate
Monthly Lime Re quirement Daily Sludge Pr oduced
mo unit weight dry solids
Ca OH 2
kg
d
6813 30
320 g
d month
kg dried solids
86,058 kg month
g
1 0.24 1000
kg
The answer is (c).
Note that the 25% solids dewatering number was not used in the calculation.
13  Sludge Solids Reduction
A wastewater treatment plant process wastes sludge at 50,000 gal/day. The
wasted sludge contains 1.2% solids. What volume reduction can be realized by
thickening & dewatering the sludge at 24% solids?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2500 gal/day
2600 gal/day
39,000 gal/day
48,000 gal/day
SOLUTION:
Dry mass flow rate = (% solids) x (wet sludge density) x (volumetric flow rate)
m f V f V
1
f V
V2 1 1
f2
, drops out
At 1.2% solids, V1 = 50,000 gal/day
At 24 % solids,
V2
0.012 50,000
0.24
gal
day
2500 gal day
Volume Reduction = V1 V2 = 50,000 2500 = 47,500 gal/day
The answer is (d).
14 Wastewater Sludge Production Rate
At a wastewater plant, the design flow is 6.0 MGD with an influent suspended
solids concentration of 285 mg/l. At the primary clarifier, 60% of suspended
solids are removed. Sludge production is 5% solids by weight and has a specific
gravity of 1.02.
Determine the sludge production rate in gallons/day.
For future problems, it is reasonable to
assume that SG = 1
SOLUTION
lb MG
mg
lb
8557
Sludge removed 6.0 MGD 0.60 285
8.34
l
mg l
day
Volume
Weight
Density
8557
lb
day
0.05 solids 1.02 S G 8.34
lb
gal
20,100
gal
day
15  Sludge Volume Ratios
What is most nearly the sludge volume index for a mixed liquor suspended
solids (MLSS) suspension at an initial concentration of 2200 mg/L that settles to
the 385 mL mark in a 1 L graduated cylinder after 30 minutes?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
180 mL/g
270 mL/g
3700 mL/g
6700 mL/g
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 305, PE Manual.
The sludge volume index (SVI) is a
measure of the sludges settleability.
SVI is a parameter for operation
considerations to ensure that the
sludge settles during clarification and
does not carry over into a final
treatment process.
Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is the bacteria and other suspended
material in the mixed liquor, which is measured as mg/L.
Parameters
MLSS mixed liquor suspended solids
SV
Sludge volume
SVI Sludge volume
mg/L
mL/L
mL/g
mL
mg
385
1000
L
g
SV
SVI
175 mL g Eqn 30.8
mg
MLSS
2200
L
The answer is (a).
Part (b): Calculate the TSS.
1000 mg 1000 mL
g
L
mg
5700
TSS mg L
SVI mL g
L
16  Disinfection of Wastewater (Not covered in class)
Disinfection of a wastewater using aqueous chlorine at a pH of 8.5 and a
temperature of 210C requires 23 minutes to effect the desired percentage kill.
How much time is required if the wastewater temperature is 170C?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
6.4 min
20 min
27 min
32 min
SOLUTION:
Refer to Metcalf & Eddy, page 330.
The effect of temperature on the rate of kill can be represented by a form of the
vant HoffArrhenius relationship. Increasing the temperature results in a more
rapid kill. In terms of the time, t required to effect a given percentage kill, the
relationship is:
ln
t1
E T2 T1
where
t2
R T1 T2
t1, t2 = time for given percentage kill at temperatures T1 and T2, 0K
respectively
E
= activation energy, J/mol (cal/mol)
R
= gas constant, 8.314 J/mol*0K (1.99 cal/0K*mol)
Source: Wastewater Engineering, 3rd edition, McGrawHill
Because decreasing temperature results in a longer reaction time, take 210C as the
reference temperature (T1) and 170C as the temperature of interest (T2).
T1 210 C 2730 294 K
T2 17 0 C 2730 290 K
cal
6400
290 K 294 K
t1
E T2 T1
mol
ln
0.15
cal
t2
R T1 T2
1.99
294 K 290 K
mol * K
t
t
t
ln 1 0.15 1 e 0.15 t 2 01.15 27 min
t2
e
t2
The answer is (c).
17  Disinfection of a Wastestream #2 (Not covered in class)
Disinfection is to be added to a sewage treatment plant with an average daily
flow of 13 MGD, and an hourly peak factor of 2.5. The average coliform count,
N0 = 10,000 org/100 mL must be reduced to 200 org/100mL.
Codes require a 15minute contact time for peak hourly flow and 30minute
contact time for average daily flow, and a maximum chlorine dose rate of 15
mg/L.
NT
1 0.23 CT t
N0
& Eddy, page 338)
The equation
3 describes the chlorination process.
(Metcalf
NT = number of coliforms organisms at time t
N0 = number of coliform organisms at time t 0
Ct = total chlorine residual at time, t, mg/L
T = residence time, minutes
(a) Determine the total chlorine residual (mg/L) after 15 minutes contact time
under peak conditions.
(b) Determine the chlorine dosage rate in lb/day.
Influent
Effluent
Cl2 feed
SOLUTION:
Part (a)
NT
1 0.23 CT t
N0
NT
N0
CT
, rearranges to
NT
N0
1 3
0.23 CT t
200 1 3
1
10,000
0.23 15
, rearranges to
CT
1 3
1 0.23 CT t
N 1 3
T
1
N 0
0.23 t
0.78 mg L
Part (b)
If Q= 13 MGD and Cl2 dose is 15 mg/L (as a code requirement in the problem
statement)
lb
day
lb MG
15 mg L 1626 lb
Q * c 13 mgd 8.34
day
mg
L
River Mixing & BOD
Calculations
Basics of Wastewater Strength Calculations
Description of BOD Test Section 2820)
The method consists of placing a sample in a full, airtight bottle and incubating
the bottle under specified conditions for a specific time. Dissolved oxygen (DO)
is measured initially and after incubation. The BOD is computed from the
difference between initial and final DO.
Most wastewaters contain more oxygen demanding materials than the amount of
DO available in airsaturated water. Therefore, it is necessary to dilute the
sample before incubation to bring the oxygen demand and supply into
appropriate balance.
When dilution water is not seeded:
BOD5
DOI DOF
VSAMPLE
VSAMPLE VDILUTION
Eqn 28.30
Industrial wastewater may lack sufficient microorganisms to oxidize the wastes.
For such wastes, the dilution water is seeded with a population of
microorganisms.
BOD5
Where
DOI DOF DOI* DOF*
VSAMPLE
VSAMPLE VDILUTION
Eqn 28.34
x = volume of seed in diluted sample/volume of seed in seed
control
1  BOD Determination Example
For a BOD test, 75 ml of river water sample is used in the 300 mL of BOD bottles
without seeding with three duplications. The initial DO in three BOD bottles
read 8.86, 8.88, and 8.83 mg/L respectively. The DO levels after 5 days at 200C
incubation are 5.49, 5.65, and 5.53 mg/L, respectively. Find the 5day BOD
(BOD5) for the river water.
SOLUTION:
Determine average DO uptake and plug it into the BOD equation
D1 D2
3
=[(8.86 5.49) + (8.88 5.65) + (8.83 5.53)]/3 = 3.30 mg/L
x
BOD5
DOI DOF
VSAMPLE
VSAMPLE VDILUTION
3.30 mg L
13.2 mg L
75
300
Eqn 28.30
As a side reference, look at Page 286,
Table 28.4 for various wastewater
strength characteristics.
BOD Calculations as Related to Time and Temperature
First Stage BOD is usually defined by:
BODT BODU 1 exp K D t
Eqn 28.31
Where
BODt = BOD in mg/L exerted after t days
BODu = Ultimate first stage BOD
KD = coefficient of deoxygenation (reaction rate coefficient)
t = time of days
BODU
BOD exerted
t, days
When a waste is completely oxidized (i.e.treated or assimilated) so
that it no longer creates an oxygen demand, the water has reached
Ultimate BOD.
Refer to this for Problem #3 in the next section.
River Mixing
When wastewater is discharged to a receiving stream, the concentrations of
various parameters of the mixture may be determined from the following:
C S QS CW QW
QS QW
Eqn 28.35
QS = rate of flow in stream
QW = rate of flow of wastewater
CS = concentration of parameter in stream above discharge point
CW = concentration of parameter in waste flow before discharge
This equation applies to oxygen content, solids, etc.
NOT COVERED IN THIS CLASS
The Streeter Phelps equation is generally used to define the oxygen deficit over
time as follows:
DT
K D BODU e K DT e K R t
KR KD
Eqn 28.36
DT = dissolved oxygen deficit (mg/L) at time t (days)
BODU = ultimate firststage BOD
KD = deoxygenation coefficient (K1)
KR = reoxygenation coefficient (K2)
D0 = initial oxygen deficit (mg/L)
Based on the above equation, the critical oxygen deficit is:
DC
KD
BODU exp K DT M
KR
Eqn 28.39
And TM is the time at which the minimum dissolved oxygen of the mixture
occurs, and is found as follows:
TM
K D K K D
1
ln R 1 0 R
KR KD KD
K D BODU
Eqn 28.38
2  Wastewater Effluent Mixing with Receiving Stream
A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges raw sewage during periods of
high rainfall. Typical discharge flows are 15 x 106 gal/day with dissolved
oxygen concentrations of 1.20 mg/L. During these periods, the river flows at
2000 ft3/sec with a dissolved oxygen concentration of 8.10 mg/L. What is most
nearly the DO concentration in the river once complete mixing at the WWTP
effluent has occurred?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4.65 mg/L
8.02 mg/L
8.05 mg/L
8.18 mg/L
SOLUTION:
When wastewater is discharged to a receiving stream, the concentrations of
various parameters of the mixture may be determined from the following:
C S QS CW QW
QS QW
Eqn 28.35
QS = rate of flow in stream
QW = rate of flow of wastewater
CS = concentration of parameter in stream above discharge point
CW = concentration of parameter in waste flow before discharge
Step 1: Convert WWTP flow to compatible units
gal ft 3
day
ft 3
23
15 x 10 6
day 7.48 gal 86,400 sec
sec
Step 2: Calculate the DO concentration
mg
ft 3
mg ft 3
1.20
8.10
2000
23
L
L sec
sec
C S QS CW QW
mg
C
8.02
3
3
QS QW
L
ft
ft
2000
23
sec
sec
The answer is (b).
3 Wastewater Effluent Mixing with Receiving Stream #2
A secondary treated effluent from a 4.0 MGD wastewater treatment plant is
discharged into a receiving stream.
The wastewater has a BOD5 = 20 mg/L. The receiving stream upstream from the
point of wastewater discharge has a flow of 18 cfs and a BOD5 = 4.0 mg/L. The
BOD reaction rate constant is estimated at 0.23 d1 (base e at 20 0C).
Determine the ultimate BODU downstream of the receiving stream.
QSTREAM = 18 cfs
BOD5 = 4 mg/L
Q = 4.0 MGD, BOD5 = 20 mg/L
SOLUTION:
1 cfs = 449 gpm = 646,560 gpd
18 cfs = 11.6 MGD
Step 1: Determine BOD5 after mixing
From earlier notes, C
BOD5
C S QS CW QW
can be rewritten:
QS QW
BODWW QWW BODSTREAM QSTREAM
20 mg l 4 MGD 4 mg l 11.6 MGD
QWW QSTREAM
15.6 MGD
BOD5 8.1 mg L
Step 2:
BODT BODU 1 exp K D t
BODU
BOD5
1 exp K
The answer is 12 mg/L.
Eqn 28.31
8.1
11.9 mg L 12 mg L
1 exp 0.23 5
4 Dissolved Oxygen Sag in a River System (Not covered in class)
Assume the following characteristics of the wastewater/river mixture at the
point of discharge:
Dissolved oxygen concentration
Ultimate BODU
Temperature
Reaeration rate constant (base e)
Deoxygenation rate constant (base e)
6 mg/L
10 mg/L
20 0C
0.40 day1
0.23 day1
Assume that no other wastewater sources are discharged into the river.
Determine the time (days) of the critical dissolved oxygen concentration from the
point of wastewater discharge.
