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# ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted to determine the function of the shell and tube heat exchanger.
The experiment was also to evaluate the heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance, LMTD,
heat transfer coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and the pressure drop of the shell
and tube heat exchanger. The experiment is conducted using different flow rates for the cold
water and hot water. The flow rates of the cold water will remain constant while the flow rates of
the hot water will be varies between 2 to 10 LPM in the first experiment. For the second
experiment, the flow rates of the hot water will remain constant and the flow rates for the cold
water will be varies. Then, the temperature will be taken for cold water and hot water and the
calculation will be done. From the results obtained, the pressure drop of the shell is lower than
the counter current for both systems. The experiment was completed and the carried out
adequately. The data is being recorded for temperature and pressure for each flow rates within
3 minutes interval.

INTRODUCTION
The process of heat exchange between the fluids at certain temperature with a separation of
solid and liquid occurred in many applications in engineering process. Heat exchanger is a
device used to implement the exchange process. The heat exchanger is where the heat
exchange taken places between two fluids that enter and exit the system with different
temperature. The transfer of thermal energy for the heat exchanger is between two or more
fluids, between a solid surface and liquid or between solid particles and liquid at the different
temperature and in thermal contact.
There are many types of heat exchanger uses in the industry. The most common heat
exchanger being used is shell and tube heat exchanger. For shell and tube heat exchanger, the
fluids are being separated based on the temperature of the fluids. The fluid will flow through the
tubes sides and through the shell side around the tube. This type of heat exchanger consists of
series of tubes and it must be filled with hot or cold fluid.(Cengel, 2013)
The heat exchanger is being classified to three flow arrangement. The flow arrangements are
counter-flow, parallel-flow and cross flow. For the parallel flow heat exchanger, the fluid will
enter the system at the same side and the flow travel parallel to each other. The counter-flow
heat exchanger allows the fluid to enter the system at the opposite direction. This type of heat
exchanger is the most efficient because it can transfer more heat from the heat medium due to
higher average temperature difference. For cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluid will travel
perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

The heat exchanger is made of structural steel. The participating fluids are water flowing
through the tube side and air flowing through the shell side. The baffles introduce some crossflow to the air and such increasing the area of heat exchange. Another advantage is that the
baffles helps to reduce the vibration due to the fluid motion.(Comsol,2013).

OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the function of the shell and tube heat exchanger
2. To calculate the value of heat transfer and heat loss, LMTD, heat transfer coefficient,
overall heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop
3. To perform the temperature profile of shell and tube heat exchanger

THEORY
Most chemical transfer involves heat transfer to or from the process fluid. Heat exchanger is
equipment built to help in transferring the heat. There are many type of heat exchanger but the
most common used heat exchanger in industry is shell and tube heat exchanger. Tube and shell
heat exchanger consist of series of tube and these tubes consist of cooled or heated fluid.
There are parallel-flow heat exchanger and counter-flow heat exchanger. The parallel-flow heat
exchanger is where the two fluids enter at the same end and the fluid travel parallel to each
other. The counter-current heat exchanger is where the fluid enters the exchanger from different
ends.
Heat balance
For a parallel-flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one shell pass, the
heat
balance is given by:

mt C pt ( t 2t 1 )=m t C ps ( T 1T 2 ) =q
The heat balance for counter-flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one
shell pass is:

mt C pt ( t 2t 1 )=m t C ps ( T 1T 2 ) =q
where,

mt

ms

C pt

C ps

## t 1 , t 2 = temperature of cold fluid entering/leaving the tube (oC)

T 1 , T 2 = temperature of hot fluid entering/leaving the shell (oC)
q

## = heat exchange rate between fluid (kW)

Heat transfer
The general heat equation for heat transfer across the tube surface in shell and tube heat
exchanger is :

q=U o A o T m=U i Ai T m
where,

Ao

Ai

## T m = mean temperature difference (oC)

Uo

= overall heat transfer based on the outside area of the tube (kWm-2oC-1)

Ui

= overall heat transfer based on the inside area of the tube (kWm-2oC-1)

The coefficient

## U o and U i are given by:

d
1
1 1 d o ln ( d o /d i ) d o
= + +
+
+ o
U o ho hod
2kw
di hid d i hi

And,

d
d
1 1 1 d i ln ( d o /d i )
= + +
+ i + i
U i hi hid
2k w
d o h id d o hi
Where,

ho

hi

## hod = outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor) (kWm-2oC-1)

hid = inside dirt coefficient (fouling factor) (kWm-2oC-1)
kw

do

di

## Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

The equation to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient is:

