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Department of Mechanical,

Kulliyyah of Engineering,
International Islamic University, Malaysia

FLUID MECHANICS
LABORATORY
GUIDELINES
MEC 2600/MEC 2700

2nd Edition (December 2006)


Syed Noh Syed Abu Bakar Al-Saggof

Mechanical Department

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEMS

PAGES

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Laboratory & Reports: An Overview

Guidelines for Preliminary Report Writing

Guidelines for Final Report Writing

Experiment # 1: FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT

Experiment # 2: FRICTION LOSSES

11

Experiment # 3: IMPACT OF JET


14
Experiment # 4: REYNOLDS OSBORNE EXPERIMENT
16
Experiment # 5: FAN TEST

18

Experiment # 6: PUMPS IN SERIES & PARALLEL


20
References

22

Appendices
Appendix A: Reports Title Page
23
Appendix B: Specification for Flow Meter Apparatus
24
Appendix C: Formula to Calculate Cross Sectional Area, Hydraulic Diameter
and Height from Datum Line for Rectangular Throat
25
Appendix D: Specification for Friction Losses Apparatus
26

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==========================

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 2

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 3

LABORATORY & REPORTS: AN OVERVIEW


All experiments in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory require a preliminary laboratory report
and a final laboratory report, unless it is stated otherwise. The reports should be simple and
clearly written by your own word (NOT COPY FROM BOOKS). Preliminary reports are
due on the experiment is perform (MUST BE SUBMITTED WITHIN THE FIRST 1 HOUR
30 MINUTES), unless it is stated otherwise. Final reports should be submitted a week after
the experiments day, unless it is stated otherwise. Any late submission will not be
entertained, unless there are concrete and unavoidable reasons.
The reports should be in hand writing and any graphs needed should be drawn in an
appropriate graph paper. No computer use is allowed, unless it is stated otherwise.
The reports should be submitted at the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory before the experiment
starts. The reports will not be returned to the students. Any students want to check their report,
can do so with the instructor at his office.
Each experiment write-up contains a number of questions. These are to be answered in your
Introduction or Theory or Discussion section or it might appear in all three sections (Introduction,
Theory and Discussion). Particularly the question about relation the answers of the questions and
objectives should be included only in Introduction section. Any unanswered question might
result a deduction of marks in your reports.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 4

GUIDELINES FOR PRELIMINARY REPORT WRITING


All experiments in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory require a preliminary laboratory report
unless specified otherwise. The report should be written in such a way that anyone can understand
and convinced with what the experimenter will do in the experiments. The following formats are
proposed as a guide. The students may add or delete sections as needed for each specific
experiment in order to obtain a logical, self-contained document.
Title page
Specify the experiments number and its title. Include names of all experimenters, experimenters
matric numbers, experimenters programme (Aerospace or Automotive), date of submission, and
dates when experiments were carried out. At top of this page must bear the subtitle: "Preliminary
Laboratory Report". Refer to Appendix A for the example of this title page.
This page should be typed in computer and printed.
Table of Contents
Lists each major section and subsection and their page numbers. You may refer this lab manual
Table of Contents as a format reference.
Objectives
The objectives are a clear concise statement explaining the purpose of the experiment. This is one
of the most important parts of the laboratory report because everything included in the report
must somehow relate to the stated object. The objectives can be as short as one sentence and it is
usually written in the past tense.
However, for this course you just have to copy from lab manual and rewrite it in your reports.
Introduction
Indicate what the overall plan of the experiment is: what will be done and how, which variables
will be manipulated and measured. Clearly indicate what the reader should expect to find in each
of the subsequent sections. THIS SECTION SHOULD NOT CONTAIN ANY EQUATIONS,
FIGURES, AND GRAPHS AND SHOULD NOT EXCEED ONE PAGE.
Theory
Describe the applicable equations and their assumptions. Establish that these assumptions are
reasonable for this experiment. Do not derive any fluid mechanics basic or fundamental equations
that can be found in a standard textbook; simply state the equation with a reference to the source
(E.g. Bernoulli Equation). Do not include theoretical discussions or equations that are not
relevant to the experiment. All symbols must be defined. Do not include unnecessary symbols or
variables. Clearly indicate which equations, and in what order, will be invoked to design the
experiment, interpret the results, and achieve the objectives. Refer the reader to the Appendix for
all auxiliary information.
This section should be written in your own words. If quotation is included in the reports, use
quotation marks ( ) to the quoted sentence or paragraph. THIS SECTION SHOULD NOT
EXCEED FOUR PAGES.
References
List all the literature sources that are cited in the report. You may refer this lab manual References
for format reference.
References:
[1] Syed Noh, Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual, pp.10 - 11, IIUM Press, 2006