WWTP
X*
X=0
Distance for DO Sag
SOLUTION:
Step 1: Determine the initial DO Deficit
DO0 = DOS DO = 9.08 (Table) 6 (given) = 3.08 mg/L
Refer to Appendix 22.C, Page A59 (slightly different value than mine)
Step 2: Determine time, TMAX for DO sag using Streeter Phelps Equation
TM
K D K K D
1
ln R 1 0 R
KR KD KD
K D BODU
K R reaeration cons tan t , 0.40 d 1
K D deoxygenation cons tan t , 0.23 d 1
TM
Eqn 28.38
0.40 3.08 0.40 0.23
1
1
1.74 days
ln
0.23 10
0.40 0.23 0.23
Non Quantitative
Problems
1 Viruses and Bacteria
What following statements are true regarding microbiology?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Bacteria can be pathogenic
Viruses are parasitic
Rotifiers are chemoheterotrophs
All are true
SOLUTION:
Refer to Chapter 27
The answer is (d).
2  Coliforms
Refer to Chapter 2711 in PE Manual
The coliform groups are considered good indicator organisms because:
(a)
they apply to all types of water
(b)
they are always present when pathogens are present, and normally
absent otherwise
(c)
they are easily detected by routine analytical methods
(d)
all of the above
SOLUTION:
Section 2711, Page 274
The answer is (d).
3 Odor Constituents
Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, 3rd edition, by Tchobanoglous &
Burton, McGraw Hill, 1991
What elements found in chemical compounds usually contribute to wastewater
odor?
(a) chlorine and iron
(b) nitrogen and sulfur
(c) nitrogen and iron
(d) chlorine and sulfur
SOLUTION:
Most compounds which contribute to odor contain nitrogen (amines) and sulfur
(mercaptan and sulfides). It is referred to indirectly in Table 27.2 on page 275.
The answer is (b).
4 Wastewater Loading Factor
Page 283
What is the typical organic loading for domestic wastewater in the U.S.?
(a) 0.060 kg BOD/d per person
(b) 0.2 kg BOD/d per person
(c) 0.09 kg/BOD/d per person
(d) 0.4 kg/BOD per person
SOLUTION:
Refer to the top of page 283. The answer is (c).
5 Nitrogenous BOD
After 610 days of incubation during a BOD test, there is another phase of BOD
exertion called nitrogenous demand. What is the cause?
(a) oxidation of carbonaceous material
(b) oxidation of ammonia to nitrates and nitrates
(c) oxidation of phenolic compounds
(d) oxidation of mutagenic substrates
The answer is (b).
See Page 289, right column, second paragraph.
6 BOD Removal Rates
What is the typical biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reduction realized by
primary clarification?
(a) 515%
(b) 1525%
(c) 2535%
(d) 4060%
SOLUTION:
Refer to the Table 29.10, page 297. See also Page 293, Section 5. The answer is
(c).
7 Sequential Batch Reactors
Page 303
What are the typical operation steps of sequential batch reactors?
(a) fill, aerate, settle, decant
(b) fill, aerate, settle, recirculate, decant
(c) fill, settle, aerate, decant
(d) fill, decant, aerate, recirculate
SOLUTION:
Refer to the page 304. The answer is (a).
8 Sludge Thickening
What are typical percent solids ranges for waste activated sludge and thickened
sludge respectively?
(a) WAS 0.5  1%, Thickened 4 5%
(b) WAS 0.51%, Thickened 510%
(c) WAS 13%, Thickened 1012%
(d) WAS, 12%, Thickened 2025%
SOLUTION:
Refer to the page 3014, Section 3016.
The answer is (a).
9 Sewer Pipe Flow
Combined sewers are pipe systems that are designed to
(a) convey domestic and industrial wastewater
(b) convey wastewater and storm water
(c) convey domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater, and storm water
(d) convey only storm water
SOLUTION:
Refer to the page 282. The answer is (b).
10 Wastewater Peak Flow
Over what period of time would you expect the wastewater to experience the
highest average flow?
(a) annually
(b) seasonally
(c) weekly
(d) daily
SOLUTION:
Refer to the page 282, Table 28.1. The answer is (d).
11 Wastewater Generation
What is the typical design flow for new sewer systems?
(a) 80 gal/day/person
(b) 100 gal/day/person
(c) 150 gal/day/person
(d) 180 gal/day/person
SOLUTION:
Refer to the page 282. The answer is (b).
12 Potable Water Usage & Wastewater Generation
What is a typical percentage of domestic drinking water that contributes to
wastewater?
(a) 4050%
(b) 3555%
(c) 8090%%
(d) 7080%
SOLUTION:
Refer to the page 282. The answer is (d).
POTABLE WATER SECTION
August 2012
Instructor:
J.B. Jones, P.E., PhD.
jbjones@odu.edu
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Typical Water Treatment Plant
#1 Water Hardness Calculation #1
#2 Water Hardness Calculation #2
#3 Chlorine Disinfection Dosage #1
#4 Chlorine Disinfection Dosage #2
#5 Motor Sizing for Flash Mixer
#6 Jar Testing
#7 Paddle Wheel Mixer for Flocculation Tank
#8 Particle Settling Velocity
#9 Clarifier Problem
#10 Sedimentation Basin #1
#11 Clarifier Basin
#12 Sand Filter Problem #1
#13 Sand Filter Problem #2
#14 Ion Exchange Calculation for Reactor Vessels
#15 Zeolite Softening Problem #1
#16 Zeolite Softening Problem #2
#17 Reverse Osmosis
Non Qualitative Problems
#1 Algae
#2 Hardness Calculations
#3 Settling Basin Zones
#4 Settling Basin Zones
#5 Filter Bed Parameters
#6 Filter Bed Stratification
#7 Granular Media Sequence
#8 Treatment Plant Sequence
#9 Jar Tests
#10 Free Chlorine Disinfection
#11 Mixing Physics
#12 Mixing Physics (2)
LOW SERVICE
PUMP
WASTE
SLUDGE
BACKWASH
RECOVERY
BASIN
BACKWASH
RECYCLE
WATER
SOURCE
FILTER
SCREEN
HIGH SERVICE
PUMP
FLOCCULATION
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
WASTE
SLUDGE
SEDIMENTATION
FILTER
AID
TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PLANT
BACKWASH
PUMP
CLEARWELL
RAPID MIX
pH ADJUSTMENT,
PRIMARY OXIDANT,
COAGULANT
1  Water Hardness Calculation #1
PE Refresher Manual Page 251 and Appdx 22.B (Page A57)
The results of a well water analysis are given below:
Ca+2
51 mg/L
12 mg/L
Mg+2
Na+
25 mg/L
2
SO4
65 mg/L
Cl25 mg/L
F0.40 mg/L
14 mg/L
NO3
pH
7.8
H2S
3.4 mg/L as S
Alkalinity
84 mg/L as CaCO3
Total Coliforms
MPN
2.2 org/100 mL
Turbidity
6.2 NTU
Chlorine Demand 9.1 mg/L
TDS
332 mg/L
Temperature
250C
Calculate the total hardness.
SOLUTION:
We will do this the long way
only to explain the shortcut
method found in Appdx 22.B
Hardness is the measure of soluble divalent metal cations (i.e. positive ions
having a valence of 2). The two main cations that cause hardness are calcium
(Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Water hardness is generally expressed as mg/L of
CaCO3. (This will be discussed in work sample problems)
Hardness can be categorized by either of two methods:
o Calcium and magnesium hardness
o Carbonate and noncarbonated hardness
Quick Refresher: Hardness is expressed as CaCO3
Equivalent Weight EW
40 12 3 16 50
EW CaCO3
Multiplier
MW
Ch arg e
EW CaCO3
EW subs tan ce
given in Appendix 22.B
For this specific problem,
Add calcium and magnesium concentrations in CaCO3 equivalents
mg
Calcium 51
l
or
50
127 mg as CaCO3
l
40
2
Use Appendix 22.C
Calcium 51
mg
l
Magnesium 12
mg
l
2.5
4.1 factor
Total Hardness 177 mg
factor 127 mg
as CaCO3
49 mg
as CaCO3
as CaCO3
2 Water Hardness Calculation # 2
A towns water supply has the following ionic concentrations:
Al3+
Ca2+
ClCO2
CO32Fe2+
FlHCO3Mg2+
Na+
NO3SO42
0.5 mg/L
80.2 mg/L
85.9 mg/L
19 mg/L
0
1.0 mg/L
0
185 mg/L
24.3 mg/L
46.0 mg/L
0
125 mg/L
What is the total hardness?
(a) 160 mg/L as CaCO3
(b) 200 mg/L as CaCO3
(c) 260 mg/L as CaCO3
(d) 300 mg/L as CaCO3
SOLUTION: (Refer to Page 251, PE Manual)
Part (1)
Constituent
Ca2+
Mg2+
Fe2+
mg/L as
substance
80.2
24.3
1
The answer is (d).
x
x
x
Factor from
Appendix 22.c
2.5
4.1
1.79
Hardness
=
=
=
=
Hardness expressed as
mg/L of CaCO3
200.5
99.63
1.79
302 mg/l
3  Chlorine Disinfection Dosage #1 (not in PE Manual)
A water is tested and found to have a chlorine demand of 6 mg/L. The desired
chorine residual is 0.2 mg/L. How many pounds will be required daily to
chlorinate a flow of 8 MGD?
Cl2 dosage
lbs
day
= Cl2 demand + Cl2 residual (See Section 28.26, Page 2813)
= 6 mg/l + 0.2 mg/l = 6.2 mg/l
lb
mg MG
MG
lb
6.2
8.34
8
414 day
mg
l
d
4  Chlorine Disinfection Dosage for Potable Water #2
The flow rate in a water treatment process is 1.2 MGD. If the chlorine dosage is
2 mg/l, how much calcium hypochlorite containing 70% available chlorine is
required for disinfection?
SOLUTION
lb
MG
mg
MG
lb
Available chlorine reqd 2
8.34
1.2
20 day
mg
l
d
20 lb
day
Total chlorine reqd
29 lb
day
0.70
% Available strength should go in the
denominator which makes the overall
amount increase.
5  Motor Sizing for Flash Mixer
What standard motor size is required for a tank impeller flash mixer sized to
treat 5 MGD at a temperature of 60 0F. The design velocity gradient and
residence time are 800 sec1 and 2 minutes respectively. The motor efficiency is
75%.
SOLUTION:
(a) Determine the required volume
Page 297, Eqn 29.5
day
gal
ft 3
2 min
931 ft 3
0.134
Volume Q * t 5 x 10 6
day
gal
1440
min
(b) Determine the power requirement, Page 2611.
P G 2 VTANK
P
Eqn 26.25
= mixing power, ftlbf/sec
= absolute viscosity, 2.359 x 105 lbfsec/ft2 (Appendix 14 A)
= velocity gradient = 700 sec1
1
lbf sec
3
800
2.359 x 10 5
931 ft 14,056 lbf ft sec
2
sec
ft
P G VTANK
2
( c) Determine HP requirement
Power Input to motor = Pump Power/Efficiency
14,056
Pa P
HP
lbf ft sec
550 lbf ft sec 34 HP 35HP
0.75
See inside cover of book for conversion factor. I will cover this in Chapter 18 as
well.
6  Jar Testing (1.5 Problems and not very practical))
The results of jar tests and preliminary design of flash mixing for a new
proposed water treatment plant are given in the following table.
Parameter
GT
Temperature
Total Design Flow
Number of units
Dimension of units
Criterion
4000
100C
6 m3/s
2
1.5 m square x 2 m
deep
Unbaffled
Configuration
The power required for each flash mixer is most nearly:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
33 kW
42 kW
56 kW
61 kW
SOLUTION:
In 1943, T.R. Camp and P.C. Stein developed the relationship between the
velocity gradient and power imparted to the water as
P
P
G
VTANK
G 2 VTANK
Equation 26.25
= mixing power, N*m/s, or W
= absolute viscosity, 1.3077 x 103 Pa * sec (Appendix 14 B)
= velocity gradient, sec1
= basin volume, m3
Calculate the basin volume
VTANK 1.5 m 1.5 m 2 m 4.5 m 3
m3
3
s 3m
Flow per tan k Q
s
2 tan ks
6
Calculate the detention tank per tank
4 .5 m 3
V
T
1 .5 s
Q
m3
3
s
Calculate G
m
4000
m 2667 m
G
1.5 s
sm
1
N s
3 W s
2667
P G 2 VTANK 1.3077 x 10 3
42 kW
4.5 m
2
sec
m
N m
The answer is (b).
7  Paddle Wheel Mixer for Flocculation Tank
A flocculator tank with a volume of 100,000 ft3 uses a paddle wheel to mix the
coagulant in 600F water. The operating characteristics are as follows:
Mean velocity gradient
Paddle drag coefficient
Mixing Velocity
60 sec1
1.75
1.2 ft/sec
(1)
What is the theoretical power required to drive the paddle?