U=

Q
A LMTD

Where,

Q
A

QC

QH
= Heat rate with respect to the flow rate of water
= Area of the tube

## Log mean temperature difference (LMTD)

or

The mean temperature difference for both parallel and counter flow shell and tube heat
exchanger with single shell pass and single pass tube is expressed as log-mean temperature
difference,

T lm=

T T out
ln

T
T out

LMTD is effective for both types of flow conditions. The assumption made during calculating the
LMTD is:
1. The fluid specific heat capacity do not vary with temperature
2. The convection heat transfer coefficient are constant throughout the exchanger
The second assumption is influenced by the entrance effects fluids viscosity and thermal
conductivity changes. The heat loss from the hot fluid flowing in the inner tube is determined
from this equation:

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

Where

## mH =hot water mass flow rate

C PH =specific heat capacity of hot water
t 1 =inlet hot fluid temperature
t 2 =outlet hot fluid temperature

Besides that, the heat gained by the cold fluid flowing in the space between the inner and outer
pipes can be calculated using:

qC =m C C PC ( T 1T 2 )
Where

## mC =cold water mass flow rate

C PC =specific heat capacity of cold water
T 1 =inlet cold fluid temperature
T 2 =outlet cold fluid temperature

Supposedly,

qC

is less than

qH

## because some heat is lost through the insulated material

to the surrounding air, abiding the outer surface of the concentric tube is insulated. Hence, the
efficiency can be obtained from:

qC
qH

## actual heat transfer

maximum possible heat transfer

By calculating the energy lost by the hot fluid from equation or the energy gained by the cold
fluid from equation, the value of the actual heat transfer can be obtained.

## Tube-side heat transfer coefficient, hi

For turbulent flow, Sieder-Tate equation can be used:

## Nu=C 0.8 Pr 0.33 ( f / w )0.14

Where,

= Reynolds number

f ut d e / f

Nu = Nusselt number hi d e /k f

Pr
de

= Prandtl number

C p f /k f

## = equivalent diameter (m)

= 4 (cross sectional area of flow) / wetted perimeter

Cp

## = 0.023 for non-viscous liquid

0.027 for viscous liquid

kf

Where,

## Tube-side Pressure Drop, Pt

f u2t
Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]
2
m

Where,

Pt

Np

jf

ut

## = 0.25 for laminar

= 0.14 for turbulent

## APPARATUS AND MATERIAL

PROCEDURE
General Start-up
1. The valve was initially closed except for V1 and V2.
2. The hot water tank was filled up via water supply hose connected to valve V27 and when
the tank is full, the valve was closed.
3. The cold water tank was filled up via water supply hose connected to valve V28 and the
4.
5.
6.
7.

## valve is open for continuous water supply.

The drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.
The main power and the heater were switched on until the hot water reached 500C.
The water temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set-point.
The equipment was ready to be run.

## The Counter-current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

1. The valves were switched on to counter-current Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
arrangement.
2. The pump P1 and P2 was switched on.
3. The valves V3 and V14 were opened and being adjusted to obtain the desired flowrates
for hot and cold water streams respectively.
4. The system was allowed to reach the steady state for 3 minutes.
5. The FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.
6. The pressure drop measurement was recorded for shell-side and tube-side for pressure
drop studies.
7. The steps 3 to 6 were repeated for different combinations of FT1 and FT2.
8. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched off after the experiment was done.

## Co-current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

1. The valves were switched to co-current Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger arrangement.
2. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched on.

3. The valves were switched to the counter-current arrangement when there is air bubble
trap in the shell-side and flow the water with high water flowrates.
4. The valves were switched to the co-current arrangement back when there is no air
bubble.
5. The valves V3 and V14 were opened and being adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates
for hot and cold water streams respectively.
6. The system was allowed to reach the steady state for 3 minutes.
7. The FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.
8. The pressure drop measurement was recorded for shell-side and tube-side.
9. The steps 5 to 8 were repeated for different combinations of FT1 and FT2.
10. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched off after the experiment was completed.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## The heater was switched off.

The pumps P1 and P2 was switched off
The main power was switched off.
All water in the process lines was drained.
All valves were closed.