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 5

GUIDELINES FOR FINAL REPORT WRITING


All final reports in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory require a final laboratory report unless
specified otherwise. The report should be written in such a way that anyone can duplicate the
performed experiment and find the same results as the originator. The reports should be simple
and clearly written.
The report should communicate several ideas to the reader. First, the report should be neatly
done. The experimenter is in effect trying to convince the reader that the experiment was
performed in a straightforward manner with great care and with full attention to detail. A poorly
written report might instead lead the reader to think that just as little care went into performing
the experiment. Second, the report should be well organized. The reader should be able to easily
follow each step discussed in the text. Third, the report should contain accurate results. This will
require checking and rechecking the calculations until accuracy can be guaranteed. Fourth, the
report should be free of spelling and grammatical errors.
The following format is to be used for formal Laboratory Reports:
Title page
Specify the experiments number and its title. Include names of all experimenters, experimenters
matric numbers, experimenters programme (Aerospace or Automotive), laboratory section, date
of submission, and dates when experiments were carried out. At top of this page must bear the
subtitle: "Final Laboratory Report". Refer to Appendix A for the example of this title page.
This page should be typed in computer and printed.
Table of Contents
Lists each major section and subsection and their page numbers. You may refer this lab manual
Table of Contents as a format reference.
This page could be typed in computer and printed.
Objectives
The objectives are a clear concise statement explaining the purpose of the experiment. The
objectives serve as a guide to the results. This is one of the most important parts of the laboratory
report because everything included in the report must somehow relate to the stated objectives.
The objectives can be as short as one sentence and it is usually written in the past tense. Do not
exceed one page.
However, for this course you just have to copy from lab manual and rewrite it in your reports.
Abstract/Introduction
Summarize the important results. The abstract must be self-contained: do not refer to figures and
tables located in other sections of the report. Do not include tables, figures, and equations, unless
absolutely necessary. Do not assume that the reader will unambiguously identify undefined
symbols. Be precise and succinct. Do not exceed one page. The Abstract should be written with
great care because it is a most important part of the Final Report and will have a very large
impact on the grade assigned to the work.
Procedure
The procedure section should contain a schematic drawing of the experimental setup including all
equipment used in a parts list with manufacturer serial numbers, if any. Show the function of each
part when necessary for clarity. Outline exactly step-by-step how the experiment was performed
as there is someone desires to duplicate it. If it cannot be duplicated, the experiment shows
nothing.
Results
Include all tables and graphs that document your final results. Include all relevant information so

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 6

that you can later refer to these figures in the Discussion section to support your conclusions. If
possible, present the results in the same order that you listed the objectives. Do not discuss the
significance of the results. Include only final results that satisfy the objectives of the experiment;
lengthier tables and intermediate figures should be included in the Appendix. Introduce the reader
to each figure and table with a brief paragraph indicating what variables are plotted or tabulated.
Each figure and table must have a unique number and a title or caption.
Sample Calculations
Give one example of each calculation that leads to a result reported in the document. Include one
calculation for each figure or table reported in the Results section. Introduce each calculation with
a brief paragraph indicating to the reader which specific point in a figure or entry in a table is
being calculated. These calculations are samples only and must be annotated. Extensive
calculations should be included in the Appendix; the Sample Calculations section can then
include appropriate references to the Appendix.
Discussion
This section should give an interpretation of the results explaining how the object (The
Objectives) of the experiment was accomplished. If any analytical expression is to be verified,
calculate % error and account for the sources. (% error An analysis expressing how favorably
the empirical data approximate theoretical information. There are many ways to find % error, but
one method is introduced here for consistency. Take the difference between the empirical and
theoretical results and divide by the theoretical result. Multiplying by 100% gives the % error.
You may compose your own error analysis as long as your method is clearly defined.) Discuss
this experiment with respect to its faults as well as its strong points. Suggest extensions of the
experiment and improvements. Also recommend any changes necessary to better accomplish the
objectives. Use the available theory to explain why the relevant variables behaved in the observed
fashion.
(Each experiment write-up contains a number of questions. Some of these are to be answered or
discussed in the Discussion and Conclusions section.)
Conclusion
Conclude and summarize the discussion. Should not contain any discussion on theory. Do not
exceed HALF PAGE.
References
List all the literature sources that are cited in the report. You may refer this lab manual References
for format reference.
References:
[2] Syed Noh, Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual, pp.10 - 11, IIUM Press, 2006
Appendix
(1) Original data sheet. This original data sheet should approved by instructor(s) during
experiment day.
(2) Calibration curves of instruments which were used in the performance of the experiment.
Include manufacturer of the instrument, model and serial numbers. Calibration curves will
usually be supplied by the instructor.