(a) 12 hp
(b) 16 hp
(c) 20 hp
(d) 40 hp
(2)
What is the drag force on the paddle?
(a) 450 lbf
(b) 2500 lbf
(c) 7000 lbf
(d) 9000 lbf
(3)
What is the required paddle area?
(a) 2000 ft2
(b) 3500 ft2
(c) 5000 ft2
(d) 8500 ft2
SOLUTION:
(a) Determine the power requirement
Page 269, PE Manual
P G 2 VTANK
P
= mixing power, ftlbf/sec
= absolute viscosity, 2.359 x 105 lbfsec/ft2 (Appendix 14 A)
= velocity gradient = 45 sec1
lbf sec
1
3
60
2.359 x 10 5
100,000 ft 8492 lbf ft sec
2
ft
sec
2
P G VTANK
2
Water HP
lbf ft
sec
15.4hp
lbf ft
550
hp sec
8,492
The answer is (b).
(b) Since work = force x distance, then power = force x velocity
FD
vel
lbf ft
sec
7,077 lbf
ft
1 .2
sec
8,492
The answer is (c).
( c) Using equation 26.20 (rearrange terms) , page 2610:
2 g FD
CD v 2
The answer is (b).
2 32.2
ft
7,077 lbf
sec 2
3,478 ft 2
2
1.75 62.4 lbf3 1.2 ft
sec
ft
8  Particle Settling Velocity
A spherical sand particle has a specific gravity of 2.7 and a diameter of 0.1mm.
What is the settling velocity?
(a) 0.05 ft/sec
(b) 0.01 ft/sec
(c) 1.0 ft/sec
(d) 0.001 ft/sec
SOLUTION:
From P.E. Manual, page 265, the settling velocity is 0.05 ft/sec.
The answer is (a).
9  Clarifier Problem
A circular clarifier is to be designed with the following characteristics.
Flow rate
Detention period
Surface loading
(1)
1.3 MGD
2.5 hours
400 gal/ft2day
What is the approximate diameter?
(a) 45 ft
(b) 65 ft
(c) 70 ft
(d) 90 ft
(2)
What is the approximate depth?
(a) 6 ft
(b) 8 ft
(c) 12 ft
(d) 15 ft
(3)
If the initial flow rate is reduced to 0.8 MGD, what is the surface loading?
(a) 100 gal/dayft2
(b) 150 gal/dayft2
(c) 200 gal/dayft2
(d) 250 gal/dayft2
SOLUTION:
Part (1):
The surface area is
gal
Flow
day
gal
Loading Rate
400 2
ft day
1.3 x 10 6
ASURFACE
Since A D 2
4
Dia
4 3250
ft 2
64.3 ft
3250 ft 2
The answer is (b).
Part (2)
gal
1.3 x 10 6
2.5 hr
day
Volume Flow Time Q t
1.354 x 10 5 gal
hr
24
day
The depth is
1.354 x 10 5 gal
Volume
depth
5.7 ft
ASURFACE
gal
2
3250 ft 7.48 3
ft
The answer is (a).
Part (3)
Loading Rate
The answer is (d).
Flow
Area
gal
day
3,250 ft 2
8 x 10 5
246 gal day ft 2
10 Sedimentation Basin #1
A flow of 2.5 MGD from a coagulation/flocculation basin is settled in four
rectangular sedimentation basins. The dimensions of each basin are 75 ft long x
15 ft wide x 12 ft deep.
Calculate the detention time (hours), and horizontal flow velocity (ft/min) if the
outlet is located at the other end of the basin.
SOLUTION:
Calculate flow to each basin:
Flow per Ba sin
gal
d 6.25 x 10 5 gpd
4 ba sin s
2.5 x 10 6
Now, calculate the individual terms:
Eqn 29.5
DetentionTime t D
Volume
Flow
75 ft 15 ft 12 ft 7.48 gal3
ft
4 hr
5 gal 1 d
6.25 x 10
d 24 hr
Flow
Horizontal Vel
Cross Section Area
gal
ft
d
0.32
min
15 ft 12 ft 7.48 gal3 1440 min
d
ft
6.25 x 10 5
11 Clarifier Basin
Two equally sized circular sedimentation basins handle a total design flow of
2.5 MGD. Each unit has an overflow rate of 700 gpd/ft2 and a detention time of
four hours.
(a)
(b)
Calculate the tank diameter.
Calculate the weir loading if the influent is introduced through a
vertical riser pipe in the center of the basin and flows radially
outward.
SOLUTION:
Part (a)
Flow to one ba sin
gal
d 1.25 x 10 6 gal
d
2 units
2.5 x 10 6
Flow
Surface Area
Overflow Rate
Diameter
4A
gal
d 1.786 x 10 3 ft 2
gal
700
d ft 2
1.25 x 10 6
4 1.786 x 10 3 ft 2
48 ft
Part (b)
Weir length diameter 48 ft 150 ft
Weir loading
gal
d 8300 gpd
150 ft
ft
1.25 x 10 6
12 Sand Filter Problem #1
A water treatment plant has six square rapid sand filters. The flow rate is 3.5
gal/minft2. Each filter has treatment capacity of 500,000 gal/day. Each filter is
backwashed once a day for 12 min. The rate of rise during washing is 18
in/min.
(1)
What are the inside dimensions of each filter?
(a) 6 ft x 6 ft
(b) 8 ft x 8 ft
(c) 10 ft x 10 ft
(d) 12 ft x 12 ft
(2)
What percentage of the filtered water is used for backwashing?
(a) 3%
(b) 4%
(c) 8%
(d) 10%
SOLUTION:
Part a:
The area is
gal
Flow
day
99.2 ft 2
Loading Rate
gal
hr min
3.5
24
60
2
hr
min ft day
500,000
AREQ
Use 10 ft x 10 ft area. The answer is ( c).
Part b:
The volume of water used during backwashing is
Volume AFILTER rate of rise t BACKWASH
Eqn 26.37
ft min
1800 ft 3 day
Volume 100 ft 2 1.5
12
min day
ft 3
gal
gal
1800
7.48 3 13,464
day
day
ft
The percentage of backwash water then would be
gal
day
gal
500,000
day
13,464
0.026 (3%)
The answer is (a).
13  Rapid Sand Filter Problem #2
A water treatment plant has four rapid sand filters. Each filter is designed for a
capacity of 1 MGD. Backwashing is accomplished for 10 minutes at a rate of 15
gpm/ft2 once every 24 hours. The terminal head loss prior to backwashing is
averages 4 10 feet.
(a) If a loading rate of 3.5 gpm/ft2 is used, what are the filter dimensions if
the tank is square?
(b) How much water is required for backwashing and what percentage of
the filtered water does this represent?
SOLUTION:
Part (a)
gal
1 x 10 6
Flow
d
Filter Area
198 ft 2
Loading Rate
min
gal
3.5
1440
2
d
min ft
Length 198 ft 2 14 ft
Part (b)
min
2
Backwash Volume 10
198 ft
d
Percentage
2.97 x 10 4
2.6% 3%
1 x 10 6
15 mingal ft
gal
2.97 x 10 4
d
14 Simple Ion Exchange Blending
A municipal plant processes water with a total initial hardness of 220 mg/L.
The desired discharge hardness is 25 mg/L. If an ion exchange process is used,
what is the bypass factor?
See Section 2633, Page 2617.
1x, 0 mg/L
25 mg/L
Resin Bed
x, Bypass (220 mg/L)
SOLUTION:
Page 2618
x bypass fraction
1 x re sin bed fraction
Desired hardness 25 mg
Solve for " x"
x
25
11%
220
1 x 0 mg x 220 mg
l
l
15  Zeolite Softening Problem # 1
Raw water analysis
Ca(HCO3)2
MgSO4
CO2
160 mg/L as Ca CO3
70 mg/L as Ca CO3
0
The water is to be softened using a zeolite process (ion exchange) with the
following characteristics. The softener has an exchange capacity of 10,000
grains/ft3 and a salt requirement of 0.6 lbm per 1000 grains hardness removed.
How much salt is required to soften the water to 80 mg/L.
(a) 2500 lbm/MG
(b) 5200 lbm/MG
(c) 7200 lbm/MG
(d) 8200 lbm/MG
SOLUTION:
7000 grains per pound is an
arcane term but it can be found
in the front jacket of the
textbook.
There are 7000 grains in a pound. The hardness removed is
160
mg
mg
mg
mg
70
80
150
L
L
L
L
If we are working with the units of million gallons (MG),
lb
mg
MG
Hardness removed 150
hardness 8.34
1250 lbm hardness / MG
mg
L
Convert lbm of hardness to lbm of salt required
0.6 lbm Salt
lbm hardness
gr
1250
7000
Salt required
5250 lbm Salt / MG
MG water
lbm
1000 gr Hardness
The answer is (b).
16  Zeolite Softening Problem # 2
Raw water is to be reduced from 320 mg/L to 60 mg/L using a zeolite process.
The volumetric flow rate is 12,000 gal/day. The zeolite process has a resin
exchange capacity of 25,000 grains/ft3 and a zeolite volume of 2.5 ft3.
(1)
What fraction of the water is bypassed around the process?
(a) 0.20
(b) 0.25
(c) 0.30
(d) 0.40
(2)
Repeat of Problem #14 but
with more questions added.
Zeolite term used instead of
Resin.
What is the removal rate of hardness for the resin filter?
(a) 1.1 lb/hr
(b) 2.4 lb/hr
(c) 3.5 lb/hr
(d) 4.8 lb/hr
(3)
What is the time between regenerations of the softener?
(a) 8 hr
(b) 16 hr
(c) 24 hr
(d) 30 hr
SOLUTION:
Step (1): A bypass product is required.
mg
60
L
fraction bypassed
0.1875
mg
320
L
fraction processed
1 0.1875 0.8125
0 mg/L
320 mg/L
60 mg/L
Zeolite (81%)
Bypass (19%)
The answer is (a).
Step (2): The amount of hardness removed per vessel is
2.5 ft 25,000
3
Hardness reduction Re sin Volume * Exchange Capacity
Chemical Feed Rate
8.93 lbm
Percentage of water processed
lb
mg
MG
MG
0.8125 0.012
8.34
320
mg
day
L
Q * conc * conversion
hr
24
day
The answer is (a).
Step (3): Calculate Run Times
Hardness removed
8.93 lbm
lbm
Hardness removal rate
1.08
hr
The answer is (a).
gr
7000
lbm
lb MG
lbs
mg
Flow, MGD Dose,
8.34
day
l
mg l
The hardness removal rate is
Run time
gr
ft 3
1.08 lbm hr
Answer format is lbm/hr so
additional conversion required.
8.3 hr
17 Reverse Osmosis (Look this over outside of class)
A reverse osmosis (RO) system is required to treat a drinking water source that
is subject to saltwater intrusion. The water and RO have the following
characteristics:
Desired Fresh Water Flow
Permeate Recovery
Membrane Flux Rate
Membrane Packing Density
30,000 m3/d
75%
0.95 m3/m2d
800 m2/m3
Determine the membrane volume required to treat this water.
SOLUTION:
Step (1): Determine the required water flow with a permeate recovery fraction,
fp, equal to 77%.
QO
fP
m3
m3
day
40,000
day
0.75
30,000
Step (2): Determine the required surface area for membrane:
AM required membrane area
m3
G membrane flux rate, 0.95 2
m day
m3
Q
day
42,105 m 2
3
G
m
0.95 2
m day
40,000
AM
Just like all the previous design
examples:
Area x Loading rate = Flow
Other treatment mechanisms
solved this way are filters,
weirs, clarifiers, digesters,
ponds, and RBCs.
Step (3): Determine the membrane volume based on PM (membrane packing
density):
A
42,105 m 2
VM membrane volume M
52.6 m 3
2
PM
m
800 3
m
Non Quantitative
Problems
1 Algae
What is the primary threat from algae to water supplies?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
color
taste and odor
parasites
toxicity
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 263, Section 266. The answer is (b).
2 Hardness Calculations
What are the common units of hardness?
(a) meg L
(b) mg L as Ca 2
(c) mg L as CaCO3
(d) ppm
SOLUTION:
The answer is (c).
3 Settling Basin Zones (not in text)
What are the four functional zones that define a sedimentation basin?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
flocculent, quiescent, overflow, sludge
inlet, outlet, settling, sludge
inlet, outlet, settling, overflow
turbulent, quiescent, overflow, underdrain
SOLUTION:
The answer is (b).