RESULTS
Counter-current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
FT1
(LPM)
2
4
6
8
10

FT2
(LPM)
10
10
10
10
10

TT1
0

( C)
30.8
31.5
32.2
33.3
34.0

TT2
0

( C)
29.2
29.2
29.3
29.7
29.8

TT3
0

TT4
0

DPT1

DPT2

( C)
38.1
43.1
44.0
44.8
45.1

( C)
49.3
48.8
49.2
49.5
48.7

(mmH2O)
193
195
191
192
191

(mmH2O)
-5
-5
-5
-5
-5

TT3

TT4

DPT1

DPT2

FT1
(LPM)
10
10
10
10
10

FT2
(LPM)
2
4
6
8
10

TT1
0

( C)
41.4
37.9
35.4
34.0
33.2

TT2
0

( C)
29.9
30.2
29.2
28.9
28.9

( C)
47.5
46.6
45.6
44.9
44.6

( C)
49.1
49.1
49.0
48.9
48.9

(mmH2O)
6
69
126
214
377

(mmH2O)
-5
-5
-5
-5
-5

TT3

TT4

DPT1

DPT2

FT1
(LPM)
2
4
6
8
10

FT2
(LPM)
10
10
10
10
10

TT1
0

( C)
29.9
29.9
30.0
30.1
30.2

TT2
0

( C)
31.4
31.8
32.7
33.7
34.0

( C)
38.6
43.2
44.3
45.4
45.4

( C)
49.5
48.8
49.2
50.0
49.4

(mmH2O)
679
678
675
678
676

(mmH2O)
604
601
583
530
527

FT1

FT2

TT1

TT2

TT3

TT4

DPT1

DPT2

(LPM)
10
10
10

(LPM)
2
4
6

(0C)
30.3
30.4
30.3

(0C)
38.1
36.0
34.4

(0C)
47.2
46.6
46.0

(0C)
48.7
48.9
48.9

(mmH2O)
23
7
653

(mmH2O)
526
524
524

10
10

8
10

30.1
30.0

34.0
33.7

45.6
45.2

48.7
49.0

670
712

523
530

## COSTANT FLOW RATE OF HOT WATER

Cold water counter-current flow
TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

223.09

694.15

994.04

2221.27

2984.84

TEST

10

10

10

10

10

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

8002.08

5294.59

4263.17

3506.80

2956.72

TEST

-11.98

-13.64

-14.96

-15.44

Undefined

HEAT LOSS(W)

7778.99

4600.44

3269.16

1285.53

-28.12

EFFICIENCY (%)

2.79

13.11

23.32

63.34

100.95

LOG

MEAN,

T lm

## OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

TEST
Total exchange area(
Overall

heat

m2

transfer

coefficient(

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

4453.02

2344.21

1899.81

1514.16

Undefine

W /m2 . K

TUBE SIDE
TEST

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

## LINEAR VELOCITY (m/s)

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

REYNOLDS NUMBER

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

m
TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA, (
2

m
MASS

VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh
TUBE

COEFFICIENT,

ht (

W /m . K

SHELL SIDE
TEST
CROSS FLOW AREA (
MASS VELOCITY

m2

(kg /m2 . s)

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

16.6

33.35

50.00

66.67

83.50

0.0166

0.033

0.050

0.067

0.167

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

576.35

1157.90

1735.98

2314.78

2899.09

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.023

0.050

0.043

0.039

0.034

513.26

2344.21

2890.31

3495.80

3816.44

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

0.77

6.63

13.09

21.32

115.47

SHELL

jh

COEFFICIENT,

hS

(W /m . K )

TEST
PRESSURE DROP(

Pa - tube

TEST

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

7774.46

3956.64

3609.57

3262.50

2498.93

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

220.03

632.60

1196.44

1980.31

2887.96

TEST

-13.12

-15.54

-15.82

-15.64

-15.00

-7554.43

-3324.04

-2413.13

-1282.20

389.03

EFFICIENCY (%)

3533.36

625.46

301.69

164.75

86.53

LOG

T lm

MEAN,

TEST

m2

Overall

heat

transfer

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

111.80

271.39

504.19

844.12

1283.54

coefficient

(W /m2 . K )

TUBE SIDE
TEST

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

70.62

141.24

234.19

282.49

353.11

## LINEAR VELOCITY (m/s)

0.0714

0.1429

0.2370

0.2859

0.3573

REYNOLDS NUMBER

996.19

1991.81

3303.55

3984.89

4981.07

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

m2
TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA, (

m2
MASS

VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0048

0.0030

0.0036

0.0040

0.0040

603.66

754.58

1501.88

2012.71

2515.76

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh
TUBECOEFFICIENT,

ht (W /m2 . K )