Graphs
In engineering laboratory reports, one of the methods to represent the results is graph. The graph
sometimes summarized the results. An acceptable graph has several features. Some of the
important features are as following.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 7

Axis labels defined with symbols and units.


Each line is identified using a legend.
Data points are identified with a symbol: x on the Q ac line to denote data points
obtained by experiment.
Data points are identified with a symbol: o on the Q ac line to denote data points
obtained by theoretical.
Nothing is drawn freehand.
Should have number and title; e.g. Fig. E1.1 Volumetric flow rate, Q vs. head drop, h.
Title is descriptive, rather than something like Q vs h
For non-computer generated graph, a graph paper must be used.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 8

EXPERIMENT # 1
FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are:
1. To show the measurement of flow rate
2. To show the application of Bernoulli equation in flow rate measurement
3. To show effect of minor losses and its modification in flow rate measurement
4. To demonstrate piezometer as a method to measure pressure
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able:
1. To determine flow rate by using orifice meter, Venturi meter and rotameter
2. To explain how to calculate ideal flow rate by using Bernoulli equation
3. To determine the correction factor for by using an elbow and a sudden expansion
4. To measure pressure by using piezometer
THEORY/BACKGROUND
{More in textbook [1] section 5-4 and 8-8}
There are various ways of measuring volumetric flow rate. Some flow meters measure the flow
rate directly by discharging and recharging a measuring chamber of known volume continuously
and keeping track of the number of discharges per unit time. However, most flow meters measure
the flow rate indirectly they measure the average velocity V or a quantity related to average
velocity such as pressure and drag, and determine volume flow rate, Q from Q = AV, where A is
cross sectional area of flow.
Obstruction Flow Meters: Venturi Meter and Orifice Meter
One way to measure flow rate is to put obstruction in a pipe flow such as a throat (Venturi Meter)
and simple obstruction that reduced the cross sectional area (Orifice Meter).
Theoretical ideas behind these flow meters are the conservation of mass and the Bernoulli
equation. From conservation of mass we know that reduce of cross sectional area will contribute
to an increase of velocity. Thus, from Bernoulli equation, this will lead to a decrease of static
pressure. These kinds of flow meters did not measure the flow rate or velocity directly but it
measures the drop of static pressure. Then the velocity can be calculated from Bernoulli equation
and conservation of mass.
The same idea can be applied for sudden expansion and elbow meter.

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Rotameter
Rotameter is also known as variable-area flow meter or float meter. A rotameter consists of a
vertical tapered conical transparent tube made of glass or plastic with a float inside that is free to
move. As fluid flows through tapered tube, the float rises within the tube to a location where the
float weight, drag force and buoyancy force are balance each other and the net force acting on the
float is zero. The flow rate is determined by simply matching the position of the float against the
graduated flow scale outside the tapered transparent tube.
Coefficient of Discharge
For rotameter the flow rate can be read directly from scale at tapered tube. However, for
obstruction flow meter, we need to consider a loss due to viscous (frictional) effects. As we know
the Bernoulli equation did not include the viscous effects. The for, any calculation that calculated
from the conservation of mass and Bernoulli equation is an ideal volumetric flow rate, not an
actual one. Thus, to determine an actual volumetric flow rate a correction factor need to be
introduced to the ideal flow rate equation. This correction factor is called as coefficient of
discharge. The coefficient of discharge can be defined as the ratio of actual flow rate to the ideal
flow rate.
Loss coefficient
Due to viscous effects, there are losses at the obstruction. The losses at the obstruction can be
considered as minor losses. If the pressure drop and average velocity is known, then the loss
coefficient can be determined since the pressure drop is proportional to velocity.
This experiment is to demonstrate flow rate measurements.
For every reading for orifice meter, Venturi meter, elbow and sudden expansion read the reading
of rotameter.
For Orifice meter, Venturi meter, sudden expansion and sudden contraction:
1. Measure pressure drop (in term of head) as a function of valve opening.
2. Determine theoretical flow rate and actual flow rate.
3. Determine Reynolds number
4. Determine coefficient of discharge
5. Prepare the following graph
a. On the same set of axes, plot actual volume flow rate vs. pressure head drop and
theoretical flow rate vs. pressure head drop with flow rate on the vertical axis for
obstruction flow meter
b. Plot actual volumetric flow rate vs. ideal flow rate for rotameter
For 90 elbow:
1. Determine the loss coefficient by plotting graph pressure head drop vs. V2/2g (where V is
average velocity and g is gravitational acceleration)
** Refer Appendix B for specification of Venturi, Orifice, Elbow, sudden expansion and sudden
contraction