4 Settling Basin Zones
What is a typical overflow rate for sedimentation basins?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2 10 m 3 m 2 d
10 25 m 3 m 2 d
25 50 m 3 m 2 d
50 80 m 3 m 2 d
SOLUTION:
Refer to the first sentence on the top of Page 266.
The answer is (c).
5 Filter Bed Parameters
The loading rate for granular media filters is determined by the flow rate
divided by what other parameter?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
filter bed volume
filter bed surface area
filter bed volume times media porosity
filter bed surface area times media porosity
SOLUTION:
See Page 2613, Section 24.
The answer is (b).
6 Filter Bed Stratification
In a multimedia filter, how does filter media remain stratified following
backwash?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The different media are separated by baffles to prevent mixing
Mixing occurs and the media is eventually replaced after many
backwash cycles
The media have different specific gravities and settle at different
rates
The media remain stratified because they mix only at the interface
layers
SOLUTION:
Refer to the AWWA Operator Manuals
The answer is (c).
7 Granular Media Sequence
What most completely describes the operating modes, in sequence, for
conventional granular media filtration?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
filtration and backwash
filtration, backwash, and conditioning
filtration, draining, backwash, and wasting
filtration, draining, backwash, wasting, and conditioning
SOLUTION:
Refer to the AWWA Operator Manuals
The filtration process occurs in (3) phases that are repeated continuously:
Filtration water flows downward through the filter media and
particles are retained
Backwash flow is reversed to expand the bed
Conditioning term used as the first flush of water is cycled through
the bed. This water is wasted or returned to the front of the plant.
The answer is (b).
8 Treatment Plant Sequence
What is the usual sequence of water treatment unit processes?
(a) flash mix, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination
(b) filtration, flash mix, flocculation, sedimentation, chlorination
(c) chlorination, filtration, flash mix, flocculation, sedimentation
(d) sedimentation, flocculation, filtration, chlorination, flash mix
SOLUTION:
Refer to Class Handouts
The answer is (a).
9 Jar Tests
What is the basic design parameter for flocculation basins?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
velocitytime gradient
mixing power
solids flux
hydraulic loading rate
SOLUTION:
The velocity time gradient is Gt.
The answer is (a).
10 Free Chlorine Disinfection
Which compound does not provide a free chlorine residual?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
CaOCl2
NH2Cl
NaOCl
HOCl
SOLUTION:
See Page 2620. Free chlorine exists in the form of HOCl and OCl.
The answer is (b).
11 Mixing Physics
The velocity gradient, G, is expressed usually in units of sec1. It relates power,
tank volume, and velocity. This equation is typically applied to what treatment
sequence?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
filtration
flash mixer
disinfection
filtration
SOLUTION:
See Page 269. The answer is (b).
12 Mixing Physics (2)
Typical values for the velocity gradient, G, for rapid mixers are usually in the
range of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5001000 sec1
15002000 sec1
20003000 sec1
100200 sec1
SOLUTION:
See Page 2611. The answer is (a).
CLOSED PIPE HYDRAULICS
August 2012
Instructor:
J.B. Jones, P.E., PhD.
jbjones@odu.edu
TABLE OF CONTENTS
#1 Continuity Equation
#2 Tank Discharge via Orifice
#3 Darcy Weisbach Head Loss
#4  Hazen Williams Head Loss
#5 Equivalent Length Method by Darcy Weisbach
#6 Equivalent Length Method with Elevation Change (Darcy Weisbach)
#7 Equivalent Length Method with Elevation Change (Hazen Williams)
#8 Pump Affinity Laws
#9 Pump Affinity Laws #2
#10  Multiple Stage Pumps
#11 Pump and System Curves
NonQuantitative Problems
#1 Bernoullis Equation
#2 Velocity Head
#3 Pipe Schedule
#4 Determining Friction Loss
#5 Moody Diagram
#6 Relative Roughness
#7 Pump Curves
#8 Water Network
#9 Water Network #2
#10 Hazen Williams Question
#11 Water Hammer
#12 Basic Flow
#13 Pump Speed Change
#14 Cavitation
CHAPTER TOPICS
Chapter 14: Fluid Properties
Chapter 15: Fluid Statics
Section 4: Fluid Height equivalent to Pressure
Section 13: Hydrostatic Forces on a Dam
Chapter 16: Fluid Flow Parameters
Fluid Energy Units
Bernoulli Equation
Pitot Tube
Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow
Energy Grade Line
Chapter 17: Fluid Dynamics
Conservation of Mass
Darcy Friction Minor Losses
Energy & Hydraulic Grade line with Friction
Discharge from Tanks
Series Pipe Systems
Venturi Meter
Orifice Meter
Water Hammer
Chapter 18: Hydraulic Machines
Centrifugal Pumps
Terminology
Pump Power
Cavitation
System Curves
Performance Curves
Affinity Laws
1 Continuity Equation
Water flows at 4 ft/sec in a 4in diameter pipe that is connected through a
reducer to a 3inch diameter pipe. What is the flow velocity in the 3inch
diameter pipe?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5 ft/sec
6 ft/sec
7 ft/sec
9 ft/sec
SOLUTION:
Because the specific information regarding the type of pipe is not given, assume
pipe diameters given are actual inside diameters.
A1, A2
crosssectional area of upstream
and downstream pipe
inside diameter of upstream
and downstream pipe
d1,d2
A1
d12
4 in 2
in2
in
12.56 in 2
4
4
2
d 2 3 in 2
A2
7.07 in 2
4
4
V1
V2
velocity in upstream pipe
velocity in downstream pipe
ft
12.56 in 4 sec
ft/sec
ft/sec
AV
V2 1 1
A2
The answer is (c).
7.07 in 2
7.1 ft / sec
Eqn. 17.2
2 Tank Discharge via Orifice (Not very typical)
A full cylindrical tank 60 feet high has a constant diameter of 20 feet. The tank
has a 4 in (100 mm) diameter hole in the bottom. The coefficient of discharge for
the hole is 0.95. How long will it take for the water level to drop from 60 feet to
30 feet ?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1000
700
1400
2100
sec
sec
sec
sec
SOLUTION:
2
4 in
2
12 in ft
d 0
A0
0.08727 ft 2
4
4
At
d t2
4
20 ft 2
4
314.16 ft 2
60 ft
20 ft
The time to drop from 60 feet to 30 feet is given by Equation 17.85.
Insert terms and original equation
2 At
z1 z 2
C d AO 2 g
2 315 ft 2 60 ft 30 ft
2130 sec
0.95 0.088 ft 2 2 32.2 ft sec 2
The answer is (d).
3 DarcyWeisbach Head Loss (Long but practical)
Water at 600F flows in a 3 inch diameter iron pipe (surface roughness, , is
0.00085) at a flow rate of 125 gallons per minute. Using the DarcyWeisbach
relation, the head loss in a 200 feet section of pipe will most nearly be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5 ft
11 ft
29 ft
43 ft
SOLUTION:
The DW equation gives a frictional head loss for fluid flow based on a friction
factor. Friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number and the relative
roughness of the pipe.
Step 1: Compute velocity, Re, and relative roughness
D 3 inches 1 ft 12 inches 0.25 ft
It might make sense to split this equation
into two parts because unit conversion can
be confusing. Gallons to cubic feet and
minutes to seconds.
Q 125 gpm 0.134 ft 3 gal 1 min 60 sec
A
0.25 ft 2
5.7 ft sec
Referring to Appendix 14.A on page A15, use a kinematic viscosity of water of
1.217 x 105 ft2/sec.
Re
D vel
0.25 ft 5.7
1.217 x 10
0.00085 ft
0.25 ft
0.0034
ft sec
1.2 x 10 5
ft 2 sec
Eqn. 16.23
Step 2: Calculate friction factor and head loss
DO NOT USE THIS FORMULA
f
friction factor
f
Eqn. 17.21
0.25
log
5
.
74
D
0.9
3.7 Re
0.25
5.74
log 0.0034
3.7 1.2 x 10 5
0.9
0.028
INSTEAD,
If you are given the pipe material but not the roughness, typical roughness
values can be found in Appendix 17.A and Table 17.2. It is easy to lose a zero
along the way.
Go to Appendix A17B on Page A33. Using the D values listed along the top
row, find the right Reynolds number range.
For this example, look on A35, select the D value of 0.0035. Interpolate
between the Reynolds number ranges to obtain a friction factor of 0.028 which
matches the value found with Eqn. 1721.
You will see that we can estimate the friction factor
quickly because the third decimal place will not change
the answer. Learn the rudiments of this table and it will
you save a lot of time.
Eqn. 17.28
hf
f L V 2
2Dg
The answer is (b).
0.028 200 ft 5.7
ft
sec
ft
2 0.25 ft 32.2
sec 2
11.3 ft
p2 V22
V12
Z1
Z 2 hL
2g
2g
p1
Head loss will be calculated either
through Hazen Williams or Darcy
Weisbach method.
1 ft3 of water weighs 62.4 lbs. Over a
surface area of 144 inches, that
equates to 0.43 psi/ft2 for every foot of
water column. Conversely, it takes
2.31 feet of water column to create 1
psi.
4 Hazen Williams Head Loss
Water at 600F flows in a 3 in diameter pipe (HazenWilliams coefficient, C, is 100)
at a flow rate of 125 gallons per minute. Using the DarcyWeisbach relation, the
head loss in a 200 feet section of pipe will most nearly be:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4 ft
28 ft
15 ft
46 ft
SOLUTION:
The HW equation gives a frictional head loss for turbulent flow independent of
the Reynolds number. It gives good results for liquids with a viscosity similar to
that of water at 600F.
Step 1: Compute velocity
D 3 inches 1 ft 12 inches 0.25 ft
Q 125 gpm 0.13368 ft 3 gal 1 min 60 sec
A
0.25 ft 2
5.7 ft sec
Step 2: Compute head loss
Pay attention to units.
3.022 v1.85 L 3.022 5.7 200
h f 1.85 1.17
15.3 ft
C D
1001.85 0.251.17
1.85
The answer is (c).
Eqn 17.30
5  Equivalent Length Method by Darcy Weisbach
Water travels through 300 feet of 2inch Schedule80 PVC pipe at a velocity of 5
ft/sec. The pipe includes 15 couplings, 8 900 regular elbows, 4 450 regular
elbows, 6 tees (straight flow), and 1 globe valves. Assume the equivalent length
for the fittings will be the same as screwed steel pipe (Appdx A17.D). The water
temperature is 600F. Using Darcy Weisbach, what is the total head loss in the
system from all sources?
(a) 72 ft
(b) 23 ft
(c) 95 ft
(d) 37 ft
SOLUTION:
For an equivalent length of threaded 2inch schedule 80 PVC fittings, the
following characteristics apply:
Refer to Page A31, Appendix 17.D,
Fitting
Quantity
coupling
900 ell
450 ell
Straight tee
Globe valve
15
8
4
6
1
Unit
Equivalent
Length (ft)
0.45
8.5
2.7
7.7
54
Total
Equivalent
Length (ft)
6.75
68
10.8
46.2
54
186
For friction head loss in the pipe (including equivalent length of fittings),
D
inside diameter for 2in Sch 80 Pipe
roughness coefficient for PVC pipe
D = 1.939 in
= 0.000005 ft
Re
V
Appendix 16.D
Table 17.2, page 174
0.000005 ft 12 in
1.939 in
ft
0.000031
Reynolds number
flow velocity
kinematic viscosity
It is not necessary to use the
true inside diameter. A nominal
value of 2 would suffice.
ft/sec
ft2/sec
= 1.217 x 105 ft/sec at 600 F
ft
DV
sec
6.6 x 10 4
Re
2
ft 12 in
1.217 x 10 5
sec ft
Eqn 16.23
Eqn. 17.20
1.939 in 5
friction factor
f
0.25
5.74
log D
0.9
3
.
7
Re
0.25
5.74
log 0.000031
3.7 6.6 x 10 4
(Alternative is to look at tables in A17.)
0.9
0.0197
Note that the friction factor could also be determined using a Moody diagram
with the same input values for using Reynolds number and relative roughness.
Refer to the Moody diagram on Page 176.
Estimating from Appdx 17.B
gives f = 0.02 which is close
enough.
Eqn. 17.28
hf
f L Le V 2
2Dg
The answer is (b).