SHELL SIDE
TEST

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.010

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

MASS VELOCITY

m2

(kg /m2 . s)

SHELL

jh

COEFFICIENT,

hS

(W /m 2 . K )

TEST
PRESSURE DROP(

Pa - tube

12.75

41.37

122.67

187.12

292.26

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

-208.24

-888.61

-1207.82

-1721.49

-2637.76

Hot water
TEST

10

10

10

10

10

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

-5363.35

-3850.61

-2819.20

-2681.67

-2544.15

TEST

-13.21

-14.19

-14.40

-14.83

-14.94

-5155.11

-2962.10

-1611.38

-960.18

93.61

EFFICIENCY (%)

3.88

23.07

42.84

64.19

103.68

LOG

MEAN,

T lm

## OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

TEST
Total exchange area (

m2

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Overall

heat

transfer

coefficient
4038.40

(W /m 2 . K )

1809.07

1305.19

1205.51

1135.27

TUBE SIDE
TEST

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

348.94

## LINEAR VELOCITY (m/s)

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

0.3531

REYNOLDS NUMBER

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

4922.25

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

0.0039

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

2423.94

CROSS

SECTION

AREA

m2
TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA,
m2
MASS

VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh
TUBE COEFFICIENT,

ht

(W /m . K )

SHELL SIDE
TEST
CROSS FLOW AREA(

m2

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

MASS VELOCITY

(kg /m2 . s)

16.6

33.35

50.00

66.67

83.33

0.0166

0.033

0.050

0.067

0.084

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

576.35

1157.90

1753.98

2314.76

2893.19

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.023

0.048

0.044

0.038

0.032

513.26

2152.19

2988.22

3406.16

3584.51

TEST

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

282.14

0.77

6.37

13.39

20.77

27.50

SHELL

jh

COEFFICIENT,

hS

(W /m . K )

PRESSURE DROP(

Pa -shell

TEST

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

0.1667

-7566.21

-3887.23

-3401.32

-3193.08

-2776.59

TEST

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

0.0333

0.0667

0.1000

0.1333

0.1667

-206.28

-522.58

-1113.93

-1980.31

-2612.91

TEST

-12.38

-14.84

-15.08

-15.44

-14.96

7359.93

3364.65

2287.39

1212.77

163.68

EFFICIENCY (%)

3667.93

743.85

305.34

161.24

106.26

LOG

T lm

MEAN,

## OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

TEST
Total exchange area (
Overall

heat

m2

transfer

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

111.08

234.76

492.45

855.06

1164.39

coefficient

(W /m2 . K )

TUBE SIDE
TEST
CROSS

SECTION

AREA

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-5

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

4.7210-4

m2
TOTAL CROSS FLOW AREA,

m2
MASS

VELOCITY
70.62

141.24

211.86

282.49

353.11

## LINEAR VELOCITY (m/s)

0.0715

0.1429

0.2144

0.2859

0.3573

REYNOLDS NUMBER

996.19

1992.37

2988.56

3984.89

4981.07

PRANDTL NUMBER

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

TYPE OF FLOW

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.0050

0.0030

0.0036

0.0039

0.0040

628.81

754.58

1358.69

1962.39

2515.76

(kg /m2 . s)

HEAT

TRANSFER

FACTOR,

jh
TUBE COEFFICIENT,

ht

(W /m . K )

SHELL SIDE
TEST

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

83.33

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0837

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

0.0278

REYNOLDS NUMBER

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

2893.19

PRANDTL NUMBER

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

5.44

TYPE OF FLOW

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

Turbulent

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

MASS VELOCITY

m2

(kg /m2 . s)

jh

SHELL

COEFFICIENT,
1120.16

h S (W /m . K )

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

1120.16

TEST

## PRESSURE DROP( Pa - tube

13.05

41.37

100.39

184.97

292.26

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

8.53

PRESSURE DROP(

Pa -shell

Temperature profile and heat transfer coefficient for co-current and counter-current flow
1. Temperature profile for counter-current flow with fixed flow rates of cold water
60

50

40

30

20

10

cold water

hot water

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1

10

11

10

11

3000

2500

2000

1500

tube side

shell side

1000

500

0
1

2. Temperature profile for counter-current flow with fixed flow rates of hot water
60

50

40

30

20

10

hot water
cold water

12

10

0
1

10

10

11

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
shell side

2000

tube side

1500
1000
500
0
1

3. Temperature profile for co-current flow with fixed flow rates of cold water

60

50

40

30

hot water

cold water

20

10

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1

10

11

3000

2500

2000

tube side

1500

shell side
1000

500

0
1

10

11

4. Temperature profile for co-current flow with fixed flow rates of hot water

60

50

40

30

hot water

cold water

20

10

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

10

12

4000
3500
3000
2500
shell side

2000

tube side
1500
1000
500
0
1

10

11

CALCULATIONS
Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger
1. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 2 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)
L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J
10