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EQUIPMENT:
Hydraulic Bench
Flow Meter Apparatus
QUESTIONS
1. What is the principle behind the obstruction flow meter?
2. How to measure theoretical flow rate from obstruction flow meter?
3. Derive theoretical flow rate equation for obstruction flow meter.
4. Explain what is the coefficient of discharge, Cd?
5. How we can calculate the coefficient of discharge experimentally?
6. Explain what the function of piezometer is and how to use it. Illustrate the piezometer.
7. What is loss coefficient?
8. How to determine loss coefficient for sudden enlargement and 90 elbow experimentally?
9. Explain how rotameter works.
10. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 11

EXPERIMENT #2
FRICTION LOSSES
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are:
1. To modify Bernoulli equation
2. To show one of the restriction in application of Bernoulli equation
3. To investigate pressure loss due to friction
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able:
1. To apply energy equation (integral form) to estimate the friction losses in a given pipeline
situation
2. To determine friction losses and pressure drop due to friction
THEORY/BACKGROUND
Bernoulli equation may be the most used and abused in fluid mechanics. Therefore, it is
important to know the restriction of the Bernoulli equation. This experiment is meant to show one
of the Bernoulli equation restrictions, which is the effect of viscosity. Viscosity, the tendency of a
fluid to stick to another fluid or any boundary, is one of the fluid properties. Viscous effect only
can be neglect when the viscous force is small compared to other force such as an inertia force.
Friction effect is due to this property (viscosity). If viscous effect is not negligible, then the
frictional effect also not negligible. The first part of this experiment is to show about this effect
and to modify the Bernoulli equation so that it can be use in a viscous flow.
One of the most important properties in pipe design as well as pump selection for pipe network is
the pressure drop. Pressure drop occurs because of the friction occur at the wall of the pipe as
well as because of elbows, bends and fittings that exist in a piping system. The study of pressure
drop is the purpose of the second part of the experiment.
First Part: Modification of Bernoulli Equation
{More in textbook [1] section 5-4 and 5-7}
There is several ways to derived Bernoulli equation. One of it is by using First Law of
Thermodynamics or also known in Fluid Mechanics as Energy equation. By applying an
appropriate assumptions and considerations to Energy equation, we will obtain the Bernoulli
equation. Thus, in other word we can say that the Bernoulli equation is also a statement of energy
that fluid carries.
The work done on a particle by all forces acting on the particle is equal to the change of the
kinetic energy of the particle is what the Bernoulli equation express in mathematical terms.
For flow in a close conduit, the Bernoulli equation says that the energy should equal to a constant
at any point in the length of the conduit.
This experiment is to check this statement and modify the statement if it is incorrect. For that
purpose, draw Hydraulic Grade Line and Energy Grade Line. Determine whether there are effects
of the Reynolds number or the volumetric flow rate to HGL and EGL.
** Refer Appendix C to get equation for cross section area and other related
equation/information.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 12

EQUIPMENT:
Hydraulic Bench
Bernoulli Experiments Apparatus
Second Part: Friction Losses in Straight Pipes, Bends and Elbows
{More in textbook [1] section 5-6 until 5-7, 8-4, and 8-6}
A pipe system usually consists of straight pipes, bends, elbows, valve and fittings. The existent of
these parts will contribute to a loss (due to friction). A loss will lead to a pressure drop. In pump
selections, there are needs to know about the pressure drop.
A loss in overall piping system is called major loss while loss in bends, elbows, valve and fitting
is called as minor loss.
This experiment is to study about the friction losses in straight pipes, bends and elbows.
For all studies, measure the losses as a function of volumetric flow rate.
For losses in straight pipes (7mm and 10mm diameter pipe),
1. Calculate the friction factor from Darcy-Weisbach Equation
2. Graph the friction factor as a function of Reynolds number, drawn in log-log grid.
3. Compare to Moody diagram
For losses in pipe consist of bends or elbows:
1. Determine the equivalent length (Use Table E1.1)
2. Determine friction factor (Use modified Bernoulli equation in term of head where head
loss consist of loss from straight and bends or elbows are considered)
3. Determine loss coefficient (Weisbach equation)
4. Compare the loss coefficient that have been determined with loss coefficient calculated
from Table E1.1
5. Determine if the loss coefficient varies with flow rate or Reynolds number.
The surface roughness is 0.0015 mm.
Bends
R/D