0.02 300 186 ft 5 ft
sec
1 ft
ft
32.2
2 2 in
sec 2
12 in
23 ft
6  Equivalent Length Method with Elevation Change (Darcy Weisbach)
Water is pumped from a lower reservoir (Elevation = 25 feet) to an upland
reservoir (Elevation = 43 feet). The water travels through 300 feet of 2inch
Schedule80 PVC pipe at a velocity of 5 ft/sec. The pipe includes 15 couplings, 8
900 regular elbows, 4 450 regular elbows, 6 tees (straight flow), and 2 globe
valves. Assume the equivalent length for the fittings will be the same as screwed
steel pipe (Appdx A17.D). The water temperature is 600F. Using Darcy
Weisbach, what is the total head loss in the system from all sources?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
27 ft
85 ft
95 ft
41 ft
SOLUTION:
For an equivalent length of threaded 2inch schedule 80 PVC fittings, the
following characteristics apply:
Refer to Page A31, Appendix 17.D,
Fitting
Quantity
coupling
900 ell
450 ell
Straight tee
Globe valve
15
8
4
6
1
Unit
Equivalent
Length (ft)
0.45
8.5
2.7
7.7
54
Total
Equivalent
Length (ft)
6.75
68
10.8
46.2
54
186
I will skip the intermediate steps which are a repeat of the previous problem.
Eqn. 17.28
2
hf
f L Le V 2
2Dg
0.02 300 186 ft 5 ft
sec
1 ft
ft
32.2
2 2 in
sec 2
12 in
Estimating from Appdx 17.B
gives f = 0.02 which is close
enough.
23 ft
For total head loss,
h hZ h f
43 25 ft
23 ft 41 ft
Eqn 18.37
The answer is (d).
Elev = 43 feet
Elev = 25 feet
200 feet of 2 pipe
7  Equivalent Length Method with Elevation Change (Hazen Williams)
Water is pumped from a lower reservoir (Elevation = 25 feet) to an upland
reservoir (Elevation = 43 feet). The water travels through 300 feet of 2inch
Schedule80 PVC pipe at a velocity of 5 ft/sec. The pipe includes 15 couplings, 8
900 regular elbows, 4 450 regular elbows, 6 tees (straight flow), and 2 globe
valves. Assume the equivalent length for the fittings will be the same as screwed
steel pipe (Appdx A17.D). The water temperature is 600F. Using Hazen
Williams, what is the total head loss in the system from all sources?
(a) 43 ft
(b) 85 ft
(c) 22 ft
(d) 14 ft
SOLUTION:
3.022 v1.85 L 3.022 5 300 186
25 ft
C 1.85 D1.17
1401.85 0.167 1.17
1.85
hf
Where did C = 140 come from?
Look in Appendix 17.A.
For total head loss,
h hZ h f
Eqn 17.30
43 25 ft
25 ft 43 ft
Eqn 18.37
The answer is (a).
Elev = 43 feet
Elev = 25 feet
200 feet of 2 pipe
8 Pump Affinity Laws
A pump intended to run at 1750 rpm when driven by a 0.5 hp motor. What is the
required power rating of a motor that will turn the pump at 2000 rpm?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.25 hp
0.45 hp
0.65 hp
0.75 hp
Similarity (Section 1827) and Affinity
(Section 1826) equations are quick and
easy ways to solve pump problems even
if you are unfamiliar with pumps.
SOLUTION:
3 D5
P2 P1 2 23 25 P1
1 1 D1
The answer is (d).
2
2000 rpm
0.5 hp
1750 rpm
1
0.75 hp
Eqn 18.52
9 Pump Affinity Laws #2
A centrifugal pump operates at a speed of 1750 rpm and is rated at 850 gal/min
for 78% efficiency and 180 ft of head. For constant efficiency and head, what is
most nearly the flow rate if the pump is operated at 2200 rpm?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
530 gal/min
680 gal/min
830 gal/min
1100 gal/min
SOLUTION:
Refer to the affinity laws stated in Section 18.26, page 1818
Q2 n 2
Q1 n1
Q2
Q1 n2
n1
Eqn. 18.41
gal
2200 rpm
850
gal
min
1069
1750 rpm
min
The answer is (d).
10  Multiple Stage Pumps (Not very typical)
A submersible pump operated at 1750 rpm is needed to deliver 800 gal/min
from a 350 ft deep well. At 93% efficiency, the average specific speed of the
pump is 2300. How many stages are required for the pump?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1 stage
3 stages
6 stages
4 stages
SOLUTION:
This will be a variation of Eqn 18.28. This is not covered in the PE manual.
h
n
NS
Q
w
elevation head
number of stages
specific speed
pump discharge
rotating speed
NS
h
n
w Q
h
n
0.75
NS
nh
w Q
0.75
ft
gpm
rpm
Modification of Eqn. 18.28
w Q
NS
2300
350 ft
gal
1750 rpm 800 min
The answer is (c).
5.8 stages, say 6
11 Pump & System Curves
PART A:
A pumping station is lifting water from a smaller reservoir to another tank.
Water travels through 3000 feet of 4inch pipe. If the pipe is changed to 3inch
pipe, the friction loss will
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
not change, and the flow rate will remain the same
increase, and the flow rate will decrease
increase, and the flow rate will increase
decrease, and the flow rate will decrease
SOLUTION:
Refer to page 1818, Section 18.23:
For those unfamiliar with pumps, this can
be a little daunting to interpret pump and
system curves.
Pump Curve
4
TDH, ft
Discharge, gpm
Regardless of which method we use to calculate the friction losses in pipe (either
the DW or HQ method), smaller pipe will increase the energy losses.
Therefore, the friction loss will be greater in the 3inch pipe. Although the same
pump curve applies, the system curve is different. The zero flow head is the
same, but the curve is shifted upwards. This will shift the operating point
upward and to the left. The head added by the pump will increase; the flow rate
will decrease.
The answer is (b).
PART B:
Referring to the previous problem, the pump is designed to pump 250 gal/min
at 30 feet of head. What approximate hydraulic power does the pump develop?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1 hp
2 hp
3 hp
5 hp
SOLUTION:
Refer to Table 18.5, page 188:
WHP
hA Q SG
gal ft
3956
hp min
Take a moment to understand
how Table 18.5 is set up.
30 ft 250
gal
1.0
min
1.9 hp
gal ft
3956
hp min
The answer is (b).
PART C:
What is the brake horsepower if the pump efficiency is 70%?
BHP
WHP 1.9 hp
2.7 hp
0.70
nP
Non Quantitative
Problems
#1 Bernoullis Equation
What three parameters are included in the Bernoulli equation for an ideal fluid
flowing in a closed conduit?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Elevation, pressure, viscosity
Elevation, pressure, velocity
Elevation, velocity, viscosity
Friction, pressure, velocity
SOLUTION:
Refer to Eqn. 16.11 on Page 163.
The answer is (b).
#2 Velocity Head
For laminar flow in pipes, how does the kinetic energy change when the flow is
halved?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
It decreases by a factor of 2
It decreases by a factor of 4
There is no change since kinetic energy is a function of pressure, not
velocity
There is no change since kinetic energy is a function of elevation, not
velocity
SOLUTION:
Refer to Eqn. 16.11 on Page 163. Remember velocity = Q/A
The answer is (b).
#3 Pipe Schedule
As the schedule increases for common pipe, how do pipe diameters change?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The wall thickness does not change as the outside and inside diameters
get larger
The inside diameter does not change as the outside diameter gets
larger
The inside and outside diameters change depending on the pipe
material
The outside diameter remains constant requiring the inside diameter
to decrease
SOLUTION:
Refer to Appendix 16 a, b, and c.
The answer is (d).
#4 Determining Friction Loss
Which equation is not useful for determining friction head loss in a pressurized
pipe?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Hazen Williams
Darcy Weisbach
Vant HoffArrhenius
Chezy Manning
SOLUTION:
The vant Arrhenius is used to make temperature corrections to kinetic reaction
rate coefficients.
The answer is (c).
#5 Moody Diagram
If the Reynolds number and relative roughness are known, what information is
available from a Moody diagram?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Pipe friction head loss
pressure
Hazen Williams coefficient
Friction factor
SOLUTION:
Refer to Figure 17.4 on page 176.
The answer is (d).
#6 Relative Roughness
What parameters define relative roughness for a pipe?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Absolute roughness and Hazen Williams coefficient
Absolute roughness and pipe diameter
Friction factor and Hazen Williams coefficient
Friction factor and pipe diameter
SOLUTION:
Look at Moody Diagram on page 176.
Re lative roughness
The answer is (b).
#7 Pump Curves
What parameters are determined at the intersection of a pump curve and a
system curve?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Head and horsepower
Head and efficiency
Efficiency and flow rate
Head and flow rate
SOLUTION:
The intersection of the pump curve and system curve defines the head and flow
rate operating conditions.
The answer is (d).
#8 Water Network
Two pipes of equal length branch from a common pipe and terminate at a
common pipe. The pipe diameters are 6inches and 12 inches respectively.
Which statement is most correct?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The head loss in the smaller pipe is twice that of the larger pipe
The head loss in the smaller pipe is four times that of the larger pipe
The head loss in the smaller pipe is half that of the large pipe
The head loss in the smaller pipe is the same as that of the larger pipe
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 1731 on page 172.
The answer is (d).
#9 Water Network #2
In a pipe network, water can flow though multiple routes between nodes. Which
statement is most correct?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The inflow and outflow at a node does not have to be equal
The pressure drop between any two nodes, regardless of the flow path,
are equal
The pipe velocities between any two nodes, regardless of the flow
path, are equal
The pipe flow rates between any two nodes, regardless of the flow
path, are equal
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 1729 on page 1720.
The answer is (b).
#10 Hazen Williams Question
A best estimate for the HazenWilliams resistance coefficient for a new 10inch
diameter PVC pipe is most nearly:
(a) 110
(b) 140
(c) 100
(d) 80
Refer to fine print in Appendix A17 on Page A25.
The answer is (b).
#11 Water Hammer
What is not an effective strategy for reducing water hammer?
(a) unanchored pipe joints
(b) surge tanks
(c) slowly closing valves
(d) air chambers
Refer to Page 1738, first paragraph above Figure 17.42. The answer is (a).
#12 Basic Flow
Water flows in a horizontal pipe between points A and B. The pipe is a constant
diameter. Which statement is not true?
(a) A = B
(b) pA = pB
(c) vA = vB
(d) zA = zB
Density, velocity and elevation do not change per the problem statement.
The answer is (b). There will be energy lost due to the surface roughness of the
pipe.
#13 Pump Speed Change
When a speed of a given pump is increased, what is the effect on the pump
curve?
(a) upward shift but no change in shape
(b) downward shift but no change in shape
(c) upward shift and change in shape
(d) downward shift and change in shape
Refer to Page 1817, Figure 18.11. The answer is (c).
#14 Cavitation
During a pump cavitation event, what condition has likely occurred with respect
to the inlet and outlet pressures in the pump?
(a) absolute pressure at inlet is below the vapor pressure
(b) absolute pressure at the outlet is below the vapor pressure
(c) absolute pressure is equal on both sides
(d) absolute pressure at the inlet is less than the outlet
Refer to Page 1814, Section 16. The answer is (a).
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
September 2012
Instructor:
J.B. Jones, P.E., PhD.
jbjones@odu.edu
TABLE OF CONTENTS
#1 Rectangular Channel using Mannings Equation
#2 Rectangular Channel Depth of Flow by Trial & Error
#3 Head Loss in Trapezoidal Channel
#4 Circular Pipe General Calculations
#5 Trapezoidal Channel with Earthen Lining
#6 Cipoletti Weir
#7 Parshall Flume
#8 Hydraulic Jump Head Loss Calculation
#9 Hydraulic Jump Flow Calculation
#10 Hydraulic Jump over Spillway
#11 Culvert Flow Type Identification
#12
Sluice Gate
Non Quantitative Problems
#1 Weirs
#2 Wetted Perimeter
#3 Sewer Pipe Slopes
#4 Froude Number
#5 Hydraulic Radius
#6 Most Efficient Cross Section for a Rectangular Channel
#7 Most Efficient Cross Section for a Trapezoidal Channel
#8 Maximum Discharge in a Circular Pipe
#9 Hydraulic Radius Change
#10 Hydrostatic Forces
CHAPTER 19 TOPICS
Note: Chapter 17, Fluid Dynamics will not be covered explicitly.