988.18 3 4175
( 41.429.9 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m
8002.08 W
Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )
L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J
2

995.67 3 4183
( 49.147.5 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m
223.09W
Heat lost rate

QH QC
8002.08223.09
7778.99W
Efficiency

QC
100
QH

223.09
100
8002.08

2.79

## Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference

T lm=

T T out
ln

T
T out

( 41.449.1 ) (29.947.5 )
( 41.449.1 )
ln
( 41.449.1 )

11.98

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

## For 1-shell pass and I tube pass

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

## Cross flow area , A=

0.00775
4

d 2i
4

4.72 105 m2
Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes
4.72 105 10
4.72 104 m2

Mass velocity , G t =

mt
At

0.1647
4
4.72 10

348.94

kg
2
m .s

## Linear velocity ,ut =

Gt

348.94
988.18

0.3531

m
s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775
5.494 104

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp
k

## 5.494 104 4175

0.6436

3.56
Tube side heat transfer factor, jh =0.0039

j h Pr 0.33 k
tube side coefficient , hi =
di

0.00775

2423.94

0.33

0.6436

W
2
m K

tube pitch

## ( 0.0180.00953 ) 0.085 0.05

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms
As

0.0332
0.002

16.6

kg
2
m .s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

16.6
995.67

0.0166

m
s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2
2
( p 0.917 d o )
do t

1.1
(0.018 20.917 ( 0.00953 )2 )
0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

16.6 0.0278
8.007 104

576.35(laminar flow)

Cp
k

## 8.007 104 4183

0.6155

5.44
Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.023

j h Pr 0.33 k
shell side coefficient ,h i=
de
0.023 576.35 5.440.33 0.6155

0.0278
513.26

W
m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH
A T lm

8002.08
0.15 11.98

4453.02

## Calculation of pressure drop across tube and shell

de
d s /

Ps =8 j f
0.0278
0.085 /

8(0.023)
0.77 Pa
2

u
Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ] f t
2
m

(988.18)(0.3531)2
0.5
0.14
( 8 0.0039 )
( 1.0 ) + 2.5
0.0075
2
282.14 Pa

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for co-current shell and tube heat exchanger
2. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 2 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water

QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

10

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

988.18 3 4175
( 30.338.1 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg
.
m

5363.35 W
Heat transfer for cold water

QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

995.67 3 4183
( 47.248.7 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg
.
m

208.24 W
Heat lost rate

QH QC
5363.35(208.24)
5155.11 W
Efficiency

QC
100
QH

208.24
100
5363.35

3.88

## Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference

T lm=

T T out
ln

( TT )

out

( 30.348.7 )( 38.147.2 )
(30.348.7 )
ln
( 38.147.2 )

13.21

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

## For 1-shell pass and I tube pass

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

## Cross flow area , A=

d 2i
4

0.007752

4
4.72 105 m2
Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes
5

4.72 10 10
4.72 104 m2

Mass velocity , G t =

mt
At

0.1647
4
4.72 10

348.94

kg
2
m .s

## Linear velocity ,ut =

Gt

348.94
988.18

0.3531

m
s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775
5.494 104

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp
k

0.6436

3.56

## Tube side heat transfer factor, jh =0.0039

j h Pr 0.33 k
tube side coefficient , hi =
di

0.00775

2423.94

W
m2 K

tube pitch

## ( 0.0180.00953 ) 0.085 0.05

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms
As

0.0332
0.002

16.6

kg
m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

16.6
995.67

0.0166

m
s

Gs

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2
( pt 0.917 d 2o)
do

1.1
2
2
(0.018 0.917 ( 0.00953 ) )
0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

16.6 0.0278
8.007 104

576.35(laminar flow)

## Prandt number , Pr=

Cp
k

8.007 10 4183
0.6155

5.44
Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.023

j Pr
shell side coefficient ,h i= h
de
0.023 576.35 5.44

0.0278
513.26

0.33

0.33

0.6155

W
2
m K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH
A T lm

8002.08
0.15 13.21

4038.40

W
m2 K

## Calculation of pressure drop across tube and shell

de
d s /

Ps =8 j f
0.0278
0.085 /

8(0.023)
0.77 Pa

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w )m +2.5 ]