Elbows
Le

30D

10

20D

12D

14D

17D

24D

30D

Kb
30f
20f
12f
14f
17f
24f
30f
R is radius of bend; D is diameter of pipe; f is friction factor; Le is equivalent length; Kb is loss coefficient
Table E1.1

**Refer Appendix D for information about specification of the bends and elbows apparatus.
EQUIPMENT:
Hydraulic Bench
10 mm diameter straight pipe
7 mm diameter straight pipe
Inlet and Outlet head
Pipe with 4 bends
Pipe with 4 elbows
QUESTIONS
Part I
1. Derive Bernoulli Equation from the First Law of Thermodynamics. During the

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 13

derivation, state all assumption and consideration clearly.


2. What are the Hydraulic Grade Line and Energy Grade Line? How the two lines relates to
each other? How the two lines relates with Bernoulli Equation?
3. What is the restriction of Bernoulli Equation?
4. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the objectives.
Part II
1. Derive Extended Bernoulli Equation and Modified Bernoulli Equation from the First Law
of Thermodynamics. What are the different between the two equations?
2. What are major losses, minor losses and head loss?
3. What is the equation to determine head loss for straight pipe?
4. For a system with a constant diameter of straight pipe and not involving any pump work,
how can we determine the head loss?
5. What is the friction factor? How we can determine it experimentally? How it change with
Reynolds Number?
6. What is Moody Diagram? What we can obtain from it?
7. What is equation to determine head loss for minor losses?
8. For a system with one bend and not involving any pump work, how we can determine the
head loss for the bend?
9. What is loss coefficient? What is equivalent length? How the two relates?
10. For a system (in a horizontal plane) consist of 2 similar elbows and 3 straight pipes with a
constant diameter and having same length as shown in the Fig. Q9.

Elbow with
length Le

equivalent

Elbow with
length Le

equivalent

Fig. Q9
Explain how we can determine the head loss for the system and show that we can
determine the friction factor for the system if we apply the Modified Bernoulli Equation
to the system
11. How we can determine pressure drop from the head loss?
12. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 14

EXPERIMENT # 3
IMPACT OF JET
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment is to compare the momentum in fluid jet with force generated
when it strikes a flat plate, a 120 plate, a conical object and a hemispherical cup
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able:
1. To explain conservation of linear momentum
2. To apply conservation of linear momentum to estimate force exerted by an object from a
fluid jet
THEORY/BACKGROUND
{More in textbook [1] section 6-1 until 6-4}
A jet is a stream issuing from an orifice, nozzle or tube. It is not enclosed by solid boundary walls
but is surrounded by a fluid whose velocity is less than its own. The two fluids may be different
or they may be of the same kind.
From conservation of linear momentum, we know that if a jet of fluid striking an object, will
exerts a force on that object. Theoretically, the force can be estimated from conservation of linear
momentum in integral form (to get an average value) or in differential form (i.e. Eulers equation
or Navier Stokes equation). Experimentally, the force can be determined if we connect the object
to a spring balance or scale.
For this experiment,
1. Determine (For two size of nozzle)
a. Volumetric flow rate
b. Velocity of jet
c. Theoretical and actual resultant force generated when jet strikes a flat plate, a
120 plate, a conical object and a hemispherical cup the theoretically resultant
force is found by use of an equation derived by applying conservation of linear
momentum to a control volume about the plate/object
2. Plot, on the same set of axes, graph of actual force vs. volumetric flow rate and
theoretical force vs. volumetric flow rate with volumetric flow rate on the horizontal axis.
EQUIPMENTS:
Hydraulic Bench
Impact of Jet Apparatus

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PRECAUTIONS ON HANDLING EQUIPMENT