Types of Flow Refer to Table 19.1
Flow Parameters
Manning equation  Normal Depths
Energy Relationships (Bernoullis Equation)
Weirs & Spillways
Parshall Flumes
Specific Energy Relationships
Alternate Depths & Critical Flow
Hydraulic Jumps
Culvert Flow Types (1 6)
1 Rectangular Channel using Mannings Equation
Water flows in an open rectangular channel that is 5 feet wide with a normal
water depth of 12 inches. The channel is concrete lined along its entire length
and has a constant slope of 0.2%. What is the flow rate of the water in the
channel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
10
20
15
5
ft3/sec
ft3/sec
ft3/sec
ft3/sec
SOLUTION:
Refer to Appendix 19.A, page A46: The Manning roughness coefficient for
concrete is 0.013.
Using Table 19.2, page 193,
bd
, where b = 5 ft and d = 1 ft
b 2d
bd
1.49
S
bd
n
b 2d
2
1.49
Q
AR 3
n
1.49 5
Q
5
0.013 7
The answer is (b).
0.002 20.5 ft 3 sec
Eqn. 19.13(b)
2 Rectangular Channel, Depth of Flow by Trial & Error
A natural channel in good condition flume with a rectangular cross section is 2 ft
wide. The flume carries 4 ft3/sec of water down a 1% slope. What is the depth
of flow?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.2 ft
0.6 ft
1.0 ft
1.6 ft
SOLUTION:
Refer to Appendix 19.A, page A46: The Manning roughness coefficient for is
0.025.
Using Table 19.2, page 193,
2d
d
2 2d
1 d
2
1.49
Q
AR 3
n
Eqn 19.13
d
ft 3
1.49
4
2 d
sec
0.025
d 1
0.01
d 52 3
0.33557
d 1
5
d 2
, By trial and error d 0.6 ft
0.0194
d 1
The answer is (b).
3 Head Loss in Trapezoidal Channel
What is the head loss per unit length in a smooth earthen trapezoidal channel
with a base width of 2 m, a water depth of 0.5 m, a flow velocity of 3.2 m/s and
1to1 side slopes?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.00065 m/m
0.0040 m/m
0.013 m/m
0.24 m/m
SOLUTION:
Page 193
For a unit length of smooth earthen channel, it is reasonable to assume that flow
is uniform and that all head loss is due to friction. With these assumptions, the
head loss is the product of the channel length and slope, with the slope
determined using the Manning equation.
b
d
RH
channel base width
water depth
hydraulic radius
angle from the horizontal
to the side wall
m
m
m
degree
For to 1to1 side slopes, the angle from the horizontal to the sidewall is 450.
bd sin d 2 cos 2 m 0.5 m sin 45 0 0.5 m cos 45 0
0.366 m
b sin 2d
2 m sin 45 0 20.5 m
2
RH
hf
L
n
V
friction head loss
channel length
Manning coefficient
water velocity
m/unit length
m
m/s
Use 1 m for the unit length of the channel. The Manning roughness coefficient
for a smooth earthen lining is 0.018. Refer to Appendix 19.A, page A46.
1 m 0.018 3.2 m
2 2
Ln v
s
hf
0.013 m / m length of channel
4
4
0.366 m 3
RH 3
2
The answer is (c).
Eqn. 19.30a
4 Circular Pipe
A 30 in diameter concrete pipe (n = 0.013) was installed on a 0.001 slope.
(a)
What is the original full flow capacity?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
6.5 ft3/sec
13.0 ft3/sec
8.8 ft3/sec
4.2 ft3/sec
SOLUTION:
Using Eqn 19.13,
2
1.49
Q
AR 3
n
1.49 30 in
Q0
0.013 4 12 in
ft
Eqn. 19.13(b)
30 in
12 in 4
ft
ft 3
0.001 13.0
sec
The answer is (b).
(b)
If PVC pipe were used, what would the increase in full flow capacity be?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
22%
33%
44%
55%
SOLUTION:
Q is inversely proportional to n,
n
QPVC QCONCRETE CONCRETE
n PVC
The answer is (c).
QCONCRETE
0.013
1.44 QCONCRETE
0.09
5 Trapezoidal Channel with Earthen Lining
Two reservoirs differ in elevation by 25 m and are connected by a 10 km long
earth lined channel with a constant slope. The channel bottom is 2 m wide with
a normal water depth of 1 m and the channel has a 3to1 horizontal to vertical
sides. What is the flow rate in the channel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5 m3/s
10 m3/s
13 m3/s
18 m3/s
SOLUTION:
side slope angle measured
from the horizontal
degrees
For 3to1 horizontalto vertical slope,
1
3
tan 1 18.4 0
A
b
d
crosssectional area of channel
base width
water depth
m2
m
m
Refer to Table 19.2, page 193
1m
d
1 m 5.0 m 2
d 2 m
A b
0
tan
tan 18.4
wetted perimeter
1m
d
8 .3 m
2 m 2
P b 2
0
sin
tan 18.4
S
L
z
S
n
Q
channel slope
change in distance
change in elevation
m/m
m
m
25 m
0.0025 m
m
m
10 km 1000
km
Manning roughness coefficient
flow rate
m3/s
For an earthlined channel, the Manning roughness coefficient is 0.018.
(Appendix 19.A, page A46)
1 53
A
n
Q 2
P 3
The answer is (b).
5
m
1
2
5 m 3 0.0025
m3
0.018
m
9
.
9
s
8.3 m 2 3
6 Cipoletti Weir
What is the flow rate through a 24inch Cipoletti weir when the water height
above the notch is 10 inches?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3.8 ft3/sec
4.1 ft3/sec
5.1 ft3/sec
12 ft3/sec
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 1913.
b
h
Q
weir length
head above notch
flow rate
ft
ft
ft3/sec
The discharge equation giving flow rate in ft3/sec for a Cipoletti weir when b
and h are given in feet is:
Q 3.367 b H
1 ft
1 ft
10 in
3.367 24 in
12
12
in
in
The answer is (c).
3
5.1 ft
sec
Eqn. 19.57 (b)
7 Parshall Flume
A Parshall flume has a throat width of 4 ft. The upstream head measured from
the throat floor is 24 in.
(a)
What is the flow rate?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
40 ft3/sec
50 ft3/sec
60 ft3/sec
65 ft3/sec
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 1919, page 1914:
n 1.522 b 0.026 1.522 4 ft
0.026
Q K b H an
The answer is (b).
24 in
4 4 ft
in
12
ft
1.578
Eqn. 19.63
1.578
47.8
ft 3
sec
Eqn. 19.64
8 Hydraulic Jump Head Loss Calculation
A hydraulic jump with a stilling pool is selected to dissipate energy over a
spillway prior to the water entering a natural river channel. The spillway is 2.5
meters wide and the hydraulic jump occurs when the water depth at the toe of
the spillway is 0.15 m for a flow of 3.0 m3/sec. What is most nearly the head
dissipated?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1.4 m
1.8 m
2.3 m
4.2 m
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 1922, Section 33
d1
Q
v1
w
upstream depth
water flow
upstream water velocity
channel width
m
m3/sec
m/s
m
m3
3 .0
Q
sec
v1
8m s
0.15 m 2.5 m
d1 w
d2
g
v2
downstream water depth
gravitational constant
downstream water velocity
d 2 0.5 d1
2 v12 d1
0.25 d12
g
m
9.81 m/s2
m/s
Eqn 19.91
d 2 0.5 0.15 m
2 8 m
s
0.15 m
m
9.81 2
s
0.25 0.15 m
1.4 m
The specific energy lost in the jump can be solved using Eqn 19.94.
d 2 d1 3
4 d1 d 2
The answer is (c).
1.4 m 0.15 m 3
4 0.15 m 1.4 m
2.3 m
9  Hydraulic Jump Flow Calculation
Water flowing in a rectangular channel 6 ft wide experiences a hydraulic jump.
The depth of flow upstream from the jump is 1 ft. The depth of flow
downstream of the jump is 3 ft. What quantity is flowing?
(a) 45 ft3/sec
(b) 54 ft3/sec
(c) 72 ft3/sec
(d) 83 ft3/sec
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 1922 for an illustration of conjugate depths.
g d2
d1 d 2
v12
2
d
1
ft
3 ft
sec 2
1 ft 3 ft 13.9 ft sec
2 1 ft
32.2
v1
Eqn. 19.94 (rectangular channels)
ft
ft 3
Q v A 13.9
ft
ft
6
1
83
sec
sec
The answer is (d).
10 Hydraulic Jump over Spillway
A hydraulic jump forms at the toe of the spillway. The water surface levels are
0.3 ft and 5 ft before and after the jump, respectively. The velocity before the
jump is 45 ft/sec. What is the energy loss in the jump?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
17 ftlbf/lbm
25 ftlbf/lbm
35 ftlbf/lbm
45 ftlbf/lbm
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 1923
d 2 d1
4 d1 d 2
The answer is (a).
5 ft 0.3 ft 3
4 0.3 ft 5 ft
17 ft
Eqn 19.95
11 Culvert Flow Type
A 30 in diameter concrete culvert is 300 ft long and laid at a slope of 0.005. The
culvert entrance is flush and square edged. The tailwater level at the outlet is
just at the crown of the barrel, and the headwater is 3.0 ft above the crown of the
culverts inlet. What type of flow is this?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Type 1
Type 2
Type 4
Type 6
SOLUTION:
Refer to Figure 19.25
Pipe Diameter D
42 in
2.5 ft
in
12
ft
h1 3 ft submergence 2.5 ft pipe diameter 300 ft 0.005 slope 7 ft
Determine the culvert flow type:
h1 z
7 ft 300 ft 0.005
2.2
D
2.5 ft
The tailwater submerges the culvert outlet, so this is a type6 flow.
The answer is (d).
12 Sluice Gate (not likely)
A radial gate is used to control flow into a waterway turnout and prevent erosion
of a section downstream channel. The gate is operated partially open. The
normal flow in the waterway channel is 40 ft3/sec with 3 feet of available head at
the gate. The gate discharge coefficient is 0.75. What is the required area of the
gate opening?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1.8
2.0
3.8
5.4
ft2
ft2
ft2
ft2
SOLUTION:
A0
Cd
g
h
Q
area of gate opening
gate discharge coefficient
gravitational acceleration
available head at the gate
discharge through the gate
ft2
32.2 ft2/sec
ft
ft3/sec
Because a partially open gate has the characteristics of a submerged orifice, the
following equation applies.
v0 C d
Q0 A0 C d
A0
Eqn.1770 (Page 1717) rearranges to,
2gh
2 g h , then solve for A0
Q
C d 2 gh
The answer is (c).
40
0.75
ft 3
sec
ft
2 32.2
3 ft
sec 2
3.8 ft 2
Non Quantitative
Problems
#1 Weirs
What weir types are best suited for measuring very small flows?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Cipoletti
proportional
rectangular
Vnotch
SOLUTION:
Note: I got this one wrong. I picked (d). I have looked on the web for a better
explanation. Anyway, I toss this one in with some hesitation.
The answer is (b).
#2 Wetted Perimeter
Water is flowing in a rectangular channel with a normal depth of 5 feet and a
base of 25 feet. What is most nearly the wetted perimeter of the channel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
31 feet
35 feet
39 feet
43 feet
SOLUTION:
The wetted perimeter is the length of the channel cross section that has water
contact. For a rectangular channel,
PW b 2d 25 ft 2 5 ft 35 ft
The answer is (b).
#3 Sewer Pipe Slopes (wording is confusing)
How is the recommended minimum slope influenced by sewer pipe diameter?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Pipe slope is determined by minimum scour velocities and is not
influenced by pipe diameter
Shallower slopes are used for larger diameter pipes because they are
more accessible for cleaning
Shallower slopes will maintain minimum scour velocities as pipe
diameters increase
Slopes must increase to maintain minimum scour velocities as sewer
diameters increase
SOLUTION:
For a specified scour velocity:
As diameter increases, the required slope decreases.
Using Eqn 19.12,
1.49 2 3
V
R
n
Eqn. 19.12(b)
Remember R = D/4 for circular pipe at full and half flow
The answer is (c).
#4 Froude Number
What is the relationship between Froude number and critical flow in a
rectangular channel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fr = 0 at critical flow
Fr is positive at critical flow
Fr is negative for critical flow
Fr = 1 at critical flow
SOLUTION:
See Section 1927, page 1918. Also refer to Figure 19.13 on page 1915.
The answer is (d).
#5 Hydraulic Radius
For a circular pipe, if the hydraulic radius flowing half full is 6 inches, what is the
hydraulic radius when the pipe flows full?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
12 inches
9 inches
3 inches
6 inches
SOLUTION:
The answer is (d).