( 8 0.0039 )

282.14 Pa

f u2t
2

(988.18)(0.3531)2
0.5
( 1.0 )0.14 + 2.5
0.0075
2

DISCUSSION
This experiment is done to determine the function of the shell and tube heat exchanger in
various conditions. This also been done to demonstrate the working principle of the shell and
tube heat exchanger under counter-current and co-current flow conditions and the effect of flow
rates to the performance of the shell and tube heat exchanger. Besides, the experiment is also
to determine the efficiency of the heat exchanger in co-current and counter-current flow
condition. Then, the heat transfer of the system, LMTD and also the pressure drop of the
system are being calculated.
The experiment is being done with different flow rates of the hot water and the cold water. When
the hot water flow rates kept constant, the flow rates of the cold water will be varies between 2
to 10 LPM and vice versa. The temperature of the system will be taken every 3 minutes for each
of the flow rates. Based on the theory, the counter-current flow condition should be more
efficient than the parallel flow condition. This is because the larger difference of the temperature
at the end of the system will lead to the higher thermal stresses that will lead to the material
failure.
Based on the experiment being conducted, the efficiency of the counter-current flow is lower
than the co-current flow which contradicts to the theory. There is error occur during the
experiment that lead to the error in result. The efficiency calculated for co-current flow is beyond
hundred percent and it is impossible for the system to has more than 100 percent efficiency.

The pressure drop is dependence on the value of the flow rates. When the flow rates are varies,
the pressure drop also varies.

## When the flow rates being fixed, there is no difference in

pressure drop. This is due to the condition of the flow that is in steady state condition. During
steady state condition, the pressure drop is constant. The difference in pressure drop when the
flow rates vary is because the flow does not achieved the steady state yet.
There are errors occur during the experiments that affect the result of the experiments. The
errors include the equipment error occur during the experiment. The data taken is beyond the
range of the equipment can calculate so the data taken is considered not exact. There is air
bubbles are being trapped in the pipeline that gives effect the amount of pressure in the system.
Then, the system in not in steady state condition when the data is taken. The temperature and
pressure of the system is changing during the data taken shows the system required longer time
to achieve the steady state condition.

CONCLUSION
From the experiment, we can conclude that the most efficient flow conditions for shell and tube
heat exchanger is for counter-current flow conditions. The pressure drop of the shell and tube
heat exchanger is low thus increases the efficiency of the heat exchanger. The pressure drop for
the shell is lower than the tube for both flow conditions. Besides, the LMTD calculated is in
negative sign shows that the system is cooling. The experiment is completed and the objectives
have achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

All the procedures must be follows and understood before doing the experiment.
All the equipment must be checked and rectify any leaks.
Always make sure the heater is fully immersed in the water.
Do not touch the hot components of the unit.
Extremely careful when handling liquid at high temperature.
Always switch off the heater and allow the liquid to cool down before draining.

REFERENCES

## 1. Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Sixth Edition (SI Units) by Yunus A.

Cengel And Michael A. Boles. (Mc Graw Hill)
2. Chopey, N.P. Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations (2nd Edition),
McGraw-Hill, 1994.
3. Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals & Application (Fifth Edition in SI Units),
by Yunus A. Cengel and Afshin J. Ghajar
4. https://www.scribd.com/doc/109549338/Lab-Heat-Exchanger retrieved on 19
March 2015
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchanger retrieved on 18 March 2015

APPENDICES
Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger
3. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 4 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water
QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

10

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

988.18 3 4175
( 37.930.2 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m

5294.59W
Heat transfer for cold water
QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

995.67 3 4183
( 49.146.6 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m

694.15W

QH QC
5294.59694.15

4600.44 W
Efficiency

QC
100
QH

694.15
100
5294.59

13.11

## Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference

T lm=

T T out
ln

( TT )

out

( 37.949.1 ) ( 30.246.6 )
( 37.949.1 )
ln
(30.246.6 )

13.64

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

## For 1-shell pass and I tube pass

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side
d 2i
Cross flow area , A=
4

0.007752
4

4.72 105 m2
Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes
4.72 105 10
4