1. Make sure the control valve is close completely every time before the pump is switch on.
This is to avoid intrusion of air into the pump. Entrapped air can reduced the force
exerted by the jet thus reducing it efficiency.
2. Reading on PU tube should be on the water meniscus to avoid parallax error.
3. When measuring the flow rate, volume difference should be taken at least 10 liters for a
more accurate reading. For high flow rate, start measuring only when the water at the
measuring tank reaches the second level of the compartment. This is to ensure a steady
increment of water level in the PU tube.
4. It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The apparatus
should be stored properly to prevent damage.
5. The apparatus should not be exposed to any shock and stresses.
6. Always run the experiment after fully understands the unit and procedures.
QUESTIONS
1. By using Reynolds Transport Theorem, derive Conservation of Linear Momentum from
Newton 2nd Law.
2. Explain the physical meaning of each term in the Conservation of Linear Momentum.
3. What is control volume and control surface?
4. Derive the theoretical expression for impact of jet for the following problems:
a. Jet strikes flat plate.
b. Jet strikes conical plate with inclination surface of the cone has an angle of 30.
c. Jet strikes 120 plate.
d. Jet strikes hemisphere
5. From the answer in previous question, explain how the flow rate affects the impact of jet
for all 4 situations.
6. Explain, for the previous four situations, how to determine the impact experimentally.
7. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

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EXPERIMENT # 4
REYNOLDS OSBORNE EXPERIMENT
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are:
1. To demonstrate laminar, transition and turbulent flow
2. To introduce Reynolds number to classify laminar, transition and turbulent flow
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able:
1. To describe laminar, transition and turbulent flow
2. To determine critical Reynolds number for laminar, transition and turbulent flow
THEORY/BACKGROUND
{More in textbook [1] section 8-2}
Fluid flow can be classified to three regimes which is laminar, transitional and turbulent regime.
Laminar regime is a regime where the flow is characterized by smooth streamlines and highly
ordered motion. Turbulent is a regime where flow is characterized by velocity fluctuations and
highly disordered motion. Transitional regime is where the flow fluctuates between laminar and
turbulent before it becomes fully turbulent.
The transitional from laminar to turbulent flow depends on geometry, surface roughness, flow
velocity, surface temperature, and type of fluid. However, Osborne Reynolds discovered that the
flow regime mainly depends on the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. This ratio is what we
called as Reynolds number.
At small or moderate Reynolds numbers the viscous forces are large enough to suppress theses
fluctuations and to keep the fluid in line. Thus, the flow is streamlined and in ordered motion.
However, at large Reynolds numbers, the inertial forces, which are proportional to the fluid
density and the square of the fluid velocity, are large relative to the viscous force. As the results,
the viscous force cannot prevent the random and rapid fluctuations of the fluid. Thus, the flow
will be in disordered motion.
The boundary of Reynolds number for laminar, transitional and turbulent regime varies by
geometries and flow condition. For example, flow in a circular pipe is laminar for Reynolds
number less than 2300, turbulent for Reynolds number larger than 4000 and transitional in
between. However, we will have other boundaries if the pipe cross sectional area is a square.
[This part was taken with some modification from textbook Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and
Applications; Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala; McGraw Hill, 2006.]
This experiment is to visualize the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow in a pipe and to
determine the boundary of Reynolds number for flow in the pipe.
First by controlling the flow rate, establish the laminar flow. Then by slowly increase the flow
rate observes what happened to the dye streak. Record the flow pattern change and its volumetric
flow rate reading. Determine the boundary of Reynolds number for laminar, transitional and
turbulent regime.
EQUIPMENT:
Hydraulic Bench
Reynolds Experiment Apparatus

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QUESTIONS
1. Describe what is laminar, transition and turbulent flow. Illustrate the flows.
2. What is Reynolds Number? What is the critical Reynolds Number?
3. How we can classify the flow regimes by using Reynolds Number?
4. What is the critical Reynolds Number that Reynolds Osborne obtained from his
experiment for circular pipe?
5. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 18