#6 Most Efficient Cross Section for a Rectangular Channel
What proportion of depth to width gives the most hydraulically efficient section
for uniform flow in an open rectangular channel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
d = 0.67 w
d = 0.33 w
d = 0.25 w
d = 0.50 w
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 1912, page 199.
The answer is (d).
#7 Most Efficient Cross Section for a Trapezoidal Channel
What proportion of depth to hydraulic radius gives the most hydraulically
efficient section for uniform flow in an open trapezoidal channel?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
d=2R
d=3R
d = 3.5 R
d = 2.5 R
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 2012, page 199.
The answer is (a).
#8 Maximum Discharge in a Circular Pipe
A closed circular pipe is flowing partially full. At what depth, in terms of the
height of the pipe d, will maximum discharge occur?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.95 d
1.0 d
1.02 d
0.90 d
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 197, page 195.
The answer is (a).
#9 Hydraulic Radius Change
If the hydraulic radius increases, what is the effect on velocity?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
velocity increases
velocity decreases
velocity could increase or decrease
velocity remains the same
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 6, page 194.
The answer is (a).
#10 Hydrostatic Forces
On a rectangular vertical plane surface, how is hydrostatic force distributed?
(a) increases linearly with depth
(b) decreases linearly with depth
(c) even distribution with depth
(d) nonuniform distribution with depth
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 7, page 157.
The answer is (a).
HYDROLOGY
September 2012
Instructor:
J.B. Jones, P.E., PhD.
jbjones@odu.edu
TABLE OF CONTENTS
#1 Rainfall Data Averaging
#2 Normal Ratio Method
#3 Hydrology Short Answer
#4 Rainfall Intensity based on Return Period
#5 Calculation of Risk
#6 SCS Curve Number
#7  Detention Basin
#8 Peak Runoff with Different Land Uses
#9 Vegetative Cover SCS Determination
#10 Time of Concentration with Steel Formula
#11 Peak Runoff using Steel Formula
#12 Short Calculations for Hydrographs
NonQualitative Problems
#1 IDF Curves
#2 Detention Basin #1
#3 Detention Basin #2
#4 Detention Basin #3
CHAPTER 20 TOPICS
Hydrologic Cycle
Precipitation Data & Estimation Methods
Time of Concentration
Rainfall Intensity
Flood Prediction
Hydrographs
Unit Hydrographs
Synthetic Unit Hydrographs
NRCS
Espey
Rational Method for Peak Flow
NRCS Curve Numbers
Reservoir Sizing
1 Rainfall Data Averaging
When would it be appropriate to estimate missing rainfall data using a simple
average surrounding stations?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A simple average is never appropriate. The normalratio or
other similar weighted methods should be used.
It is always appropriate to estimate missing data using the
simple average.
It is only appropriate when precipitation measurements at the
surrounding stations are within 10% of each other.
It is only appropriate when the stations included in the average
are within a 25mile radius of one another.
SOLUTION:
Refer to Section 20.4, Paragraph 1 & 2:
Normally, missing rainfall data can be estimated using a simple average when
the precipitation measurements at surrounding stations are within 10% of each
other. When the precipitation shows differences greater than 10%, the normalratio or a similar weighted method should be used.
The answer is (c).
2 Normal Ratio Method (Read on your own)
Rainfall records for four precipitation stations are summarized in the table.
Stations B, C, and D are those located in closest proximity to Station A. What is
the estimated precipitation at Station C for 1991?
Annual
Precipitation
(in)
39
31
42
37
Station
A
B
C
D
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Annual precipitation for year indicated
(in)
1990
1991
1992
1993
44
34
36
40
37
28
30
30
43
39
40
37
32
35
36
31 inches
37 inches
40 inches
48 inches
SOLUTION:
Because the normal annual precipitation between Station C and the other three
stations varies by more than 10%, the normal ratio method should be used for
computing an estimate of the missing record.
N
P
normal annual precipitation
annual precipitation for year of interest
inches
inches
Subscripts A, B, C, and D refer to the stations. Refer to 1991 data points.
N
PC C
3
P
P 42 34 28 32
PA
37 inches
B D
N A N B N D 3 39 31 37
The answer is (b).
Eqn 20.3
3 Hydrology Short Answer (Read on your own)
In general, converting an area from natural grassland to acre lot single family
housing will have what effect on time of concentration and amount of runoff?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Decrease time of concentration and increase runoff
Decrease time of concentration and runoff
Increase time of concentration and decrease runoff
Increase time of concentration and runoff
Natural grassland in an undeveloped condition is less impervious than acre
lots. Therefore, runoff will increase. Due to the increase in impervious area, the
time of concentration will decrease.
The correct answer is (a).
4 Return Period Rainfall Intensity
The 25year return period rainfall frequency depthduration curves for a coastal
region is shown in the illustration. For a mean annual precipitation (PMA) of 27
inches, what is the rainfall intensity for a 2.5hour storm?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.40 in/hr
0.60 in/hr
1.5 in/hr
1.2 in/hr
SOLUTION:
d
t
rainfall depth
storm duration
in
hr
From the illustration, for mean annual precipitation of 27 inches and a storm
duration of 2.5 hours, the rainfall depth is about 1.5 inches.
i
rainfall intensity
in/hr
1.5 in
d
0.60 in hr
t
2.5 hr
The answer is (b).
5 Acceptable Risk
A manufacturing facility is willing to accept only 1% risk of flooding during its
50 yr design life. What is the annual probability that flooding will occur during
the facility design life?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.01%
0.02%
0.20 %
1%
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 206: Example 202 solves a similar problem for the probability of a
flood occurring within the useful life of a plant.
This example calculates the probability of a flood occurring during a years time
(i.e. annual probability).
n
PF
R
period of interest
annual probability of a flood event
acceptable risk of a flood event occurring
R 1% 0.01
PF 1 1 R n 1 1 0.01 50 0.00020
1
The answer is (b).
0.020%
yr
6 SCS Curve Number
Assume the SCS curve number for an area is 50 and that precipitation during a
24hour storm was 5 inches. The average depth of water (inches) running off the
area is most nearly:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.7 inches
1.2 inches
2.5 inches
3.1 inches
SOLUTION: Refer to Section 20.16
Q
CN
S
P
=
=
=
=
runoff (inches)
curve number
potential maximum retention of water by soil (inches)
accumulated rainfall (inches)
For CN = 50
1000
10
CN
Eqn 20.43, page 2017
Solving for S,
1000
10 10 inches
50
For S = 10 inches and P= 5.0 inches, the runoff depth is
2
P 0.2 S
Q
P 0.8 S
5.0 0.2 x 10
5.0 0.8 x 10
The correct answer is (a).
0.69 inches
Eqn 20.44
7 Detention Basin
A community requires developers to store the entire runoff of a 24 hour 10 yr
storm on site. The design rainfall at this location is 4 inches. A developer is
proposing a 100 acres subdivision on acre lots. What is most nearly the
required detention pond volume if the subdivision will be located on a parcel
with hydrologic soil group C?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
11 acft
17 acft
23 acft
26 acft
SOLUTION:
Using the NRCS method, a curve number, CN, is identified for each combination
of land use and soil type. The maximum water storage can be calculated using
the NRCS method
1000
10
CN
Eqn 20.43, page 2019
Referring to Table 20.4, the curve number is 80.
1000
10 2.5 in
80
Using the NRCS
P 0.2S 2
P 0.8S
4 0.22.52
4 0.82.5
2.0 inches
Eqn 20.44
Over the entire area of the development, the total volume of water to be stored is:
1 ft
17 ac ft
Q A 2.0 inches 100 acres
12 inches
The answer is (b).
8 Peak Runoff with Different Land Uses (a little long)
A 131acre drainage area has the following characteristics and 10year storm
frequencyintensityduration curve.
What is the peak runoff from the drainage area for the 30minute duration, 10year storm?
Land Use
Apartments
Landscaped open space (park)
Light industrial
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
24 acft/hr
26 acft/hr
72 acft/hr
310 acft/hr
Area (%)
30
25
45
SOLUTION:
Refer to Appendix 20.A on Page A54. I am assuming these values for the
illustration of this type of problem. You would be supplied more definitive
values for C.
Land Use
Apartments
open space (park)
Light industrial
C
0.50
0.10
0.50
Land area (ac)
39.3
32.75
58.95
land area for each use
(subscript j designates each land use)
C AVE
Area (%)
30
25
45
ac
runoff coefficient for each land use
C j Aj
Aj
0.50 39.3 ac 0.10 32.75 ac 0.50 58.95 ac
131 ac
i
storm intensity
in/hr
From the illustration, the storm intensity is 6 in/hr
Q
runoff
acft/hr
Equation 20.36 on Page 2014:
1 ft
in
26 ac ft hr
Q C AVE i A 0.40 6 131 ac
hr
12 in
The answer is (b).
0.40
9 Vegetative Cover SCS Determination
Assume all soils in a drainage basin are in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS)
hydrologic soil Group B. Also assume that the vegetative covers are in good
condition. The land use is parks and open space. The SCS Runoff Curve
Number (CN) for the entire area is most closely approximated by:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
43
54
61
81
SOLUTION:
Determine the SCS Runoff Curve Number for the entire area. For Soil Group B,
with good vegetative cover in urban, fully developed open space (parks, lawns),
the appropriate SCS Curve Number can be found on Page 2018.
CN = 61
The answer is (c).
10 Time of Concentration with Steel Formula
A rainfalldepthduration curve for a watershed is shown in the following
illustration. The values for the Steel formula constants K and b are 180 inmin/hr and 25 minutes. What is the time of concentration for the 2hr duration
50year storm?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
15 min
26 min
42 min
75 min
SOLUTION:
d
i
t
depth of rainfall
intensity
storm duration
cm
cm/hg
hr
From the illustration, for a 50year recurrence interval and 2 h duration storm,
the rainfall depth is 9 cm.
9 cm
d
4.5 cm hr
t
2h
For the Steel formula, refer to Equation 20.13 on page 205. However, units must
be in units of in/hr.
cm 1 in
1.8 in hr
i 4 .5
hr 2.54 cm
b
K
TC
constant
constant
time of concentration
min
inmin/hr
min
The Steel formula is
tC
K
tC b
K
b
i
The answer is (d).
Eqn. 2014
in min
hr
25 min 75 min
in
1 .8
hr
180
11 Peak Runoff using Steel Formula
A 300 acre drainage area has a suggested runoff coefficient of 0.75 and a time of
concentration of 45 minutes. The drainage area is in Steel region #3, and a 2 yr
storm is to be used for design purposes. What is the peak runoff?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
180 ft3/sec
380 ft3/sec
460 ft3/sec
530 ft3/sec
SOLUTION:
Use Table 20.2, page 206
K = 106
b = 17
K
tC b
106
1.71 in hr , pay attention to units
45 17
Eqn. 20.14
Using the Rational Equation
QCi A
Eqn 20.36
in
ft 3
Q P 0.75 1.71 300 acres 385
hr
sec
The answer is (b).
12 Short Calculations for Hydrographs (read on your own)
A 3hour storm over a 200km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 6 x 106 m3
with a peak discharge of 400 m3/sec.
1.
What is the total excess precipitation?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1.4 cm
2.5 cm
3.0 cm
4.0 cm
SOLUTION:
V AD PAVE
PAVE
AD
Eqn 20.21
6 x 10 6 m 3
m
200 km 2 1000 km
0.030 m 3.0 cm
The answer is (c).
2.
What is the unit hydrograph peak discharge?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
100 m3/scm
130 m3/scm
210 m3/scm
300 m3/scm
SOLUTION:
Refer to Page 208: A unit hydrograph discharge is the peak discharge divided
by the excess precipitation.
m3
400
3
Q
s 133 m
Q P
3.0 cm
P
s cm
(Refer to Ex. 203)
The answer is (b).
3. If a 3hour storm producing 5 cm of runoff is to be used to design a
culvert, what is the design flood hydrograph volume?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1 x 106 m3
2 x 106 m3
1 x 107 m3
2 x 107 m3
SOLUTION:
The design flood hydrograph volume for a 5 cm storm is determined by
multiplying the unit hydrograph volume by 5. For the unit hydrograph,
V HYDROGRAPH
V 6 x 10 6 m 3
m3
2 x 10 6
3.0 cm
P
cm
For the 5 cm storm,
3
6 m
5 cm 1 x 10 7 m 3
V 2 x 10
cm
The answer is (c).
Non Quantitative
Problems
1 IDF Curves (Read on your own)
How are rainfall intensity and duration and storm frequency related?