4.72 10 m

Mass velocity , G t =

mt
At

0.1647
4
4.72 10

348.94

kg
2
m .s

## Linear velocity ,ut =

Gt

348.94
988.18

0.3531

m
s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775
0.0005494

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp
k

0.0005494 4175
0.6434

3.56

## Tube side heat transfer factor, jh =0.0039

j h Pr 0.33 k
tube side coefficient , hi =
di

0.00775

2423.94

W
m2 K

## Heat transfer coefficient at shell side

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

## ( 0.0180.00953 ) 0.085 0.05

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms
As

0.0667
0.002

33.35

kg
m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

33.35
995.67

0.033

m
s

Gs

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2
( pt 0.917 d 2o )
do

1.1
2
2
(0.018 0.917 ( 0.00953 ) )
0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

33.35 0.0278
0.0008007

1157.90(laminar flow )

## Prandt number , Pr=

Cp
k

0.0008007 4183
0.6155

5.44
Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.05
j h Pr 0.33 k
shell side coefficient ,h i=
de

0.0278

2344.21

W
m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH
A T lm

5294.59
0.15 13.64

2344.21

W
m2 . K

## Calculation of pressure drop across tube and shell

de
d s /

Ps =8 j f
0.0278
0.085 /

8(0.05)
6.63 Pa
f u2t
Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]
2
m

( 8 0.0039 )

282.14 Pa

(988.18)(0.3531)
0.5
( 1.0 )0.14 + 2.5
0.0075
2

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for co-current shell and tube heat exchanger
4. F1 = 10 LPM , F2 = 4 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water
QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

10

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

988.18 3 4175
( 30.436.0 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg
.
m

3850.61W
Heat transfer for cold water
QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

995.67 3 4183
( 46.648.9 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m

888.61W

QH QC
3850.61(888.51)

2962.1W
Efficiency

QC
100
QH

888.51
100
3850.61

23.07

## Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference

T lm=

T T out
ln

( TT )

out

( 30.448.9 )( 36.046.6 )
( 30.448.9 )
ln
( 36.046.6 )

14.19

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

## For 1-shell pass and I tube pass

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side
d 2i
Cross flow area , A=
4

0.00775
4

4.72 105 m2
Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes
4.72 105 10
4

4.72 10 m

Mass velocity , G t =

0.1647
4
4.72 10

mt
At

348.94

kg
2
m .s

## Linear velocity ,ut =

Gt

348.94
988.18

0.3531

m
s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

348.94 0.00775
0.0005494

4922.25(turbulent flow)

Cp
k

0.0005494 4175
0.6436

3.56

## Tube side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.0039

tube side coefficient , hi =

j h Pr 0.33 k
di

0.00775

2423.94

W
2
m K

## Heat transfer coefficient at shell side

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

## ( 0.0180.00953 ) 0.085 0.05

0.018
2

0.002 m

Mass velocity , G s=

ms
As

0.0667
0.002

33.35

kg
m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

33.35
995.67

0.033

m
s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2
( pt 0.917 d 2o )
do

1.1
(0.018 20.917 ( 0.00953 )2 )
0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

33.35 0.0278
0.0008007

1157.90(laminar flow )

## Prandt number , Pr=

Cp
k

0.0008007 4183
0.6155

5.44
Shell side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.048
j h Pr 0.33 k
shell side coefficient ,h i=
de

0.0278

2152.19

0.33

0.6155

W
2
m K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m

U=

QH
A T lm

3850.61
0.15 14.19

1809.07

W
m2 K

## Calculation of pressure drop across tube and shell

de
ds/

Ps =8 j f

0.0278
0.085 /

8(0.048)
6.37 Pa

f u2t
Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]
2
m

( 8 0.0039 )

282.14 Pa

(988.18)(0.3531)2
0.5
( 1.0 )0.14 + 2.5
0.0075
2

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger
5. F1 = 2 LPM , F2 = 10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water
QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

988.18 3 4175
( 30.829.2 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg
.
m

220.03W
Heat transfer for cold water
QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

10

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

995.67 3 4183
( 49.338.1 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m

7774.46W

QH QC
220.037774.46

7554.43 W
Efficiency

QC
100
QH

7774.46
100
220.03

3533.36

## Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference

T lm=

T T out
ln

( TT )

out

( 30.849.3 )( 29.238.1 )
( 30.849.3 )
ln
( 29.238.1 )

13.12

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

## For 1-shell pass and I tube pass

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side
2

d
Cross flow area , A= i
4

0.007752
4

4.72 105 m2
Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes
5

4.72 10 10
4

4.72 10 m

Mass velocity , G t =

mt
At

0.0333
4.72 104

70.62

kg
m2 . s

## Linear velocity ,ut =

Gt

70.62
988.18

0.0714

m
s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

70.62 0.00775
0.0005494

996.19(laminar flow)