EXPERIMENT #5
FAN TEST
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are:
1. To show centrifugal fan features and performance criteria
2. To use the Pitot-static tube to determine the volumetric flow rate
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able:
1. To illustrate centrifugal fan design features and performance criteria
2. To select a fan according to its performance criteria and flow system
3. To use Pitot-static tube to determine the volumetric flow rate
THEORY/BACKGROUND
{More in textbook [1] section 14-1 until 14-2}
Some fundamental parameters are used to characterize the performance of a pump. Mass flow
rate or volumetric flow rate is an obvious pump performance parameter and additionally by
pumps net head which is defined as the change in Bernoulli head between the inlet and outlet of
the pump. The pump efficiency is also pump performance parameter.
The curves of net head, pump efficiency and brake horsepower as functions of capacity (flow
rate) are called as pump performance curves. The pump performance curves change with
rotational speed.
To obtain an operating point of a specific pump in a specific piping system one can draw a system
curve and pump performance curves on the same set of axes. The point of intersection between
the two curves is the operating point of the system. It is required that this operating point is
somewhere near the best efficiency point of the pump.
Pumps
There are two broad categories of turbo machinery, pumps and turbines. Pump is a general term
for any fluid machine that adds energy to a fluid. Turbine is a term for any fluid machine that
extracts energy from the fluid and transfers most of that energy to some form of mechanical
energy output.
Fluid machines that move liquids are called pumps but there are several names for machines that
move gases. A fan is a gas pump with relatively low pressure rise and high flow rate. A blower is
a gas pump with relatively moderate to high pressure rise and moderate to high flow rate. A
compressor is a gas pump designed to deliver a very high pressure rise, typically at low to
moderate flow rates.
[This part was taken with some modification from textbook Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and
Applications; Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala; McGraw Hill, 2006.]
This experiment is to perform a test of a centrifugal fan and display the result as pump
performance curve.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 19

For this experiment,


1. Determine:
a. Average velocity of the air flow
b. Volumetric flow rate
c. Required net head by solving energy equation
d. Pump efficiency
2. Plot on the same set of axes the graph of available net head, pump efficiency and required
net head as a function of capacity (volumetric flow rate).
3. From the graph, determine (if possible)
a. Free delivery
b. Best efficiency point
c. Operating point
EQUIPMENT:
Air Flow Bench
Pitot tube
Inclined Manometer
QUESTIONS
1. Explain briefly the following terms
i. free delivery
ii. shut off head
iii. brake horsepower
iv. water horsepower
v. pump and turbines (Give examples)
2. What is pump performance curves, available net head curve, required net head curve and
efficiency curve? Illustrate all curves.
3. How to obtain available net head curve and required net head curve?
4. Describe and illustrate Pitot-static tube.
5. Explain how to determine volumetric flow rate by using Pitot-static tube.
6. What is velocity profile?
7. Describe and illustrate velocity profile of fully developed laminar flow and fully
developed turbulent flow in a circular cross-section pipe.
8. Water is to be pumped from one large,
open tank to a second large, open tank as
shown in Fig. E5.4 (a). The pipe diameter
throughout is 6 in. and the total length of
the
pipe between the pipe entrance and exit is
200
ft. Minor loss coefficients for the
entrance, exit, and the elbow are shown
on
the figure, and the friction factor for the
pipe can be assumed constant and equal
to
0.02. A certain centrifugal pump having
the
performance characteristics shown in Fig.
E5.4 (b) is suggested as a good pump for
this
flow system. With this pump, what would
be
the flow rate between the tanks? Do you
think this pump would be a good choice?
9. By using all answers for the questions
above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the
objectives.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 20

EXPERIMENT # 6
PUMPS IN SERIES & PARALLEL
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the experiment are:
1. To demonstrate pump performance when connected in series and parallel
2. To show shut off point of pump in series and parallel
LEARNING OUTCOMES
It is expected by completing the experiment, the students will be able:
1. To estimate power requirement for a pump as a function of its throughput, pressure increase
and efficiency
2. To analyze pump network for pipelines operating under pressure
THEORY/BACKGROUND
{More in textbook [1] section 14-2}
In selecting a pump fro a given situation, we have a variety of pumps to choose among. The
manufacturers provide the pump performance information such as the pump performance curves.
The engineers task is to the pump or pumps that best fits in with the system characteristics.
One of the considerations in fulfilling a system characteristic is whether to combine a pump in
one system or not. The combination may be in parallel or series.
By examining pump performance curve for pumps in series and pumps in parallel, we easily can
say that the pumps in series tend to increase head but pumps in parallel tend to increase capacity.
For this experiment,
1. Determine:
a. Average velocity of the fluid flow
b. Required net head by solving energy equation
c. Pump efficiency
2. Plot on the same set of axes the graph of available net head, pump efficiency and required
net head as a function of capacity (volumetric flow rate).
3. From the graph, determine (if possible)
a. Shut off head for each pump
b. Free delivery
c. Best efficiency point
d. Operating point
EQUIPMENT
Pump in Series and Parallel Apparatus
PRECAUTIONS ON HANDLING EQUIPMENT
1. Never operate the pumps when there is no liquid in the pipeline. It will cause serious
damage to the pumps.
2. Do not operate pump above and below its limit operation as given below:
ORIENTATION
MINIMUM FLOW RATE (L/min)
MAXIMUM FLOW RATE (L/min)
Single
20
90
Series
20
90
Parallel
40
180