(a) Intensity decreases as frequency decreases for a constant duration
(b) Intensity increases as duration increases for constant frequency
(c) Less frequent storms have higher intensity for a constant duration
(d) More frequent storms have longer duration for a constant intensity
SOLUTION:
Refer to Figure 20.6, page 206
Rainfall and intensity are inversely related.
Less frequent storms have a longer return period and are characterized by higher
intensity and longer durations, but not usually both.
Therefore, less frequent storms have higher intensities for a constant duration.
The answer is (c).
2 Detention Basin #1
What method of sizing a storm water detention basin would be appropriate for a
small water shed of 20 acres and limited hydrologic data?
(a) Modified rational method
(b) Nonsequential drought method
(c) Routing method
(d) Stochastic simulation method
SOLUTION:
See Page 2020, Section 2018, 4th paragraph.
The answer is (a).
3 Detention Basin #2
Which of the following must be considered when designing a stormwater
detention basin?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Design stormrecurrence interval
Peak outflow from the basin
Storage volume of the basin
All of the above
SOLUTION:
See Page 2020
The design storm is chosen by assumption of risk, economics, and regulations.
Peak outflow depends on current and future downstream uses and channel
capacity.
Storage volume is the largest factor in terms of cost and liability.
The answer is (d).
4 Detention Basin #3
Which of the following, besides storage volume and outlet structure, should be
considered in the design of a stormwater detention pond?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Downstream impacts
Impact of extreme flood events on the structure
An effective sediment and erosion control plan
All of the above
SOLUTION:
The answer is (d).
Groundwater
September 2012
Instructor:
J.B. Jones, P.E., PhD.
jbjones@odu.edu
CHAPTER TOPICS
Chapter 21: Groundwater
Aquifers
Confined
Unconfined
Darcys Law
Transmissivity
Specific Yield
Well Drawdown
TABLE OF CONTENTS
#1 Confined Aquifer Multiple Parts
#2  Unconfined Aquifer Multiple Parts
#3 Groundwater Drawdown
#4 Solute Velocity
#5 Aquifer Storage
#6 Groundwater Well Clogging
#7 Groundwater Specific Yield
#8 Solute Velocity
1 Unconfined Aquifer Multiple Parts
Problem Statement
An aquifer consists of a homogeneous material 250 feet thick. The surface of
the water table in this aquifer is 100 feet below the ground surface. An 18inch
diameter well extends through the top 100 feet and then 150 feet below the
water table, for a total depth of 250 feet. The aquifer transmissivity is 6,000
gal/dayft. The wells radius of influence is 400 feet with a 10foot drawdown
at the well.
Ground Level
100 ft
Initial Water Level
10 ft
150 ft
R1 = 400 ft
Y2 =140 ft
R2 = 0.75 ft
Y1 =150 ft
Y is measured from the
bottom, not the top.
R2 is the distance from the
centerline of the well to the
well casing. It is always a
small term when compared
to R1.
1. What is the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer?
(a) 40 gal/dayft2
(b) 70 gal/dayft2
(c) 1300 gal/dayft2
(d) 800 mgal/dayft2
From Equation 21.13
gal
6,000
T
day ft
K
40 gal day ft 2
Y
150 feet
The answer is (a).
2. What steady discharge is possible?
(a) 0.09 ft3/sec
(b) 0.55 ft3/sec
(c) 0.90 ft3/sec
(d) 0.22 ft3/sec
The well casing radius is
18 in
r2 2 0.75 ft
in
12
ft
From Equation 21.25
K y12 y 22
r
ln 1
r2
Units, units, units..Gallons
needs to be converted to ft3 and
seconds must be converted to
days.
gal
ft 3
150 2 140 2 ft 2
0.134
40
2
gal
day ft
400 ft
sec
86,400
ln
day
0.75 ft
The answer is (a).
0.09 ft 3 sec
3. What is the drawdown 100 feet from the well?
(a) 5 ft
(b) 2 ft
(c) 13 ft
(d) 18 ft
Hint: Determine Y2 first
y1= 150 ft at r1
r1 = 400 ft
r2 = 100 ft
Q = 0.34 ft3/sec
Ground Level
100 ft
Initial Water Level
10 ft
R2 = 100 ft
R1 = 400 ft
150 ft
Y2
Y1 =150 ft
Rearranging Equation 21.25:
y 22 y12
r
Q ln 1
r2
150 ft 2
ft 3 400
0.09
ln
sec 100
gal
40
2
day ft
y 2 148 ft
The drawdown is 150 ft 148 feet = 2 ft
ft
sec
86,400
ft
day
ft 3
0.134
gal
Units, units, units..Gallons
needs to be converted to ft3 and
seconds must be converted to
days.
The answer is (b).
4.
Assuming a pump efficiency of 70%, what horsepower motor should be
selected to achieve the steady discharge to the ground level surface?
(a) 4 hp
(b) 1 hp
(c) 8 hp
(d) 12 hp
From Table 18.5 (Page 18.8), the hydraulic horsepower can be calculated:
ft 3
100 ft 10 ft 0.09 1
sec
h A V SG
1.1 hp
8.814
sec
8.814 4
0.70
ft hp
The answer is (b).
2 Confined Aquifer Multiple Parts
Original Problem Statement
An aquifer is overlain by a material of low permeability that is 200 feet thick.
The piezometric surface is 100 feet below the ground. An 18inch diameter well
extends through the top 150 feet and then an additional 100 feet into the water
table, for a total depth of 250 feet. The aquifer transmissivity is 6,000 gal/dayft. The wells radius of influence is 400 feet with a 10foot drawdown at the
well.
Ground Level
Rock
Rock
100 ft
50 ft
Initial Water Level
10 ft
R2 = 0.75 ft
100 ft
R1= 400 ft
Y2= 90 ft
In a confined aquifer, the water level in the
well can be higher than the actual aquifer layer.
However, when the pump is running, there will
be a cone of depression.
Y1= 100 ft
1.
The 18inch diameter well extends 250 feet below the ground surface to
the bottom of the aquifer. The aquifer transmissivity is 6,000 gal/dayft.
What is the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer?
(a) 25 gal/dayft2
(b) 60 gal/dayft2
(c) 100 gal/dayft2
(d) 200 gal/dayft2
The aquifer depth, Y, is 100 feet. Y is the thickness of the aquifer, not the
height of the water table or piezometric surface. See Page 213, Section 5.
From Equation 21.13
gal
day ft
60 gal day ft 2
100 feet
6,000
The answer is (b).
2.
What is steady discharge in the well if the radius of influence is 400 feet
with a 10 foot drawdown at the well?
(a) 0.09 ft3/sec
(b) 0.90 ft3/sec
(c) 0.60 ft3/sec
(d) 1.5 ft3/sec
y1= 100 ft at r1
r1 = 400 ft
The well casing radius is
18 in
r2 2 0.75 ft
in
12
ft
From Equation 21.27:
gal
100 ft 90 ft 100 ft
2 60
day ft 2
2 K y1 y 2 Y
r1
400 ft
ln
ln
0.75 ft
r2
=60,040 gpd
gal 1.5472 x10 6 ft 3 day
0.09 ft 3 sec
60,040
day
sec gal
The answer is (a).
3.
At what distance from the well is the drawdown equal to 5 ft?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
3 ft
17 ft
130 feet
450 feet
Solve for R2
Ground Level
Rock
Rock
100 ft
50 ft
Initial Water Level
5 ft
R2 = ?
100 ft
R1= 400 ft
Y2= 95 ft
Rearrange Equation 21.27 to find the drawdown distance, r 2.
Y 2 = 100 ft 5 ft = 95 ft
2 K y1 y 2 Y
r
ln 1
r2
r
Y
ln 1 2 K y1 y 2
Q
r2
gal
100 ft 95 ft 100 ft
2 60
day ft 2
r1
ln
3.139
gal
r2
60,040
day
Y1= 100 ft
r2
1
3.545
400 ft
17.3 feet
e 3.139
The answer is (b).
3  Groundwater Drawdown
An unconfined aquifer has a pumped well. The pumped well diameter is 6 in.,
and the aquifer thickness is 20 feet with a hydraulic conductivity of 8 ft/day.
The observation well is located 30 feet from the pumped well, and after 10 hr of
pumping at 25 gal/min shows a steadystate drawdown of 12 inches. What is
the radius of influence of the pumped well?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2.3 feet
31 feet
37 feet
53 feet
SOLUTION:
y1
y2
aquifer thickness
observation well drawdown
ft
ft
1 ft
19 ft
y 2 20 ft 12in
12 in
For an unconfined aquifer:
K
Q
r2
r1
hydraulic conductivity
pumping rate
distance from pumped well
to observation well
radius of influence
y12 y 2
Q K
r
ln 1
r2
ft/day
gpm
30 ft
ft
Eqn 21.25
ft 3
ft 3
min
gal
1440
4824
Q 25
0.134
gal
day
day
min
4824
ft
day
ft
20 ft 2 19 ft 2
day
r
ln 1
30 ft
If you look at Example 21.1 on
Page 216 in the text, you will
see K expressed as m/minute
and also as gal/dayft2.
r1 37 ft
The answer is (c).
Pump Well
Observation Well
Initial Water Level
20 feet
19 feet
30 feet
37 feet
4 Solute Velocity
In an environmental remediation site, groundwater monitoring wells are
located 3000 feet apart. Over this distance, there is a 4 feet drop in the
groundwater elevation. What is the approximate solute actual velocity for the
site if the hydraulic conductivity is 0.85 ft/day, the soil porosity is 0.40, and the
retardation factor is 1.90?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0.0056 ft/day
0.0015 ft/day
0.0021 ft/day
0.0029 ft/day
SOLUTION:
Note: Retardation is when a pollutant travels at a slower rate than the
groundwater (due to absorption). The surface solids of the porous media have
an imbalanced electrical charge, which is satisfied by the adsorption of a
charged ion.
i
groundwater gradient
L dis tan ce between groundwater contour lines of int erest
h elevation change over dis tan ce L
i
h
4 ft
0.0013
L
3000 ft
K hydraulic conductivity
ne effective porosity
r f retardation factor
ft / day
vS
ft / day
vS
solute velocity
Ki
ne r f
Eqn 21.6
ft
0.85
0.0013
day
0.0015 ft day
0.40 1.90
This equation is slightly modified from Eqn 21.18, PE Manual.
The answer is (b).
ft
ft
5 Aquifer Storage (not in text)
The extraction rate from an unconfined aquifer serving a large metropolitan
area exceeds the recharge rate as demonstrated by the static water tables
decline of 5 m over a 48month monitoring period. The aquifer characteristics
follow. Approximately how much water is lost from aquifer storage during the
monitoring period?
Aquifer horizontal surface area
Aquifer thickness
Average porosity
Hydraulic conductivity
Storativity
500 km2
40 m
0.45
0.50 cm/sec
0.23
(a) 2.1 x 106 m3
(b) 4.6 x 108 m3
(c) 9.7 x 108 m3
(d) 3.6 x 109 m3
SOLUTION:
The volume of water lost to storage is the product of the drained aquifer
volume and the aquifer storativity.
Aa
S
Vd
h
horizontal surface area of the aquifer
storativity
water volume lost from storage
change in water table elevation
m2
m3
m
1000 m
8
3
Vd h S Aa 4 m 0.23 500 km
4.6 x 10 m
km
The answer is (b).
6 Groundwater Well Clogging (not in text)
What constituents would commonly lead to well clogging?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Hardness and sulfur
Hardness and nitrogen
Hardness, nitrogen, and sulfur
Hardness and ironfixing bacteria
SOLUTION:
Carbonate hardness can precipitate out on the screen, and ironfixing bacteria
can form slime at the well screen.
The answer is (d).
7 Groundwater Specific Yield
What effect does permeability have on specific yield?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Increase permeability, increase yield
Increase permeability, decrease yield
No relation
Decreasing permeability may or may not increase yield
SOLUTION:
Section 216 on page 213:
Specific yield is the water yielded when waterbearing material drains by
gravity. Higher permeability soils allow water to drain more freely, so the
specific yield will increase.
The answer is (a).
8 Solute Velocity
How does sorption influence solute movement through a soil?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The soil captures solute which slows the solute velocity
The soil causes the solute to mix with the groundwater
No relation
It has a dilution effect
SOLUTION:
Sorption means that the solute is attracted and trapped on the surface of the soil
particle. In groundwater systems, this is called retardation and will slow the
solute velocity.
The answer is (a).