0.0005494 4175
0.6434

3.56

Cp
k

## Tube side heat transfer factor, jh =0.0048

tube side coefficient , hi =

j h Pr 0.33 k
di

0.00775

603.66

W
m2 K

## Heat transfer coefficient at shell side

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

## ( 0.0180.00953 ) 0.085 0.05

0.018

0.002 m2

Mass velocity , G s=

ms
As

0.1667
0.002

83.33

kg
m2 . s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

83.33
995.67

0.0837

m
s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2
( pt 0.917 d 2o )
do

1.1
2
2
(0.018 0.917 ( 0.00953 ) )
0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

83.33 0.0278
0.0008007

2893.19(turbulent flow )

Cp
k

0.0008007 4183
0.6155

5.44

## Shell side heat transfer factor, jh =0.01

j h Pr 0.33 k
shell side coefficient ,h i=
de

0.0278

1120.16

W
m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5
0.15 m2

U=

QH
A T lm

220.03
0.15 13.12

3533.36

W
2
m .K

## Calculation of pressure drop across tube and shell

de
ds/

Ps =8 j f

0.0278
0.085 /

8(0.01)
8.53 Pa

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]
m

( 8 0.0048 )

f u2t
2

(988.18)(0.0714)2
0.5
( 1.0 )0.14+ 2.5
0.0075
2

12.75 Pa

Rate of heat transfer and heat lost for co-current shell and tube heat exchanger
6. F1 = 2 LPM , F2 = 10 LPM
Heat transfer for hot water
QH =mH C PH ( t 1t 2)

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

988.18 3 4175
( 29.931.4 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg .
m

206.28W
Heat transfer for cold water
QC =mC C PC ( T 2T 1 )

10

L
1 m3
1 min
kg
J

995.67 3 4183
( 38.649.5 )
min 1000 L 60 s
kg
.
m

7566.21 W

QH QC
206.28(7566.21)
7359.93W

Efficiency

QC
100
QH

7566.21
100
206.28

3667.93

## Calculation of Log Mean Temperature Difference

T lm=

T T out
ln

T
T out

( 29.949.5 ) ( 31.438.6 )
( 29.949.5 )
ln
( 31.438.6 )

12.38

Calculation of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient by Kerns method

## For 1-shell pass and I tube pass

Heat transfer coefficient at tube side
Cross flow area , A=

d 2i
4

0.00775
4
5

4.72 10 m

## Total cross flow area , A t= A number of tubes

5

4.72 10 10
4.72 104 m2

Mass velocity , G t =

mt
At

0.0333
4.72 104

70.62

kg
m2 . s

## Linear velocity ,ut =

Gt

70.62
988.18

0.0714

m
s

Reynoldsnumber , =

Gt d e

70.62 0.00775
0.0005494

996.19(laminar flow)

## Prandt number , Pr=

Cp
k

0.0005494 4175
0.6436

3.56
Tube side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.0050
j h Pr 0.33 k
tube side coefficient , hi =
di

0.00775

628.81

W
m2 K

## Heat transfer coefficient at shell side

Cross flow area , A s=

tube pitch

## ( 0.0180.00953 ) 0.085 0.05

0.018
2

0.002 m

Mass velocity , G s=

0.1667
0.002

ms
As

83.33

kg
2
m .s

Linear velocity ,u s=

Gs

83.33
995.67

0.0837

m
s

Equivalent diameter , d e =

1.1 2
( pt 0.917 d 2o )
do

1.1
(0.018 20.917 ( 0.00953 )2 )
0.00953

0.0278 m

Reynolds number , =

G s d e

83.33 0.0278
0.0008007

2893.19(turbulent flow )

## Prandt number , Pr=

0.0008007 4183
0.6155

Cp
k

5.44
Shell side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.01
j h Pr 0.33 k
shell side coefficient ,h i=
de
0.01 2893 5.440.33 0.6155

0.0278
1120.16

W
m2 K

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m2

U=

QH
A T lm

206.26
0.15 12.38

111.08

W
m2 K

## Calculation of pressure drop across tube and shell

de
ds/

Ps =8 j f

0.0278
0.085 /

8(0.01)
8.53 Pa

Pt =N p [ 8 j f ( L /di ) ( / w ) +2.5 ]
m

( 8 0.0050 )

628.81 Pa

f u2t
2

(988.18)(0.0715)2
0.5
( 1.0 )0.14+ 2.5
0.0075
2