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 21

QUESTIONS
1. Explain the purpose to connect pump in series and parallel.
2. How would the performance curve for pump in series or parallel differ with single pump?
3. Illustrate the performance curve for pumps in series and single pump in one figure and
pumps in parallel and single pump in another figure.
4. What is shut off point? What should we do at shut off point?
5. How we can determine shut off point?
6. Two reservoirs A and B are connected with a long pipe that has a characteristics such that
the head loss through the pipe is expressible as hL=20Q2, where hL is in feet and Q is the
flow rate in 100s of gpm. The water-surface elevation in reservoir B is 35 ft above that in
reservoir A. Two identical pumps are available for use to pump the water from A to B.
The characteristic curve of each pump when operating at 1800 rpm is given in the
following table
Operation at 1800 rpm
Head, ft
Flow rate, gpm
100
0
90
110
80
180
60
250
40
300
20
340
Table E6.1
At the optimum point of operation, the pump delivers 200 gpm at a head of 75 ft.
Determine the flow rate under the following conditions
i. A single pump operating at 1800 rpm
ii. Two pumps in series, each operating at 1800 rpm
iii. Two pumps in parallel, each operating at 1800 rpm
What happen if the elevation different between reservoir A and B is greater than 100 ft?
7. Repeat question (1.) if reservoir B is 20 ft below reservoir A and compare with the
previous answer. Give your opinion upon the comparison.
8. Repeat question (1.) with the pumps operating at 1500 rpm. Compare the answer and
discuss it.
Operation at 1500 rpm
Head, ft
Flow rate, gpm
83.33
75.00
66.67
50.00
33.33
16.67

0.00
76.39
125.00
173.61
208.33
236.11

Table E6.2
9. For situation in question (1.), determine the flow rate under the following conditions
i. Two pump in series, one operating at 1800 rpm and another is 1500 rpm
ii. Two pump in parallel, one operating at 1800 rpm and another is 1500 rpm
Where is the shut off point for both combinations?
10. By using all answers for the questions above, explain what you should do in the
experiments in order to achieve the objectives.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 22

REFERENCES
[1] Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications,
McGraw-Hill, 2006.
[2] Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young and Theodore H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid
Mechanics, 5th ed., Wiley Asia Student Edition, 2006.
[3] Clayton T. Crowe, Donald F. Elger and John A. Roberson, Engineering Fluid Mechanics, 8th
ed., Wiley, 2005
[4] E. John Finnemore and Joseph B. Franzini, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications,
10th ed., International Edition, McGraw Hill, 2006.
[5] Robert W. Fox and Alan T. McDonald, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 5th ed., Wiley.

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 23

Appendix A: Reports Title Page

FINAL LABORATORY REPORT


AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING LAB
SECTION 1

EXPERIMENT #1
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE
MEASUREMENTS

EXPERIMENTERS
1. SYED NOH SYED ABU BAKAR, 044856, AEROSPACE
2. SYED MOHD KHAIRUDIN SYED ALI, 033426, AUTOMOTIVE
3. MOHD NOOR ZAINAL ABIDIN, 023442, MANUFACTURING
DATE OF EXPERIMENTS
Friday, 15th December 2006 (8:30 a.m. to 11:30 p.m.)
DATE OF SUBMISSION
Friday, 22nd December 2006

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 24

Appendix B: Specification for Flow Meter Apparatus

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 25

Appendix C: Formula to Calculate Cross Sectional Area, Hydraulic Diameter


and Height from Datum Line for Rectangular Throat

A
1

2
L

x
z
15 mm

A3

Datum line

H
g

hH
A( x) H
x w
L

hH
2w H
x
L

DH ( x )

hH
w H
x
L

z ( x) 8.5(10 3 )

3
x
70

Cross-section area variation for


fluid flow beneath the piezometer
tube

Hydraulic diameter variation for


the cross-section area for fluid
flow beneath the piezometer tube

Height from the datum to the center of


the cross-section of flow variation
(will be explained)

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual 26

Appendix C: Specification for Friction Losses Apparatus

27